Sample records for applications reduce phytophagy

  1. Calcium silicate and organic mineral fertilizer applications reduce phytophagy by Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on eggplants (Solanum melongena L.)


    De Almeida, Gustavo Dia; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José Cola; Vicentini,Victor Bernardo; Holtz,Anderson Mathias; Serrão,José Eduardo


    Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a phytophagous insect associated with the reduction of eggplant productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate and/or an organic mineral fertilizer, together or separately, in increasing the resistance of eggplants to T. palmi. The treatments were calcium silicate, organic mineral fertilizer, calcium silicate associated with this fertilizer and the control. Mortality and number of lesions caused by nymphs of t...

  2. Reduced Multiplicative Tolerance Ranking and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sitarz


    Full Text Available In this paper a reduced multiplicative tolerance - a measure of sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP is presented. By using this new measure a method for ranking the set of efficient extreme solutions is proposed. The idea is to rank these solutions by values of the reduced tolerance. This approach can be applied to many MOLP problems, where sensitivity analysis is important for a decision maker. In the paper, applications of the presented methodology are shown in the market model and the transportation problem.

  3. Reduced Comparator Flash ADC for ECG Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan. V. A


    Full Text Available A CMOS based low power 4-bit Flash Analog to Digital Converter (ADC design with reduced number of comparators than the conventional Flash Analog to Digital Converter and multiplexer based architecture is proposed. For improving the conversion rate, both the analog and digital parts of the ADC are fully modified and the architecture uses only 4 comparators instead of 15 as used in conventional flash ADC, thus saving considerable amount of power. The proposed 4-bit ADC is designed and simulated in TANNER tools with 1.2 V supply voltage using TSpice simulation. The proposed design consumes low power of 2.15mW and operates at a faster rate hence it is suitable for ECG applications.

  4. Laser reduced graphene for supercapacitor applications (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Bock, Christina


    Graphene was prepared by excimer laser irradiation reduction of graphite oxide dissolved in an aqueous solution at different laser energies and irradiation time. The morphologies and structure of the laser reduced graphene were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The XRD results confirm that the deoxygenation of the graphite oxide sheets occurred almost completely for all laser irradiation conditions used. The graphene fabricated by laser irradiation reduction appears to be randomly aggregated, crumpled, disordered and small sheet solid material. The total amount of oxygen functional groups reduced significantly and the CC/CO intensity ratio increased, however, the atomic percentages of the Cdbnd O double bond were increased after laser reduction. The laser reduced graphene was used as the electrode active material for supercapacitors and its specific capacitance was evaluated in a two electrode cell in either a 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous or a 1 M Tetraethylammoniumtetrafluoroborate acetonitrile based electrolyte. The specific capacitance of the laser fabricated graphene was found to depend on the energy and irradiation time of the laser. The highest specific capacitance was determined to be 141 F/g at 1.04 A/g and 84 F/g at 1.46 A/g in the aqueous and ACN electrolytes, respectively.

  5. On Modeling CPU Utilization of MapReduce Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rizvandi, Nikzad Babaii; Zomaya, Albert Y


    In this paper, we present an approach to predict the total CPU utilization in terms of CPU clock tick of applications when running on MapReduce framework. Our approach has two key phases: profiling and modeling. In the profiling phase, an application is run several times with different sets of MapReduce configuration parameters to profile total CPU clock tick of the application on a given platform. In the modeling phase, multi linear regression is used to map the sets of MapReduce configuration parameters (number of Mappers, number of Reducers, size of File System (HDFS) and the size of input file) to total CPU clock ticks of the application. This derived model can be used for predicting total CPU requirements of the same application when using MapReduce framework on the same platform. Our approach aims to eliminate error-prone manual processes and presents a fully automated solution. Three standard applications (WordCount, Exim Mainlog parsing and Terasort) are used to evaluate our modeling technique on pseu...

  6. Analyzing Cost Parameters Affecting Map Reduce Application Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Seera


    Full Text Available Recently, big data analysis has become an imperative task for many big companies. Map-Reduce, an emerging distributed computing paradigm, is known as a promising architecture for big data analytics on commodity hardware. Map-Reduce, and its open source implementation Hadoop, have been extensively accepted by several companies due to their salient features such as scalability, elasticity, fault-tolerance and flexibility to handle big data. However, these benefits entail a considerable performance sacrifice. The performance of a Map-Reduce application depends on various factors including the size of the input data set, cluster resource settings etc. A clear understanding of the factors that affect Map-Reduce application performance and the cost associated with those factors is required. In this paper, we study different performance parameters and an existing Cost Optimizer that computes the cost of Map-Reduce job execution. The cost based optimizer also considers various configuration parameters available in Hadoop that affect performance of these programs. This paper is an attempt to analyze the Map-Reduce application performance and identifying the key factors affecting the cost and performance of executing Map-Reduce applications.

  7. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants. (United States)

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B


    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  8. Evaluation of super-water reducers for highway applications (United States)

    Whiting, D.


    Super-water reducers were characterized and evaluated as potential candidates for production of low water to cement ratio, high strength concretes for highway construction applications. Admixtures were composed of either naphthalene or melamine sulfonated formaldehyde condensates. A mini-slump procedure was used to assess dosage requirements and behavior of workability with time of cement pastes. Required dosage was found to be a function of tricalcium aluminate content, alkali content, and fineness of the cement. Concretes exhibited high rates of slump loss when super-water reducers were used. The most promising area of application of these products appears to be in production of dense, high cement content concrete using mobile concrete mixer/transporters.

  9. Deep reduced PEDOT films support electrochemical applications: Biomimetic color front.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toribio Fernandez OTERO


    Full Text Available Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced conducting polymers. Here we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, towards the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, towards the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation (ESCR model explains those results.

  10. An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost (United States)

    Gaikwad, Lokpriya Mohanrao; Teli, Shivagond Nagappa; Majali, Vijay Shashikant; Bhushi, Umesh Mahadevappa


    This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz. process yield with well-executed control plans. Six Sigma improves the process performance (process yield) of the critical operational process, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  11. Reducing fuel usage through applications of conservation and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, E. K.; Hooker, D. W.


    Solar thermal technology, coupled with aggressive conservation measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the dependence of industry on oil and natural gas. The near-term market for solar technology is largely in industrial processes operating at temperatures below 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Such process heat can be supplied by the relatively unsophisticated solar equipment available today. The number and diversity of industrial plants using process heat at this temperature allows favorable matches between solar technologies and industrial processes. The problems involved with the installation and maintenance of conservation and solar equipment are similar. Both compete for scarce investment capital, and each complicates industrial operations and increases maintenance requirements. Technological innovations requiring new types of equipment and reducing the temperature requirements of industrial processes favor the introduction of solar hardware. The industrial case studies program at the Solar Energy Research Institute has examined technical, economic, and other problems facing the near-term application of solar thermal technology to provide industrial process heat. The plant engineer is in the front line of any measure to reduce energy consumption or to supplement existing fuel supplies. The conditions most favorable to the integration of solar technology are presented and illustrated with examples from actual industrial plants.

  12. Understanding reduced inorganic mercury accumulation in rice following selenium application: Selenium application routes, speciation and doses. (United States)

    Tang, Wenli; Dang, Fei; Evans, Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Xiao, Lin


    Selenium (Se) has recently been demonstrated to reduce inorganic mercury (IHg) accumulation in rice plants, while its mechanism is far from clear. Here, we aimed at exploring the potential effects of Se application routes (soil or foliar application with Se), speciation (selenite and selenate), and doses on IHg-Se antagonistic interactions in soil-rice systems. Results of our pot experiments indicated that soil application but not foliar application could evidently reduce tissue IHg concentrations (root: 0-48%, straw: 15-58%, and brown rice: 26-74%), although both application routes resulted in comparable Se accumulation in aboveground tissues. Meanwhile, IHg distribution in root generally increased with amended Se doses in soil, suggesting antagonistic interactions between IHg and Se in root. These results provided initial evidence that IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere (i.e., soil or rice root), instead of those in the aboveground tissues, could probably be more responsible for the reduced IHg bioaccumulation following Se application. Furthermore, Se dose rather than Se speciation was found to be more important in controlling IHg accumulation in rice. Our findings regarding the importance of IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere, together with the systematic investigation of key factors affecting IHg-Se antagonism and IHg bioaccumulation, advance our understanding of Hg dynamics in soil-rice systems.

  13. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbi, Hamdane; Yu, Lei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Yanbo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Liu, Lianhe [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)


    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m{sup −1}), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g{sup −1}) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance.

  14. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN


    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  15. Review Applications to Prevent Corrosion Reducing Gas Pipe Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Setoudeh


    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Including ways to reduce corrosion of corrosion inhibitors is. Inhibiting substance that low amount is added to the system to slow or stop the chemical reaction does. When inhibitors of corrosion medium are added, the speed of corrosion decreases to zero takes. For the first time a deterrent mineral called arsenate sodium for inhibition steels carbon in oil wells was used to corrosion of CO2 prevented, but due to low yield was not satisfactory and therefore the other inhibitors were used. In the years 1945 to 1950 properties, excellent composition polar chain long was discovered. The discovery process of experiments related to organic inhibitors used in wells and pipes and oil Garza changed. This article examines the use of inhibitors to reduce corrosion in gas wells deals.

  16. Employment of Reduced Precision Redundancy for Fault Tolerant FPGA Applications



    2009 17th IEEE Symposium on Field Programmable Custom Computing Machines This research explores the employment of Reduced Precision Redundancy (RPR) as a powersaving alternative to traditional Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR). This paper focuses on the details of RPR implementation and the effect of RPR fault tolerance on the performance of spacecraft systems. RPR-protected system performance is evaluated using a signal-to-noise ratio analogy developed with MATLAB an...

  17. Reduced parameter model on trajectory tracking data with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正明; 朱炬波


    The data fusion in tracking the same trajectory by multi-measurernent unit (MMU) is considered. Firstly, the reduced parameter model (RPM) of trajectory parameter (TP), system error and random error are presented,and then the RPM on trajectory tracking data (TTD) is obtained, a weighted method on measuring elements (ME) is studied and criteria on selection of ME based on residual and accuracy estimation are put forward. According to RPM,the problem about selection of ME and self-calibration of TTD is thoroughly investigated. The method improves data accuracy in trajectory tracking obviously and gives accuracy evaluation of trajectory tracking system simultaneously.

  18. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications? (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika


    Food allergy is on the rise and has become a growing food safety concern. The main treatment is strictly avoiding allergens in the diet. However, this is difficult to do because foods are sometimes contaminated with allergens due to processing of different foods with the same machinery. For this reason, accidental ingestion of trace amount of allergenic proteins is common. For children with severe food allergy, this could be life-threatening. Food products with reduced allergenic proteins, if developed, could be beneficial and may raise the threshold of the amount of allergenic proteins required to trigger an allergic reaction. As a result, the number of serious allergic reactions may decrease. Moreover, such less allergenic products may be useful or replace regular products in studies such as oral tolerance induction or early exposure experiments, where children with severe peanut allergy are usually excluded due to their severe intolerance. This review focuses on recent findings and progress made in approaches to reduce allergenic proteins in foods. Modifying methods may include physical and chemical treatments as well as lifestyle changes and the use of supplements. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks these methods present for production of hypoallergenic food products and food allergy prevention.

  19. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: application to electronic energy transfer. (United States)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C; Markland, Thomas E; Reichman, David R


    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  20. Application of Reduced Corn Cultivation Technology in Agro-Ecosystem of Cazin Municipality


    Mirsad Veladžić; Fatima Muhamedagić; Emdžad Galijašević


    Intensive corn cultivation is predominant in current agriculture of the Una-Sana Canton. One of the corn cultivation methods in agro-ecosystem is reduced cultivation. The paper presents the experiment of “Osmak žuti” (eight-row yellow) corn cultivation on two control sites with application of reduced and intensive cultivation in Cazin municipality. The objectives of this research were to examine the possibility of application of reduced corn cultivation; analyze statistical variation elements...

  1. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control (United States)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  2. A Reduced Basis Framework: Application to large scale non-linear multi-physics problems

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    Daversin C.


    Full Text Available In this paper we present applications of the reduced basis method (RBM to large-scale non-linear multi-physics problems. We first describe the mathematical framework in place and in particular the Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM to recover an affine decomposition and then we propose an implementation using the open-source library Feel++ which provides both the reduced basis and finite element layers. Large scale numerical examples are shown and are connected to real industrial applications arising from the High Field Resistive Magnets development at the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses.

  3. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application. (United States)

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua


    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs.

  4. Application Research on Drag Reduced Conductors for Electric Power Transmission Lines in Strong Wind Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Qing


    Full Text Available The breeze vibration duration of conductors is long, the vibration amplitude is strong and the frequency range is wide for electric power transmission lines in strong wind areas, which seriously affects the safe and stable operation of transmission lines. There are two design schemes of conductors which can achieve the purpose of reducing wind-induced disaster. One is enhancing the structural strength of conductors to withstand wind load, but the investment is enormous and the effect is limited. The other is developing drag reduced conductors to reduce wind load by changing conductor structure. This paper started from application feasibility analysis of drag reduced conductors and designed four drag reduced conductors by structure optimization of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced JL/G1A-630/45-45/7, denoted as DFY630/45(45°-R3.5, DFY630/45(60°-R3.5, DFY630/45(45°–R3.2 and DFY630/45(60°-R3.2, respectively. The wind tunnel test was performed and the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of five conductors were compared. Result showed that the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of four drag reduced conductors were obviously lower than that of the conventional conductor. By controlling the manufacturing process, popularization and application of drag reduced conductors for transmission lines in strong wind areas can be realized.

  5. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN


    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  6. Spatially reduced image extraction from MPEG-2 video: fast algorithms and applications (United States)

    Song, Junehwa; Yeo, Boon-Lock


    The MPEG-2 video standards are targeted for high-quality video broadcast and distribution, and are optimized for efficient storage and transmission. However, it is difficult to process MPEG-2 for video browsing and database applications without first decompressing the video. Yeo and Liu have proposed fast algorithms for the direct extraction of spatially reduced images from MPEG-1 video. Reduced images have been demonstrated to be effective for shot detection, shot browsing and editing, and temporal processing of video for video presentation and content annotation. In this paper, we develop new tools to handle the extra complexity in MPEG-2 video for extracting spatially reduced images. In particular, we propose new classes of discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain and DCT inverse motion compensation operations for handling the interlaced modes in the different frame types of MPEG-2, and design new and efficient algorithms for generating spatially reduced images of an MPEG-2 video. We also describe key video applications on the extracted reduced images.

  7. Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts using Medipix3RX: With applications from biomaterial science

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, K; de Ruiter, N J A; Chernoglazov, A I; Panta, R K; Butler, A P H; Butler, P H; Bell, S T; Anderson, N G; Woodfield, T B F; Tredinnick, S J; Healy, J L; Bateman, C J; Aamir, R; Doesburg, R M N; Renaud, P F; Gieseg, S P; Smithies, D J; Mohr, J L; Mandalika, V B H; Opie, A M T; Cook, N J; Ronaldson, J P; Nik, S J; Atharifard, A; Clyne, M; Bones, P J; Bartneck, C; Grasset, R; Schleich, N; Billinghurst, M


    This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects using spectral data for biomaterial applications. A small-animal spectral scanner operating in the diagnostic energy range was used. We investigate the use of photon-processing features of the Medipix3RX ASIC in reducing beam hardening and associated artefacts. A fully operational charge summing mode was used during the imaging routine. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. Narrow high energy acquisition using the photon-processing detector revealed substantial reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts.

  8. Modeling the Performance of MapReduce Applications for the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrera


    Full Text Available In thelastyears,CloudComputinghasbecomea keytechnologythatmadepossibletorunapplicationswithout needing todeployaphysicalinfrastructure.Thechallengewith deploying distributedapplicationsinCloudComputingenvi- ronmentsisthatthevirtualmachineinfrastructureshouldbe planned inatimeandcost-effectiveway. This workisasummaryofapreviousworkpresentedbythe authors asaMaster’sthesis,withthegoalofshowingthatthe execution timeofadistributedMapReduceapplication,running in aCloudcomputingenvironment,canbepredictedusinga mathematical modelbasedontheoreticalspecifications.This predictionismadetohelptheusersoftheCloudComputing environmenttoplantheirdeployments,i.e.,quantifythenumber of virtualmachinesanditscharacteristics.Aftermeasuringthe application executiontimeandvaryingparametersstatedinthe mathematical model,andafterthat,usingalinearregression technique, thegoalisachievedfindingamodeloftheexecution time whichwasthenappliedtopredicttheexecutiontimeof MapReduce applications.Experimentswereconductedinseveral configurations andshowedaclearrelationwiththetheoretical model, revealingthatthemodelisinfactabletopredictthe execution timeofMapReduceapplications.Thedevelopedmodel is generic,meaningthatitusestheoreticalabstractionsforthe computing capacityoftheenvironmentandthecomputingcost of theMapReduceapplication.

  9. Development and Commercial Application of RFCC Catalyst for Reducing Sulfur Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingde; Zhu Yuxia; Huang Lei; Hou Dianguo


    The sulfur-reducing functional component-the Lewis acid-base pair compound-and associated active zeolite component were developed to prepare the RFCC catalyst DOS for reducing sulfur content in gasoline.The results of catalyst evaluation have revealed that the Lewis acid-base pair compound developed hereby could enhance the conversion of macromolecular sulfur compounds by the catalyst to promote the proceeding of desulfurization reactions,and the synergetic action of the selected zeolite and the Lewis acid-base pair compound could definitely reduce the olefins and sulfur contents in gasoline.The heavy oil conversion capability of the catalyst DOS thus developed was higher coupled with an enhanced resistance to heavy metals contamination to reduce the sulfur content in gasoline by over 20%.The commercial application of this catalyst at the SINOPEC Jiujiang Branch Company has revealed that compared to the GRV-C catalyst the oil slurry yield obtained by the catalyst DOS was reduced along with an improved coke selectivity,an increased total liquid yield,and a decreased olefin content in gasoline.The ratio of sulfur in gasoline/sulfur in feed oil could be reduced by 20.3 m%.

  10. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, A; Arshad, E.; Jasmin, C.; Pai, S.S.; BrightSingh, I.S.; Mohandas, A; Anas, A

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems is proposed. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled...

  11. Application of Olefin-Reducing Catalyst in FCC Unit at Daqing Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinfeng; Yang Daoxue; Zhang Guojing; Yao Hua


    This article refers to the application of DOCO olefin-reducing catalyst developed by RIPP and manufactured by the Catalyst Factory of Changling Refining and Chemical Company in the 1.4 Mt/a RFCCU at Daqing Petrochemical Company. Results of operation over two months had revealed that this catalyst had good olefin-reducing ability and heavy oil converting ability adapted to paraffinic feedstock. The gasoline olefin yield had been reduced to 36.1 v% from 54.2 v% with gasoline RON rating decreased by 1.4 units. The induction period of gasoline had significantly increased to 952 mm, while the coke yield was increased by 0.05 percentage point with light oil yield dropping by only 0.02 percentage point. The FCC product distribution is favorable.

  12. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide. (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R


    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste.

  13. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)


    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  14. Application of an active controller for reducing small-amplitude vertical vibration in a vehicle seat (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Rong-Jun


    This report describes the principle and application of active vibration control (AVC) for reducing undesired small-amplitude vertical vibration in the driver's seat of a vehicle. Three different control algorithms are implemented and compared in the experimental investigation. Apart from adaptive control and robust control, a hybrid control algorithm consisting of a combination of an adaptive controller with a filtered-x least mean squares (FXLMS) algorithm and a feedback structure with a robust synthesis theory for obtaining fast convergence and robust performance are proposed. A frequency domain technique is used for achieving the control plant identification and controller design. All of the proposed AVC controllers are implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP) platform, using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter for real-time control. A characteristic analysis and experimental comparison of three control algorithms for reducing the small amplitude vertical vibration in a vehicle seat are also presented in this paper.

  15. Reduced MHD in Astrophysical Applications: Two-dimensional or Three-dimensional? (United States)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dmitruk, P.


    Originally proposed as an efficient approach to computation of nonlinear dynamics in tokamak fusion research devices, reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has subsequently found application in studies of coronal heating, flux tube dynamics, charged particle transport, and, in general, as an approximation to describe plasma turbulence in space physics and astrophysics. Given the diverse set of derivations available in the literature, there has emerged some level of discussion and a lack of consensus regarding the completeness of RMHD as a turbulence model, and its applicability in contexts such as the solar wind. Some of the key issues in this discussion are examined here, emphasizing that RMHD is properly neither 2D nor fully 3D, being rather an incomplete representation that enforces at least one family of extraneous conservation laws.

  16. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation


    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  17. Topical application of solubilized Reseda luteola extract reduces ultraviolet B-induced inflammation in vivo. (United States)

    Casetti, F; Jung, W; Wölfle, U; Reuter, J; Neumann, K; Gilb, B; Wähling, A; Wagner, S; Merfort, I; Schempp, C M


    We investigated the skin tolerance and anti-inflammatory potential of a nanoparticular solubilisate of a luteolin-rich Reseda extract (s-RE) in two independent studies in vivo. Reseda luteola extract containing 40% flavonoids was solubilized with polysorbate, resulting in product micelles with a diameter of 10 (+/-1.5)nm. Standardized inflammation was induced by irradiating test areas on the back of healthy volunteers with defined doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). In the first study different concentrations of s-RE were tested in 10 volunteers to evaluate dose-dependency of anti-inflammatory effects of s-RE. In the second randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study a defined concentration of s-RE (2.5%w/w) was tested in 40 volunteers in comparison to the vehicle (glycerol) and hydrocortisone (1%w/w). s-RE dose-dependently reduced UVB-induced erythema when applied 30 min before irradiation. To a lesser extent, topical application of s-RE after irradiation also reduced UVB-induced erythema. s-RE was as effective as hydrocortisone, whereas the vehicle had no effect. Occlusive application of s-RE on non-irradiated test sites did not cause any skin irritation. Due to excellent skin tolerance combined with potent anti-inflammatory properties s-RE bears potential especially for the prevention but also for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions such as UV-induced erythema.

  18. Application of an acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus to reduce antigenicity of bovine milk whey protein. (United States)

    Lakshman, P L Nilantha; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Toyama, Hirohide; Taira, Toki; Suganuma, Toshihiko; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Yasuda, Masaaki


    An acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus No. 3403, MpuAP, was previously purified and some characterized in our laboratory (Agric Biol Chem 48:1637-1639, 1984). However, further information about this enzyme is lacking. In this study, we investigated MpuAP's comprehensive substrate specificity, storage stability, and prospects for reducing antigenicity of whey proteins for application in the food industry. MpuAP hydrolyzed primarily five peptide bonds, Gln(4)-His(5), His(10)-Leu(11), Ala(14)-Leu(15), Gly(23)-Phe(24) and Phe(24)-Phe(25) in the oxidized insulin B-chain. The lyophilized form of the enzyme was well preserved at 30-40°C for 7 days without stabilizers. To investigate the possibility of reducing the antigenicity of the milk whey protein, enzymatic hydrolysates of the whey protein were evaluated by inhibition ELISA. Out of the three main components of whey protein, casein and α-lactalbumin were efficiently degraded by MpuAP. The sequential reaction of MpuAP and trypsin against the whey protein successfully degraded casein, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the highest degree of hydrolysis. As a result, the hydrolysates obtained by using the MpuAP-trypsin combination showed the lowest antigenicity compared with the single application of pepsin, trypsin or pepsin-trypsin combination. Therefore, the overall result suggested that the storage-stable MpuAP and trypsin combination will be a productive approach for making hypoallergic bovine milk whey protein hydrolysates.

  19. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion. (United States)

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob


    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass.

  20. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications. (United States)

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M


    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure.

  1. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy (United States)

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong


    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. Material/Methods A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. Results No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. Conclusions COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. PMID:27752035

  2. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses. (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D


    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  3. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.


    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  4. Electrodeposited reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide electrodes for charge storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gómez, A. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Eugénio, S., E-mail: [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, R.G. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); ESTBarreiro, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Setúbal (Portugal); Silva, T.M. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); ADEM, GI-MOSM, ISEL-Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); ESTSetúbal, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Setúbal (Portugal); Montemor, M.F. [CQE, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)


    Highlights: • Electrochemically reduced graphene/CoOx composites were successfully produced by electrodeposition. • The composite material presents a specific capacitance of about 430 F g{sup −1}. • After heat treatment, the capacitance retention of the composite was 76% after 3500 cycles. - Abstract: In the present work, electrochemically reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide composites for charge storage electrodes were prepared by a one-step pulsed electrodeposition route on stainless steel current collectors and after that submitted to a thermal treatment at 200 °C. A detailed physico-chemical characterization was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical response of the composite electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge curves and related to the morphological and phase composition changes induced by the thermal treatment. The results revealed that the composites were promising materials for charge storage electrodes for application in redox supercapacitors, attaining specific capacitances around 430 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and presenting long-term cycling stability.

  5. Variance-reduced simulation of lattice discrete-time Markov chains with applications in reaction networks (United States)

    Maginnis, P. A.; West, M.; Dullerud, G. E.


    We propose an algorithm to accelerate Monte Carlo simulation for a broad class of stochastic processes. Specifically, the class of countable-state, discrete-time Markov chains driven by additive Poisson noise, or lattice discrete-time Markov chains. In particular, this class includes simulation of reaction networks via the tau-leaping algorithm. To produce the speedup, we simulate pairs of fair-draw trajectories that are negatively correlated. Thus, when averaged, these paths produce an unbiased Monte Carlo estimator that has reduced variance and, therefore, reduced error. Numerical results for three example systems included in this work demonstrate two to four orders of magnitude reduction of mean-square error. The numerical examples were chosen to illustrate different application areas and levels of system complexity. The areas are: gene expression (affine state-dependent rates), aerosol particle coagulation with emission and human immunodeficiency virus infection (both with nonlinear state-dependent rates). Our algorithm views the system dynamics as a "black-box", i.e., we only require control of pseudorandom number generator inputs. As a result, typical codes can be retrofitted with our algorithm using only minor changes. We prove several analytical results. Among these, we characterize the relationship of covariances between paths in the general nonlinear state-dependent intensity rates case, and we prove variance reduction of mean estimators in the special case of affine intensity rates.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide growth on 316L stainless steel for medical applications. (United States)

    Cardenas, L; MacLeod, J; Lipton-Duffin, J; Seifu, D G; Popescu, F; Siaj, M; Mantovani, D; Rosei, F


    We report a new method for the growth of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the 316L alloy of stainless steel (SS) and its relevance for biomedical applications. We demonstrate that electrochemical etching increases the concentration of metallic species on the surface and enables the growth of rGO. This result is supported through a combination of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), density functional theory (DFT) calculations and static water contact angle measurements. Raman spectroscopy identifies the G and D bands for oxidized species of graphene at 1595 cm(-1) and 1350 cm(-1), respectively, and gives an ID/IG ratio of 1.2, indicating a moderate degree of oxidation. XPS shows -OH and -COOH groups in the rGO stoichiometry and static contact angle measurements confirm the wettability of rGO. SEM and AFM measurements were performed on different substrates before and after coronene treatment to confirm rGO growth. Cell viability studies reveal that these rGO coatings do not have toxic effects on mammalian cells, making this material suitable for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  7. Clinical applicability of D-dimer assay in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism reduces with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti


    Full Text Available Despite modern algorithms have been proposed for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE, it remains understimed and often missed in clinical practice, especially in elderly patients, resulting in high morbidity and mortality when early and correctly untreated. One of the main controversial issue is represented by the role and applicability of D-dimer in the diagnostic work up of geriatric patients. Most recent guidelines in young-adult patients suggest to perform D-dimer assay by ELISA or immunoturbidimetric methods only in non high pre-test clinical probability (PTP patients; in these patients negative D-dimer can safely rule out the diagnosis of PE. This strategy is safe also in elderly patients; however the percentage of patients with non high PTP and negative D-dimer reduces progressively with age, making difficult its clinical applicability. The Authors, starting from two case reports, up date the diagnostic management of PE underling the limitations of D-dimer assay in elderly patients.

  8. Reduced Combustion Mechanism for C1-C4 Hydrocarbons and its Application in CFD Flare Modeling. (United States)

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang


    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, CO, soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with CO2 and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators /regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C2H2, C2H4, C6H6). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma using ANSYS FLUENT software. Non-premixed Probability Density Function (PDF) model and Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model results are discussed. It is also noteworthy that, when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. Implication statement A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C1-C4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with EPA's mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.

  9. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang


    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  10. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound. (United States)

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A


    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound.

  11. SiGeSn growth studies using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition towards optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirths, S., E-mail: [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI 9-IT) and JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 (Germany); Buca, D. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI 9-IT) and JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 (Germany); Ikonic, Z.; Harrison, P. [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Tiedemann, A.T.; Holländer, B.; Stoica, T.; Mussler, G. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI 9-IT) and JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 (Germany); Breuer, U. [Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics (ZEA-3), Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 (Germany); Hartmann, J.M. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Grützmacher, D.; Mantl, S. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI 9-IT) and JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 (Germany)


    In this contribution, we propose a laser concept based on a double heterostructure consisting of tensile strained Ge as the active medium and SiGeSn ternaries as cladding layers. Electronic band-structure calculations were used to determine the Si and Sn concentrations yielding a type I heterostructure with appropriate band-offsets (50 meV) between strained Ge and SiGeSn. Reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system was employed to study the laser structure growth. Detailed analyses regarding layer composition, crystal quality, surface morphology and elastic strain are presented. A strong temperature dependence of the Si and Sn incorporation has been obtained, ranging from 4 to 19 at.% Si and from 4 to 12 at.% Sn (growth temperatures between 350 °C and 475 °C). The high single crystalline quality and low surface roughness of 0.5–0.75 nm demonstrate that our layers are suitable for heterostructure laser fabrication. - Highlights: • Sn based group IV materials for photonics • Bandstructure calculations of SiGeSn/strained Ge double heterostructures. • Si and Sn concentrations in SiGeSn layers between 4 and 19 at.% and 4 and 11 at.%, respectively. • Growth of SiGeSn layers with high crystalline quality for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Applications of monsoon research: Opportunities to inform decisionmaking and reduce regional vulnerability (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Garfin, G. M.; Wilder, M.; Lenart, M.; Vásquez-León, M.; Comrie, A. C.


    This presentation will describe ongoing efforts to understand interactions between the North American Monsoon and society, in order to develop applications for monsoon research in a highly complex, multicultural and binational region. The North American Monsoon is an annual precipitation regime that begins in early June in Mexico and progresses northward to the southwestern United States. The region includes stakeholders in large urban complexes, productive agricultural areas, and sparsely populated arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The political, cultural, and socioeconomic divisions between the U.S. and Mexico create a broad range of sensitivities to climate variability as well as capacities to use forecasts and other information to cope with climate. We will highlight methodologies to link climate science with society and analyze opportunities for monsoon science to benefit society in four sectors: natural hazards management, agriculture, public health, and water management. We present a synthesized list of stakeholder needs and a calendar of decisions to help scientists link user needs to potential forecasts and products. To ensure usability of forecasts and other research products, we recommend iterative scientist-stakeholder interactions, through integrated assessments. These knowledge- exchange interactions can improve the capacity for stakeholders to use forecasts thoughtfully and inform the development of research, and for the research community to obtain feedback on climate-related products and receive insights to guide research direction. We expect that integrated assessments can capitalize on the opportunities for monsoon science to inform decisionmaking, in the best instances, reduce regional climate vulnerabilities and enhance regional sustainability

  13. Facile synthesis of cobalt oxide/reduced graphene oxide composites for electrochemical capacitor and sensor applications (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Toan; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Deivasigamani, Ranjith Kumar; Kharismadewi, Dian; Iwai, Yoshio; Shim, Jae-Jin


    Reduced graphene oxide sheets decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4/rGO) were produced using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. Both the reduction of GO and the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles occurred simultaneously under this condition. At the same current density of 0.5 A g-1, the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibited much a higher specific capacitance (545 F g-1) than that of bare Co3O4 (100 F g-1). On the other hand, for the detection of H2O2, the peak current of Co3O4/rGO was 4 times higher than that of Co3O4. Moreover, the resulting composite displayed a low detection limit of 0.62 μM and a high sensitivity of 28,500 μA mM-1cm-2 for the H2O2 sensor. These results suggest that the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposite is a promising material for both supercapacitor and non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor applications.

  14. The addition of GTN to capsaicin cream reduces the discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone. A volunteer study. (United States)

    McCleane, G J; McLaughlin, M


    In a double blind, placebo controlled trial of 40 volunteers, the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin cream (0.025%) was compared to placebo, GTN cream (1.33%) and to the combination of capsaicin cream (0.025%) plus GTN cream 1.33%. Median VAS for burning pain were 0 for the placebo, GTN and GTN + capsaicin groups and 3 for the capsaicin group after single application of each cream at daily intervals. This study demonstrates that after single application the addition of GTN to capsaicin significantly reduces the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone.

  15. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin


    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  16. Integrated control of white rot disease on beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Contans® and reduced fungicides application. (United States)

    Elsheshtawi, Mohamed; Elkhaky, Maged T; Sayed, Shaban R; Bahkali, Ali H; Mohammed, Arif A; Gambhir, Dikshit; Mansour, Aref S; Elgorban, Abdallah M


    This study was conducted to determine the compatibility of Contans® (Coniothyrium minitans) with fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results showed that both Contans® and Topsin® significantly reduced the disease incidence caused by S. sclerotiorum by 90% and 95% survival plants, respectively when they were individually applied and compared to control. While, soil application of Contans® and Sumisclex mixture was the most effective in suppressing the white rot disease incidence that produced 100% survival plants, application of C. minitans combined with the reduced doses of fungicides would be advantageous in saving labor cost, thus increasing production efficiency of bean.

  17. Using integrated inter- row cultivation and herbicide band application in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris weed management for reducing herbicide use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza maleki


    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to investigate different weed management methods for reduce herbicide use in sugar beet at Arak Agriculture & Natural Research Center in 2005.Trial was designed in split-plot and consisted of 18 treatments with four replication. Each plot contains four 50 cm. rows. distance in inter row and 25cm. between plants on row. Main factor was inter row (with & without cultivation. Sub factors were herbicide dosages in two application methods (band & spread application. Herbicides were Desmedipham(Betanal A. M. plus Chloridazon (pyramin that used as tank mix application. Inter row cultivation done with tender wheal tractor and spraying by stable pressure charging sprayer with drop raining nozzle. The result showed no significance difference between main plots in crop characteristics evaluated. Highest root yield, plant total weight and more reduce weed biomass and control was obtained with 100 and 75 percent of the recommended dosages of the herbicide in spread application and 75 percent recommended dosages in band application. Therefore, in order to decreasing herbicide use toward environmental safety aspects and increasing economical profit for farmers, it is recommended to use 75 percent herbicide dosage in spread and band application in integrated with cultivation instead of complete dose alone in sugar beet. Keywords: Weed management, sugar beet, reduced herbicide dose, inter-row soil manipulation.

  18. Synthesize and application of the oil-soluble viscosity reducer in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhihong, Zhang; Yun, Huang [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Kai, Chao [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email:


    When viscosity reducer is added to crude oil, it breaks its original structure and reduces oil viscosity. A polybasic copolymer oil-soluble viscosity reducer of heavy oil was synthesized by using the orthogonal method. Infrared spectra (IR) and interfacial tensions of heavy oil with or without viscosity reducer were investigated. The synthetic viscosity reducer was added to a biphasic heavy oil/water solution, and the interfacial tension between the oil and the water was measured. The interfacial tension was significantly lower than the interfacial tension of a heavy oil/water solution without the viscosity reducer. It was observed that the viscosity reducer spread from the oil phase to the oil-water interface; it could replace macromolecular active substances of the oil-water interface so that a new interfacial film could be formed, thus reducing the interfacial tension. This synthetic viscosity reducer is more efficient than commercialy available viscosity reducers; its viscosity reduction rate is up to 95.47% at 50 degree Celsius.

  19. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions? (United States)

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G


    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended.

  20. Commercial Application of X-62 Catalyst for Reducing Olefins in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenhui; Liu Jingxiang; Xu Wuqing; Hou Yubao


    In order to reduce the coke yield and increase the economic benefits of FCC unit under the prerequisites of securing the olefin content of gasoline in compliance with the requirement, SINOPEC Luoyang Branch Company applied in the period from July through October 2004 the new generation X-62 catalyst (FlexTec-LOL1) developed by the Engelhard Corporation of USA to improve the heavy oil conversion and to reduce coke make. The result of tests has shown that indicators on reducing the unit catalyst consumption,amplitude on reduction of non-ideal products (coke+oil slurry+dry gas) yield, and amplitude on reduction of coke yield were comparatively satisfactory.

  1. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connell, Emer


    Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems.

  2. Clinical Application of the Reinforcing and Reducing Methods of Acupuncture and Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Deping; Wang Xinzhong


    @@ The reinforcing and reducing are the two major methods used in the acupuncture-moxibustion treatment.Based on Internal Classic, Elementary Medicine and Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion,this essay introduces the various manipulation techniques of reinforcing and reducing in acupuncture-moxibustion treatment, and the indicated acupoints. Clinically, according to the specific conditions of the patient, specific methods and points should be adopted and selected in the treatment of various kinds of diseases.

  3. Reduced-order modeling for cardiac electrophysiology. Application to parameter identification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulakia, Muriel; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric


    A reduced-order model based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is proposed for the bidomain equations of cardiac electrophysiology. Its accuracy is assessed through electrocardiograms in various configurations, including myocardium infarctions and long-time simulations. We show in particular that a restitution curve can efficiently be approximated by this approach. The reduced-order model is then used in an inverse problem solved by an evolutionary algorithm. Some attempts are presented to identify ionic parameters and infarction locations from synthetic ECGs.


    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  5. Application of Ozone and Oxygen to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand and Hydrogen Sulfide from a Recovered Paper Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Terry


    Full Text Available A pilot study was performed at the Fox River Fiber recovered paper processing company in DePere, Wisconsin, to determine the extent to which injection of oxygen and ozone could reduce the high chemical oxygen demand, COD, in the effluent and the effectiveness of the ozone/oxygen stream in suppressing production of hydrogen sulfide gas in downstream sewage lines. Adaptive Ozone Solutions, LLC, supplied the oxygen/ozone generation and injection system. Samples were analyzed both before and after oxygen/ozone injection. Hydrogen sulfide gas was continuously monitored at sewer stations downstream of Fox River Fiber. Results showed that with a very short contact time, effluent COD was reduced by over 15%. A simple kinetic model predicts that a contact time of fewer than 30 minutes could reduce COD by as much as 60%. In addition, downstream hydrogen sulfide gas production in the sewage mains was also better controlled, such that costly Bioxide applications could be reduced.

  6. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans (United States)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.


    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  7. Process systems engineering issues and applications towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions through conversion technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul


    This paper reviews issues and applications for design of sustainable carbon dioxide conversion processes, specifically through chemical conversion, and the integration of the conversion processes with other systems from a process systems engineering (PSE) view-point. Systematic and computer...... conversion processes with other systems including coexisting infrastructure and carbon dioxide sources is described.Then, the importance of PSE based studies for such application is discussed. Finally, some perspectives on the status and future directions of carbon dioxide conversion technology...... and the development and use of PSE approaches are given....

  8. Structural and reduced-form modeling and forecasting with application to Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, K.


    The thesis deals with structural and reduced-form modeling and forecasting of key macroeconomic variables (real growth of GDP, inflation, exchange rate, and policy interest rate). The central part of the thesis (Chapters 2-4) consists of three chapters. Chapter 2 considers the structural DSGE model

  9. QoS oriented MapReduce Optimization for Hadoop Based BigData Application


    Burhan Ul Islam Khan; Rashidah F. Olanrewaju


    International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computa...

  10. Reducing the Time and Expenditure: From Prototype to Production in Information Technology Application Development (United States)


    Business Review (July-August 1990). Harding, Elizabeth U. “RAD approach gives real estate IT team quick reflexes.” Software Magazine 20, Iss. 6...and too slow to adapt and change. SWOT Analysis 96 Stakeholder Analysis (See Appendix H...7 II. PROTOTYPING, RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT AND REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

  11. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones (United States)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  12. A framework of rank-reduced space-time adaptive processing for airborne radar and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖桂生; 保铮; 许志勇


    A new equivalent formulation of the joint domain space-time optimum processor for airborne phased array radar application is derived. Then a new framework of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) for airborne radar systems which includes most of suboptimum algorithms in the literature is proposed. The performance of two typical rank-reduced time-space joint-domain processors based on Doppler pre-filtering is analyzed in detail based on the proposed framework.

  13. Reduced order modelling of an unstructured mesh air pollution model and application in 2D/3D urban street canyons (United States)

    Fang, F.; Zhang, T.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C. C.; Buchan, A. G.; Navon, I. M.


    A novel reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed for a finite-element (FE) adaptive mesh air pollution model. A quadratic expansion of the non-linear terms is employed to ensure the method remained efficient. This is the first time such an approach has been applied to air pollution LES turbulent simulation through three dimensional landscapes. The novelty of this work also includes POD's application within a FE-LES turbulence model that uses adaptive resolution. The accuracy of the reduced order model is assessed and validated for a range of 2D and 3D urban street canyon flow problems. By comparing the POD solutions against the fine detail solutions obtained from the full FE model it is shown that the accuracy is maintained, where fine details of the air flows are captured, whilst the computational requirements are reduced. In the examples presented below the size of the reduced order models is reduced by factors up to 2400 in comparison to the full FE model while the CPU time is reduced by up to 98% of that required by the full model.

  14. Dynamic Programming on Reduced Models and Its Evaluation through Its Application to Elevator Operation Problems (United States)

    Inamoto, Tsutomu; Tamaki, Hisashi; Murao, Hajime

    In this paper, we present a modified dynamic programming (DP) method. The method is basically the same as the value iteration method (VI), a representative DP method, except the preprocess of a system's state transition model for reducing its complexity, and is called the dynamic programming on reduced models (DPRM). That reduction is achieved by imaginarily considering causes of the probabilistic behavior of a system, and then cutting off some causes with low occurring probabilities. In computational illustrations, VI, DPRM, and the real-time Q-learning method (RTQ) are applied to elevator operation problems, which can be modeled by using Markov decision processes. The results show that DPRM can compute quasi-optimal value functions which bring more effective allocations of elevators than value functions by RTQ in less computational times than VI. This characteristic is notable when the traffic pattern is complicated.

  15. Use of formic acid as reducing agent for application in catalytic reduction of nitrate in water. (United States)

    Garron, Anthony; Epron, Florence


    The reduction of nitrate in nitrogen using bimetallic palladium tin catalysts and hydrogen is an interesting process for water treatment. The aim of the present study is to use formic acid (FA) as a reducing agent and a pH buffer in order to substitute the mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The catalytic performances of a palladium tin catalyst supported on silica were evaluated in the presence of FA, as a function of the initial acid concentration and of the gas phase (N(2), CO(2), or H(2)). Results were compared to those obtained with hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. Similar mechanisms seem to explain the identical catalytic performances observed with these two reducing agents.

  16. Reduced working electrode based on fullerene C60 nanotubes-DNA: Characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuzhi [Key Laboratory of Eco-Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No. 106, Nanjing Road, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Qu Yongtao [Key Laboratory of Rubber-plastics of Ministry of Education, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Piao Guangzhe, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Rubber-plastics of Ministry of Education, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhao Jian [Key Laboratory of Rubber-plastics of Ministry of Education, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Jiao Kui, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Eco-Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)


    Fullerene C{sub 60} nanotubes (FNTs) were functionalized with sequence-specific single-stranded DNA to form a kind of complexes (FNT-DNA), which could be brought efficiently into aqueous solution. The dispersed FNT-DNA could form a layer of stable film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In the Britton-Robinson buffer solution of pH {>=}7.0, the FNT-DNA modified on the GCE presented an irreversible two-step six-electron transfer reduction reaction. The reduced modified electrode had a rather wide electrochemical window and could be used as a functionalized working electrode, which showed a good enrichment capability towards the positively charged molecules. The selective detection of dopamine in the presence of a high amount of ascorbic acid could be realized at the reduced FNT-DNA-modified GCE in neutral buffer solution.

  17. In-situ reduced silver nanoparticles on populus fiber and the catalytic application (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Gong, Yumei; Wang, Wenheng; Xu, Guangpeng; Liu, Yuanfa; Guo, Jing


    One kind of composites involved in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) loading in-situ on natural populus fiber (PF) matrix was prepared by polyamidoxime (PAO) functionalized the cellulose fiber. In which PAO worked as trapping and stabilizing agents chelating silver ions and made it reduced in-situ to obtain AgNPs by borohydride at room temperature. The synthesized composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the composites showed significant catalytic activity 1.87 s-1 g-1 and repeated usability more than 7 cycles in reducing 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) detected by UV-vis spectrophotometer in aqueous solution due to the surface-enhanced immobility and large amount of AgNPs. The natural cellulose fiber provides a green platform to react and support other noble metals for wide catalytic reactions.

  18. Clinical Application of the Acupuncture Manipulation Methods of Warm-reinforcing and Cool-reducing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ruihua


    @@ The needling manipulations of "setting the mountain on fire" and "penetrating-heaven coldness" are two needling manipulation techniques for warm-reinforcing and cool-reducing, developed on the basis of what is described in Treatise on Acupuncture . Plain Questions. These manipulation techniques were firstly stated in Poems of Golden Needle . the Complete Works of Acupuncture and Moxibustion written by physician Xu Feng of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

  19. Application of reduced-order controller to turbulent flows for drag reduction (United States)

    Lee, Keun H.; Cortelezzi, Luca; Kim, John; Speyer, Jason


    A reduced-order linear feedback controller is designed and applied to turbulent channel flow for drag reduction. From the linearized two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations a distributed feedback controller, which produces blowing/suction at the wall based on the measured turbulent streamwise wall-shear stress, is derived using model reduction techniques and linearquadratic-Gaussian/loop-transfer-recovery control synthesis. The quadratic cost criterion used for synthesis is composed of the streamwise wall-shear stress, which includes the control effort of blowing/suction. This distributed two-dimensional controller developed from a linear system theory is shown to reduce the skin friction by 10% in direct numerical simulations of a low-Reynolds number turbulent nonlinear channel flow. Spanwise shear-stress variation, not captured by the distributed two-dimensional controller, is suppressed by augmentation of a simple spanwise ad hoc control scheme. This augmented three-dimensional controller, which requires only the turbulent streamwise velocity gradient, results in a further reduction in the skin-friction drag. It is shown that the input power requirement is significantly less than the power saved by reduced drag. Other turbulence characteristics affected by these controllers are also discussed.

  20. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.


    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  1. QoS oriented MapReduce Optimization for Hadoop Based BigData Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ul Islam Khan


    Full Text Available International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

  2. In vitro axial preload application during spine flexibility testing: towards reduced apparatus-related artefacts. (United States)

    Cripton, P A; Bruehlmann, S B; Orr, T E; Oxland, T R; Nolte, L P


    Presently, there is little consensus about how, or even if, axial preload should be incorporated in spine flexibility tests in order to simulate the compressive loads naturally present in vivo. Some preload application methods are suspected of producing unwanted "artefact" forces as the specimen rotates and, in doing so, influencing the resulting kinematics. The objective of this study was to quantitatively compare four distinct types of preload which have roots in contemporary experimental practice. The specific quantities compared were the reaction moments and forces resulting at the intervertebral disc and specimen kinematics. The preload types incorporated increasing amounts of caudal constraint on the preload application vector ranging from an unconstrained dead-load arrangement to an apparatus that allowed the vector to follow rotations of the specimen. Six human cadaveric spine segments were tested (1-L1/L2, 3-L2/L3, 1-L3/L4 and 1-L4/L5). Pure moments were applied to the specimens with each of the four different types of compressive preload. Kinematic response was measured using an opto-electronic motion analysis system. A six-axis load cell was used to measure reaction forces and moments. Artefact reaction moments and shear forces were significantly affected by preload application method and magnitude. Unconstrained preload methods produced high artefact moments and low artefact shear forces while more constrained methods did the opposite. A mechanical trade-off is suggested by our results, whereby unwanted moment can only be prevented at the cost of shear force production. When comparing spine flexibility studies, caution should be exercised to ensure preload was applied in a similar manner for all studies. Unwanted moments or forces induced as a result of preload application method may render the comparison of two seemingly similar studies inappropriate.

  3. A New DFT Architecture to Reduce Test Data Volume and Test Application Time


    Ling, Zhang; Jishun, Kuang; Junjin, Mei


    This paper proposes a new DFT Architecture that contains three test scan modes. The test data could be interval broadcast to scan chains whenever the data in corresponding locations are compatible. Compared with the conventional broadcast scan architecture, the proposed architecture achieves better compression ratio in all cases, and the test application time is also induced. The hardware overhead is very low. Both theoretical and experimental results prove efficacy and versatility of the pro...

  4. ­A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Jerabek


    Full Text Available Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing. Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O and one copper-free, Econea™-based paint (labeled “ecofriendly”. Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of “ecofriendly” paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the “ecofriendly” treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments

  5. -A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research. (United States)

    Jerabek, Andrea S; Wall, Kara R; Stallings, Christopher D


    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea (™)-based paint (labeled "ecofriendly"). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of "ecofriendly" paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the "ecofriendly" treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations that are

  6. Lattice Boltzmann flow simulations with applications of reduced order modeling techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald


    With the recent interest in shale gas, an understanding of the flow mechanisms at the pore scale and beyond is necessary, which has attracted a lot of interest from both industry and academia. One of the suggested algorithms to help understand flow in such reservoirs is the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The primary advantage of LBM is its ability to approximate complicated geometries with simple algorithmic modificatoins. In this work, we use LBM to simulate the flow in a porous medium. More specifically, we use LBM to simulate a Brinkman type flow. The Brinkman law allows us to integrate fast free-flow and slow-flow porous regions. However, due to the many scales involved and complex heterogeneities of the rock microstructure, the simulation times can be long, even with the speed advantage of using an explicit time stepping method. The problem is two-fold, the computational grid must be able to resolve all scales and the calculation requires a steady state solution implying a large number of timesteps. To help reduce the computational complexity and total simulation times, we use model reduction techniques to reduce the dimension of the system. In this approach, we are able to describe the dynamics of the flow by using a lower dimensional subspace. In this work, we utilize the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique, to compute the dominant modes of the flow and project the solution onto them (a lower dimensional subspace) to arrive at an approximation of the full system at a lowered computational cost. We present a few proof-of-concept examples of the flow field and the corresponding reduced model flow field.

  7. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayalee Narkhede


    Full Text Available In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes of log data in a day.These datasets are huge. In order to analyze such large datasets we need parallel processing system andreliable data storage mechanism. Virtual database system is an effective solution for integrating the databut it becomes inefficient for large datasets. The Hadoop framework provides reliable data storage byHadoop Distributed File System and MapReduce programming model which is a parallel processingsystem for large datasets. Hadoop distributed file system breaks up input data and sends fractions of theoriginal data to several machines in hadoop cluster to hold blocks of data. This mechanism helps toprocess log data in parallel using all the machines in the hadoop cluster and computes result efficiently.The dominant approach provided by hadoop to “Store first query later”, loads the data to the HadoopDistributed File System and then executes queries written in Pig Latin. This approach reduces the responsetime as well as the load on to the end system. This paper proposes a log analysis system using HadoopMapReduce which will provide accurate results in minimum response time.

  8. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander;


    tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...... for different organic wastes influenced the specific draught. Overall, the decrease in draught force could lead to a decrease in tractor fuel consumption for soil tillage of up to 25% for compost applied at an accelerated rate and up to 14% for compost applied at a normal rate. This reduced fuel consumption...

  9. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.


    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May


    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach


    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  12. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills. (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry


    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified.

  13. Synthesis and modification of reduced graphene oxide aerogels for biofuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratowicz Izabela


    Full Text Available We have carried out the preparation of reduced graphene oxide aerogels using eco-friendly method that is based on the Hummers method of graphite oxidation without the use of NaNO3 that produces toxic gases. To obtain a porous 3D structure of reduced graphene oxide, we performed the hydrothermal reduction at elevated temperature. We also prepared the rGO aerogel/CNT composite using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as linkers. The rGO aerogels are promising materials as they possess good electrical conductivity (up to 100 S/m and high surface area and porous structure (~500 m2/g. The main goal was to obtain the material for electrodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. Thus, the proper modification was performed using free radical functionalization. It was shown that in order to synthesize rGO aerogels modified with anthracene, the proper order of reactions needs to be provided. The morphology of anthracene modified electrodes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed their porous structure with non-uniform pore size distribution that ranged between few nanometers to microns. Data obtained by Raman spectroscopy confirmed the successful oxidation and reduction of analyzed materials. UV-Vis spectra revealed the presence of anthracene moieties in examined materials. We also recorded preliminary cyclic voltammograms that confirm an electric conductivity of the obtained structures.

  14. A Way Memoization Technique for Reducing Power Consumption of Caches in Application Specific Integrated Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Tohru


    This paper presents a technique for eliminating redundant cache-tag and cache-way accesses to reduce power consumption. The basic idea is to keep a small number of Most Recently Used (MRU) addresses in a Memory Address Buffer (MAB) and to omit redundant tag and way accesses when there is a MAB-hit. Since the approach keeps only tag and set-index values in the MAB, the energy and area overheads are relatively small even for a MAB with a large number of entries. Furthermore, the approach does not sacrifice the performance. In other words, neither the cycle time nor the number of executed cycles increases. The proposed technique has been applied to Fujitsu VLIW processor (FR-V) and its power saving has been estimated using NanoSim. Experiments for 32kB 2-way set associative caches show the power consumption of I-cache and D-cache can be reduced by 40% and 50%, respectively.

  15. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions. (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc


    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state.

  16. Modeling an aquatic ecosystem: application of an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping to reduce prediction uncertainty (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo


    Aquatic ecosystem models can potentially be used to understand the influence of stresses on catchment resource quality. Given that catchment responses are functions of natural and anthropogenic stresses reflected in sparse and spatiotemporal biological, physical, and chemical measurements, an ecosystem is difficult to model using statistical or numerical methods. We propose an artificial adaptive systems approach to model ecosystems. First, an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network is trained using the set of available sparse and disparate data variables. Second, an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping is applied to reduce the number of ecosystem variables to an optimal set. Third, the optimal set of ecosystem variables is used to retrain the ML network. Fourth, a stochastic cross-validation approach is applied to quantify and compare the nonlinear uncertainty in selected predictions of the original and reduced models. Results are presented for aquatic ecosystems (tens of thousands of square kilometers) undergoing landscape change in the USA: Upper Illinois River Basin and Central Colorado Assessment Project Area, and Southland region, NZ.

  17. Reducing bioaerosol dispersion from wastewater treatment and its land application: a review and analysis. (United States)

    O'Hara, Richard E; Rubin, Robert


    Wastewater treatment systems and spray irrigation of treated water may spread microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses through dispersion of aerosol particles. A recent review (Brooks, Josephson, Gerba, & Pepper, 2004) identifies appropriate reports. Teltsch and co-authors report findings that suggest effective management controls involve providing buffer zones, irrigating in the daytime and in times of low humidity, reducing microorganism levels in water used for spraying, and testing for multiple types of viruses and bacteria (Teltsch & Katzenelson, 1978; Teltsch, Shuval, & Tadmor, 1980; Teltsch, Kedmi, Bonnet, Borenzstajn-Rotem, & Katzenelson, 1980). Camann, Moore, Harding, and Sorber support these findings. They also note that fecal streptococci are hardier than fecal coliform and appear frequently in background samples, suggesting that this bacterium is a better indicator of background and downwind conditions than are fecal coliform bacteria. In their study, storage prior to spray irrigation reduced microorganism concentrations by 99 percent. Downwind concentrations of sprayed reservoir water were often comparable to background values (Camann, Moore, Harding, & Sorber, 1988). Italian researchers (Brandi, Sisti, & Amagliani, 2000; Carducci, Gemelli, Cantiani, Casini, & Rovini, 1999; Carducci et al., 2000) confirm variable die-away rates of microorganisms, observe a positive association between fecal streptococci and the presence of viruses, and recommend consideration of submerged aeration for sludge digestion at sewage treatment plants. No reports are available that measure dispersion of bioaerosols from wastewater consistently treated to meet contemporary disinfection standards.

  18. New application of wavelets in magnetotelluric data processing: reducing impedance bias (United States)

    Larnier, Hugo; Sailhac, Pascal; Chambodut, Aude


    Magnetotelluric (MT) data consist of the sum of several types of natural sources including transient and quasiperiodic signals and noise sources (instrumental, anthropogenic) whose nature has to be taken into account in MT data processing. Most processing techniques are based on a Fourier transform of MT time series, and robust statistics at a fixed frequency are used to compute the MT response functions, but only a few take into account the nature of the sources. Moreover, to reduce the influence of noise in the inversion of the response functions, one often sets up another MT station called a remote station. However, even careful setup of this remote station cannot prevent its failure in some cases. Here, we propose the use of the continuous wavelet transform on magnetotelluric time series to reduce the influence of noise even for single site processing. We use two different types of wavelets, Cauchy and Morlet, according to the shape of observed geomagnetic events. We show that by using wavelet coefficients at clearly identified geomagnetic events, we are able to recover the unbiased response function obtained through robust remote processing algorithms. This makes it possible to process even single station sites and increase the confidence in data interpretation.

  19. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.


    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  20. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine (United States)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin


    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  1. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri


    As part of the Air Force - NASA Bi-Annual Research Council Meeting, slides will be presented on recent Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) work. Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. A methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project is discussed.

  2. Smart Property of Homogeneous Electrorheological Fluid and Its Application in Reducing Seismic Responses of Engineering Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The smart properties of homogeneous electrorheological fluid (HERF) containing side-chain type liquid crystalline polymer were studied and an actual HERF damper with an adjustable viscosity was produced.A mechanical model of the HERF smart damper was established on the basis of experiment and theoretical analysis.Then a controlled equation of SDOF structure by HERF damper was derived and a semi-active control strategy based on optimal sliding displacement of damper was presented.The simulation results for a single story frame structure indicate that HERF,which may avoid some defects of common particles-suspended ER fluids,is an excellent smart material with better stability.Using the semi-active control strategy presented,HERF smart damper controlled could effectively reduce seismic responses of structures and keeps the control stable at all times.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation of Six-sigma methodology in reducing rework of the components which occur due to non conformance with respect to the required standard specifications in the fabrication shop. This results in higher rework time, rework cost and lowers customer satisfaction. The Six-sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control approach has been used for the process improvement. This results in reduction of the rework time and cost. The increase in the sigma level from 2.30 to 3.28 and from 3.00 to 3.10 for Left hand and Right hand Deck respectively was achieved. Six Sigma improves the process performance which leads to predictable input and predictable output, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations resulting in continuous improvement and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  4. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for Adsorption-Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Saiha Omar


    Full Text Available This work reports on synthesis of zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO nanocomposites in the presence of diethylenetriamine (DETA via a facile microwave method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the nanocomposites correspond to the ZnO hexagonal phase wurtzite structure. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM images revealed that the ZnO nanorods, with an average length : diameter ratio of 10, were successfully deposited on the rGO sheets. Under the irradiation of sunlight, the nanocomposites showed enhanced adsorption-photocatalysis by more than twofold and photocurrent response by sixfold compared to the ZnO. The excellent photoactivity performance of the nanocomposites is contributed by smaller ZnO nanorod and the presence of rGO that acts as a photosensitizer by transferring electrons to the conduction band of ZnO within the nanocomposite during sunlight illumination.

  5. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai, E-mail:; Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying


    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  6. The application of active noise control technology to reduce noise from air pollution control equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depies, C. R.; Kapsos, D. W.


    The basic concept of active noise control, i. e. to create a noise field in a space in order to destructively interfere with an existing noise, and in the process create a quieter space, was explained. The manner in which noise control technology can be used in air pollution control equipment was described and guidelines for application were provided. A number of case studies were used to illustrate the suitability of active noise control for low frequency noise problems, especially in the area of air pollution control equipment. Impressive reduction of low frequency noise, energy efficiency, ability to retrofit into an existing duct system, and the hardware`s insensitivity to dirty exhaust environments were cited as the principal reasons for the success of active noise control technology over more traditional in-line passive silencers. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  7. A Distributed Look-up Architecture for Text Mining Applications using MapReduce. (United States)

    Balkir, Atilla Soner; Foster, Ian; Rzhetsky, Andrey


    Text mining applications typically involve statistical models that require accessing and updating model parameters in an iterative fashion. With the growing size of the data, such models become extremely parameter rich, and naive parallel implementations fail to address the scalability problem of maintaining a distributed look-up table that maps model parameters to their values. We evaluate several existing alternatives to provide coordination among worker nodes in Hadoop [11] clusters, and suggest a new multi-layered look-up architecture that is specifically optimized for certain problem domains. Our solution exploits the power-law distribution characteristics of the phrase or n-gram counts in large corpora while utilizing a Bloom Filter [2], in-memory cache, and an HBase [12] cluster at varying levels of abstraction.

  8. Hybrid Electrodes of Carbon Nanotube and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Energy Storage Applications. (United States)

    Choi, Eunmi; Chae, Su Jin; Kim, Areum; Kang, Keun Won; Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Soon Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Pil; Pyo, Sung Gyu


    The choice of electrode materials in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors is important for the stability, capacity, and cycle life of the device. Despite its low capacity, graphite has often been used as an electrode material due to its inherent stability. Due to an increasing demand for large-capacity energy storage systems, there is also a demand for the development of large-capacity Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Therefore, carbonaceous materials like graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have high stability as well as excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, are receiving attention as new electrode materials. Recently, starting from simply applying graphene and CNTs as electrode materials and progressing to the development of hybrid materials, there have been increasing research efforts in enhancing the performance of Li ion batteries and supercapacitors through the use of carbonaceous materials. This paper will discuss new composite materials and electrode structures that use graphene and CNTs for applications in Li ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  9. Facile hydrothermal preparation of niobium pentaoxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications (United States)

    Murugan, M.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Jayavel, R.


    Facile synthesis of graphene-Nb2O5 composite has been reported. Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummer's method. The metal oxide (Nb2O5) was introduced to the graphene to form the composite by the hydrothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM results revealed that the metal oxide particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of thin sheets of well-defined multilayered graphene structure. Thermal stability of the graphene metal oxide nanocomposites was also investigated. The CV measurements reveal a significant enhancement in the specific capacitance reaching 321 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. With promising electrochemical characteristics, Nb2O5 decorated graphene nanocomposite are explored as potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  10. Application of N-Doped Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel to Thin Film Loudspeaker. (United States)

    Kim, Choong Sun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Jung-Woo


    We built a thermoacoustic loudspeaker employing N-doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOA) based on a simple template-free fabrication method. A two-step fabrication process, which includes freeze-drying and reduction/doping, was used to realize a three-dimensional, freestanding, and porous graphene-based loudspeaker, whose macroscopic structure can be easily modulated. The simplified fabrication process also allows the control of structural properties of the N-rGOAs, including density and area. Taking advantage of the facile fabrication process, we fabricated and analyzed thermoacoustic loudspeakers with different structural properties. The anlayses showed that a N-rGOA with lower density and larger area can produce a higher sound pressure level (SPL). Furthermore, the resistance of the proposed loudspeaker can be easily controlled through heteroatom doping, thereby helping to generate higher SPL per unit driving voltage. Our success in constructing an array of optimized N-rGOAs able to withstand input power as high as 40 W demonstrates that a practical thermoacoustic loudspeaker can be fabricated using the proposed mass-producible solution-based process.

  11. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah


    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  12. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillard, J.X.


    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  13. The application of queue theory in cloud computing to reduce the waiting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bharkad


    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new technology in computer field to provide on line service to the customers. -Cloud computing has got enormous popularity as it offers dynamic, low-cost computing solutions. To get the service of cloud the user has to be in queue until he is served. Each arriving Cloud computing User (CCU requests Cloud computing Service Provider (CCSP to use the resources, if server is available, the arriving user will seize and hold it for a length of time, which leads to queue length and more waiting time. A new arrival leaves the queue with no service. After service completion the server is made immediately available to others. From the user’s point of view he needs to be served immediately and to prevent waiting the CCSP’s can use infinite servers to reduce waiting time & queue length. The arrival pattern is often Poisson in queuing theory. In this article we analyzed the dynamic behavior of the system with infinite servers by finding various effective measures like response time, average time spend in the system, utilization and throughput.

  14. Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination. (United States)

    Mbuge, Duncan O; Negrini, Renata; Nyakundi, Livine O; Kuate, Serge P; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Muiru, William M; Torto, Baldwyn; Mezzenga, Raffaele


    The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.

  15. Application of variational reduced-density-matrix theory to organic molecules. (United States)

    Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A


    Variational calculation of the two-electron reduced-density matrix (2-RDM), using a new first-order algorithm [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)], is applied to medium-sized organic molecules. The calculations reveal systematic trends in the accuracy of the energy with well-known chemical concepts such as hybridization, electronegativity, and atomic size. Furthermore, correlation energies from hydrocarbon chains indicate that the calculation of the 2-RDM subject to two-positivity conditions is size extensive, that is, the energy grows linearly with the number of electrons. Because organic molecules have a well-defined set of functional groups, we employ the trends in energy accuracy of the functional groups to design a correction to the 2-RDM energy for an arbitrary organic molecule. We apply the 2-RDM calculations with the functional-group correction to a large set of organic molecules with different functional groups. Energies with millihartree accuracy are obtained both at equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Y2O3-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications (United States)

    Saravanan, T.; Anandan, P.; Azhagurajan, M.; Arivanandhan, M.; Pazhanivel, K.; Hayakawa, Y.; Jayavel, R.


    Yittrium oxide (Y2O3)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite was prepared by a low temperature solution process by mixing different weight ratios of chemically derived rGO and Y2O3. The structural properties of nanocomposite materials have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction. Laser Raman spectroscopic study further confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite materials. The morphology of the nanocomposite has been analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. From the FE-SEM and TEM images, it was found that the nanocrystals of Y2O3 were interpolated in the graphene sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that the rGO has a reasonable amount of C-O groups as the doublet was observed in the C 1s spectrum. Moreover, the O 1s peak illustrates the doublet peaks which confirms the presence of OH and other functional groups at the surfaces of rGO. Electrochemical behavior of the nanocomposite was studied by cyclic voltammetric studies. The nanocomposite with higher weight percent of rGO shows better photocatalytic performance compared to the samples with low weight percent of rGO. The photocatalytic characteristics of the nanocomposite have been discussed based on the XPS results. The presence of hydroxyl group in the rGO of nanocomposites increases the OH radical formation and suppresses the recombination of excitons, which is responsible for the rapid decomposition of dye molecules.

  17. Application of chemokine receptor antagonist with stents reduces local inflammation and suppresses cancer growth. (United States)

    Mao, Ai-Wu; Jiang, Ting-Hui; Sun, Xian-Jun; Peng, Jian


    Severe pain and obstructive jaundice resulting from invasive cholangiocarcinoma or pancreatic carcinoma can be alleviated by implantation of biliary and duodenal stents. However, stents may cause local inflammation to have an adverse effect on the patients' condition and survival. So far, no efficient approaches have been applied to prevent the occurrence of stents-related inflammation. Here, we reported significantly higher levels of serum stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in the patients that developed stents-associated inflammation. A higher number of inflammatory cells have been detected in the cancer close to stent in the patients with high serum SDF-1. Since chemokine plays a pivotal role in the development of inflammation, we implanted an Alzet osmotic pump with the stents to gradually release AMD3100, a specific inhibitor binding of SDF-1 and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), at the site of stents in mice that had developed pancreatic cancer. We found that AMD3100 significantly reduced local inflammation and significantly inhibited cancer cell growth, resulting in improved survival of the mice that bore cancer. Moreover, the suppression of cancer growth may be conducted through modulation of CyclinD1, p21, and p27 in the cancer cells. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of chemokine signaling at the site of stents may substantially improve survival through suppression of stent-related inflammation and tumor growth.

  18. Assessment of Reduced-Kinetics Mechanisms for Combustion of Jet Fuel in CFD Applications (United States)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Kundu, Krihna P.; Yungster, Shaye J.


    A computational effort was undertaken to analyze the details of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for next-generation LDI design. The National Combustor Code (NCC) was used to perform reacting flow computations on single-element LDI injector configurations. The feasibility of using a reduced chemical-kinetics approach, which optimizes the reaction rates and species to model the emissions characteristics typical of lean-burning gas-turbine combustors, was assessed. The assessments were performed with Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) time-integration, with a Lagrangian spray model with the NCC code. The NCC predictions for EINOx and combustor exit temperature were compared with experimental data for two different single-element LDI injector configurations, with 60deg and 45deg axially swept swirler vanes. The effects of turbulence-chemistry interaction on the predicted flow in a typical LDI combustor were studied with detailed comparisons of NCC TFNS with experimental data.

  19. Application of lower aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents for increasing efficiency of the LCLD process (United States)

    Semenok, Dmitrii


    A method is described that is promising for application metal conductors on ceramic substrates during printed-circuit boards (PCBs) production without masking plate. The main idea of laser-induced metal deposition from solution (LCLD) consists of implementation of chemical micro reactor by using a focused laser beam. In this reactor the red/ox reaction would be initiated due to heating of a reaction medium. We used a 532 nm DPSS laser (power: 2100 mW) and water solutions of organic alcohols with low molecular weight, ethanol and isopropanol as reductants. The results of deposition were studied using the SEM, EDX methods and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent resistance-capacitance circuit of copper tracks was constructed. The experiments showed that increasing the rate of deposition of nanostructured copper tracks up to 50 μm/s with electrical resistivity 5 Ohm/cm is possible by replacing the well-known reductants such as formaldehyde and D-sorbitol with iso-propanol.

  20. Apyrase treatment of myocardial infarction according to a clinically applicable protocol fails to reduce myocardial injury in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO in a large animal model. Methods A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg. The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8 or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8, twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. Results No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 ± 4.2% vs 69.4 ± 5.0%, p = NS or MO (10.7 ± 4.8% vs 11.4 ± 4.8%, p = NS, but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Conclusion Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction.

  1. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle


    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  2. Application of an optimum filter for a neptune 10 PC linac to reduce electron contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.; Saberi, H.; Hashemian, A. [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Medical Physics Dep., Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salek, R. [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Radiotherapy and Oncology Dep., Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Full text of publication follows: Skin sparing is one of the most desirable characteristics of high energy photon beams. However, photons emerging from the target of linacs are contaminated with secondary electrons as a result of their interactions with air, collimators, flattening filter and any other objects in their path. This phenomenon tends to increase patients skin dose. A practical way to reduce the contribution of electron contamination is to place a sheet of medium to high Z material just after the secondary collimators. Filters of different thicknesses and atomic numbers were applied. The dose reduction effect was evaluated by direct measurement using a pinpoint 0.015 cm{sup 3} PTW 31006 chamber in a Scanditronix water phantom. For this purpose, the percent depth dose was measured at various depths ranging from 0 to 210 mm. These measurements were carried out for three field sizes of 10 10, 20 20 and 25 25 cm{sup 2}. The setup was adjusted for SSD = 100 cm. The surface dose and D20/D10 were used as the criteria to determine the optimum filter. The complete geometry of the linac, filters and water phantom were also simulated by MCNP-4C code to compute the optimum filter. The results show a good agreement between the experimental and calculated data. A 0.4 mm thick lead foil produces the optimum condition. For open beams, the utilization of the optimum filter resulted in a 5.7, 7.9 and 9.6% reduction in PDD of 10 10, 20 20 and 25 25 cm{sup 2} respectively without any significant change in the quality of the x-ray beam. The flatness and homogeneity of the cross-line dose profile did not show significant changes at the 10 cm and the depth of maximum dose. (authors)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan


    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils

  4. Expancel Foams: Fabrication and Characterization of a New Reduced Density Cellular Material for Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Whinnery; S. Goods; B. Even


    higher density unexpanded powder (approximately 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) can be produced using this technique. The extremely wide range of accessible densities, ease of processing, relatively inexpensive materials, uniformity of the density, scaleable nature of the process should make this technology highly competitive for a variety of Defense Programs and commercial applications.

  5. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant. (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping


    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment.

  6. Fabrication of electrospun silk fibroin scaffolds coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene for applications in biomedicine. (United States)

    Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador; Martínez, Jose G; Bernabeu-Esclapez, Antonia; Lozano-Pérez, A Abel; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Otero, Toribio F; Cenis, Jose L


    Silk fibroin and graphene are both promising biomaterials described in the bibliography. Hybrid scaffolds combining their properties could be attractive for tissue engineering applications. In this work, a new methodology to produce electrospun fibroin scaffolds coated with graphene materials is provided. The mechanical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the materials attained were characterised. The fibre diameters were measured (from 3.9 to 5.2 μm). The samples coated with reduced grapheme were electronic conductors and electroactive in liquid electrolytes, showing maximum oxidation and reduction (around−0.4 V peak). The chronoamperometric responses showed a reduction shoulder, pointing to the entrance of balancing cations from the solution by nucleation–relaxation: the reaction induced structural changes in the graphene. In order to check the biocompatibility of the materials, they were seeded with L929 fibroblasts. The excellent biocompatibility of silk fibroin meshes was maintained after coating with graphene, being the proliferation results equal in all the treatments 7 days after the seeding (Tukey, p N 0.05).The conductive and electroactive properties of meshes coated with reduced graphene allow the potential application of local electric fields or local ionic currents to cell cultures, biological interfaces or animal models without host response.

  7. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium. (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L


    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals.

  8. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT. (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong


    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution.

  9. An application of Six Sigma methodology to reduce the engine-overheating problem in an automotive company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, J. [Glasgow Caledonian University (United Kingdom). Six Sigma and Process Improvement Research Centre; Kumar, M. [Glasgow Caledonian University (United Kingdom). Division of Management; Tiwari, M.K. [National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi (India). Department of Manufacturing Engineering


    Six Sigma is a systematic methodology for continuous process quality improvement and for achieving operational excellence. The overstatement that often accompanies the presentation and adoption of Six Sigma in industry can lead to unrealistic expectations as to what Six Sigma is truly capable of achieving. This paper deals with the application of Six Sigma based methodology in eliminating an engine-overheating problem in an automotive company. The DMAIC (define-measure-analyse-improve-control) approach has been followed here to solve an underlying problem of reducing process variation and the associated high defect rate. This paper explores how a foundry can use a systematic and disciplined approach to move towards the goal of Six Sigma quality level. The application of the Six Sigma methodology resulted in a reduction in the jamming problem encountered in the cylinder head and increased the process capability from 0.49 to 1.28. The application of DMAIC has had a significant financial impact (saving over $US110 000 per annum) on the bottom-line of the company. (author)

  10. A non-intrusive reduced-order model for compressible fluid and fractured solid coupling and its application to blasting (United States)

    Xiao, D.; Yang, P.; Fang, F.; Xiang, J.; Pain, C. C.; Navon, I. M.; Chen, M.


    This work presents the first application of a non-intrusive reduced order method to model solid interacting with compressible fluid flows to simulate crack initiation and propagation. In the high fidelity model, the coupling process is achieved by introducing a source term into the momentum equation, which represents the effects of forces of the solid on the fluid. A combined single and smeared crack model with the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to simulate crack initiation and propagation. The non-intrusive reduced order method is then applied to compressible fluid and fractured solid coupled modelling where the computational cost involved in the full high fidelity simulation is high. The non-intrusive reduced order model (NIROM) developed here is constructed through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and a radial basis function (RBF) multi-dimensional interpolation method. The performance of the NIROM for solid interacting with compressible fluid flows, in the presence of fracture models, is illustrated by two complex test cases: an immersed wall in a fluid and a blasting test case. The numerical simulation results show that the NIROM is capable of capturing the details of compressible fluids and fractured solids while the CPU time is reduced by several orders of magnitude. In addition, the issue of whether or not to subtract the mean from the snapshots before applying POD is discussed in this paper. It is shown that solutions of the NIROM, without mean subtracted before constructing the POD basis, captured more details than the NIROM with mean subtracted from snapshots.

  11. Applications of the MapReduce programming framework to clinical big data analysis: current landscape and future trends. (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher


    The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called "big data" challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. THE MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK USES TWO TASKS COMMON IN FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by

  12. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C


    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  13. Sub-millimeter nuclear medical imaging with reduced dose application in positron emission tomography using beta-gamma coincidences

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, C; Parodi, K; Thirolf, P G


    Positron emission tomography (PET) permits a functional understanding of the underlying causes of many diseases. Modern whole-body PET systems reach a spatial resolution of 2-6 mm (FWHM). A limitation of this technique occurs from the thermalization and diffusion of the positron before its annihilation, typically within the mm range. We present a nuclear medical imaging technique, able to reach sub-millimeter spatial resolution in 3 dimensions with a reduced effective dose application compared to conventional PET. This 'gamma-PET' technique draws on specific medical isotopes, simultaneously emitting an additional photon accompanying the beta^+ decay. Exploiting the triple coincidence between the positron annihilation and the third photon, it is possible to separate the reconstructed 'true' events from background. In order to characterize the potential of this technique, MC simulations and image reconstructions have been performed. The achievable spatial resolution has been found to reach ca. 0.4 mm (FWHM) in ...

  14. Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Reduced by Topical Application and Intraperitoneal Injection of Hirsutenone in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sook Jeong


    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory skin disease. The increasing prevalence and severity of AD have prompted the developments of safer, more effective drugs. Although topical corticosteroids have been used as first line therapy for AD, their potential side effects limit their clinical applications. To investigate the effect of hirsutenone (HIR, a diarylheptanoid compound, on AD-like skin lesions and other factors related to immune response is the aim of this paper Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophil, IgE inflammatory factors (COX-2, iNOS levels were reduced in blood, lymphocytes, and tissue after HIR treatment. These results suggest that HIR might be an effective treatment for AD.

  15. Fe3O4/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Its Application for Toxic Metal Ion Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Vuong Hoan


    Full Text Available The synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified by magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4/rGO and its application for heavy metals removal were demonstrated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and magnetic measurement. The results showed that the obtained graphene oxide (GO contains a small part of initial graphite as well as reduced oxide graphene. GO exhibits very high surface area in comparison with initial graphite. The morphology of Fe3O4/rGO consists of very fine spherical iron nanooxide particles in nanoscale. The formal kinetics and adsorption isotherms of As(V, Ni(II, and Pb(II over obtained Fe3O4/rGO have been investigated. Fe3O4/rGO exhibits excellent heavy metal ions adsorption indicating that it is a potential adsorbent for water sources contaminated by heavy metals.

  16. pH sensing characteristics and biosensing application of solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors. (United States)

    Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Duck-Jin; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Thanh, Tien Nguyen; Quang, Trung Tran; Lee, Nae-Eung


    Solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors (R-GO FETs) were investigated for pH sensing and biochemical sensing applications. A channel of a networked R-GO film formed by self-assembly was incorporated as a sensing layer into a solution-gated FET structure for pH sensing and the detection of acetylcholine (Ach), which is a neurotransmitter in the nerve system, through enzymatic reactions. The fabricated R-GO FET was sensitive to protons (H(+)) with a pH sensitivity of 29 mV/pH in terms of the shift of the charge neutrality point (CNP), which is attributed to changes in the surface potential caused by the interaction of protons with OH surface functional groups present on the R-GO surface. The R-GO FET immobilized with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was used to detect Ach in the concentration range of 0.1-10mM by sensing protons generated during the enzymatic reactions. The results indicate that R-GO FETs provide the capability to detect protons, demonstrating their applicability as a biosensing device for enzymatic reactions.

  17. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Yu; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P [Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio Sate University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Chung, Y-C [Siemens Medical Solutions, Inc., Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)], E-mail:


    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR.

  18. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI. (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P


    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR.

  19. The application of the reduced order model Kalman filter to motion estimation of degraded image sequences. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth C.


    Motion estimation is a field of great interest because of its many applications in areas such as robotics and image coding. The optic flow method is one such scheme which, although fairly accurate, is prone to error in the presence of noise. This thesis describes the use of the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF) in reducing errors in displacement estimation due to degradation of the sequence. The implementation of filtering and motion estimation algorithms on the SUN workstation is also discussed. Results from preliminary testing were used to determine the degrees of freedom available for the ROMKF in the SUN software. The tests indicated that increasing the state to the left leads to slight improvement over the minimum state case. Therefore, the software uses the minimum model, with the option of adding states to the left only. The ROMKF was then used in conjunction with a hierarchical pel recursive motion estimation algorithm. Applying the ROMKF to the degraded displacements themselves generally yielded slight improvements in cases with noise degradation and noise plus blur. Filtering the images of the degraded sequence prior to motion estimation was less effective in these cases. Both methods performed badly in the case of blur alone, resulting in increased displacement errors. This is thought to be due in part to filter artifacts. Some improvements were obtained by varying the filter parameters when filtering the displacements directly. This result suggests that further study in varying filter parameters may lead to better results. The results of this thesis indicate that the ROMKF can play a part in reducing motion estimation errors from degraded sequences. However, more work needs to be done before the use of the ROMKF can be a practical solution.

  20. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David


    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  1. Characterization and Potential Applications of a Selenium Nanoparticle Producing and Nitrate Reducing Bacterium Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov. (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Xiao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Hui-Jiao; Xu, Hao; Xu, Peng-Peng; Jia, Yan; Häggblom, Max M.; Zhu, Yong-Guan


    A novel nitrate- and selenite reducing bacterium strain ZYKT was isolated from a rice paddy soil in Dehong, Yunnan, China. Strain ZYKT is a facultative anaerobe and grows in up to 150, 000 ppm O2. The comparative genomics analysis of strain ZYKT implies that it shares more orthologues with B. subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610T (ANIm values, 85.4–86.7%) than with B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (ANIm values, 84.4–84.7%), although B. azotoformans NBRC 15712T (96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) is the closest Bacillus species according to 16S rRNA gene comparison. The major cellular fatty acids of strain ZYKT were iso-C14:0 (17.8%), iso-C15:0 (17.8%), and C16:0 (32.0%). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. Based on physiological, biochemical and genotypic properties, the strain was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryziterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZYKT (=DSM 26460T =CGMCC 1.5179T). Strain ZYKT can reduce nitrate to nitrite and ammonium and possesses metabolic genes for nitrate reduction including nar, nap and nrf. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles of strain ZYKT show a narrow size distribution and agree with the gaussian distribution. These selenium nanoparticles show significant dose-dependent inhibition of the lung cancer cell line H157, which suggests potential for application in cancer therapy.

  2. A multi-channel feedback algorithm for the development of active liners to reduce noise in flow duct applications (United States)

    Mazeaud, B.; Galland, M.-A.


    The present paper deals with the design and development of the active part of a hybrid acoustic treatment combining porous material properties and active control techniques. Such an acoustic system was developed to reduce evolutionary tones in flow duct applications. Attention was particularly focused on the optimization process of the controller part of the hybrid cell. A piezo-electric transducer combining efficiency and compactness was selected as a secondary source. A digital adaptive feedback control algorithm was specially developed in order to operate independently cell by cell, and to facilitate a subsequent increase in the liner surface. An adaptive bandpass filter was used to prevent the development of instabilities due to the coupling occurring between cells. Special care was taken in the development of such systems for time-varying primary signals. An automatic frequency detection loop was therefore introduced in the control algorithm, enabling the continuous adaptation of the bandpass filtering. The multi-cell structure was experimentally validated for a four-cell system located on a duct wall in the presence of flow. Substantial noise reduction was obtained throughout the 0.7-2.5 kHz frequency range, with flow velocities up to 50 m/s.

  3. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests. (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J


    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage.

  4. ZnWO_4 nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide hybrids:Synthesis and their application for Li ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao; LI BoLong; LIU DaPeng; XIONG HuanMing


    ZnWO4,as an environment-friendly and economic material,has the potential for Li ion batteries(LIB)application.In this paper,a facile method has been developed to synthesize ZnWO4supported on the reduced graphene oxide(RGO)to improve its LIB performance.The cuboid-like ZnWO4nanocrystals are prepared by directly adding Na2WO4 powders into the graphene oxide/Zn aqueous solution followed by a hydrothermal treatment.The high-resolution TEM,XRD and XPS characterizations were employed to demonstrate structural information of the as-prepared ZnWO4/RGO hybrids carefully.Besides,we also discussed the LIB properties of the hybrids based on the detailed galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests.As a result,the specific capacity of the as-prepared ZnWO4/RGO hybrids reached more than 477.3 mA h g 1after 40 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g 1(only less than 159 mA g 1for bare ZnWO4).During the whole cyclic process,the coulombic efficiency steadily kept the values higher than 90%.

  5. Application of direct torque control to electric screw presses for speeding up torque response and reducing starting current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yi; HUANG Shu-huai; LI Jun-chao; XIONG Xiao-hong


    Fast response and stable torque output are crucial to the performance of electric screw presses. This paper describes the design of a direct torque control (DTC) system for speeding up torque response and reducing the starting current of electric screw presses and its application to the J58K series of numerical control electric screw presses with a dual-motor drive. The DTC drive system encompasses speed control, torque reference control, and switching frequency control. Comparison of the DTC duaI-AC induction motor drive with corresponding AC servo motor drive showed that for the J58K-315 electric screw press, the DTC drive system attains a higher maximum speed (786 r/min) within a shorter time (1.13 s) during a 250 mm stroke and undergoes smaller rise in temperature (42.0 ℃) in the motor after running for 2 h at a 12 min strike fi'equency than the AC servo motor drive does (751 r/min within 1.19 s, and 50.6 ℃ rise). Moreover, the DTC AC induction motor drive, with no need for a tachometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position of the motor shaft, enjoys increased reliability in a strong-shock work environment.

  6. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu


    Full Text Available Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy, reduced graphene oxide (RGO, and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of PPy–RGO–nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au3+ in aqueous solution, a PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy–RGO–nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy–RGO–nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about −0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM–2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3 with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor.

  7. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.


    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  8. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Revalds Lubans


    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7± 0.5 years in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation and evaluation of the app are also described.Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app.Conclusions: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys.

  9. A universally calibrated microplate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for foods and applications to Manuka honey. (United States)

    Bolanos de la Torre, Amparo Angelica S; Henderson, Terence; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K


    The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was recently adapted to a microplate format. However, microplate-based FRAP (mFRAP) assays are affected by sample volume and composition. This work describes a calibration process for mFRAP assays which yields data free of volume effects. From the results, the molar absorptivity (ε) for the mFRAP assay was 141,698 M(-1) cm(-1) for gallic acid, 49,328 M(-1) cm(-1) for ascorbic acid, and 21,606 M(-1) cm(-1) for ammonium ferrous sulphate. The significance of ε (M(-1) cm(-1)) is discussed in relation to mFRAP assay sensitivity, minimum detectable concentration, and the dimensionless FRAP-value. Gallic acid showed 6.6 mol of Fe(2+) equivalents compared to 2.3 mol of Fe(+2) equivalents for ascorbic acid. Application of the mFRAP assay to Manuka honey samples (rated 5+, 10+, 15+, and 18+ Unique Manuka Factor; UMF) showed that FRAP values (0.54-0.76 mmol Fe(2+) per 100g honey) were strongly correlated with UMF ratings (R(2)=0.977) and total phenols content (R(2) = 0.982)whilst the UMF rating was correlated with the total phenols (R(2) = 0.999). In conclusion, mFRAP assay results were successfully standardised to yield data corresponding to 1-cm spectrophotometer which is useful for quality assurance purposes. The antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey was found to be directly related to the UMF rating.

  10. The application of reduced absorption cross section on the identification of the compounds with similar function-groups (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Zuo, Jian; Mu, Kai-jun; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Lei-wei; Zhang, Cun-lin


    Terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful tool for materials investigation. The low frequency vibrations were usually investigated by means of absorption coefficient regardless of the refractive index. It leads to the disregard of some inherent low-frequency vibrational information of the chemical compounds. Moreover, due to the scattering inside the sample, there are some distortions of the absorption features, so that the absorption dependent material identification is not valid enough. Here, a statistical parameter named reduced absorption cross section (RACS) is introduced. This can not only help us investigate the molecular dynamics but also distinguish one chemical compound with another which has similar function-groups. Experiments are carried out on L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine and the different mass ratios of their mixtures as an example of the application of RACS. The results come out that the RACS spectrum of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine reserve the spectral fingerprint information of absorption spectrum. The log plot of RACSs of the two amino acids show power-law behavior σR(~ν) ~ (ν~α), and there is a linear relation between the wavenumber and the RACS in the double logarithmic plot. The exponents α, at the same time, are the slopes of the RACS curves in the double logarithmic plot. The big differences of the exponents α between the two amino acids and their mixtures can be seen visually from the slopes of the RACS curves. So we can use RACS analytical method to distinguish some complex compounds with similar function-groups and mixtures from another which has similar absorption peaks in THz region.

  11. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. M.; Johansen, T. K.;


    This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesiser (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25 μm) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with Ft......), the implemented 12-bit accumulator reduces the number of registers by 55% and the power by approximately 32%, while obtaining the highest clock frequency for SiGe:C accumulators intended for DDS applications....

  12. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martauz, P.


    Full Text Available Utility properties of novel hybrid cement (H-Cement are influenced by pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, latent hydraulic reaction of metallurgical slag together with the alkali activation of inorganic geopolymer based on precipitated waste water coming from bauxite residues. Content of Portland cement clinker is at maximum of 20 mass %, the remaining portion consists of inorganic geopolymer. Up to 80% of CO2 emissions are saved by H-Cement manufacture compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. No heat treatment or autoclaving is needed at H-Cement production. The field application of H-Cement is performed by the same way than that of common cements listed in EN 197-1, and is also connected with highly efficient recovery and safe disposal of red mud waste. H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.Las propiedades de un nuevo cemento híbrido (cemento-H vienen determinadas por la reaccion puzolánica de cenizas volantes, la hidráulica latente de las escorias metalúrgicas y la activación alcalina mediante las aguas residuales generadas por el tratamiento de la bauxita para dar un geopolímero inorgánico. La proporción máxima de clínker de cemento en este nuevo material es del 20%, y por ello, en su fabricación se emite hasta un 80% menos de CO2 que en la producción del cemento portland (OPC. El cemento-H se prepara sin necesidad de tratamiento térmico ni de estancia en autoclave y su aplicación es la misma que los cementos convencionales definidos en la norma EN 197-1. Por otra parte, su fabricación supone la recuperación y la valorización segura de los lodos rojos de bauxita. El cemento-H es apto para la preparación de hormigones premezclados hasta la categoría C30/37, presentando el nuevo material, además, una menor retracción que los cementos convencionales, por lo que su

  13. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 µm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. Mahdi; Johansen, Tom Keinicke


    This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesizer (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25um) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with Ft/Fmax o...

  14. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae) (United States)

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  15. Development and Validation of a Reduced DME Mechanism Applicable to Various Combustion Modes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Chin


    Full Text Available A 28-species reduced chemistry mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME combustion is developed on the basis of a recent detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008. The construction of reduced chemistry was carried out with automatic algorithms incorporating newly developed strategies. The performance of the reduced mechanism is assessed over a wide range of combustion conditions anticipated to occur in future advanced piston internal combustion engines, such as HCCI, SAHCCI, and PCCI. Overall, the reduced chemistry gives results in good agreement with those from the detailed mechanism for all the combustion modes tested. While the detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008 shows reasonable agreement with the shock tube autoignition delay data, the detailed mechanism requires further improvement in order to better predict HCCI combustion under engine conditions.

  16. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL


    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  17. Supercritical water oxidation: application to reduce industrial wastes. Oxidacion en agua supercritica (OASC): aplicacion a la eliminacion de residuos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocero, M.J.; Gonzalez, R.; Fernandez-Polanco, F.


    The incineration of wastes presents many problems with environmental laws. A solution could be the Supercritic oxidation water. (SOW). This method is clean, without air pollution. The article analyzes process, depressurization, energetical approvement, and applications for wastes. (Author) 18 refs.

  18. Application of herbicides is likely to reduce greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyan; Chen, Linmei; Sun, Qing; Sang, Mengmeng; Huang, Yao


    Herbicides have been widely used to control weeds in croplands; however, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain unclear. The effects of three wheat herbicides (acetochlor, AC; tribenuron-methyl, TBM; fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, FE) and two rice herbicides (butachlor, BC; bensulfuron-methyl, BSM) on N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated in this study. In the wheat growing season, applications of AC and FE + TBM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 31% compared with no herbicide use (p = 0.001). In the rice growing season, the application of BC significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 58% (p = 0.022), and BSM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 27% (p = 0.040); however, no significant difference among treatments with regard to the aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 in the CO2 equivalent for the 100-year horizon was observed (p > 0.05). Relative to control plots, which were not treated with herbicides, the combined application of the herbicides FE and TBM in the wheat season led to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by ∼41% (p = 0.002), and the application of BC together with BSM reduced GHGI by 22% in the rice season, although this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.158). Further investigation suggested that the inhibitory effect of herbicides on N2O emissions in the wheat field could be ascribed to low soil ammonium nitrogen and less abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The inhibitory effects of separate applications of BC on CH4 emissions in rice fields, in contrast, were linked to high soil nitrate nitrogen and urease activity.

  19. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie


    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives.

  20. Engineering of a genome-reduced host: practical application of synthetic biology in the overproduction of desired secondary metabolites. (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Zhuo, Ying; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Zhang, Lixin


    Synthetic biology aims to design and build new biological systems with desirable properties, providing the foundation for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The most prominent representation of synthetic biology has been used in microbial engineering by recombinant DNA technology. However, there are advantages of using a deleted host, and therefore an increasing number of biotechnology studies follow similar strategies to dissect cellular networks and construct genome-reduced microbes. This review will give an overview of the strategies used for constructing and engineering reduced-genome factories by synthetic biology to improve production of secondary metabolites.

  1. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production. (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J


    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  2. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)


    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  3. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  4. Surface application of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure slurry (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare topical and fully mixed treatments of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide (SBP/CaO2) for reducing odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from swine manure slurry. The five treatments consisted of a control, the fully mixed ...

  5. Biochar reduces DOC but not NO3- leaching in relation to vinasse application in a tropical sugarcane soil (United States)

    Eykelbosh, A. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Santos de Queiroz, E.; Couto, E. G.


    Objectives: Sugarcane cultivation for bioethanol production is associated with impacts on water quality, particularly those related to the application of vinasse, a corrosive, nutrient-dense effluent with high eutrophication potential (Martinelli et al. 2008 Ecol. Appl. 18:885-98). Vinasse is typically disposed of via soil application, which also recaptures waste nutrients and water (i.e., fertigation). However, vinasse constituents, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3-), are highly mobile in the soil and their presence can be observed at the catchment scale after vinasse application (Ometo et al. 2000 Freshwater Biol. 44:327-37). Biochar (charcoal produced from waste biomass via pyrolysis) has been investigated as a soil amendment to improve water and nutrient retention. Here, we evaluate the potential for biochar to mitigate carbon and nutrient leaching in a cultivated Oxisol in relation to vinasse application. Methods: Biochar was produced from dried filtercake (a solid organic waste obtained from cane juice filtration) via slow pyrolysis at 550°C for 3 h under N2. Sieved soil was packed into 12 PVC tubes (10 cm diameter, 50 cm tall) representing four treatments: soil alone as a control (S), soil with vinasse (S+V), soil with vinasse and 5% (w/w) biochar (S+V+B), and soil with 5% biochar (S+B). Columns were flushed with water, treated with 250 mL of water or vinasse (32 mm, equivalent to a moderate field application rate of ~300 m3 ha-1), and flushed again with water. Samples collected via vacuum filtration were analyzed for pH, ORP, conductivity and examined via UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected before and after leaching for residual soil nutrient analysis. Results: Biochar strongly attenuated the leaching of vinasse-derived DOC (p < 0.001). This was also related to a change in DOC composition as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vinasse application greatly increased total NO3- flux (p < 0

  6. A Bayesian Calibration-Prediction Method for Reducing Model-Form Uncertainties with Application in RANS Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J -L; Xiao, H


    Model-form uncertainties in complex mechanics systems are a major obstacle for predictive simulations. Reducing these uncertainties is critical for stake-holders to make risk-informed decisions based on numerical simulations. For example, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are increasingly used in mission-critical systems involving turbulent flows. However, for many practical flows the RANS predictions have large model-form uncertainties originating from the uncertainty in the modeled Reynolds stresses. Recently, a physics-informed Bayesian framework has been proposed to quantify and reduce model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by utilizing sparse observation data. However, in the design stage of engineering systems, measurement data are usually not available. In the present work we extend the original framework to scenarios where there are no available data on the flow to be predicted. In the proposed method, we first calibrate the model discrepancy on a related flow with available dat...

  7. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren


    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results...

  8. Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment. (United States)

    Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F


    Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health.

  9. The reduced density matrix method for electronic structure calculations: Application of semidefinite programming to N-fermion systems (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengji

    We study the reduced density matrix method, a variational approach for electronic structure calculations based on the two-body reduced density matrix. This method minimizes the ground state energy with respect to the two-body reduced density matrix subject to some conditions which it must satisfy, known as N-representability conditions. The resulting optimization problem is a semidefinite program, a convex optimization problem for which computational methods have greatly advanced during the past decade. Two significant advances are reported in this thesis. First, we formulate the reduced density matrix method using the dual formulation of semidefinite programming instead of the previously-used primal one; this results in substantial computational savings and makes it possible to study larger systems than was done previously. Second, in addition to the previously-used P, Q and G conditions we investigate a pair of positive semidefinite conditions that has a three-index form; we call them the T1 and T2 conditions. We find that the inclusion of the T1 and T2 conditions gives a significant improvement over results previously obtained using only the P, Q and G conditions; and provides in all cases we have studied (47 molecules) more accurate results than other more familiar methods: Hartree-Fork; 2nd order Moller-Plesset method (MP2), singly and doubly substituted configuration interaction (SDCI), quadratic configuration interaction including single and double substitutions (QCISD), Brueckner doubles (with triples) (BD(T)) and coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbational treatment of triples (CCSD(T)).

  10. The determination of surface charge on nitrogen-containing reduced graphene oxides and its application to adsorb molybdate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingjie, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Research Center of Distillation Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Chenming, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hongbin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Jiachuan, E-mail: [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Zhao, He, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); and others


    To speculate the performance of chemically reduced graphene oxide from different reductants, detailed investigation of chemical structures needs diverse characterizations. Surface charge, mainly resulting from surface functional groups, may provide a facile method to comprehensively predict performance on certain levels. Surface charge of hydrazine-reduced graphene oxide (HrGO) and p-phenylenediamine (p-PDA)-reduced graphene oxide (ArGO) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The charge generation mechanism was further analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of surface charge on the adsorptive properties. Furthermore, the experiments on MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} adsorbed by ArGO were carried out at different pH values. Results indicate that the surface charge on ArGO was more positive than that on HrGO, which is mainly due to protonation of amino group. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} adsorption experiments indicate that relative positive charge made ArGO more efficient than HrGO to adsorb MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. - Highlights: • The p-PDA reduced graphene oxide (ArGO) has positive charge on its surface. • Positive surface charge on ArGO is mainly from the protonation of amine groups. • Positive charge enhances the diffusion and adsorption of negative ions onto ArGO. • The maximum MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} adsorption capacity of ArGO can reach to 61 mg g{sup −1}.

  11. Air Vehicle Integration and Technology Research (AVIATR). Delivery Order 0013: Nonlinear, Low-Order/Reduced-Order Modeling Applications and Demonstration (United States)


    scientific and technical information exchange, and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...instrumentation potting on the Outer Mold-Line (OML) surface or due to air flow. The surface potting material used was Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) silicone...identification-guided basis selection for reduced- order nonlinear response analysis," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 315, No. 3, 2008, pp. 467

  12. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings. (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah


    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  13. Impact of adjustment measures on reducing outpatient waiting time in a community hospital: application of a computer simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bai-lian; LI En-dong; Kazunobu Yamawuchi; Ken Kato; Shinji Naganawa; MIAO Wei-jun


    Background As an important determinant of patient satisfaction, waiting time, has gained increasing attention in the field of health care services. The present study aimed to illustrate the distribution characteristics of waiting time in a community hospital and explore the impact of potential measures to reduce outpatient waiting time based on a computer simulation approach. Methods During a one-month study period in 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a community hospital located in Shanghai, China. Baseline data of outpatient waiting time were calculated according to the records of registration time and payment time. A simulation technique was adopted to investigate the impact of perspective reform methods on reducing waiting time. Results Data from a total of 10 092 patients and 26 816 medical consultations were collected in the study and 19 947 medical consultations were included. The average of the total visit time for outpatients in this hospital was 43.6 minutes in the morning, 19.1 minutes in the afternoon, and 34.3 minutes for the whole day studied period. The simulation results suggested that waiting time for outpatients could be greatly reduced through the introduction of appointment system and flexible demand-orientated doctor scheduling according to the numbers of patients waiting at different time of the workday. Conclusion Adoption of an appointment system and flexible management of doctor scheduling may be effective way to achieve decreased waiting time.

  14. Trajectory piecewise quadratic reduced-order model for subsurface flow, with application to PDE-constrained optimization (United States)

    Trehan, Sumeet; Durlofsky, Louis J.


    A new reduced-order model based on trajectory piecewise quadratic (TPWQ) approximations and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is introduced and applied for subsurface oil-water flow simulation. The method extends existing techniques based on trajectory piecewise linear (TPWL) approximations by incorporating second-derivative terms into the reduced-order treatment. Both the linear and quadratic reduced-order methods, referred to as POD-TPWL and POD-TPWQ, entail the representation of new solutions as expansions around previously simulated high-fidelity (full-order) training solutions, along with POD-based projection into a low-dimensional space. POD-TPWQ entails significantly more offline preprocessing than POD-TPWL as it requires generating and projecting several third-order (Hessian-type) terms. The POD-TPWQ method is implemented for two-dimensional systems. Extensive numerical results demonstrate that it provides consistently better accuracy than POD-TPWL, with speedups of about two orders of magnitude relative to high-fidelity simulations for the problems considered. We demonstrate that POD-TPWQ can be used as an error estimator for POD-TPWL, which motivates the development of a trust-region-based optimization framework. This procedure uses POD-TPWL for fast function evaluations and a POD-TPWQ error estimator to determine when retraining, which entails a high-fidelity simulation, is required. Optimization results for an oil-water problem demonstrate the substantial speedups that can be achieved relative to optimizations based on high-fidelity simulation.

  15. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel, E-mail: [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala Av. Universidad Politecnica de Tlaxcala No.1, San Pedro Xalcaltzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90180 (Mexico); Martínez-Guerra, Rafael, E-mail: [Departamento de Control Automático CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, D.F., México C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano, E-mail: [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala Av. Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala No.1, San Pedro Xalcaltzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90180 (Mexico)


    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  16. Application of time-lagged ensemble approach with auto-regressive processors to reduce uncertainties in peak discharge and timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jin Kim


    An accuracy evaluation using observations from 2002 to 2009 found that the time-lagged ensemble approach alone produced significant bias but the AR processor reduced the relative error percentage of the peak discharge from 60% to 10% and also decreased the peak timing error from more than 10 h to less than 3 h, on average. The proposed methodology is easy and inexpensive to implement with the existing products and models and thus can be immediately activated until a new product for forecasted meteorological ensembles is officially issued in Korea.

  17. An application of water quality index to reduce the effect of flood on water quality of rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Nooralinejad


    Full Text Available The rivers are among the most important resources of water supplying used for drinking consumptions, agriculture, industry, etc. Creation of a regular control plan and monitoring the water quality of these resources are the most important solutions in order to reduce the pollution and promote their qualitative conditions. The changes in climatic such as low levels of rainfall, is one of the factors influencing on the quantitative level of rivers. In addition, weather pollution and reduction in the power of soil resources are very important. This paper presents an investigation to investigate on how to reduce the influences of flood water on the water quality of the rivers based on the model of water quality index. The applied methodology is descriptive-analytical, which uses SPSS software, and t-test and correlation tests are used to analyze the data. The investigation carried out on the influences of the flood water due to raining on the qualitative changes of the water of Cesar River represented that there was a significant relationship between raining, discharge and the parameters of water quality. These relations indicate that the occurrence of raining and increase in the discharge follow the increase in the water quality of the river.

  18. Efficacy of application technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment to reduce school anxiety first form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Y.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the need to improve the mental state of first-graders and the possibility of achieving this goal, the lesson of physical culture at the expense of proper use of musical accompaniment exercise. Material : participated in the experiment experimental, control and background group (only 55 students of first class. Results : argues that music has a regulating effect on mental and physiological state of a person. It is noted that the combined effects of exercise and music on the body and psyche of a child reduces total anxiety in school. Also reduces the fear in a meaningful situation knowledge test. Found that the effect of exercise without music and with various embodiments use musical accompaniment in the lesson to address interpersonal relations student and the teacher has no significant difference. Conclusions : as a result of the pedagogical experiment to identify significantly positive, confirming the effectiveness of the technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment for the performance of most indicators of school anxiety.

  19. Continuous piecewise-linear, reduced-order electrochemical model for lithium-ion batteries in real-time applications (United States)

    Farag, Mohammed; Fleckenstein, Matthias; Habibi, Saeid


    Model-order reduction and minimization of the CPU run-time while maintaining the model accuracy are critical requirements for real-time implementation of lithium-ion electrochemical battery models. In this paper, an isothermal, continuous, piecewise-linear, electrode-average model is developed by using an optimal knot placement technique. The proposed model reduces the univariate nonlinear function of the electrode's open circuit potential dependence on the state of charge to continuous piecewise regions. The parameterization experiments were chosen to provide a trade-off between extensive experimental characterization techniques and purely identifying all parameters using optimization techniques. The model is then parameterized in each continuous, piecewise-linear, region. Applying the proposed technique cuts down the CPU run-time by around 20%, compared to the reduced-order, electrode-average model. Finally, the model validation against real-time driving profiles (FTP-72, WLTP) demonstrates the ability of the model to predict the cell voltage accurately with less than 2% error.

  20. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil. (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W


    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  1. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material. (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See


    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  2. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Copper Oxide Particles on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Applications. (United States)

    Jang, Haneul; Kim, Kyungbae; Chang, Hyejung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Hyunjoo


    Copper oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids have been successfully synthesized by attaching copper ions onto the functional groups of GO by means of a solution process, which causes precipitation and agglomeration of copper oxides during subsequent thermal reduction of the GO. The resulting copper oxide/rGO hybrid exhibited improved electrochemical performance compared to monolithic CuO, which is presumed to be due to rGO acting as a mechanical support that buffers the volume change in copper oxides that occurs as a result of the conversion reaction during charge/discharge cycling. Furthermore, it was found that the size of the copper oxide particles can be optimized by adjusting the annealing time, with a hybrid annealed for 30 min achieving a reversible capacity of 544 mA h g(-1) and an initial coulombic efficiency of 62.7%.

  3. Synthesis of cationic hyperbranched multiarm copolymer and its application in self-reducing and stabilizing gold nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel hyperbranched multiarm copolymer of HBPO-star-PDEAEMA with a hydrophobic poly(3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl) oxetane)(HBPO) core and many cationic poly(2-(N,N-diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate)(PDEAEMA) arms has been synthesized through an atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP) method,and been applied to spontaneously reduce and stabilize gold nanoparticles(AuNPs) in water without other additional agents.The size of the nanoparticles could be effectively controlled at about 4 nm,and the nanoparticles are extremely stable in solution without aggregation even for one year.It was found that solution pH and the molar ratio of N/Au have certain effects on the size and stability of AuNPs.This work provides a simple method for the synthesis of uniform and highly stable AuNPs.

  4. A MapReduce scheme for image feature extraction and its application to man-made object detection (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Chen, Honghui


    A fundamental challenge in image engineering is how to locate interested objects from high-resolution images with efficient detection performance. Several man-made objects detection approaches have been proposed while the majority of these methods are not truly timesaving and suffer low degree of detection precision. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach for man-made object detection in aerial image involving MapReduce scheme for large scale image analysis to support image feature extraction, which can be widely used to compute-intensive tasks in a highly parallel way, and texture feature extraction and clustering. Comprehensive experiments show that the parallel framework saves voluminous time for feature extraction with satisfied objects detection performance.

  5. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies. (United States)

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R


    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  6. Preparation of copper (I) oxide nanohexagon decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite and its application in electrochemical sensing of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasubramanian, R., E-mail:; Biji, P.


    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O nanohexagon–reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been prepared by in-situ reduction method. • The rGO-Cu{sub 2}O/GCE exhibited excellent catalytic properties for dopamine due to the synergistic action of the nanocomposite. • The proposed sensor is highly selective toward dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor using copper (I) oxide nanostructure decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite has been proposed for selective detection of dopamine. The rGO–Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite was synthesized by in-situ chemical reduction method and was characterized using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV–vis and Raman Spectroscopy, respectively. From Cyclic Voltammetric (CV) studies, it was inferred that rGO–Cu{sub 2}O/GCE exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine, which is attributed to the enhanced conductivity as well as the synergistic effect of the nanocomposite. The sensing was carried out using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) wherefrom a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 50 nM with a linear range from 10 µM to 900 µM was estimated. The effect of potential interfering agents such as Uric Acid (UA), Ascorbic Acid (AA), glucose, K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup −} ions toward sensing were investigated. The performance of the sensor toward the estimation of dopamine in human blood and urine samples were analyzed. The facile method for the preparation of a nanocomposite in conjunction with the low detection limit and the wide linear range for dopamine sensing is the advantage of this present study.

  7. Structural investigation of SiSn/(reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposite powder for Li-ion battery anode applications (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Laokawee, Viratchara; Sarakonsri, Thapanee; Hashizume, Takashi; Shiojiri, Makoto


    We synthesized SiSn/(reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) nanocomposite powder for a Li-ion battery material and characterized the structure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Graphene oxide was prepared by Hummers method. The graphene oxide powder processed by heat treatment was added together with Si powder into a solution of SnCl2 ṡ 2(H2O) dissolved in N2 bubbled ethylene glycol, and the solution was reacted with NaBH4. The product had a nominal atomic ratio of Si: Sn: C = 14: 3.5: 100. High-resolution TEM/STEM analysis revealed that the powder consisted of crystalline particles of Sn, Si, and SiO as well as thin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) lamellae of amorphous-like graphite with distorted lattices that were often found in areas as local as a few nm2. The aggregated Si and SiO particles grew up to several hundred nm across. Sn particles grew as large as a few tens of nm while those as small as a few nm were scattered on the (0001) rGO surface with some epitaxial relations. Si, SiO, and Sn particles were found hanging on at the edges of the rGO lamellae. An electrochemical test was performed for this nanocomposite powder. The result suggested that the SiSn/rGO powder would be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity.

  8. Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice. (United States)

    Khalil, M H; Marcelletti, J F; Katz, L R; Katz, D H; Pope, L E


    Because of their reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, cream formulations containing n-docosanol (docosanol) or stearic acid were tested for effects on chemically-induced burns in mice. In this model, injury was induced by painting the abdomens of mice with a chloroform solution of phenol. This was followed by the topical application of test substances 0.5, 3, and 6 h later. Progression of the wounds was assessed by a single evaluator after 8 h, using a numerical score of gross morphology. Docosanol- and stearic acid-containing creams substantially and reproducibly lessened the severity and progression of skin lesions compared to untreated sites with a 76% and 57% reduction in mean lesion scores, respectively. Untreated wounds appeared red and ulcerated; docosanol cream-treated wounds showed only slight erythema.

  9. Shen's Experience in Application of the Drugs for Tonifying the Kidney to Reduce and Withdraw Adrenocortical Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Adrenocortical hormone (ACH) has antiinflammatory and antiallergic actions, changes stress state and controls the attack of some severe and obstinate diseases. The treatment of chronic diseases with ACH often leads to its dependence; especially oral administration of ACH for a long time is liable to inhibit the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-thymic axis (HPAT), and results in the hypo-reservation of adrenal cortex. Hence, sudden ACH withdrawal or decrease often causes the disease recurrence, even adrenocortical crisis. Academician Shen Ziyin has a wealth of clinical experience in both the withdrawal and reduction of ACH and the keeping of therapeutical effectiveness to form his unique remedy in the application of drugs. Shen's rich experience is described as follows.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javedhusen Malek


    Full Text Available In today's ever-changing customer driven market, industries are needed to improve their products and processes to satisfy customer requirements. The Six Sigma approach has set a new paradigm of business excellence. Six Sigma as a process driven improvement methodology has been adopted successfully by many industries. From the review of various literatures, it is revealed that Six Sigma is well adopted in large scale enterprise but having less evidence of adoption in Indian SMEs. This paper is focused on providing path to Indian SMEs for initiating Six Sigma approach in their industries. The paper discusses the real life case where Six Sigma has been successfully applied at one of the Indian small-scale unit to improve rejection/rework rate in manufacturing products by pressure die casting process. This paper describes phase wise application of all the phases of define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC which also shows impact of Six Sigma in quality improvement.

  11. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications. (United States)

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny


    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  12. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Verma


    Full Text Available We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  13. Application of Glomus sp. and Pseudomonas diminuta Reduce the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Production of Potato Grown on Different Soil Types (United States)

    Nurbaity, A.; Sofyan, E. T.; Hamdani, J. S.


    The use of high chemical fertilizer rates in potato production has been applied on the farm in Indonesia. Application of biofertilizer consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been tested to reduce the use of NPK rates in production of potato and to determine whether different soil types will have different response to this biofertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted using mixtures of spores of Glomus sp. and inoculant of mycorrhizal helper bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta, applied at different rates of NPK fertilizer (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended rates) and different soil types (Andisols and Inceptisols). Results of experiment showed that application of Glomus sp. and P. diminuta reduced the use of NPK up to 50%, where the growth (plant height and tuber number), N,P,K uptake and tuber yields of potato had similar effect to the highest recommendation rate of NPK fertilizer. Inceptisols in general had better response to the biofertiliser compared to Andisols. Findings from this experiment confirmed the evidences that biofertilizer could reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, and the widely distributed soil in Indonesia such as Inceptisols, is potential to be used as a medium for potato production.

  14. Invertibility of retarded response functions for Laplace transformable potentials: Application to one-body reduced density matrix functional theory. (United States)

    Giesbertz, K J H


    A theorem for the invertibility of arbitrary response functions is presented under the following conditions: the time dependence of the potentials should be Laplace transformable and the initial state should be a ground state, though it might be degenerate. This theorem provides a rigorous foundation for all density-functional-like theories in the time-dependent linear response regime. Especially for time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory, this is an important step forward, since a solid foundation has currently been lacking. The theorem is equally valid for static response functions in the non-degenerate case, so can be used to characterize the uniqueness of the potential in the ground state version of the corresponding density-functional-like theory. Such a classification of the uniqueness of the non-local potential in ground state 1RDM functional theory has been lacking for decades. With the aid of presented invertibility theorem presented here, a complete classification of the non-uniqueness of the non-local potential in 1RDM functional theory can be given for the first time.

  15. Synthesis of palladium nanoparticle modified reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid structures for electrochemical applications (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Zhao, Zhenting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun


    In this work, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures (Pd/rGO-MWCNTs) were successfully prepared by a combination of electrochemical reduction with electrodeposition method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized hybrid structures were modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and further utilized for hydrazine sensing. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and single-potential amperometry experiments were carried out on Pd/rGO-MWCNTs hybrid structures to investigate the interface properties and sensing performance. The measured results demonstrate that the fabricated Pd/rGO-MWCNTs/GCE sensor show a high sensitivity of 7.09 μA μM-1 cm-2 in a large concentration range of 1.0 to 1100 μM and a low detection limit of 0.15 μM. Moreover, the as-prepared sensor exhibits good selectivity and stability for the determination of hydrazine under interference conditions.

  16. Reduced evolvability of Escherichia coli MDS42, an IS-less cellular chassis for molecular and synthetic biology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blattner Frederick R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolvability is an intrinsic feature of all living cells. However, newly emerging, evolved features can be undesirable when genetic circuits, designed and fabricated by rational, synthetic biological approaches, are installed in the cell. Streamlined-genome E. coli MDS42 is free of mutation-generating IS elements, and can serve as a host with reduced evolutionary potential. Results We analyze an extreme case of toxic plasmid clone instability, and show that random host IS element hopping, causing inactivation of the toxic cloned sequences, followed by automatic selection of the fast-growing mutants, can prevent the maintenance of a clone developed for vaccine production. Analyzing the molecular details, we identify a hydrophobic protein as the toxic byproduct of the clone, and show that IS elements spontaneously landing in the cloned fragment relieve the cell from the stress by blocking transcription of the toxic gene. Bioinformatics analysis of sequence reads from early shotgun genome sequencing projects, where clone libraries were constructed and maintained in E. coli, suggests that such IS-mediated inactivation of ectopic genes inhibiting the growth of the E. coli cloning host might happen more frequently than generally anticipated, leading to genomic instability and selection of altered clones. Conclusions Delayed genetic adaptation of clean-genome, IS-free MDS42 host improves maintenance of unstable genetic constructs, and is suggested to be beneficial in both laboratory and industrial settings.

  17. An Application of Deviance Regulation Theory to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Women During Spring Break. (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M


    Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. On-site application of air cleaner emitting plasma ion to reduce airborne contaminants in pig building (United States)

    Cho, Man Su; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Ki Youn


    The objective of this field study is to evaluate temporal reduction efficiency of air cleaner emitting plasma ion on airborne pollutants emitted from pig building. The operation principle of air cleaner based on plasma ion is that hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions combine to form hydroperoxyl radicals (HOO-), which surround and attach to surface of airborne microorganisms and eliminate them by breaking the hydrogen bond in their protein structure. In gaseous pollutants, it was found that there is no reduction effect of the air cleaner on ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (p > 0.05). In particulate pollutants, the air cleaner showed mean 79%(±6.1) and 78%(±3.0) of reduction efficiency for PM2.5. and PM1, respectively, compared to the control without air cleaner (p 0.05). In biological pollutants, the mean reduction efficiencies for airborne bacteria and fungi by application of air cleaner were 22%(±6.6) and 25%(±8.7), respectively (p effect on PM2.5, PM1, airborne bacteria and airborne fungi among airborne pollutants distributed in pig building while it did not lead to significant reduction of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Monitoring volcanic activity with satellite remote sensing to reduce aviation hazard and mitigate the risk: application to the North Pacific (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.


    Volcanic activity across the North Pacific (NOPAC) occurs on a daily basis and as such monitoring needs to occur on a 24 hour, 365 days a year basis. The risk to the local population and aviation traffic is too high for this not to happen. Given the size and remoteness of the NOPAC region, satellite remote sensing has become an invaluable tool to monitor the ground activity from the regions volcanoes as well as observe, detect and analyze the volcanic ash clouds that transverse across the Pacific. Here, we describe the satellite data collection, data analysis, real-time alert/alarm systems, observational database and nearly 20-year archive of both automated and manual observations of volcanic activity. We provide examples of where satellite remote sensing has detected precursory activity at volcanoes, prior to the volcanic eruption, as well as different types of eruptive behavior that can be inferred from the time series data. Additionally, we illustrate how the remote sensing data be used to detect volcanic ash in the atmosphere, with some of the pro's and con's to the method as applied to the NOPAC, and how the data can be used with other volcano monitoring techniques, such as seismic monitoring and infrasound, to provide a more complete understanding of a volcanoes behavior. We focus on several large volcanic events across the region, since our archive started in 1993, and show how the system can detect both these large scale events as well as the smaller in size but higher in frequency type events. It's all about how to reduce the risk, improve scenario planning and situational awareness and at the same time providing the best and most reliable hazard assessment from any volcanic activity.

  20. Application of a PID controller based on fuzzy logic to reduce variations in the control parameters in PWR reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Wagner Eustaquio de; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Brito, Thiago Souza Pereira de; Afonso, Antonio Claudio Marques, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Cruz Filho, Antonio Jose da; Marques, Jose Antonio, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (CCT/PUC-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Teixeira, Marcello Goulart, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica. Dept. de Matematica


    Nuclear reactors are in nature nonlinear systems and their parameters vary with time as a function of power level. These characteristics must be considered if large power variations occur in power plant operational regimes, such as in load-following conditions. A PWR reactor has a component called pressurizer, whose function is to supply the necessary high pressure for its operation and to contain pressure variations in the primary cooling system. The use of control systems capable of reducing fast variations of the operation variables and to maintain the stability of this system is of fundamental importance. The best-known controllers used in industrial control processes are proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers due to their simple structure and robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions. However, designing a fuzzy controller is seen to be a much less difficult task. Once a Fuzzy Logic controller is designed for a particular set of parameters of the nonlinear element, it yields satisfactory performance for a range of these parameters. The objective of this work is to develop fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (fuzzy-PID) control strategies to control the level of water in the reactor. In the study of the pressurizer, several computer codes are used to simulate its dynamic behavior. At the fuzzy-PID control strategy, the fuzzy logic controller is exploited to extend the finite sets of PID gains to the possible combinations of PID gains in stable region. Thus the fuzzy logic controller tunes the gain of PID controller to adapt the model with changes in the water level of reactor. The simulation results showed a favorable performance with the use to fuzzy-PID controllers. (author)

  1. Application of variational reduced-density-matrix theory to the potential energy surfaces of the nitrogen and carbon dimers. (United States)

    Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A


    The acceleration of the variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method, using a new first-order algorithm [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)], has shown its usefulness in the accurate description of potential energy surfaces in nontrivial basis sets. Here we apply the first-order 2-RDM method to the potential energy surfaces of the nitrogen and carbon dimers in polarized valence double-zeta basis sets for which benchmark full-configuration-interaction calculations exist. In a wave function formalism accurately stretching the triple bond of the nitrogen dimer requires at least six-particle excitations from the Hartree-Fock reference. Furthermore, cleaving the double bond of C2 should produce a "non-Morse"-like potential curve because the ground state near equilibrium (X 1sigma(g)+) has an avoided crossing with the second excited state (B' 1sigma(g)+) and a level crossing with the first excited state (B 1delta(g)). Because the 2-RDM method variationally optimizes the energy over correlated 2-RDMs on the two-electron space without parametrization of the many-electron wave function, it captures multireference correlations that are difficult to describe with approximate wave functions. The 2-RDM method yields for N2 a potential energy surface with features and spectroscopic constants that are more accurate than those from single-reference methods and similar in accuracy to multireference techniques, and it describes the non-Morse-like behavior of C2 which is not captured by single-reference methods.

  2. Improved properties of phosphor-filled luminescent down-shifting layers: reduced scattering, optical model, and optimization for PV application (United States)

    Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Lipovšek, Benjamin; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Krč, Janez; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Topič, Marko; Brabec, Christoph J.


    We studied the optical properties of polymer layers filled with phosphor particles in two aspects. First, we used two different polymer binders with refractive indices n = 1.46 and n = 1.61 (λ = 600 nm) to decrease Δn with the phosphor particles (n = 1.81). Second, we prepared two particle size distributions D50 = 12 μm and D50 = 19 μm. The particles were dispersed in both polymer binders in several volume concentrations and coated onto glass with thicknesses of 150 - 600 μm. We present further a newly developed optical model for simulation and optimization of such luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layers. The model is developed within the ray tracing framework of the existing optical simulator CROWM (Combined Ray Optics / Wave Optics Model), which enables simulation of standalone LDS layers as well as complete solar cells (including thick and thin layers) enhanced by the LDS layers for an improved solar spectrum harvesting. Experimental results and numerical simulations show that the layers of the higher refractive index binder with larger particles result in the highest optical transmittance in the visible light spectrum. Finally we proved that scattering of the phosphor particles in the LDS layers may increase the overall light harvesting in the solar cell. We used numerical simulations to determine optimal layer composition for application in realistic thin-film photovoltaic devices. Surprisingly LDS layers with lower measured optical transmittance are more efficient when applied onto the solar cells due to graded refractive index and efficient light scattering. Therefore, our phosphor-filled LDS layers could possibly complement other light-coupling techniques in photovoltaics.

  3. Effect of Tillage in Day or Night and Application of Reduced Dosage of Imazethapyr and Trifluralin on Weed Control, Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasian


    Full Text Available This Experiment was arranged as a strip-plot on the base of a completely randomized block design with three replications to study the effect of tillage (whether in day or night or in day by light-proof cover and application of reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin on weed control, yield and yield components of chickpea. Main plots consisted of tillage methods and subplots consisted of trifluralin (at doses of 480, 960 and 1440 g ai /ha and imazethapyr (at doses of 50, 100 and 150 g ai /ha, plus weed free and weedy checks. Results showed weed biomass in day tillage, night tillage and in light-proof cover tillage were respectively 86, 127 and 148 g m-2. Therefore tillage at night or by light-proof cover in day time showed not enough efficiency in weed control. Weed biomass increased when application dose of herbicides decreased. Chickpea grain yield showed significant differences when different doses of herbicides applied. The minimum and the maximum seed yield were obtained respectively in weed free (by 208 g m-2 and weedy checks (by 123 g m-2. Reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin could control weeds good enough by no significant decrease in chickpea yield. Efficacy of imazethapyr to control weeds grown in chickpea was significantly better than that of trifluralin

  4. Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin-shun; CAO Wei-dong; XIONG Jing; ZENG Nao-hua; GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsuyoshi


    The development of more efifcient management systems is crucial to achieving high grain yields with high nitrogen use efifciency (NUE). February Orchid-spring maize rotation system is a newly established planting system with the beneifts of ground cover and potential wind erosion in northern China. A ifeld experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with reduction of chemical fertilizers (INTEGRATED) on spring maize yield, N uptake, ammonium volatilization, and soil residual mineral N in northern China. Compared to farmers’ traditional fertilization (CON), integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizers (INTEGRATED) increased maize grain yield and biomass by 9.9 and 10.2%, respectively. The 0–100 cm soil residual Nmin at harvest was decreased by 58.5% and thus nitrogen use efifciency was increased signiifcantly by 26.7%. The nitrogen balance calculation further demonstrated that the INTEGRATED approach performed better than CON with lower apparent nitrogen loss (decreased by 48.9%) which evidenced by the ammonium volatilization of top-dressing fertilizer was decreased by 31.1%, the Nmin movement to the deeper soil layers was reduced, and the apparent nitrogen leaching loss nearly equal to 0 under the INTEGRATED treatment. Therefore, in northern China, integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizers is an efifcient management approach for improving maize yields and NUE simultaneously.

  5. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2. (United States)

    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H


    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S ternary composites synthesized via hydrothermal method: Applications in photocatalyst degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Ma, Rory [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myong Yong, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kyu, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of ternary ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S–RGO nanostructures without any additives. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • Near white light emission and stable cycling can lead these composites to find application in near UV-white LEDs and environmental protection issues. - Abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized ternary nanohybrid composite, ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using hydrothermal method without any surfactant. We have accessed the photocatalytic ability of ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S–RGO nanocomposite using the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The superior photocatalytic ability of ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S–RGO compared to bare ZnS, was ascribed to an efficient charge transfer from ZnS to Ag{sub 2}S and graphene sheets. The recyclability results also demonstrated the excellent stability and reliability of the ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S–RGO. In addition to the excellent photocatalytic degradation properties, the synthesized ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S–RGO nanocomposite exhibited near white light emission, which implies that careful design and control of the composition could be lead to find application in near UV-white LEDs. The present work provides new insights into the synthesis and characterizations of ternary ZnS–Ag{sub 2}S–RGO nanocomposites and its wide applications in the environmental protection issues.

  7. Subcutaneous bortezomib in multiple myeloma patients induces similar therapeutic response rates as intravenous application but it does not reduce the incidence of peripheral neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Minarik

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous (SC application of bortezomib has been recently introduced as a new application route in multiple myeloma (MM patients. We performed an analysis to compare the outcomes of bortezomib-based therapy in multiple myeloma (MM patients treated using either intravenous (IV or subcutaneous (SC route of administration.During January 2012 through December 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 446 patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimens (either once weekly - 63% or twice weekly - 27% in both, the first line setting, and in relapse, with separate analysis of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. We assessed the response rates and toxicity profiles in both, IV and SC route of bortezomib administration.The response rates in both IV and SC arm were similar with overall response rate 71.7% vs 70.7%, complete remissions in 13.9% vs 8.6%, very good partial remissions in 30.8% vs 34.5% and partial remissions in 27% vs 27.6%. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 toxicities were anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, with no significant differences between IV and SC group. There were no significant differences in the rate of peripheral neuropathy (PN. PN of any grade was present in 48% in the IV arm and in 41% in the SC arm. PN grade ≥ 2 was present in 20% vs 18% and PN grade ≥ 3 was present in 6% vs 4%.We conclude that subcutaneous application of bortezomib has similar therapeutic outcomes and toxicity profile as intravenous route of application. In our cohort there was no difference in the incidence of PN, suggesting that PN is dose dependent and might be reduced by lower intensity schemes rather than by the route of administration.

  8. Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang


    Full Text Available In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas.

  9. 减沉复合疏桩基础在软土地基中的应用%The Application of Composite Foundation with Settlement Reducing Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    结合某住宅工程地基处理的成与败,强调基础方案的选择,不仅要关注地质条件,还应关注场地条件。介绍了减沉复合疏桩基础在软土地基中的应用。%Combined with the success of foundation treatment in one residential project,in which not only the geological condition should be emphasized in the design of the basement,but also the site condition should be paid some attention.The application of composite foundation with settlement reducing piles is introduced in this paper.

  10. [Topical application of vitamins, phytosterols and ceramides. Protection against increased expression of interstital collagenase and reduced collagen-I expression after single exposure to UVA irradiation]. (United States)

    Grether-Beck, S; Mühlberg, K; Brenden, H; Krutmann, J


    Photoaged skin is characterized by a decrease of dermal collagen fibers, resulting from an increased breakdown and a diminished de novo synthesis. The increased breakdown results from an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The main building blocks involved in de novo synthesis of collagen fibers are collagen 1A1 and 1A2, the expression of which is reduced in photoaged skin. We studied the effect of topical application of vitamins, phytosterols and ceramides on UV-induced up-regulation of the expression of MMP-1 and on UV-induced down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2. The study was conducted with 10 subjects with healthy skin who were comparatively treated for 10 days with (i) a basic preparation containing jojoba oil, (ii) the basic preparation supplemented with vitamins, (iii) the basic preparation supplemented with phytosterols and ceramides, and (iv) the basic preparation supplemented with vitamins, phytosterols and ceramides. All four preparations inhibited the UV induced up-regulation of MMP-1. Neither the basic product nor that supplemented with vitamins inhibited down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2, but addition of phytosterols and ceramides caused a decreased down-regulation of the expression of these genes. Our results indicate that phytosterols and ceramides are effective in blocking the reduced collagen synthesis after UV irradiation and even stimulating synthesis. They may be useful additions to anti-aging products.

  11. Highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors by combined application of oxygen plasma treatment and field plate structures (United States)

    Asubar, Joel T.; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tokuda, Hirokuni; Kuzuhara, Masaaki


    We report on the highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combined application of pre-passivation oxygen (O2) plasma treatment and gate field plate (FP) structures schemes. Four different devices were fabricated in this work: (1) conventional HEMT as reference device, (2) field-plated HEMT, (3) O2 plasma-treated HEMT, (4) both field-plated and O2 plasma-treated HEMT. Analysis of dependence of normalized dynamic R on (NDR) on gate pulse on-time (t on) revealed that gate-FP reduces the emission time constant (τ i ) of trapped electrons while O2-plasma treatment decreases the density of traps. For all measurement conditions, the device with both FP and O2 plasma treatment exhibited the least NDR compared to devices with either FP or O2 plasma treatment only, demonstrating for the first time the compatibility of both O2 plasma treatment and FP schemes in mitigating current collapse.

  12. Consideration on the broad quantification range of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds with the combined application of gas chromatography and thermal desorber (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun


    In this work, the dynamic range of gas chromatography (GC) combined with a thermal desorber (TD) was investigated through a series of calibration experiments. To this end, standard gases of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC: H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS, CS 2 and DMDS) covering a relatively wide concentration range (2-100 nmol mol -1 (or ppb)) were analyzed by regulating sample loading range from 40 to 1200 mL (3.3-4900 pmol). It shows that the upper limits of GC-TD quantification are far higher than those of GC alone, although the cold trap unit in a TD suffers from breakthrough after a dose of RSC (e.g., 500 (DMDS) to 1600 pmol (H 2S)). Its quantification uncertainties tend to grow systematically with decreases in standard concentrations and sample loading volume, especially with H 2S. According to this study, the use of TD generally reduces the absolute detectability of GC by about one order of magnitude. Such reduction caused by TD application can be compensated efficiently with similar magnitude through the magnification of sample supply. Moreover, the TD system allows to increase sample volume (up to 3 orders of magnitude or above), it can ultimately help extend the practical range of RSC qualification in a fairly reliable manner.

  13. Integration of Growing Milk Vetch in Winter and Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Can Improve Rice Yield in Double-Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chun-huo; ZHAO Zun-kang; PAN Xiao-hua; HUANG Shan; TAN Xue-ming; WU Jian-fu; SHI Qing-hua


    To study whether integrative fertilization [growing milk vetch in winter and reducing the dose of chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer] can improve rice yield, and to reveal the underlying regulatory mechanisms for integrative fertilization, a three-year field trial including two treatments, milk vetch-rice-rice (MRR) and winter fallow-rice-rice (FRR), was conducted in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Our results demonstrated that the MRR treatment could significantly improve rice yield compared with the FRR treatment, especially when the application ratio of milk vetch and chemical fertilizer was 1:2. MRR treatment increased the effective panicle number and the spikelet number per panicle. In addition, a higher tillering number, leaf area index, photosynthetic-potential and photosynthetic-potential to grain ratio were observed in MRR treatment, which could provide enough dry matter for yield formation. Moreover, in MRR treatment, we discovered a higher transportation ratio and transformation ratio of dry matter in culm and leaves, and a stronger total sink capacity and spikelet-root bleeding intensity at the heading stage and 15 d after heading. Furthermore, the MRR treatment showed higher total N, phosphorus and potassium uptakes than FRR treatment, which was associated with the higher root dry weight in each soil layers. These results suggest that growing milk vetch in winter can improve rice yield under less chemical N fertilizer application, which is due to the improvement of soil nutrient status and the increased of rice root growth and development.

  14. Production of a microcapsule agent of chromate-reducing Lysinibacillus fusiformis ZC1 and its application in remediation of chromate-spiked soil. (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Jingxin; Wang, Gejiao


    Lysinibacillus fusiformis ZC1 is an efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterium that can transform the toxic and soluble chromate [Cr(VI)] form to the less toxic and precipitated chromite form [Cr(III)]. As such, this strain might be applicable for bioremediation of Cr(VI) in soil by reducing its bioavailability. The study objective was to prepare a microcapsule agent of strain ZC1 for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Using a single-factor orthogonal array design, the optimal fermentation medium was obtained and consisted of 6 g/L corn flour, 12 g/L soybean flour, 8 g/L NH4Cl and 6 g/L CaCl2. After enlarged fermentation, the cell and spore densities were 5.9 × 10(9) and 1.7 × 10(8) cfu/mL, respectively. The fermentation products were collected and embedded with 1 % gum arabic and 1 % sorbitol as the microcapsule carriers and were subsequently spray-dried. Strain ZC1 exhibited viable cell counts of (3.6 ± 0.44) × 10(10) cfu/g dw after 50-day storage at room temperature. In simulated soil bioremediation experiments, 67 % of Cr(VI) was reduced in 5 days with the inoculation of this microcapsule agent, and the Cr(VI) concentration was below the soil Cr(VI) standard level. The results demonstrated that the microcapsule agent of strain ZC1 is efficient for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

  15. Absorption and distribution characteristics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after an application to the liver surface in rats in order to reduce systemic side effects. (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishi, Junya; Nakashima, Mikiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Junzo; Nishida, Koyo


    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the absorption and distribution characteristics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after its application to the liver surface in rats to examine the possibility of reducing the systemic side effects of this agent. 5-FU was applied to the surface of the liver by employing a cylindrical diffusion cell. Approximately 69% of the dose was absorbed in 360 min. The time course of the change in the amount of 5-FU remaining in the diffusion cell obeyed first-order kinetics. Also, a linear relationship was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, P app, and the reciprocal of the square root of the molecular weight of several compounds including 5-FU. The estimated P app value of 5-FU was in good agreement with the experimental value. The plasma concentration of 5-FU was low (5-FU was rapidly eliminated from the plasma and could not be detected at 120 min. In the analysis of tissue distribution, the liver was divided into three sites; the region under the diffusion cell attachment site (site 1), the treated lobe excluding site 1 (site 2), and untreated lobes (site 3). After being administered i.v., 5-FU mainly distributed in the kidney, and the concentration in the liver was significantly lower than that in kidney, spleen, or heart. After its application to the liver surface, however, 5-FU preferentially distributed at site 1, and was not detected at the other sites or in other tissues. Thus, these results suggested the possibility of a reduction in the systemic side effect of 5-FU on its application to the liver surface.

  16. The application of evidence-based measures to reduce surgical site infections during orthopedic surgery - report of a single-center experience in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Annette Erichsen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures relating to the correct use of prophylactic antibiotics, perioperative normothermia, urinary tract catheterization and hand hygiene, important contributions can be made to reducing the risk of postoperative infections and device-related infections. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the application of intraoperative evidence-based measures, designed to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the type of surgery, i.e. total joint arthroplasty compared with tibia and femur/hip fracture surgery, affected the use of protective measures. Method Data on the clinical application of evidence-based measures were collected structurally on site during 69 consecutively included operations involving fracture surgery (n = 35 and total joint arthroplasties (n = 34 using a pre-tested observation form. For observations in relation to hand disinfection, a modified version of the World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method was used. Results In all, only 29 patients (49% of 59 received prophylaxis within the recommended time span. The differences in the timing of prophylactic antibiotics between total joint arthroplasty and fracture surgery were significant, i.e. a more accurate timing was implemented in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (p = 0.02. Eighteen (53% of the patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were actively treated with a forced-air warming system. The corresponding number for fracture surgery was 12 (34% (p = 0.04. Observations of 254 opportunities for hand hygiene revealed an overall adherence rate of 10.3% to hand disinfection guidelines. Conclusions The results showed that the utilization of evidence-based measures to reduce infections in clinical practice is not sufficient and there are unjustifiable differences in care depending on the type of surgery. The poor

  17. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study. (United States)

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J


    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  18. 呼吸运动减痛法在分娩活动中的应用%Application of Breathing Exercises Reduce Pain Method in Delivery Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文秀; 纪利


    目的:探讨呼吸运动减痛法在分娩活动中的对产程的影响。方法将在本院产科正常待产的可行阴道分娩的200例初产妇随机平均分娩成观察组和对照组,对观察组和对照组的分娩镇痛效果,分娩方式,产程时间,产后出血量进行比较。结果与对照组相比,观察组的孕妇分娩疼痛明显减轻(P<0.01),自然分娩率提高(P<0.01),第一产程、第二产程、总产程缩短(P<0.01),产后出血量明显减少(P<0.01)。结论本研究发现,使用呼吸减痛分娩法的产妇组,增加了疼痛的耐受程度,自然分娩率大大提高,缩短了产程的时间,减少了产后出血量,有利于促进自然分娩,保障母婴健康。%Objective:To investigate the ef ect of breathing exercises reducing pain in childbirth process. Methods:200 primipara were randomly averaged divided into an observation group and a control group.To compare the pain of childbirth,mode of delivery,the birth process,amount of bleeding. Results:Compared with the control group, the children birth pain significantly reduced (P<0.01);the first stage,second stage and the total labor time shorter (P<0.01);the natural birth rate increased (P<0.01);the amount of bleeding was significantly less (P<0.01). Conclusion:Application of breathing exercises reducing pain can relieve pain of childbirth,shorten the birth process, reduce the amount of bleeding,improve the nature birth,and protect the maternal and child health.

  19. 水稻配方肥减量示范试验效果研究%Study on Effect of Reducing the Amount of Fertilizer Application in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In Taicheng Town and Duhu Town of Taishan City in 2015,we carried out the demonstration experiment of reducing the amount of formula fertilization in rice.The results showed that pre fertilization of 37.5 kg/hm2 high nitrogen compound liquid fertilizer+spraying high potassium compound liquid fertilizer in soil,in the case of reducing the amount of 25%formula fertilizer,yields increased by 4.2%~4.7%the increasing revenue and reducing expenditure were 934.5~1 159.2 yuan/hm2;pre fertilization of 750 kg/hm2 organic fertilizer+37.5 kg/hm2 high nitrogen compound liquid fertilizer+spraying high potassium compound liquid fertilizer in soil,in the case of reducing the amount of 50%formula fertilizer,yields increased by 3.0%~7.7%the increasing revenue and reducing expenditure were 827.1~2 048.7 yuan/hm2.On the basis of compr-ehensive application of soil testing,the demonstration research on the reduction of formula fertilizer of rice by adding organic fertilizer and gradually reducing formula fertilizer,to provide the basis for the target of the“in 2020 the total amount of fertilizer use zero growth”.%2015年在台山市都斛镇和台城镇开展水稻晚造配方肥减量示范试验,结果表明:基施纽翠绿高氮型复合液肥37.5 kg/hm2+喷施纽翠绿高钾型复合液可以在减量25%配方肥的情况下增产4.2%~4.7%,增收节支934.5~1159.2元/hm2;基施田蜜蜜有机肥750 kg/hm2+纽翠绿高氮型复合液肥37.5 kg/hm2+喷施纽翠绿高钾型复合液可以在减量50%配方肥的情况下增产3.0%~7.7%,增收节支827.1~2048.7元/hm2。在全面推广测土配方施肥的基础上逐步减少配方肥用量、增施有机肥,对水稻配方肥减量进行探索,为进一步落实“到2020年化肥使用总量零增长”的目标提供依据。

  20. FASTdoop: A Versatile and Efficient Library for the Input of FASTA and FASTQ Files for MapReduce Hadoop Bioinformatics Applications. (United States)

    Ferraro Petrillo, Umberto; Roscigno, Gianluca; Cattaneo, Giuseppe; Giancarlo, Raffaele


    MapReduce Hadoop bioinformatics applications require the availability of special-purpose routines to manage the input of sequence files. Unfortunately, the Hadoop framework does not provide any built-in support for the most popular sequence file formats like FASTA or BAM. Moreover, the development of these routines is not easy, both because of the diversity of these formats and the need for managing efficiently sequence datasets that may count up to billions of characters. We present FASTdoop, a generic Hadoop library for the management of FASTA and FASTQ files. We show that, with respect to analogous input management routines that have appeared in the Literature, it offers versatility and efficiency. That is, it can handle collections of reads, with or without quality scores, as well as long genomic sequences while the existing routines concentrate mainly on NGS sequence data. Moreover, in the domain where a comparison is possible, the routines proposed here are faster than the available ones. In conclusion, FASTdoop is a much needed addition to Hadoop-BAM (Niemenmaa et al., 2012).

  1. An innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel for high flux X-ray applications (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lim, K.; Park, K.; Lee, C.; Alexander, S.; Cho, G.


    In this study, an innovative fast X-ray photon-counting pixel for high X-ray flux applications is proposed. A computed tomography system typically uses X-ray fluxes up to 108 photons/mm2/sec at the detector and thus a fast read-out is required in order to process individual X-ray photons. Otherwise, pulse pile-up can occur at the output of the signal processing unit. These superimposed signals can distort the number of incident X-ray photons leading to count loss. To minimize such losses, a cross detection method was implemented in the photon-counting pixel. A maximum count rate under X-ray tube voltage of 90 kV was acquired which reflect electrical test results of the proposed photon counting pixel. A maximum count of 780 kcps was achieved with a conventional photon-counting pixel at the pulse processing time of 500 ns, which is the time for a pulse to return to the baseline from the initial rise. In contrast, the maximum count of about 8.1 Mcps was achieved with the proposed photon-counting pixel. From these results, it was clear that the maximum count rate was increased by approximately a factor 10 times by adopting the cross detection method. Therefore, it is an innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel while maintaining the pulse processing time.

  2. Breathing Coordination in Reducing the Application of PICC Catheter Ectopic%呼吸配合在减少 PICC 置管异位中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To investigate the respiratory cooperate in reducing the application of PICC catheter ectopic effect.Methods:In June 2013~June 2014 in a hospital patients with PICC line of 1 15 cases were ran-domly divided into control group and observation group,control group given conventional catheter,patients at the same time of the observation group in the conventional to cooperate breath,observe two groups of pa-tients the chance of catheter heterotopia.Results:The observation group were catheter heterotopia occurred in 2 cases,ectopic rate was 3.45%;Control group 6 cases happened catheter heterotopia,ectopic rate was 10. 53%.Observation group cases of ectopic rate is significantly lower than the control group,with statistical difference (P <0.05).Conclusion:The breath with PICC catheter can increase the success rate,reduce the happening of the catheter heterotopia.%目的::探讨呼吸配合在减少 PICC 置管异位中的应用效果。方法:选择2013年6月~2014年6月于某院行 PICC 的患者115例,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组给予常规置管,观察组在常规置管的同时患者给予呼吸配合,观察两组患者发生置管异位的几率。结果:观察组共发生置管异位2例,异位率为3.45%;对照组发生置管异位6例,异位率为10.53%。观察组患者发生异位率明显低于对照组,且具有统计学差异(P <0.05)。结论:呼吸配合 PICC 置管能够提高成功率,减少置管异位的发生。

  3. Electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide incorporating polymerization of l-lysine on electrode surface and its application in simultaneous electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Lingzhi; Ma, Weina; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Yanmin


    This paper demonstrates a novel strategy for the construction of a graphene hybrid composites film, which was fabricated by electrodeposited reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) incorporating polymerization of l-lysine (PLL) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Here we show that graphene films can be prepared on electrodes directly from GO dispersions by one-step electrodeposition technique based on electropolymerized PLL as a positively charged polymer interface to adsorb negatively charged GO nanosheets through electrostatic attraction. The thickness of graphene film can be easily controlled by using the electrodeposition technique, a distinct advantage over previously developed methods. The electrochemically reduced process of GO and electropolymerization of l-lysine were investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a wide potential range. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The ERGO/PLL/GCE shows conducive to electron transfer kinetics for Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-) redox probes, compared with bare GCE, PLL/GCE and ERGO/GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) at ERGO/PLL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the results suggest that the modified electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward these important molecules. Under physiological condition and in the co-existence system of AA, DA and UA, the ERGO/PLL/GCE showed linear voltammetric responses in the concentration of 100μM-1200μM for AA, 2.0μM-60μM for DA and 20μM-200μM for UA, and with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 2.0μM, 0.10μM and 0.15μM for AA, DA and UA, respectively. The developed method has been applied to simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA in human urine with satisfactory recoveries of 104.2%, 95.4% and 99.9%, respectively. This work demonstrates that the attractive features of ERGO/PLL provide promising applications in simultaneous determination of AA, DA

  4. Reducing sedentarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Wendy; Andersen, Lars Bo; Sigmund, Anderssen

    Reducing Sedentarism Brown, WJ*1; Brown, WJ*1; Andersen, LB*2; Anderssen, SA*3 1The University of Queensland, Australia; 2University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 3Norwegian School of Sports Medicine, Norway Western lifestyles have changed remarkably over the last century, with decreasing levels...... between 7 and 10 hours each day sitting, with about half this time spent sitting at work. This paper will examine the hypothesis that too much sitting is a risk factor for poor health, even in those who meet the current physical activity guidelines. First, the biological plausibility of too much sitting...

  5. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides. (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte


    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  6. A Reduced-Order Model for Complex Modes of Brake Squeal Model and Its Application to a Flexible Pin-on-Disc System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang


    Full Text Available Brake squeal is often analytically studied by a complex eigenvalue analysis of linearized models of the brake assembly that is usually quite large. In this paper, a method for determining those frequencies having the most effect on the pair of coupling frequencies that saves much time is put forward and a reduced-order model is presented based on the complex modes theory. The reduced-order model is proved to be effective when applied to a flexible pin-on-disc system; even damping and nonlinearity are taken into consideration. This reduced-order model can predict the onset of squeal as well as the squeal frequency with sufficient accuracy and largely reduced amount of calculation and gives us a practical guide to perform design optimization in order to reduce brake squeal.

  7. A method for the construction of strongly reduced representations of ATLAS experimental uncertainties and the application thereof to the jet energy scale

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration


    A method is presented for the reduction of large sets of related uncertainty sources into strongly reduced representations which retain a suitable level of correlation information for use in many cases. So long as the search or measurement is not sensitive to the details of the correlations associated with the uncertainty source, this procedure can be used to reduce the complexity of the analysis. The method provides a self-consistent means of determining whether a given analysis is sensitive to the loss of correlation information arising from the reduction procedure. The method is applied to the ATLAS Jet Energy Scale (JES) uncertainty, demonstrating that the set of 67 independent sources can be strongly reduced to form a representation constructed of 3 nuisance parameters. By forming a set of four such representations, it is shown that JES correlation information is retained or probed over the full parameter space to within an average of 1%. This procedure is expected to significantly reduce the computation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al Kuwaiti


    Full Text Available Medication errors will affect the patient safety and quality of healthcare. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology in reducing medication errors in the outpatient pharmacy of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted through the five phases of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC model using various quality tools. The goal was fixed as to reduce medication errors in an outpatient pharmacy by 20%. After implementation of improvement strategies, there was a marked reduction of defects and also improvement of their sigma rating. Especially, Parts per million (PPM of prescription/data entry errors reduced from 56,000 to 5,000 and its sigma rating improved from 3.09 to 4.08. This study concluded that the Six Sigma (DMAIC methodology is found to be more significant in reducing medication errors and ensuring patient safety.

  9. Designing eHealth Applications to Reduce Cognitive Effort for Persons With Severe Mental Illness: Page Complexity, Navigation Simplicity, and Comprehensibility (United States)

    Spring, Michael R; Hanusa, Barbara H; Eack, Shaun M; Haas, Gretchen L


    usability outcomes. Most other variables were significantly related to 2 or 3 of these usability outcomes. With the 5 tested websites, 7 of the 19 variables of the FEDM overlapped with other variables, resulting in 12 distinct variable groups. The 3 design dimensions had acceptable coefficient alphas. Both navigational simplicity and comprehensibility were significantly related to correctly identifying whether information was available on a website. Page complexity and navigational simplicity were significantly associated with the ability and time to find information and ease-of-use ratings. Conclusions The 19 variables and 3 dimensions (page complexity, navigational simplicity, and comprehensibility) of the FEDM offer evidence-based design guidance intended to reduce the cognitive effort required to effectively use eHealth applications, particularly for persons with SMI, and potentially others, including those with cognitive impairments and limited skills or experience with technology. The new variables we examined (topic areas, navigational areas, columns) offer additional and very simple ways to improve simplicity. PMID:28057610

  10. A method for the construction of strongly reduced representations of ATLAS experimental uncertainties and the application thereof to the jet energy scale

    CERN Document Server

    Boerner, Daniela; The ATLAS collaboration


    A method is presented for the reduction of large sets of related uncertainty sources into strongly reduced representations which retain a suitable level of correlation information for use in many cases. The method provides a self-consistent means of determining whether a given analysis is sensitive to the loss of correlation information arising from the reduction procedure. The method is applied to the ATLAS Jet Energy Scale (JES) uncertainty, demonstrating that the set of 60+ independent sources can be reduced to form a representation constructed of 3 nuisance parameters. By forming a set of four such representations, it is shown that JES correlation information is retained or probed over the full parameter space to within an average of 1%. This procedure is expected to significantly reduce the computational requirements placed upon early ATLAS searches in the upcoming 2015 dataset while still providing sufficient performance and correlation structure to avoid changing the analysis results.

  11. Methods to Reduce Sand Ejecta from Projectile Impact - a Scaled Study with the Goal of Application to Depleted Uranium Penetrator Catch Boxes (United States)


    uranium in ground water at a mill tailings site. J. Contam. Hydrol. 34:343-361. Addiss, J., A. Collins, F. Bobaru, K. Promratana, and W. G. Proud. 2009...Goal of Application to Depleted Uranium Penetrator Catch Boxes En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Victor F. Medina and Scott A. Waisner April 2012...Sand Ejecta from Projectile Impact – a Scaled Study with the Goal of Application to Depleted Uranium Penetrator Catch Boxes Victor F. Medina, Scott

  12. Mining soil phosphorus by zero P-application: an effective method to reduce the risk of P loading to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.


    This study aims to find field evidence for the effectiveness of P-mining to reduce the risk of P leaching to surface water. In 2002, a P-mining was conducted on four grassland sites in the Netherlands on sand (two sites), peat and clay soils. The mining plots received no P and an annual N surplus of

  13. RV减速器协同可靠性试验信息系统开发%Development and Application of Availability Information Analysis System for RV Reducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏领会; 姚灿江


    RV减速器是机器人关节驱动装置,其精度和可靠性决定了工业机器人的运动精度及可靠性。为获取RV减速器可靠性分析数据,并保障原始信息及数据本身的可信性,结合网络及数据库技术,构建面向厂校协同可靠性现场试验平台,开发出数据采集的信息系统。系统中,多方用户实现从故障信息采集到信息分析处理再到改进的协同过程,进而为实施建立减速机功能实现的可靠性模型和可靠性保障措施提供分析基础,为提高国产RV减速机的性能及可靠性提供科学依据。%RV reducer is a robot joint driving device, which determines the accuracy and reliability of motion accuracy and reliability of industrial robots. To obtain data reliability analysis RV reducer and safeguard the original message and the credibility of the data itself, combined with network and database technology, to build schools for plant reliability collaborative field test platform, and the development of information systems of data collection. Multi-user system fault information to achieve synergies from the acquisition process and then to improve information analysis and processing. Reliability Model and reliability safeguard measures for the implementation of further functions to achieve the establishment of the reducer provides analytical basis to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of domestic RV reducer performance and reliability.

  14. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model. (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina


    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced.

  15. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)


    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  16. Exovascular application of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-releasing electrospun poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) fiber sheets to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured abdominal aorta. (United States)

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Jang, Eui Hwa; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul


    Intimal hyperplasia is an excessive ingrowth of tissue resulting in chronic structural lesions commonly found at sites of atherosclerotic lesions, arterial angioplasty, vascular graft anastomoses, and other vascular abnormalities. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was shown to elicit antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-thrombogenic effects. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to synthesize EGCG-eluting biodegradable poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber sheets for local delivery of EGCG and investigated the effect of their exovascular application on intimal hyperplasia following balloon-induced abdominal aorta injury in a rabbit experimental model. The morphology of the composite sheets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. EGCG was loaded and dispersed into the PLGA-based electrospun fibers. The EGCG-loaded PLGA sheets exhibited sustained EGCG release following the initial 24 h of burst release in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia following the application of the EGCG-eluting electrospun PLGA fiber sheets, compared with vehicle PLGA controls. In conclusion, our results show that exovascular application of EGCG-eluting PLGA electrospun fiber sheets may provide a useful system for the effective local delivery of drugs for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia.

  17. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity. (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L


    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery.

  18. Application of Hybrid HS and Tabu Search Algorithm for Optimal Location of FACTS Devices to Reduce Power Losses in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Masomi Zohrabad


    Full Text Available Power networks continue to grow following the annual growth of energy demand. As constructing new energy generation facilities bears a high cost, minimizing power grid losses becomes essential to permit low cost energy transmission in larger distances and additional areas. This study aims to model an optimization problem for an IEEE 30-bus power grid using a Tabu search algorithm based on an improved hybrid Harmony Search (HS method to reduce overall grid losses. The proposed algorithm is applied to find the best location for the installation of a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC. The results obtained from installation of the UPFC in the grid are presented by displaying outputs.

  19. Two-loop fermion self-energy in reduced quantum electrodynamics and application to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V


    We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

  20. Preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes hybrid film modified electrode, and its application to amperometric sensing of rutin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uling Yang; Gang Li; Meifang Hu; Lingbo Qu


    Through a facile electrochemical method, we prepared an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and characterized it by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) The experimental results demonstrated that ERGO-MWNTs/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward rutin as evidenced by the significant enhancement of redox peak currents in comparison with a bare GCE, ERGO/GCE and MWNTs/GCE. This method has been applied for the direct determination of rutin in real samples with satisfactory results.

  1. Application of an Artificial Stomach-Duodenum Reduced Gastric pH Dog Model for Formulation Principle Assessment and Mechanistic Performance Understanding. (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Ming; Luner, Paul E; Locke, Karen; Briggs, Katherine


    The objective of this study was to develop an artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) dissolution model as an in vitro evaluation tool that would simulate the gastrointestinal physiology of gastric pH-reduced dogs as a method to assess formulations for a poorly soluble free acid compound with ng/mL solubility. After establishing the ASD model with well controlled duodenum pH, five formulations each applying different solubilization principles were developed and their performance in the ASD model and in vivo in dogs was evaluated. Excellent correlations were obtained between dog AUC and ASD AUC of five formulations evaluated with SIF (r(2) = 0.987) and FaSSIF (r(2) = 0.989) as the duodenum dissolution medium, indicating that the approach of infusing NaOH into duodenum compartment to maintain duodenum pH of an ASD worked properly in simulating gastric pH-reduced dog. Raman spectroscopy was used to study drug dissolution kinetics associated with different solubilization principles and the results suggested that the solubilization principles performed as designed. Spectroscopic results also identified that the compound formed a gel during dissolution and HPMC maintained the drug gelled state to avoid further solid form conversion. The implication of the compound physical gelation to drug dissolution kinetics and in vivo exposure are discussed.

  2. Bioinspired polydopamine as the scaffold for the active AuNPs anchoring and the chemical simultaneously reduced graphene oxide: characterization and the enhanced biosensing application. (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Li, Da-Li; Shan, Dan; He, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shi, You


    We report here an efficient approach to enhance the performance of biosensing platform based on graphene or graphene derivate. Initially, graphene oxides (GO) nanosheets were reduced and surface functionalized by one-step oxidative polymerization of dopamine in basic solution at environment friendly condition to obtain the polydopamine (Pdop) modified reduced graphene oxides (PDRGO). The bioinspired surface was further used as a support to anchor active gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The morphology and structure of the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Electrochemical studies demonstrate that the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO hybrid materials possess excellent electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH at low potential (0.1 V vs. SCE) with the fast response (15s) and the broad linear range (5.0 × 10(-8)-4.2 × 10(-5)M). Thus, this AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite can be further used to fabricate a sensitive alcohol biosensor using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), by simply incorporating the specific enzyme within the composite matrix with the aid of chitosan (Chit).

  3. A novel reduced graphene oxide decorated with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-d-rGO hybrid composite and its flame-retardant application for polyamide 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Zhu


    Full Text Available The improvement of flame-retardant properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 was achieved by using reduced graphene oxide decorated with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-d-rGO hybrid composite as the additive in PA6 matrix. The intimate integration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs through a three-step chemical functionalization, enabled the combination of their unique physical and chemical characteristics together. The nanostructure of HNTs-d-rGO was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A morphological study revealed that HNTs-d-rGO was dispersed uniformly in PA6 matrix. From the results of cone calorimetry measurements, the fire retardant properties of PA6 were further improved with the addition of HNTs-d-rGO when compared with that of either HNTs, or GO, or a mixture of HNTs and GO (HNTs-m-GO used in PA6 matrix. The results indicate clearly that higher flame-retardant activity of the integrated HNTs-d-rGO nanostructures than that of the simple mixture verifies the importance of the intimate integration between HNTs and rGO, which ascribe to the combination of the stable silica layer created by HNT and the barrier effect of rGO.

  4. Synthesis and application of reduced graphene oxide and molecularly imprinted polymers composite in chemo sensor for trichloroacetic acid detection in aqueous solution (United States)

    Kibechu, Rose W.; Mamo, Messai A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Sampath, S.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    This work presents the fabrication of a simple, cheap and fast thin film chemo sensor for detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in aqueous solutions. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) chemo-sensor has been developed. The recognition of TCAA was achieved by imprinted polymers synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and a crosslinking monomer ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA) in acetonitrile using bulk polymerization method. Adsorption studies to determine the rebinding properties of the MIP with the template were conducted using UV Visible spectrophotometer. The fabricated sensor exhibited high recognition ability and affinity for HAA in comparison with the non-imprinted one which was employed as a control, this indicated that the MIP could selectively rebind with TCAA. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was used to improve conductivity of the sensor; RGO was obtained from reduction of graphene oxide (GO) synthesized using modified Stauddmer and Hummers method. Polysulphone was used in solution blending of MIP and RGO to form a hybrid which was deposited between two gold plated electrodes by spin coating to form a thin film. The performance of the imprinted sensor was studied using a homemade circuit. The results demonstrate that the sensor based on TCAA-imprinted polymer is fast, cheap and sensitive screening method of TCAA in drinking water.

  5. [Effects of increased planting density with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application on rice yield, N use efficiency and greenhouse gas emission in Northeast China]. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-cheng; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Ai-xing; Zhang, Wei-jian


    The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33.3% and reduced the basal N rate by 20%. The results showed that the average N agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity were improved by 49.6% (Pefficiency. Generally, proper dense planting with less basal N applicatior could be a good approach for the trade-off between rice yield, NUE and greenhouse gas emission.

  6. Application to Reduce the Steam Consumption of Cellulose Fiber Production%降低丝束生产过程蒸汽消耗应用实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To use the 6-sigma tools to analysis the production of cellulose fiber.Optimize the process control to decrease the process variation and to improve the process control.Identify the process special cause and carry the quick fix.Obtain to reduce steam consumption of cellulose fiber.%对丝束生产过程中蒸汽消耗工艺过程进行优化分析,应用六西格玛管理工具分析、控制、减少过程变异,同时关注工艺过程的改善以及识别过程的异因而采取快赢措施,降低丝束生产蒸汽消耗并固化所取得的降耗成果。

  7. PoPe (Projection on Proper elements) for code control: verification, numerical convergence and reduced models. Application to plasma turbulence simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier-Michaud, T; Sarazin, Y; Abiteboul, J; Bufferand, H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Garbet, X; Grandgirard, V; Latu, G; Norscini, C; Passeron, C; Tamain, P


    The Projection on Proper elements (PoPe) is a novel method of code control dedicated to 1) checking the correct implementation of models, 2) determining the convergence of numerical methods and 3) characterizing the residual errors of any given solution at very low cost. The basic idea is to establish a bijection between a simulation and a set of equations that generate it. Recovering equations is direct and relies on a statistical measure of the weight of the various operators. This method can be used in any dimensions and any regime, including chaotic ones. This method also provides a procedure to design reduced models and quantify the ratio costs to benefits. PoPe is applied to a kinetic and a fluid code of plasma turbulence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailin Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to reduce the discrepancies between the modeled and observed tsunami arrival times. We treat the ocean as a homogenous fluid, ignoring stratification due to compressibility and variations of temperature and salinity. The phase speed of surface gravity waves is reduced for a compressible fluid compared to that of an incompressible fluid. At the shallow water limit, the reduction in speed is about 0.86% at a water depth of 4000 m. We propose a simple ocean depth- correction method to implement the reduction in wave speed in the framework of shallow water equations of an incompressible fluid: 1 we define an effective ocean depth such that the reduction of the phase speed due to compressibility of seawater is exactly matched by the decrease in water depth (about 2.5% reduction at ocean depth of 6000 m and less than 0.1% at 200 m; 2 this effective depth is treated as if it were the real ocean depth. Implementation of the method only requires replacing the ocean bathymetry with the effective bathymetry so there is no need to modify existing tsunami codes and thus there is no additional computational cost. We interpret the depth-correction method as a bulk-parameterization of the combined effects of physical dispersion, compressibility, stratification, and elasticity of the earth on wave speed. We applied this method to the 2010 Chile and 2011 Tohoku basin-crossing tsunamis. For the 2010 Chile tsunami, this approach resulted in very good agreement between the observed and modeled tsunami arrival times. For the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, we found good agreements between the modeled and the observed tsunami arrival times for most of the DARTs except the farthest ones from the source region, where discrepancies as much as 3-4 min. still remain.

  9. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Changdong, E-mail:; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. • Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. • The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. • 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidation–reduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup −1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  10. 氮肥减施对蔬菜硝酸盐含量及品质的影响研究%Effect of Nitrogen Reducing Application on Nitrate Content in Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐平; 廖鸿昕; 刘煜; 李先; 刘德林; 邵赛


    以叶类蔬菜为研究对象,探讨氮肥减施对蔬菜的硝酸盐积累及品质的影响.结果表明:在减少20%的化学氮肥基础上,通过增施有机肥、配施微量元素、施用硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂等农艺技术措施町降低蔬菜硝酸盐含量2.93%~22.05%,亚硝酸盐含量9.09%~53.17%;蔬菜硝酸盐积累过程中夏季蔬菜积累高峰早于冬季蔬菜,蔬菜后期硝酸盐含量比生长旺期有明显的降低;在同等氮肥条件下,施用有机肥、配施微量元素、硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂等农艺措施能提高蔬菜Vc含量,且蔬菜中的叶绿素SPAD值没有明显变化;减施氮肥会使蔬菜产量下降,但配施微量元素后不会减少蔬菜生产的经济效益.%Using leaf vegetables as the research object to study the effects of nitrogen reducing application on nitrate accumulation and quality of vegetables. The results showed that on the basis of reducing 20% chemical nitrogen fertilizer, the nitrate content and nitrite content in vegetables were reduced by 3.49%~23.84% and 9.09%~53.17% respectively through applying some agronomic measures, such as increasing application of organic manure, combined application of trace elements, application of nitrification inhibitors and in urinary inhibitors; the nitrate accumulation peak of summer vegetables was earlier than that of winter vegetables, the nitrate content of vegetables in the late period was obvious less than that in the rapid growth period; under the same nitrogen content condition, the agronomic measures that application of organic manure, nitrification inhibitors and in urinary inhibitors, combined application of trace elements can increase the Vc content in vegetables, and the chlorophyll SPAD values in vegetables had no obvious change.

  11. NMOS-Based Integrated Modular Bypass for Use in Solar Systems (NIMBUS: Intelligent Bypass for Reducing Partial Shading Power Loss in Solar Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bauwens


    Full Text Available NMOS-based Integrated Modular Bypass for Use in Solar systems (NIMBUS is designed as a replacement for the traditional bypass diode, used in common solar panels. Because of the series connection between the individual solar cells, the power output of a photovoltaic (PV panel will drop disproportionally under partial shading. Currently, this is solved by dividing the PV panel into substrings, each with a diode bypass placed in parallel. This allows an alternative current path. However, the diodes still have a significant voltage drop (about 350 mV, and due to the fairly large currents in a panel, the diodes are dissipating power that we would rather see at the output of the panel. The NIMBUS chip, being a low-voltage-drop switch, aims to replace these diodes and, thus, reduce that power loss. NIMBUS is a smart bypass: a completely stand-alone system that detects the failing of one or more cells and activates when necessary. It is designed for a 100-mV voltage drop under a 5-A load current. When two or more NIMBUS chips are placed in parallel, an internal synchronization circuit ensures proper operation to provide for larger load currents. This paper will elaborate on the operation, design and implementation of the NIMBUS chip, as well as on the first measurements.

  12. CdO-NPs; synthesis from 1D new nano Cd coordination polymer, characterization and application as anti-cancer drug for reducing the viability of cancer cells (United States)

    Afzalian Mend, Behnaz; Delavar, Mahmoud; Darroudi, Majid


    The hexagonal CdO nano-particles (CdO-NPs) was prepared using new nano Cd coordination polymer, [Cd(NO3)(bipy)(pzca)]n (1) as a precursor, through direct calcination process at 500 °C. The precursor (1) was synthesized by sonochemical method. The new nano compound (1) was characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analyses. The structure of nano coordination polymer was determined by comparing the XRD pattern of nano and single-crystal of compound (1). The nano CdO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). In addition, the activity and efficiency of nano CdO as an anti-cancer drug was studied on cancer cells with different concentration. The results shows that the viability of cancer cells reduced above 2 μg/mL of CdO-NPs concentration.

  13. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf


    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice.

  14. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugene A. Fritzler


    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  15. Why the Three-Point Rule Failed to Sufficiently Reduce the Number of Draws in Soccer: An Application of Prospect Theory. (United States)

    Riedl, Dennis; Heuer, Andreas; Strauss, Bernd


    Incentives guide human behavior by altering the level of external motivation. We apply the idea of loss aversion from prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) to the point reward systems in soccer and investigate the controversial impact of the three-point rule on reducing the fraction of draws in this sport. Making use of the Poisson nature of goal scoring, we compared empirical results with theoretically deduced draw ratios from 24 countries encompassing 20 seasons each (N = 118.148 matches). The rule change yielded a slight reduction in the ratio of draws, but despite adverse incentives, still 18% more matches ended drawn than expected, t(23) = 11.04, p < .001, d = 2.25, consistent with prospect theory assertions. Alternative point systems that manipulated incentives for losses yielded reductions at or below statistical expectation. This provides support for the deduced concept of how arbitrary aims, such as the reduction of draws in the world's soccer leagues, could be more effectively accomplished than currently attempted.

  16. (0 0 1) Facet-exposed anatase-phase TiO{sub 2} nanotube hybrid reduced graphene oxide composite: Synthesis, characterization and application in photocatalytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xun [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Shi, Tiejun, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wu, Jing [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhou, Haiou [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Materials and Chemical Engineering of Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230901 (China)


    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) with (0 0 1) facet-exposed anatase phase are covalently bonded together to synthesize TNT hybrid RGO (RGO-TNT) through consecutive process such as hydrothermal reaction, HCl washing, lyophilization and heat treatment with graphene oxide (GO), TiO{sub 2} powder and high concentration NaOH solution as the starting materials. The TNT with the diameter between 10 and 20 nm characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is in anatase phase proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. Additionally, the more active (0 0 1) facet is exposed identified by HRTEM. More significantly, TNT is bridged to RGO by C-Ti bond by the measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra has testified that RGO in RGO-TNT can transfer and accept photoelectrons from TNT. The photocatalytic activity of RGO-TNT for degrading methylene blue (MB) is enhanced by contrast with pure TNT, and changeable by adjusting the mass ratios of GO to TiO{sub 2} powder. Simultaneously, lyophilization is benefit for maintaining the high active surface area of RGO-TNT, which is deeply in relationship with a higher photocatalytic activity. After four running cycles of photocatalytic degradation, RGO-TNT has shown a high stability and perfect reproducibility.

  17. (0 0 1) Facet-exposed anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube hybrid reduced graphene oxide composite: Synthesis, characterization and application in photocatalytic degradation (United States)

    Zhou, Xun; Shi, Tiejun; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Haiou


    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO2 nanotube (TNT) with (0 0 1) facet-exposed anatase phase are covalently bonded together to synthesize TNT hybrid RGO (RGO-TNT) through consecutive process such as hydrothermal reaction, HCl washing, lyophilization and heat treatment with graphene oxide (GO), TiO2 powder and high concentration NaOH solution as the starting materials. The TNT with the diameter between 10 and 20 nm characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is in anatase phase proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. Additionally, the more active (0 0 1) facet is exposed identified by HRTEM. More significantly, TNT is bridged to RGO by Csbnd Ti bond by the measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra has testified that RGO in RGO-TNT can transfer and accept photoelectrons from TNT. The photocatalytic activity of RGO-TNT for degrading methylene blue (MB) is enhanced by contrast with pure TNT, and changeable by adjusting the mass ratios of GO to TiO2 powder. Simultaneously, lyophilization is benefit for maintaining the high active surface area of RGO-TNT, which is deeply in relationship with a higher photocatalytic activity. After four running cycles of photocatalytic degradation, RGO-TNT has shown a high stability and perfect reproducibility.

  18. Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides by using a plasma technique and their application for removal of heavy-metal ions. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Changlun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke


    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides (NZVI/rGOs) from spent graphene oxide (GO)-bound iron ions were developed by using a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method to improve the reactivity and stability of NZVI. The NZVI/rGOs exhibited excellent water treatment performance with excellent removal capacities of 187.16 and 396.37 mg g(-1) for chromium and lead, respectively. Moreover, the NZVI/rGOs could be regenerated by plasma treatment and maintained high removal ability after four cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results implied that the removal mechanisms could be attributed to adsorption/precipitation, reduction, or both. Such multiple removal mechanisms by the NZVI/rGOs were attributed to the reduction ability of the NZVI particles and the role of dispersing and stabilizing abilities of the rGOs. The results indicated that the NZVI/rGOs prepared by a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method might be an effective composite for heavy-metal-ion removal.

  19. Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk. (United States)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin


    A novel electrochemical sensing platform based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide film modified screen-printed electrode was developed. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating bismuth film, the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate stripping peaks for cadmium and lead. Several parameters, including electrolytes environment and electrodeposition conditions, were carefully optimized to achieve best stripping performance. The linear range for both metal ions at the disposable bismuth film electrode was from 1.0 μg L(-1) to 60.0 μg L(-1). The detection limit was 0.5 μg L(-1) for cadmium ion and 0.8 μg L(-1) for lead ion. Milk sample analysis demonstrates that the developed electrode could be effectively used to detect low levels (μg L(-1)) of cadmium ion and lead ion. Graphene based disposable bismuth film electrode is a sensitive, stable, and reliable sensing platform for heavy metals determination.

  20. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs (United States)

    Green, Mary W.


    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools, more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense US social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti- graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more tot he general 'order maintenance' of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  1. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.W.


    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools (or at least the perception of their prevalence), more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense U.S. social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti-graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems (`big picture`) approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more to the general `order maintenance` of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  2. 超高压技术对水产品过敏原消减的研究进展%Research progress in ultra high-pressure technology application in reducing allergen of aquatic product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 胡志和


    食物过敏是免疫性疾病,也是一个食品安全问题.目前国内外对食物过敏原及消减方法研究较多,本文介绍了应用超高压技术消减水产品过敏原方面的研究进展,为我国低过敏性水产品深加工提供了一定的参考.%Food allergy is not only an immunopathy,but also a problem of food safety. There were many reviews about food allergen and it had been reduced methods. In this paper,research progress of ultra high-pressure technology application in reducing allergen from aquatic product was introduced,offering some suggestions to low-allergic aguatic product.

  3. Study on the application of reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials for simultaneous determination of catechol, hydroquinone, p-cresol and nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Fangxin [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Shihong, E-mail: [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang Chengyan [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Dehua; Wang Cun [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)


    Graphical abstract: In this paper, the reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials (RGO-MWNTs) were prepared and a novel strategy for the simultaneous determination of multiple environmental contaminations has been proposed on the basis of RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials modified electrode. The hybrid materials were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N{sub 2} sorption-desorption isotherms. Due to the excellent catalytic activity, enhanced electrical conductivity, high surface area and porous structure of the RGO-MWNTs, the RGO-MWNTs/GCE achieved the simultaneous measurement of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC), p-cresol (PC) and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) with well-separate four peaks. Scheme 1a illuminated the preparation process of the RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials. Scheme 1b explains the electron mediating properties of RGO-MWNTs/GCE towards the oxidation of HQ, CC, PC and NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Scheme 1c presented the SEM image of RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials. Scheme 1d and e showed the 2D and 3D AFM images of RGO-MWNTs films, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simultaneous detection of four environmental contaminations was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM, AFM, XPS was employed to characterize the RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials. - Abstract: In this paper, the reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials (RGO-MWNTs) were prepared and a strategy for detecting environmental contaminations was proposed on the basis of RGO-MWNTs modified electrode. The hybrid materials were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N{sub 2} sorption-desorption isotherms. Due to the excellent catalytic activity, enhanced electrical conductivity and high

  4. Hydrogen bonding-driven rheological modulation of chemically reduced graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) suspensions and its application in electrospinning (United States)

    Tan, Yeqiang; Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang


    Rheology of graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets suspended in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution were investigated by altering nanosheet loading and reduction time of RGO in a wide range. A small amount (0.5 wt%) of GO and RGO in the dilute regime of filler resulted in a threefold increase and a fourfold decrease in steady viscosity at 0.01 s-1, respectively; increasing GO and RGO loadings in the semi-dilute regime of filler caused steady viscosity to increase to different degrees. Meanwhile, the steady viscosity of the suspension decreased gradually by more than one order of magnitude with increasing reduction time of RGO. By characterizing the microstructure in suspensions, the style and relative density of H-bonding between PVA chains and nanosheets were confirmed to account for the suspension rheology. Modulation of viscosity in a wide range via simply control of the loading and reduction time of RGO was hydrogen bonding-driven, which was successfully applied to electrospinning to prepare nanocomposite nanofibers. The addition of 1 wt% GO and RGO with respect to the polymer mass significantly improved PVA fibrous uniformity and fineness, and the spinnable concentration range of PVA was greatly broadened from (8.5-11.3 wt%) to (5-18 wt%). Meanwhile, the thermal stability of the nanofibers was also enhanced by GO or RGO addition.Rheology of graphene oxide (GO) and chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets suspended in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution were investigated by altering nanosheet loading and reduction time of RGO in a wide range. A small amount (0.5 wt%) of GO and RGO in the dilute regime of filler resulted in a threefold increase and a fourfold decrease in steady viscosity at 0.01 s-1, respectively; increasing GO and RGO loadings in the semi-dilute regime of filler caused steady viscosity to increase to different degrees. Meanwhile, the steady viscosity of the suspension decreased gradually by more than

  5. Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide decorated with CeO2-doped MnO2 nanorods for supercapacitor applications. (United States)

    Ojha, Gunendra Prasad; Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Soo-Jin; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak-Yong


    A novel and efficient CeO2-doped MnO2 nanorods decorated reduced graphene oxide (CeO2-MnO2/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The growth of the CeO2 doped MnO2 nanorods over GO sheets and reduction of GO were simultaneously carried out under hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and structure of as-synthesized nanocomposite were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the formation of CeO2-MnO2 decorated RGO nanocomposites. The electrochemical performance of as-prepared CeO2-MnO2/RGO nanocomposites as an active electrode material for supercapacitor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods in 2M alkaline medium. The obtained results revealed that as-synthesized CeO2-MnO2/RGO nanocomposite exhibited higher specific capacitance (648F/g) as compared to other formulations (MnO2/RGO nanocomposites: 315.13 F/g and MnO2 nanorods: 228.5 F/g) at the scan rate of 5mV/s. After 1000 cycles, it retained ∼90.4%, exhibiting a good stability. The high surface area, enhanced electrical conductivity, and good stability possess by the nanocomposite make this material a promising candidate to be applied as a supercapacitor electrode.

  6. Robotic-locomotor training as a tool to reduce neuromuscular abnormality in spinal cord injury: the application of system identification and advanced longitudinal modeling. (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M; Kindig, Matthew; Niu, Xun; Varoqui, Deborah; Conaway, Petra


    In this study, the effect of the LOKOMAT, a robotic-assisted locomotor training system, on the reduction of neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity was examined, for the first time in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Twenty-three individuals with chronic incomplete SCI received 1-hour training sessions in the LOKOMAT three times per week, with up to 45 minutes of training per session; matched control group received no intervention. The neuromuscular properties of the spastic ankle were then evaluated prior to training and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of training. A parallel-cascade system identification technique was used to determine the reflex and intrinsic stiffness of the ankle joint as a function of ankle position at each time point. The slope of the stiffness vs. joint angle curve, i.e. the modulation of stiffness with joint position, was then calculated and tracked over the four-week period. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM), an advanced statistical method, was then used to classify subjects into subgroups based on similar trends in recovery pattern of slope over time, and Random Coefficient Regression (RCR) was used to model the recovery patterns within each subgroup. All groups showed significant reductions in both reflex and intrinsic slope over time, but subjects in classes with higher baseline values of the slope showed larger improvements over the four weeks of training. These findings suggest that LOKOMAT training may also be useful for reducing the abnormal modulation of neuromuscular properties that arises as secondary effects after SCI. This can advise clinicians as to which patients can benefit the most from LOKOMAT training prior to beginning the training. Further, this study shows that system identification and GMM/RCR can serve as powerful tools to quantify and track spasticity over time in the SCI population.

  7. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P.; Torres-Durán, Patricia V.; Romero-Gonzalez, Jaime; Mascher, Dieter; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A.


    Background: The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indirectly shows the muscle’s oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold), in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods: The RER, O2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml•kg−1•min−1), during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results: Endurance trained men presented higher O2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05) of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance. PMID:21157516

  8. Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO-Loaded SnO2 Nanocomposite and Applications in C2H2 Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Jin


    Full Text Available Acetylene (C2H2 gas sensors were developed by synthesizing a reduced graphene oxide (rGO-loaded SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. Morphological characterizations showed the formation of well-dispersed SnO2 nanoparticles loaded on the rGO sheets with excellent transparency and obvious fold boundary. Structural analysis revealed good agreement with the standard crystalline phases of SnO2 and rGO. Gas sensing characteristics of the synthesized materials were carried out in a temperature range of 100–300 °C with various concentrations of C2H2 gas. At 180 °C, the SnO2–rGO hybrid showed preferable detection of C2H2 with high sensor response (12.4 toward 50 ppm, fast response-recovery time (54 s and 23 s, limit of detection (LOD of 1.3 ppm and good linearity, with good selectivity and long-term stability. Furthermore, the possible gas sensing mechanism of the SnO2–rGO nanocomposites for C2H2 gas were summarized and discussed in detail. Our work indicates that the addition of rGO would be effective in enhancing the sensing properties of metal oxide-based gas sensors for C2H2 and may make a contribution to the development of an excellent ppm-level gas sensor for on-line monitoring of dissolved C2H2 gas in transformer oil.

  9. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as an effective peroxidase mimetic and its application in visual biosensing of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jianxin [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Yuxi Normal University, Yunnan 653100 (China); Cao, Haiyan; Jiang, Huan; Chen, Yujin [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Shi, Wenbing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408003 (China); Zheng, Huzhi [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Huang, Yuming, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The well-dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs on rGO surfaces were successfully synthesized. •The as-obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites exhibit an effective peroxidase-like activity. •They can catalyze the oxidation of TMB by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to produce an intensified blue reaction. •The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO-based colorimetric and visual biosensing of glucose was developed. -- Abstract: The well-dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces were successfully prepared by in situ controlled nucleation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs on GO sheets and subsequent in situ reduction of GO by low temperature hydrothermal reaction in ethanol media. The as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra. It was found that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were successfully decorated and well dispersed on the surface of rGO sheet without agglomeration. We discovered that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and catalase-like activity, and could catalytically oxidize 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to produce a intensified colour reaction. Results of electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments demonstrated that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites showed catalytic ability to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition into ·OH radicals. On this basis, a simple and selective method for glucose detection was developed by coupling the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase (GOx). As low as 1 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} glucose could be detected with a linear range from 1 × 10{sup −6} to 1 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1}. The visual detection of glucose can be realized easily through the observable color change from colorless to blue by the naked

  10. A novel application of the Intent to Attend assessment to reduce bias due to missing data in a randomized controlled clinical trial (United States)

    Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Friedman, Edward S.; Bowden, Charles L.; Thase, Michael E.; Ketter, Terence; Ostacher, Michael J.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Leon, Andrew C.; Schoenfeld, David A


    model is well-specified. Conclusions In LiTMUS, the Intent to Attend assessment predicted missed study visits. This item was incorporated into our IPAW models and helped reduce bias due to informative missing data. This analysis should both encourage and facilitate future use of the Intent to Attend assessment along with IPAW to address missing data in a randomized trial. PMID:24872362

  11. Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases (United States)

    Le Cointe, Ronan; Simon, Thomas E.; Delarue, Patrick; Hervé, Maxime; Leclerc, Melen; Poggi, Sylvain


    Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential “shield effect” of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide—a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L—significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use. PMID:27668731

  12. Establishing ecological reference conditions and tracking post-application effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (Phoslock®) for reducing phosphorus in aquatic systems: an applied paleolimnological approach. (United States)

    Moos, M T; Taffs, K H; Longstaff, B J; Ginn, B K


    Innovative management strategies for nutrient enrichment of freshwater are important in the face of this increasing global problem, however many strategies are not assessed over long enough time periods to establish effectiveness. Paleolimnological techniques using diatoms as biological indicators were utilized to establish ecological reference conditions, environmental variation, and the effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (brand name: Phoslock(®)) applied to reduce water column phosphorus (P) concentrations in four waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and eastern Australia. In sediment cores from the two Canadian sites, there were short-lived changes to diatom assemblages, relative to inferred background conditions, and a temporary reduction in both measured and diatom-inferred total phosphorus (TP) before returning to pre-application conditions (particularly in the urban stormwater management pond which has a high flushing rate and responds rapidly to precipitation and surface run-off). The two Australian sites (a sewage treatment pond and a shallow recreational lake), recorded no reduction in diatom-inferred TP. Based on our pre-application environmental reconstruction, changes to the diatom assemblages and diatom-inferred TP appeared to be driven by larger, climatic factors. While laboratory tests involving this product showed sharp reductions in water column TP, management strategies require detailed information on pre-application environmental conditions and variations in order to accurately assess the effectiveness of new technologies for lake management.

  13. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies. (United States)


    antibacterial activity. An example of an antiplaque agent being more effective on smooth surfaces caries is chlorhexidine gluconate , which In a rodent...pruclinical insusiiganions. including radiation arhsortied dose: upon admnititation to a nitnla) hCetig studies maude tin lahinrator\\ animals, on the baist of...presious human studies to allow a reasonable calerilatun til radiation absorbed dose upon administration to a human being. 16. A %tatemt Ihat all noni

  14. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies. (United States)


    recurrent lesions (Table 15). The caries activity after I year In the SnF 2 group was significantly lower. The mean numbers of new lesions for the SnF 2...lesions, while 1 subject In both the compliant and partial ly-compl lant group developed 5 new lesions. Recurrent decay contributed 28% of the total...test tooth In each subject was prepared conventionally for an intracoronal restoration. Orthodontic bands were then fitted around the test tooth. (The

  15. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies. (United States)


    262-29t Salle. A.J.: Heavy metals other than mercury and (1977). silver; in Laurence , Block, Disinfection, sterili- flock, J.; Tinanoff, N.: Resolution...otisertatrsus Intl luhnit itrt t5tilrIll5.i rl-ifs m"f .srl𔃻i-t.’ sir arte contduicted hN an ri ditid ua affiliated with an rintirtuttin a hichi a rees

  16. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.


    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  17. Metallurgical properties study of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for their application in a fusion reactor; Estudio de las propiedades metalurgicas de los aceros martensticos de activacion reducida para su aplicacion en los reactores de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Paredes, M. P.


    In this work, the metallurgical characterization of two reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel of last generation, called F-82H-mod and Eurofer'97 has been performed. the aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the degradation mechanisms and ageing that these materials can suffer during operation at high temperatures with or without the application of the load (creep). In order to fulfill these objectives, the investigations have been carried out in both materials on as-received condition and after thermal ageing treatments in the temperature range from 300 degree centigree to 600 degree centigree for periods up to 1000 h. To achieve the objectives cited, microstructural (optical, SEM, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction and TEM) and mechanical (hardness, tensile, Charpy, Fracture toughness and creep) investigations have been performed. (Author) 58 refs.

  18. Application of quality control circle activity in reducing the ward noise%品管圈活动在降低血液内科病区噪音中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉; 阮文珍; 丁桂芳


    目的:探讨品管圈活动对降低血液内科病区噪音的应用效果。方法成立品管圈活动小组,对病区噪音因素进行分析,制定并采取相应措施。结果病区各种噪声下降率均达80%以上,其中各类车轮产生的噪音下降率达92.31%,家属大声谈话噪音与各仪器报警噪音也分别达88.24%和88.10%。结论品管圈方法的应用降低了病区噪音,患者满意度提高,护理质量提升。%Objective To investigate the QCC activities to reduce the effect of noise on the ward. Methods Formulate and adopt the measures by setting up QQC team to analyze the factors of the ward noise. Results Ward noise reduction rate was more than 80%, including all types of wheel noise reduction rate was up to 92.31%, the family talking loudly and the eachinstrument noise were respectively 88.24% and 88.10%. Conclusion The application of QQC reduces the ward’s noise, improves patient’s satisfaction and nursing quality.

  19. 硫酸盐还原菌及其在废水厌氧治理中的应用%Application of sulfate-reducing bacteria to anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖利萍; 张镭; 李月


    硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)在废水处理方面有独特的优势,在厌氧环境中能以硫酸盐作为电子受体降解有机污染物.本文阐明了SRB处理废水中污染物的机理,综述了国内外利用SRB处理重金属离子废水、含硫酸盐有机废水和酸性矿山废水的研究进展.最后总结了目前在工程应用方面尚存在的问题.%Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) has unique advantage in wastewater treatment and can degrade organic pollutants with sulfate as electron acceptor in the anaerobic environment. This paper introduced the SRB mechanism for wastewater treatment, summarized the applications of SRB on the treatment of heavy metal wastewater , organic wastewater containing sulfate and acid mine wastewater at home and abroad. At last, the current problems in engineering application are explained.

  20. The effect observation of application of delivery ball and acupoint manipulation for reduce vaginal delivery pain%分娩球加穴位推拿对改善阴道分娩疼痛的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕琦玲; 杨西萍; 曾伟; 雷玉妃; 刘锐; 李青; 莫文辉


    目的:探讨分娩球配合穴位推拿对缓解阴道分娩疼痛效果.方法:选择2014年6月~2015年6月在我院收治的224例初产单胎头位、排除高危因素的临产产妇为研究对象,随机等分为观察组和对照组,观察组由专业助产士全程陪护,负责指导产妇分娩球的合理使用,中医师指导助产士按摩穴位;对照组按常规处理,两组进行观察比较疼痛情况、产程时间和剖宫产情况.结果:观察组较对照组疼痛明显减轻,产程缩短,降低了剖宫产例数,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:分娩球加穴位按摩可减轻分娩疼痛,产程缩短,降低剖宫产率.%Objective:To explore the effect of application of delivery ball and acupoint manipulation for reduce vaginal delivery pain. Methods:Selected 224 cases of parturient puerperae who were going to give first birth to single fetuses with normal fatal head position at exception of high risk factors as research objects in our hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 and equally divided them into observation group and control group at random. The observation group was whole-process accompanied and attended by professional midwifes who were responsible for offering guidance of the reasonable usage of delivery ball and instructed by traditional Chinese medicine physicians to give acupoint manipulation for parturient puerperae;the control group was given the normal treat-ment. Then to observe and compare their degree of delivery pain, time of delivery stage and cesarean delivery condition of the two groups. Results:The deliv-ery pain, time of delivery stage and cases of cesarean delivery of observation group was significantly less than the control group. The difference was of statis-tic significance (P<0. 05). Conclusion:The application of delivery ball and acupoint manipulation can effectively reduce the delivery pain, delivery stage time and to reduce the rate of cesarean delivery.

  1. Application Research on Reducing Aircraft Cruising Speed in Ground Delay Program%降低飞机巡航速度在地面等待程序中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继新; 李开建; 吴懿君


    GDP whose cancellation time is generally earlier than its expected end time , is an important method in ATFM.The early cancellation of GDP results not only in unnecessary ground holding ,but also in inadequate utilization of airports and airspace .A strategy of reducing aircraft cruising speed is put for-ward in this paper to better allocate the ground holding time and airborne holding time .The strategy aims to fly the aircraft at a low speed with the same fuel consumption as that in the flight plan to enable the air -craft to obtain maximum airborne holding time .Once GDP is canceled ahead of time ,the aircraft is to fly at the planned speed in order to reduce partial delay .The simulation results show that if GDP is cancelled 30 minutes in advance,the application of strategy of reducing aircraft cruising speed could reduce 6.9 percent of GDP overall delay .%地面等待程序( GDP)作为空中交通流量管理的一种重要手段,它取消的时间往往早于其预计结束时间。针对GDP的提前取消不仅会造成不必要的地面等待,也使得机场、空域不能被充分利用的问题,提出了一种降低飞机巡航速度的策略来更好地分配地面等待和空中等待时间比例。这一策略旨在让飞机以一个和飞行计划相同油耗水平的低速飞行,使得飞机获得最大的空中等待时间,一旦GDP提前取消,飞机就以计划飞行速度飞行,从而减少部分延误。仿真结果表明,GDP提前30 min取消,减速策略的应用可使GDP整体延误水平降低6.9%。

  2. 减少头部运动伪影及磁敏感伪影的propller技术应用价值评价%To Reduce the Head Motion Artifact and Magnetic Sensitive Artifacts Propller Technology Application Value Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨 Propl er 技术对减少头部运动伪影及磁敏感伪影的应用价值。方法我院于2010年3月至2013年对55例磁共振头颅检查时躁动或难以自控的患者,进行常规 FRFSE T2WI 和 Propel er T2WI 轴位扫描;对33例磁敏感伪影明显者行常规扩散加权图像(DWI)和Propel er DWI 扫描。观察并对照分析 FRFSE T2WI 和 Propel er T2WI 以及 DWI 与 Propel er DWI 的图像质量状况。结果通过 T2WI 检查55例,对存在明显运动伪影的患者行 Propel er T2WI 扫描后明显减少或消除了运动伪影,与 T2WI 检查结果相比差异明显,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。DWI 检查33例患者有显著磁敏感伪影,采用 ProDel er DWI 后,与 DWI 检查结果相比差异明显,具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用 Propel er 技术能够明显减少或消除 T2WI 及 DWI 上运动伪影及磁敏感伪影,值得推广应用。%Objective To study the Propl er technology to reduce the head motion artifact and the application value of the magnetic sensitive artifact. Methods Our hospital from March 2010 to 2013, 55 cases of MRI head check agitation or patients with difficult to control, for regular FRFSE T2WI and Propel er T2WI axial scanning; 33 cases of magnetic sensitive artifact obvious line of conventional diffusion weighted image (DWI) can and Propel er DWI scan can. Observation and contrast analysis FRFSE T2WI and Propel er T2WI and DWI and Propel er can DWI image quality can. Results Through T2WI check 55 cases of patients with obvious motion artifact line Propel er T2WI scan significantly reduce or eliminate the motion artifacts, clear difference compared with T2WI results, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). DWI examination can 33 patients had significant magnetic sensitive artifacts, adopting ProDeller DWI, can clear difference compared with DWI results can, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Conclusion Application of Propel er technology

  3. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim


    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  4. Coded MapReduce


    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman


    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  5. Application of PDCA cycle management method in reducing false positive rate of neonatal blood culture%PDCA 循环管理法在降低新生儿血培养假阳性率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵凡云; 周传銮


    目的:探讨PDCA循环管理法在降低新生儿血培养假阳性率中的应用及临床效果,为指导临床诊断及合理应用抗菌药物提供客观依据。方法:对2010年7~12月新生儿科32例血培养阳性患儿进行目标追踪监测,了解分析假阳性发生原因并采取PDCA循环管理法,比较实施前后新生儿血培养假阳性率。结果:实施前血培养假阳性患儿病原菌分布以条件致病菌为主,实施前后血培养假阳性率比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论:将PDCA循环管理法应用于新生儿血培养阳性目标性监测,可提高血培养标本送检质量,降低假阳性率,保证检验结果准确。%Objective:To explore the application of PDCA cycle management method in reducing false positive rate of neonatal blood culture and investigate the clinical effect in order to provide objective basis for guiding clinical diagnosis and reasonable application of anti -biotics.Methods:The target tracking monitoring was conducted to 32 newborns(born from July to December 2010) whose blood culture was positive to understand and analyze the false positive causes ,and the PDCA cycle management method was implemented .The false positive rate of neonatal blood culture was compared before and after the implementation of the PDCA cycle management method .Results:The con-ditionally pathogenic bacteria in the false positive blood culture was the main pathogen in the distribution before the implementation of the method;the difference in the comparison of the false positive rate of blood culture was statistically significant before and after the imple -mentation of the method(P<0.01).Conclusion:The PDCA cycle management method applied to the target tracking monitoring can im-prove the quality of blood culture specimens and reduce the false positive rate so as to ensure accurate test results .

  6. 配施木霉微生物肥对连作黄瓜的影响%Effect ofTrichoderma Biofertilizer on Continuous Cropping Cucumber Cultivation with Reduced Rates of Chemical Fertilizer Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾小龙; 陈巍; 蔡枫; 庞冠; 李瑞霞


    研究减量化肥与哈茨木霉SQR-T037微生物肥配施对盆栽黄瓜产量、品质及土壤有效养分和可培养微生物数量的影响。试验以当地农民惯用化肥施用量的100%作为对照处理(CF),75%的农民惯用化肥量配施普通有机肥(OF)或木霉SQR-T037微生物肥(BF)作处理进行连续盆栽试验。结果表明,75%的农民惯用化肥量配施木霉微生物肥BF与100%的化肥处理CF产量相等且后期有所增产,相对配施普通有机肥处理OF则产量显著提高,同时黄瓜果实中硝酸盐含量降低45%以上,维生素C含量明显增加。此外,BF处理能有效改善土壤养分供应状况,有效磷和速效钾含量明显高于对照CF和OF处理,并显著提高黄瓜根际土壤细菌、有益菌种木霉的数量,维持放线菌数量稳定,且在施用第三季后显著减少真菌数量。因此,减少25%的化肥并配施一定量的木霉微生物肥(50g 株-1),不仅能保证黄瓜稳产,还能显著改善黄瓜果实品质,促进土壤中养分的高效利用,节约施肥成本,促进农业可持续发展。%Objective]The aims of this work were to determine 1)whether reduced rates of chemical fertilizer coupled with PGPM inoculants(Trichodermabiofertilizer)would produce cucumber yield and quality equivalent to those obtained using full rates of chemical fertilizer and 2)how this type of fertilization affects the soil fertility of a continuous cropping system.[Method]Pot trials were conducted 4 times with a reduced application of chemical fertilizer(75% of the recommended application)plusTrichoderma-enriched biofertilizer(BF)or organic fertilizer(OF),with 100% of the recommended chemical fertilizer (CF)as the control.[Result]The results showed that supplementing 75% of the idiomatic fertilizer with TrichodermaSQR-T037 biofertilizer(BF)produced yield that was statistically equivalent to or higher than the 100% chemical fertilizer(CF)and increased

  7. Application of relative permeability modifier additives to reduce water production in different formations; Aplicacao de aditivos modificadores de permeabilidade relativa para reducao da producao de agua em diferentes formacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ricardo C.B.; Torres, Ricardo S.; Pedrosa Junior, Helio; Dean, Gregory [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)


    Today most oil companies would be better described as water companies. Total worldwide oil production averages some 75 million barrels per day and, while estimates vary, this is associated with the production of 300 - 400 million barrels of water per day. These values of approximately 5 - 6 barrels of water for every barrel of oil are quite conservative. In the United States, where many fields are depleted, the ratio of water-to-oil production is closer to 9 to 1. In some areas around the world, fields remain on production when the ratio is as high as 48 to 1. Numerous strategies, both mechanical and chemical, have been employed over the years in attempts to achieve reduction in water production. Simple shut-off techniques, using cement, mechanical plugs and cross-linked gels have been widely used. Exotic materials such as DPR (disproportionate permeability reducers) and or new generation of relative permeability modifiers (RPM) have been applied in radial treatments with varying degrees of success. Most recently 'Conformance Fracturing' operations have increased substantially in mature fields as the synergistic effect obtained by adding a RPM to a fracturing fluid have produced increased oil production with reduced water cut in one step, consequently eliminating the cost of additional water shut off treatment later on. This paper presents laboratory testing and worldwide case histories of applications of various RPM materials, at different permeability and temperatures. The paper also describes technical design and operational methodology that we believe to have a significant impact in the development strategies of many fields worldwide. (author)

  8. Synthesis of 2D/2D Structured Mesoporous Co3O4 Nanosheet/N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as a Highly Stable Negative Electrode for Lithium Battery Applications. (United States)

    Sennu, Palanichamy; Kim, Hyo Sang; An, Jae Youn; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Yun-Sung


    Mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets (Co3 O4 -NS) and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach, and the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite is formulated through an infiltration procedure. Eventually, the obtained composites are subjected to various characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and TEM. The lithium-storage properties of N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composites are evaluated in a half-cell assembly to ascertain their suitability as a negative electrode for lithium-ion battery applications. The 2D/2D nanostructured mesoporous N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite delivered a reversible capacity of about 1305 and 1501 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 80 mA g(-1) for the 1st and 50th cycles, respectively. Furthermore, excellent cyclability, rate capability, and capacity retention characteristics are noted for the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite. This improved performance is mainly related to the existence of mesoporosity and a sheet-like 2D hierarchical morphology, which translates into extra space for lithium storage and a reduced electron pathway. Also, the presence of N-rGO and carbon shells in Co3O4 -NS should not be excluded from such exceptional performance, which serves as a reliable conductive channel for electrons and act as synergistically to accommodate volume expansion upon redox reactions. Ex-situ TEM, impedance spectroscopy, and XPS, are also conducted to corroborate the significance of the 2D morphology towards sustained lithium storage.

  9. Application of PDCA management in reducing medication errors incidence for inpatients%PDCA 循环管理在降低住院患者给药差错率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆芹珍; 冯莉; 杨美娟


    目的::降低住院患者给药差错发生率,保证患者用药安全。方法:对2012年全院发生的住院患者给药差错情况进行原因分析,应用 PD-CA 循环方法,探讨解决的对策和方法并组织实施。1年后进行效果评价。结果:2013年住院患者给药差错发生率低于2012年(P <0.05)。结论:应用 PDCA 循环方法,能降低住院患者给药差错发生率,可有效改进给药护理质量,实现护理质量的持续改进。%Objective:To reduce the incidence of medication errors in hospitalized patients,promote patients medication safety. Methods:To analyze the cau-ses of the hospitalized patients medication errors of 2012 year,and used PDCA circulation method to discusses the countermeasures and organize their imple-mentation. To evaluabe the effect after one year. Results:In 2013 hospitalized patients medication error rate declined obviously. Conclusion:The application of PDCA circulation method could reduce the incidence of medication errors in hospitalized patients,effectively improve the nursing quality,and achieve quality continuous improvement.

  10. Reduce HIV Risk (United States)

    ... Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Read More "Nursing Research" Articles Nursing Research / Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions / Reduce ...

  11. 品管圈活动在降低多导睡眠监测失败率的应用%The Application of Quality Control Circle in Reducing Polysomnography Failure Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢南锦; 常雪娟; 龚荣娣; 陈绍森


    Objective:To study the the application of quality control circle in reducing polysomnography failure rate.Methods:10 people in the department form a quality control circle team,through the activity pro-cedure,using quality management tools to analyze and improve the failing reason of polysomnography and compare the failure rate before and after the improvement.Results:The polysomnography failure rate reduced from 12.02% to 2.88% afater the activity.The passing rate of the theoretical knowledge and operation of nurses increased from 70% and 81% to 98% and 100%.Moreover,the comprehensive ability of team mem-bers improved significantly.Conclusion:The correct use of quality management tools can effectively reduce polysomnography failure rate as well as improve quality management ability.%目的::探讨品管圈活动在呼吸内科睡眠中心多导睡眠监测中降低多导睡眠监测的失败应用效果。方法:科内10人成立品管圈小组,通过品管圈活动步骤,运用质量管理工具对多导睡眠监测失败的原因进行分析改进,并将改进前后多导睡眠监测失败率行比较。结果:多导睡眠监测的失败率从开展活动前12.02%下降至活动后的2.88%,超出了预期目标。护士睡眠监测理论知识、操作考核合格率分别由70%、81%提高至98%、100%。此外圈员综合能力明显提升。结论:正确运用品管圈质量改进工具可有效降低多导睡眠监测的失败率,提高圈员品质和质量管理能力。

  12. Application of a high cholesterol-reducing Lactobacillus acidophilus strain in fermented milk%一株高效降胆固醇嗜酸乳杆菌在发酵乳中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建军; 张开屏; 张保军; 靳烨


    采用高效降胆固醇嗜酸乳杆菌菌株2-2和嗜热链球菌调制发酵剂B,研究了发酵剂B在发酵乳中的应用。通过与传统保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌调制的发酵剂A的对比,结果表明,发酵剂B有较强的胆固醇去除效力和弱的后酸化能力。4℃条件下存放15d后发酵乳的酸度为103.6°T,发酵乳中乳酸菌活菌数为2.6×107cfu/mL,高于标准的最低限制(≥106cfu/mL)。研究表明,在降胆固醇和抑制后酸化意义上,发酵剂B能够取代发酵剂A。%The starter culture B was formulated with strain 2-2 of high cholesterol-reducing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Then the application of starter culture B in fermented milk production was studied.By comparison of starter culture B with A that formulaed traditionally with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus,the results indicated that the starter culture B had abilities of strong cholesterol-reducing and weak post-acidification.After 15d storage at 4℃,the acidity of the fermented milk was 103.6°T and the number of living bacteria was 2.6×107cfu/mL,it was much larger than the minimum standard(≥106cfu/mL).The study indicated that the starter culture A could be replaced by B in a sense of reducing cholesterol and inhibiting the extent of post-acidification.

  13. 超高温抗盐聚合物降滤失剂的研制及应用%Development and application of ultra-high temperature anti-salt polymer fluid loss reducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄维安; 邱正松; 徐加放; 薛玉志; 李公让; 江琳


    Aimed at the present outstanding problem of filtration property adjusting and controlling and high temperature stability of ultra-high temperature water base drilling fluid around the world, the ultra-high temperature anti-salts polymer fluid loss reducer HTP-1 was developed. The action mechanisms of HTP-1 are as follows: ( 1 ) HTP-1 are largely and hardly adsorbed on clay particles and little changed by salt and temperature. (2) HTP-1 can improve particle size grading, reduce the permeability and improve compressibility observably of filter cake. Field application results of the polymer fluid loss reducer HTP-1 in ultra-deep well Shengke 1 and Bishen 1 show that the tolerance of HTP-1 to temperature is up to 240 ℃, to salt above 20%. The performances of HTP-1 in several base slurries have an advantage of treating agents around the world, and HTP-1 could meet the demand of ultra-deep well drilling under ultra-high temperature.%针对当前国内外超高温水基钻井液高温稳定性及滤失性调控技术难题,研制出超高温抗盐聚合物降滤失剂HTP-1,对其作用机制进行分析,并在胜科1超深井和泌深1超深井进行应用试验.HTP-1的作用机制主要有两方面,一是在黏土颗粒上的吸附量大并且吸附牢固,在化学环境和温度改变情况下吸附量变化小,二是改善钻井液体系中的颗粒粒径级配、降低滤饼的渗透率和改善其可压缩性;HTP-1抗温达240 ℃,抗盐超过20%,在各种基浆中的降滤失效果优于国内外同类处理剂,可以满足超深井超高温钻井需要.

  14. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios


    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  15. Foliar application of selenium-silicon sol reduced arsenic accumulation in rice%叶面喷施硒硅复合溶胶抑制水稻砷积累效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向华; 刘传平; 唐新莲; 雷静; 顾明华; 李芳柏


    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. It becomes a growing public concern on amelioration the As contamination in paddy soils and reduction the As transfer to rice in recent years. In order to reduce the accumulation of arsenic in rice (Oryza sativa L.), a series of concentrations of selenium doped silica sols were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The effects of foliar application of selenium-silica sols on the arsenic accumulation in rice were investigated with pot and field experiments. The results showed that foliar application of selenium doped silicon sol was effective in alleviating the arsenic toxicity to rice, increasing selenium content of rice, and inhibiting the accumulation of arsenic in rice. Comparing with the control in the pot experiments, 1%Se doped silica sol (1%Se-Si) foliar application increased the rice grain dry weight by 43.8%, while decreased the arsenic concentration in rice grain by 46% and increased Se concentration in rice grain from 0.050 mg·kg-1 to 0.272 mg·kg-1. Comparing with 1% sodium selenite foliar application (1%Se) in the pot experiments, the dry weight of rice grain increased by 65.4%, while the As concentration in rice grain decreased by 33.1% with 1% Se doped silica sol (1%Se-Si) treatment. Field experiment results showed that foliar application of selenium-silicon composite sol could significantly inhibit the accumulation of arsenic in rice. With the foliar application of selenium-silica composite sols, the arsenic concentration of rice grain decreased with the increasing doping amount of selenium added into the selenium-silica sols, while the selenium content increased significantly with the increasing doping amount of selenium. The optimal doping of selenium was 0.5%, foliar application of this kind of Se doped silica sol, the total arsenic concentration of rice decreased from 0.25 mg·kg-1 of control to 0.14 mg·kg-1, and the selenium concentration in rice grain was 0.26 mg·kg-1, which was

  16. Application of PFL Series Ultra-High Temperature Polymer Filtrate Reducer in Xuwen X3 Well%PFL系列超高温聚合物降滤失剂在徐闻X3井的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璐; 李胜; 杨小华; 王琳; 王治法


    PFL series polymer filtrate reducer is characterized of low viscosity, good capacities of depressing the filter loss, heat resistance and salt tolerance. The apparent viscosity of 1% PFL-L aqueous solution and 1% PFL-H aqueous solution were 12 mPa.s and 26 mPa's, respectively. After aging at 240℃/16 h, with the addition of 5 % PFL-L, tile filer loss (FL) of the saturated salt water mud(SSWM), composed of 4% bentonite and 36% NaCl, decreased from 226mL (blank group) to 32 mL;with the addition of 4% PFL-H, the FL of the SSWM decreased from 226 mL( blank group) to 8.2 mL;with the addition of 1.5% PFL-H, the FL of fresh water mud, composed of 4% bentonite, decreased from 100 mL(blank goup)to 9.6 mL. Based on the PFL series ultra-hlgh temperature polymer filtrate reducer and the optimized sulfonating filtrate reducer, inhibitor, lubricant, thinner, the strong inhibited brine and fresh drilling fluids, which were heat resistant to 200℃, were formed. The field application manifested that the PFL series ultra-high temperature polymer filtrate reducer showed strong heat resistance and good capacities of depressing the filter loss, making sure that the Xuwen X3 well was drilled to 6010 m and the logging temperature of 211℃ at the depth 5974 m.%PFL系列聚合物降滤失荆具有黏度低、耐温抗盐降滤失效果显著等特点。质量分数为1%的PFL-L、PFL-H水溶液的表观黏度分别为12mPa·s和26mPa·8。在240℃滚动老化16h情况下,加有5%PFL—L的盐水泥浆(4%膨润土浆+36%NaCl)的滤失量由226mL(空白样)降至32mL;加有4%PFL.H的盐水泥浆的滤失量由226mL(空白样)降至8.2mL;加有1.5%PFL-H的淡水泥浆(4%膨润土浆)的滤失量为由100mL(空白样)降为9.6mL。以PFL系列超高温聚合物降滤失剂为主,结合磺化类降滤失剂、抑制剂、防塌剂、稀释剂,形成了抗200℃强抑制盐水及淡水钻井液体系。现场应用

  17. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduced fare. 609.23 Section 609.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for financial assistance under section 5307...

  18. 运用品管圈降低PICU医源性皮肤粘贴伤发生率的探讨%Application of Quality Control Circle to Reduce the Incidence Rate of PICU Iatrogenic Skin and Paste Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建新; 郭璇; 颜萍


    Objective QCC reduce the clinical effect of pediatric severe patients skin paste injury. Methods The control group in our department in June 2013 - December 313 cases of critically ill children; the observation group in our depart-ment in January 2014-June 298 cases of critically ill children; the observation group use of quality control circle of nursing intervention, the control group used traditional nursing intervention, as a comparison observation. Results The effect of ob-servation group was better than that of the control group, and the effect was obvious. Conclusion The application of quality control circle to reduce the incidence of pediatric severe iatrogenic injury of the skin wound has a significant effect, the ef-fect is exact, convenient, it is worth promoting. Nurses of iatrogenic skin paste injury have deeper understanding, through this event, the circle using Qcc ability, team spirit, mental development ability, communication coordination ability, self-confidence, honor sense are improved.%目的 运用品管圈降低儿科重症患儿皮肤粘贴伤的临床效果. 方法 对照组为该科2013年6-12月收治的313例危重患儿;观察组为该科2014年1-6月收治的298例危重患儿;观察组运用品管圈进行护理干预,对照组使用传统的护理干预,作为对比效果观察. 结果 观察组效果明显优于对照组,且效果显著. 结论 运用品管圈对降低儿科重症医源性皮肤粘贴伤的发生率有显著成效,效果确切﹑方便易行﹑值得推广.该科护士对医源性皮肤粘贴伤有了更深层次的认识,通过该次活动,圈员对运用Qcc能力﹑团队精神﹑脑力开发能力﹑沟通协调能力﹑自信心﹑荣誉感均得到提升.

  19. Application of Quality Control Circle Activitiesi n Reducing Risk of Medical Equipment%品管圈活动在降低医疗设备应用风险中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路鹤晴; 王文刚; 严浩; 苏琦


    To reduce the error rate and application risk, as well as to increase the safety and quality of medical equipment in work, a quality control circle with PDCA method was performed in the study.Based on prac-tical situation analysis in hospitals and some methodological measures, we made perfections and improvement for maintenance species and items of medical equipment in hospital following the basic steps:group ringing, theme se-lecting, planning, situation confirming, goals setting and analyzing, countermeasures proposing, implementing and discussing, results confirming, standardization, reviewing and improving.Based on the quality control circle we performed, the maintenance and perfectness rate of medical equipment was improved, and ultimately a medical equipment maintenance and quality control system was established.%为降低医疗设备的故障率和应用风险,提高医疗设备的应用安全与质量,本文通过品管圈活动,采用PDCA方法,结合医院医疗设备的实际情况,按照组圈、主题选定、计划拟定、现状把握、目标设定、解析、对策拟定、对策实施与讨论、效果确认、标准化、检讨与改进等品管圈活动的基本步骤,对全院医疗设备维护种类和维护项目进行完善和改进,提高医疗设备的维护保养率和完好率,构建医疗设备维护保养和质量控制体系。

  20. Application of Quality Control Circle in Reducing the Decibel Rate of Ward Noise%应用品管圈降低病房噪音的分贝率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 吴琼; 薄艳云


    目的:探讨应用品管圈活动降低病房噪音的应用效果。方法成立品管圈活动小组,通过对住院病人满意度调查表,确定解决的主要问题为降低病房噪音”。对病区噪音因素进行分析,根据主题选定理由、制定活动计划表、数由原来最高的据目标设定、原因分析、对策制定、运用PDCA方法,再进行检讨和采取相应措施,解决问题。结果2014年5月7-14日通过住院病人满意度调查表中患者对病房安静度问卷调查,病房噪音的分贝数患由原来最高的83.9分贝,降低到2014年10月1-10日59.7 dB。在提高出院病人满意度的同时,也为护士提供展示自我为才能的平台,极大的体现了个人价值、提升全体圈员的沟通能力和解决问题的能力。结论通过品质管理,有效降低了病房噪音,使环境安静有序,提高工作质量,患者满意度提高,从而使护理服务质量大大提升。%Objective To study the application effect of the quality control circle in reducing the ward noise. Methods The quality control circle activity groups were established, that the main issue was reducing the ward noise was determined by the satisfactory degree survey scale in inpatients, and the ward noise factors were analyzed, and the reasons were selected according to the theme and the activity plan table was made and the review and corresponding measures were adopted by PDCA method. Results The ward quiet degree questionnaire of inpatients from May 7, 2014 to May 14, 2015 showed that the decibel number of ward noise was from 83.9 db that was the originally highest decreased to 59.7 db from October 1, 2014 to October 10, 2014, and it improves the satisfactory degree of discharged patients, at the same time, it provides the platform of showing self-talent, greatly reflects the individual value and improves the community ability and problem-solv-ing ability of the whole circle staff. Conclusion The

  1. Reducible oxide based catalysts (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.


    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  2. Effects of Reducing Application Amount of Base Fertilizer and Increasing Application Time of Leaf Fertilizer on Corn Yield%减少底肥施用量增加叶面施肥次数对玉米产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙蒙; 刘朝


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of reducing application amount of base fertilizer and increasing application time of leaf fertilizer on corn yield so as to find out the most economical fertilization way for corn. On the basis of protecting environment, the economic benefits wil be also increased. The results showed that the corn yield was increased with the increase of application amount of base fertil-izer, and was also increased with the increase of application time of leaf fertilizer. For each time of spaying of leaf fertilizer, the corn yield was increased 258-592.5 kg/hm2 with increase amplitude ranging from 2.3%-5.6%.%该试验目的是研究降低底肥施用量但是增加叶面肥施用次数方面对玉米产量的变化规律,旨在找出最经济的施肥方式以达到在保护环境的基础上提高经济效益的目的。试验表明,玉米产量随着底肥施用量的增加而提高,并且叶面肥喷施次数越多产量越高,每喷一次,可增加产量258~592.5 kg/hm2,增产幅度2.3%~5.6%。

  3. Reducing Childhood Obesity (United States)

    ... the NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative. (See accompanying article, " Obesity Research: A New Approach. ") We Can! focuses on three important behaviors: improved food choices, increased physical activity, and reduced recreational screen time. ...

  4. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.


    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  5. Application of quality control circle in reducing third-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth%品管圈活动在降低会阴Ⅲ度裂伤发生中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 卢俊红; 张红茹; 于秋芸


    Objective To explore the effect of quality control circle ( QCC) in reducing the incidence of third-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth.Methods Analysis was conducted on the clinical data of patients with third-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth in department of obstetrics in Beijing Tiantan Hospital.Ten staff in the department volunteered to set up QCC to investigate current status, analyze causes, set up aims, execute strategies, check effect and consolidate measures for improving related quality.Results Before conducting QCC the rate of third-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth because of unskilled delivery technique and too strong labor force was 83.33%.After performing QCC, it decreased from 2.88 % to 1.22% during July to December 2014, and the difference was significant(χ2 =1.931,P=0.04).Conclusion Application of QCC can reduce the rate of third-degree perineal tear during vaginal birth and enhance the professional knowledge and skills of the midwives.%目的:探索品管圈活动在经阴道分娩过程中降低会阴Ⅲ度裂伤发生中的应用效果。方法通过对2014年北京天坛医院产科经阴道分娩发生会阴Ⅲ度裂伤患者的临床资料进行分析,产科10名医护人员自愿成立品管圈,通过现状调查、原因分析、设定目标、对策实施、效果检查及巩固措施等程序,开展品管圈活动,进行相关质量改进。结果品管圈实施前,助产技术不熟练、产力过强导致的会阴Ⅲ度裂伤占83.33%;通过此次品管圈活动,在2014年7至12月产房的会阴Ⅲ度裂伤发生率由品管圈实施前的2.88%降至1.22%,差异具有统计学意义(χ2=1.931,P=0.04)。结论品管圈活动应用在产房经阴道分娩患者中,可有效降低会阴Ⅲ度裂伤的发生,同时增强了助产士的专业知识和管理能力。

  6. Research progress on application of reduced graphene oxide/iron oxide nanocomposites%还原氧化石墨烯/四氧化三铁纳米复合物的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨晨; 严姗#; 祁婷婷; 李秀娟; 潘思轶


    ABSTRACT:Reduced graphene oxide/iron oxide (RGO/Fe3O4) nanocomposites, which integrate the advantages of RGOand Fe3O4 nanoparticles, are novel magnetic nanomaterials. In recent years, RGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposites have exhibited infinite charm in theoretical research and practical application sowing to their excellent mechanical, electrical, optical and thermal properties such as large surface area, high stability and superparamagnetism. This review reported the research progress of RGO/Fe3O4nanocomposites in magnetic solid phase extraction, lithium ion battery, sensor materials, electromagnetic wave absorption, catalysts, enzyme immobilization, drug delivery and magnetic switches in recent years. The application of RGO/Fe3O4in magnetic solid phase extraction was reviewed emphatically and the analysis objects including dyes, metal ions, pesticides and veterinary drugs, plasticizers, antibiotics and biological macromolecules, showing its great potential in the field of separation and enrichment. Finally, the existing problems of RGO/Fe3O4in research were put forward and the research and development orientation was briefly described.%还原氧化石墨烯/四氧化三铁(RGO/Fe3O4)纳米复合物是一种新型的磁性纳米材料,集Fe3O4和RGO的优点于一体,具备高比表面积、高稳定性、超顺磁性等优越的机械、电、热、光学特性,充分展现其在理论研究以及实际应用方面的价值和潜力。本文对近几年 RGO/Fe3O4磁性纳米复合物材料在磁性固相萃取、锂电子电池、传感器材料、电磁波吸收、催化剂、酶的固定化、药物传输以及磁控开关方面的应用研究进展进行了综述,重点综述了RGO/Fe3O4磁性纳米复合材料在磁性固相萃取方面的应用研究,分析对象包括染料、金属离子、农兽药、增塑剂、抗生素以及生物大分子,展现出其在分离富集领域的巨大应用潜力。最后,提出RGO/Fe3O4纳米复合材料在研究中

  7. Thesis Report: Resource Utilization Provisioning in MapReduce


    Barati, Hamidreza; Jaberi, Nasrin


    In this thesis report, we have a survey on state-of-the-art methods for modelling resource utilization of MapReduce applications regard to its configuration parameters. After implementation of one of the algorithms in literature, we tried to find that if CPU usage modelling of a MapReduce application can be used to predict CPU usage of another MapReduce application.

  8. Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad/Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Tieghi (Argentina


    Full Text Available Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

  9. Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad/Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics


    Osvaldo Tieghi (Argentina)


    Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

  10. Impact of seven years of glyphosate resistant corn and glyphosate applications under conventional and reduced tillage on bulk and rhizosphere soil exoenzyme activities and corn root endophytic microbial community structure (United States)

    Background: Conservation tillage practices across the country have been implementing genetically engineered glyphosate resistant corn crops along with applications of the herbicide glyphosate. We tested the hypothesis that seven years of glyphosate applications to both glyphosate resistant and non-r...

  11. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo


    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  12. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.


    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  13. Parallel Processing of cluster by Map Reduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Vaidya


    Full Text Available MapReduce is a parallel programming model and an associated implementation introduced by Google. In the programming model, a user specifies the computation by two functions, Map and Reduce. The underlying MapReduce library automatically parallelizes the computation, and handles complicated issues like data distribution, load balancing and fault tolerance. Massive input, spread across many machines, need to parallelize. Moves the data, and provides scheduling, fault tolerance. The original MapReduce implementation by Google, as well as its open-source counterpart, Hadoop, is aimed for parallelizing computing in large clusters of commodity machines. Map Reduce has gained a great popularity as it gracefully and automatically achieves fault tolerance. It automatically handles the gathering of results across the multiple nodes and returns a single result or set. This paper gives an overview of MapReduce programming model and its applications. The author has described here the workflow of MapReduce process. Some important issues, like fault tolerance, arestudied in more detail. Even the illustration of working of Map Reduce is given. The data locality issue in heterogeneous environments can noticeably reduce the Map Reduce performance. In this paper, the author has addressed the illustration of data across nodes in a way that each node has a balanced data processing load stored in a parallel manner. Given a data intensive application running on a Hadoop Map Reduce cluster, the auhor has exemplified how data placement is done in Hadoop architecture and the role of Map Reduce in the Hadoop Architecture. The amount of data stored in each node to achieve improved data-processing performance is explained here.

  14. Reduced basis techniques for stochastic problems


    Boyaval, Sébastien; Bris, Claude Le; Lelièvre, Tony; Maday, Yvon; Nguyen, Ngoc Cuong; Patera, Anthony T.


    We report here on the recent application of a now classical general reduction technique, the Reduced-Basis approach initiated in [C. Prud'homme, D. Rovas, K. Veroy, Y. Maday, A. T. Patera, and G. Turinici. Reliable real-time solution of parametrized partial differential equations: Reduced-basis output bounds methods. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 124(1):7080, 2002.], to the specific context of differential equations with random coefficients. After an elementary presentation of the approach, ...

  15. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana


    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  16. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei


    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  17. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)


    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  18. Reducing teenage pregnancy. (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie


    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  19. Reducing medication errors. (United States)

    Nute, Christine


    Most nurses are involved in medicines management, which is integral to promoting patient safety. Medicines management is prone to errors, which depending on the error can cause patient injury, increased hospital stay and significant legal expenses. This article describes a new approach to help minimise drug errors within healthcare settings where medications are prescribed, dispensed or administered. The acronym DRAINS, which considers all aspects of medicines management before administration, was devised to reduce medication errors on a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

  20. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias



    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  1. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela


    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  2. Reducing Iatrogenic Risks (United States)

    Ely, E. Wesley; Speroff, Theodore; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Dittus, Robert S.


    ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the “ABCDE bundle,” for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the “front end” to the “back end” of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors. PMID:21051398

  3. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban


    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  4. Factors significantly increasing or inhibiting early stages of malignant melanoma (M.M.) and non-invasive evaluation of new treatment by ingestion and external application of optimal doses of the most effective anti-M.M. substances: haritaki, cilantro, vitamin D3, nori, EPA with DHA, & application of special (+) solar energy stored paper, which reduced the M.M. active area & asbestos rapidly. (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu


    satisfying "ABCD" of M.M. completely fell off. Both oral & frequent external application of mixed solution of plum wine & the same combination of anti-M.M. substances can be used as very effective treatment by taking 2-3 times daily. Additional application of special (+) Solar Energy Stored Paper reduced asbestos & accelerated reduction of M.M. positive area rapidly. This method with individualized optimal doses has also been successfully applied to treat several other types of malignancies.

  5. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M


    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  6. Modelling reduced sparse data (United States)

    Kozera, Ryszard; Noakes, Lyle


    In this paper we discuss the problem of fitting to an ordered collection of points in arbitary Euclidean space called reduced data. We are not given here the corresponding interpolation knots. Instead, these are estimated by new knots upon minimizing a relevant highly nonlinear optimization scheme based on natural spline interpolation. The existence of a global minimizer (i.e. the collection of interpolation knots in ascending order) is also addressed in this paper. Finally, Leap-Frog optimization tool is used to compute these knots approximating the unknown interpolation knots. This numerical scheme is subsequently compared with the Secant Method. Two illustrative examples are given.

  7. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming


    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 董莉


    Acupuncture needle insertion always results in pain in the local area due to stimulating the free nerve endings—algesireceptors of the skin. In spite of mildness, this pain may induce many patients' fright, and thus, hinders more extensive application of acupuncture. In the present paper, the author introduces some methods for reducing needle insertion induced pain.

  9. 强化教育在降低实习护生针刺伤发生率中的应用%Application of intensive training in reducing the occurrence rate of pricking wound among nursing interns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史妍萍; 刘华平


    目的:探讨强化教育在降低护生实习期间针刺伤发生率、发生次数中应用的效果。方法采用历史对照研究设计,便利选取某医学院护理学院2007级本科实习护生53名为对照组,实习期间采用常规带教;2008级本科实习护生54名为干预组,对其实施强化教育。采用自行编制的针刺伤调查表调查两组护生在实习期8个月内针刺伤的发生状况。结果在8个月的实习期内,对照组护生针刺伤发生率为58.68%,干预组为33.33%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.82,P<0.05)。干预组护生普通针刺伤、污染针扎伤平均发生频次均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(Z值分别为-2.94,-2.74;P<0.01)。干预组护生在每一操作环节针刺伤发生次数均较对照组少,干预组、对照组均在操作前配液扎伤所占比例最大,分别为45.83%,37.29%;均在操作后回套针帽环节被污染针头扎伤比例最大,分别为40.00%,46.15%。两组护生普通针刺伤发生次数最多的科室均为社区。结论强化教育可以降低护生针刺伤的发生率、发生次数,此教育方案在护生针刺伤职业防护教育中有效、可行。%Objective To explore the application effects of intensive training in reducing the occurrence rate and frequency of pricking wound during nursing internship. Methods Quasi-experimental study with historical control study was used in this research. The 54 cases of grade 2008 undergraduate worked as intervention group with intensive training, and 53 cases of grade 2007 as control group with routine training, which were selected conveniently from a nursing school. The self-designed questionnaire of pricking wound was used to assess the occurrence rate and frequency of pricking wound. Results During eight months′ internship, occurrence rate of pricking wound in the control and intervention group were 58. 68% and 33. 33% (χ2 =6. 82, P<0. 05). The frequencies of normal pricking wound

  10. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger


    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  11. Reducing GWAS Complexity (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.


    ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711

  12. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo


    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军; 雷飞; 陈新


    The hybrid algorithm consisted of reduced-based method (RBM) and finite element method has been suggested to improve the efficiency of structure optimal design by enhancing the speed of every single computation.The hybrid algorithm has been applied to the design of racing car' s body.The design of static and dynamic problems has been mainly taken into account to accelerate the calculation while keeping the necessary accuracy.For each given case,the hybrid algorithm firstly needs to construct a reasonable reduced space.Then by Galerkin projection on a reduced space,the original large scale problems has been reduced into a much smaller one.The computational efficiency of this small problem is much higher than the original problem.Then based on the reduced model,the optimal design has been carried out.The results indicate that the hybrid algorithm is effective in structural design.%针对基于有限元方法的结构优化设计计算效率较低的问题,将减基法与有限元方法结合,对结构进行快速计算,从而实现结构的快速设计.以某型赛车车身结构设计为研究对象,主要考虑减基法在静力学和模态动力学中与有限元的混合数值方法,在保证精度的前提下,提高单次静力学和动力学的计算速度.该方法通过构建合理的解空间,将原设计空间缩减为较精简的设计空间,从而提高计算效率.在该空间基础上,以轻量化为目标,对该赛车车身结构进行设计.结果表明,在典型工况下该方法能够在节约计算成本的同时取得较好的优化效果.

  14. Reducing client waiting time. (United States)


    This first issues of Family Planning (FP) Manager focuses on how to analyze client waiting time and reduce long waits easily and inexpensively. Client flow analysis can be used by managers and staff to identify organizational factors affecting waiting time. Symptoms of long waiting times are overcrowded waiting rooms, clients not returning for services, staff complaints about rushing and waiting, and hurried counseling sessions. Client satisfaction is very important in order to retain FP users. Simple procedures such as routing return visits differently can make a difference in program effectiveness. Assessment of the number of first visits, the number of revisits, and types of methods and services that the clinic provides is a first step. Client flow analysis involves assigning a number to each client on registration, attaching the client flow form to the medical chart, entering the FP method and type of visit, asking staff to note the time at each station, and summarizing data in a master chart. The staff should be involved in plotting data for each client to show waiting versus staff contact time through the use of color coding for each type of staff contact. Bottlenecks become very visible when charted. The amount of time spent at each station can be measured, and gaps in client's contact with staff can be identified. An accurate measure of total waiting time can be obtained. A quick assessment can be made by recording arrival and departure times for each client in one morning or afternoon of a peak day. The procedure is to count the number of clients waiting at 15-minute intervals. The process should be repeated every 3-6 months to observe changes. If waiting times appear long, a more thorough assessment is needed on both a peak and a typical day. An example is given of a completed chart and graph of results with sample data. Managers need to set goals for client flow, streamline client routes, and utilize waiting time wisely by providing educational talks

  15. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, S.E.


    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.

  16. Regularized Reduced Order Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, David; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian


    This paper puts forth a regularization approach for the stabilization of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) reduced order models (ROMs) for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. Two regularized ROMs (Reg-ROMs) are proposed: the Leray ROM (L-ROM) and the evolve-then-filter ROM (EF-ROM). These new Reg-ROMs use spatial filtering to smooth (regularize) various terms in the ROMs. Two spatial filters are used: a POD projection onto a POD subspace (Proj) and a new POD differential filter (DF). The four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient and the three-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re = 100). Overall, the most accurate Reg-ROM/filter combination is EF-ROM-DF. Furthermore, the DF generally yields better results than Proj. Finally, the four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are computationally efficient and generally more accurate than the standard Galerkin ROM.

  17. Riboflavin Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Adipocyte-Macrophage Co-culture. Potential Application of Vitamin B2 Enrichment for Attenuation of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy


    Full Text Available Due to the progressive increase in the incidence of obese and overweight individuals, cardiometabolic syndrome has become a worldwide pandemic in recent years. Given the immunomodulatory properties of riboflavin, the current study was performed to investigate the potency of riboflavin in reducing obesity-related inflammation, which is the main cause of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus 2 or arteriosclerosis. We determined whether pretreatment with a low dose of riboflavin (10.4–1000 nM affected the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte-macrophage co-culture (3T3 L1-RAW 264.7 following lipopolysaccharide stimulation (LPS; 100 ng/mL which mimics obesity-related inflammation. The apoptosis of adipocytes and macrophages as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 1beta (IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, transforming growth factor–beta 1 (TGFβ, interleukin 10 (IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitric oxide (NO, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1 expression and release, macrophage migration and adipokines (adiponectin and leptin were determined. Our results indicated an efficient reduction in pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1, HMGB1 upon culture with riboflavin supplementation (500–1000 nM, accompanied by elevation in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and IL-10. Moreover, macrophage migration was reduced by the attenuation of chemotactic MCP-1 release and degradation of the extracellular matrix by MMP-9. In conclusion, riboflavin effectively inhibits the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte and macrophage co-cultures, and therefore we can assume that its supplementation may reduce the likelihood of conditions associated with the mild inflammation linked to obesity.

  18. 应用品管圈实施无创接生技术降低会阴切开率%Applications QCC implementation of noninvasive delivery techniques to reduce episiotomy rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂平; 王坤昌; 周秀荣; 周萍萍


    目的:探讨应用品管圈实施无创接生技术对会阴切开率的影响。方法:成立品管圈小组,活动开展前对影响会阴切开的要因进行分析,确定通过实施无创接生技术,降低会阴切开率为活动主题,制定并落实改进措施。结果:应用品管圈活动,实施无创接生,会阴切开率由活动前的62.71%降低到活动后的30.24%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:应用品管圈活动,实施无创接生技术,可有效降低产妇会阴切开率,提升助产服务质量,促进自然分娩。%Objective:To evaluate the impact of the implementation of quality control circle for non -invasive delivery techniques episiotomy rate.Methods:Founded QCC group activities before affecting episiotomy should cause analysis to determine through the implementation of non -invasive delivery tech-niques to reduce episiotomy rate theme,develop and implement improvement measures.Results:QCC activities,the implementation of non -invasive deliver-y,episiotomy rate of 62.71% before the event was reduced to 30.24% after the event,the difference was statistically significant(P <0.05).Conclusion:QCC activities,the implementation of non -invasive delivery techniques, can effectively reduce maternal episiotomy rate,improve midwifery service quality, and promote natural childbirth.

  19. Reducing the impact. (United States)

    Mahathir, M


    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  20. 失效模式和效应分析在降低医院医疗差错中的应用%Application of failure mode and effect analysis in reducing hospital medical errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕玉田; 唐静; 文爱清; 王毅; 程晓斌; 周林


    随着临床风险管理成为医院管理的一个重要组成部分,降低医疗差错、确保患者安全已成为质量管理的一个重要过程.失效模式和效应分析(failure mode and effect analysis,FMEA)是发现并减少医疗差错的一个重要的前瞻性方法.在简要回顾FMEA发展历史的基础上,详细描述FMEA的实施方法和步骤,重点介绍FMEA应用于降低医院医疗差错的研究进展.%As the importance of clinical risks management grows hospital management,reducing hospital medical errors for patients safety has become a key quality management process.Failure Mode and effect analysis( FMEA) is a proactive technique for error detection and reduction.In this paper,based on a brief review of it's history of development,described in detail the implementation method and steps of FMEA,mainly introducing the research progress for using FMEA in reducing hospital medical errors.

  1. A successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to fabricate a layer-by-layer (LbL) MnO2-reduced graphene oxide assembly for supercapacitor application (United States)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee


    A facile, cost effective and additive-free successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique is demonstrated to develop layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and MnO2 (MnO2-RGOSILAR) on a stainless steel current collector, for designing light-weight and small size supercapacitor electrode. The transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy images shows uniform distribution of RGO and MnO2 in the MnO2-RGOSILAR. The LbL (MnO2-RGOSILAR) demonstrates improved physical and electrochemical properties over the hydrothermally prepared MnO2-RGO (MnO2-RGOHydro). The electrochemical environment of MnO2-RGOSILAR is explained by constant phase element in the high frequency region, and a Warburg element in the low frequency region in the Z-View fitted Nyquist plot. The equivalent circuit of the MnO2-RGOHydro, displays the co-existence of EDL and constant phase element, indicating inhomogeneous distribution of MnO2 and RGO by the hydrothermal technique. An asymmetric supercapacitor device is designed with MnO2-RGOSILAR as positive electrode, and thermally reduced GO (TRGO) as negative electrode. The designed cell exhibits high energy density of ∼88 Wh kg-1, elevated power density of ∼23,200 W kg-1, and ∼79% retention in capacitance after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles.

  2. A Comprehensive Study of the Use of Cu(I/4,4’-Dicarboxy-2,2’-biquinoline Complexes to Measure the Total Reducing Capacity: Application in Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariane R. Manoel


    Full Text Available A method for the determination of total reducing capacity (TRC based on the reduction of Cu(II to Cu(I by antioxidants in a buffered solution (pH 7.0 containing 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-biquinoline acid (BCA was developed. Absorbance values at 558 nm characteristic of the Cu(I/BCA complexes formed were used to determine the TRC of aqueous extracts of twelve Brazilian plants. The TRC values obtained with the suggested method correlated well with values obtained using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method (r2 = 0.959. They were also compared with the total polyphenol content (using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the good agreement (r2 = 0.919 indicates that the polyphenols should be responsible for this reducing capacity. The method proposed here (and successfully applied in plant extracts can be used to measure the TRC of aqueous samples derived from other plants (e.g., teas, juices, beers and wines and even in biological samples (e.g., serum, urine and follicular fluid. To achieve a structure-activity relationship of the proposed reaction, the reduction capability of 25 standard antioxidants (phenolic derivatives, flavonoids, stilbenoids, vitamins, etc. was individually evaluated and the apparent molar absorptivity values (at 558 nm obtained were compared and discussed.

  3. Finite Element Model Development and Application on Stretch Reducing Process of Seamless Tube%无缝钢管张力减径过程的有限元模型开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于辉; 杜凤山; 汪飞雪


    The stretch reducing process is divided into the rolling deformation of the stand and the remeshing generation between the stands taking the tension between the adjacent stands as the boundary conditions by means of the group modeling principle in order to study the metal deformation of hot rolling seamless tube in the process of stretch reducing. A higher-order fitting function is established to accurately describe the roll pass surface. A friction element model is applied to simulate the contact friction. Furthermore, the nonlinear equations are solved with a secant modulus method. On the basis of above theories, a elastic-plastic finite element model of stretch reducing process is developed, which is used to establish a FE model and to simulate the metal deformation of the stretch reducing unit of some factory. Through comparison, the shape of the product section simulated is similar to that of the actual rolled product, which is a slight hexagon shape. Moreover, the variation of wall thickness is the same. The geometry simulated is agreed very well with that of the measured. These show that the developed elastic-plastic finite element model for tube stretch reducing process met the requirements of engineering calculation, which provided an effective research method for predicting the section shape and finishing size accuracy.%为了研究热轧无缝钢管张力减径过程的金属变形,利用组元建模原理,把张力作为相邻机架之间的边界条件,使得张力减径过程分为机架上的轧制变形过程和机架之间的网格再生过程.建立高阶拟合函数来精确描述轧辊孔型曲面,应用摩擦元模型来模拟接触摩擦,并用正割模量法来求解非线性方程组,在上述理论基础上开发张力减径弹塑性有限元模型,利用该模型对某厂张力减径机组进行有限元建模分析.通过与实际轧制结果比较可知,模拟计算与实际轧制的产品断面形状接近,都呈现轻微内六方形

  4. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  5. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)


    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  6. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela


    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  7. Optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure to reduce impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: An application to the Trail Creek Watershed, Indiana. (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Theller, Lawrence O; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Engel, Bernard A


    The adverse impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrology and water quality can be mitigated by applying green infrastructure practices. In this study, the impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality in the 153.2 km(2) Trail Creek watershed located in northwest Indiana were estimated using the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for the following environmental concerns: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx). Using a recent 2001 land use map and 2050 land use forecasts, we found that land use change resulted in increased runoff volume and pollutant loads (8.0% to 17.9% increase). Climate change reduced runoff and nonpoint source pollutant loads (5.6% to 10.2% reduction). The 2050 forecasted land use with current rainfall resulted in the largest runoff volume and pollutant loads. The optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure practices using L-THIA-LID 2.1 model were conducted. Costs of applying green infrastructure were estimated using the L-THIA-LID 2.1 model considering construction, maintenance, and opportunity costs. To attain the same runoff volume and pollutant loads as in 2001 land uses for 2050 land uses, the runoff volume, TSS, TP, TKN, and NOx for 2050 needed to be reduced by 10.8%, 14.4%, 13.1%, 15.2%, and 9.0%, respectively. The corresponding annual costs of implementing green infrastructure to achieve the goals were $2.1, $0.8, $1.6, $1.9, and $0.8 million, respectively. Annual costs of reducing 2050 runoff volume/pollutant loads were estimated, and results show green infrastructure annual cost greatly increased for larger reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads. During optimization, the most cost-efficient green infrastructure practices were selected and implementation levels increased for greater reductions of runoff and nonpoint source pollutants.

  8. Nonorthogonal orbital based n-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. III. Second-order perturbation theory using valence bond self-consistent field function as reference. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Ying, Fuming; Gu, Junjing; Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei


    Using the formulas and techniques developed in Papers I and II of this series, the recently developed second-order perturbation theory based on a valence bond self-consistent field reference function (VBPT2) has been extended by using the internally contracted correction wave function. This ansatz strongly reduces the size of the interaction space compared to the uncontracted wave function and thus improves the capability of the VBPT2 method dramatically. Test calculations show that internally contracted VBPT2 using only a small number of reference valence bond functions, can give results as accuracy as the VBPT2 method and other more sophisticated methods such as full configuration interaction and multireference configuration interaction.

  9. A facile one-pot hydrothermal method to produce SnS2/reduced graphene oxide with flake-on-sheet structures and their application in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. (United States)

    Bian, Xiujie; Lu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yanpeng; Zhang, Chengcheng; Kong, Lirong; Wang, Ce


    In this article, we report a novel one-pot synthesis of SnS2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flake-on-sheet nanocomposites via in situ reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by Sn(2+) under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology and structure of the obtained product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction instrument (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of the SnS2/rGO nanocomposites were examined using an organic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) as adsorbate. SnS2/rGO exhibited superior adsorption behavior for RhB. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm were investigated. The adsorption of RhB by SnS2/rGO was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the resultant kinetic data were well described by pseudo-second-order model.

  10. An improved treatment of spectator mode vibrations in reduced dimensional quantum dynamics: application to the hydrogen abstraction reactions mu + CH4, H + CH4, D + CH4, and CH3 + CH4. (United States)

    Banks, Simon T; Tautermann, Christofer S; Remmert, Sarah M; Clary, David C


    A method for projecting chemical reaction surface coordinates from a Hessian in curvilinear internal coordinates has recently been developed. Here we introduce a modification to this approach which allows for analytical evaluation of the necessary coordinate derivatives, thus reducing the number of ab initio calculations required. We apply this method to the determination of spectator mode frequencies and zero-point energies for the series of hydrogen abstraction reactions X + CH(4) --> XH + CH(3), X = muonium (mu), H, D, CH(3). Comparison of these frequencies with those obtained using rectilinear coordinates allows us to examine how the mass of X affects the coordinate sensitivity of the spectator modes. We carry out two-dimensional quantum reactive scattering calculations for these reactions to highlight instances where the choice of coordinates may have a significant impact on the evaluated thermal rate constants.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a binary oxide ZrO2–TiO2 and its application in chlorophyll dye-sensitized solar cell with reduced graphene oxide as counter electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asha R Pai; Bipin Nair


    Natural dyes have been used to sensitize TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells, but they still require pigment purification and co-adsorption of other compounds. In this study, nanocrystalline ZrO2–TiO2 films sensitized with the bioorganic dye, chlorophyll extracted from green leaves of Chromolaena odorata were investigated. The nanocrystalline ZrO2–TiO2 films were synthesized by the precipitation synthesis. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrodes were prepared using ZrO2–TiO2 sensitized with the chlorophyll dye and the counter electrodes using reduced graphene oxide. The shift in the absorption wavelength of chlorophyll showed an increase of adsorption of dye. The conversion efficiency was also studied.

  12. 六西格玛管理在降低精神病患者跌倒发生率中的应用%Application of six sigma management in reducing fall incidence for patients with mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳红; 耿在香


    目的:探讨利用六西格玛管理减少精神病患者跌倒的效果。方法:应用六西格玛管理的DMAIC流程,即界定阶段( D),测量阶段( M)、分析阶段( A)、改进阶段( I)和控制阶段( C),找出引起跌倒的主要原因,针对这些原因采取护理措施。结果:对实施管理前后跌倒的发生率比较,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01)。结论:利用六西格玛管理可有效降低精神病患者跌倒发生率。%Objective:To discuss effects of six sigma management in reducing fall incidence for patients with mental disorders. Methods:The main reasons for falls were found out by applying the DMAIC process of six sigma management, that was, define, meas-ure, analyze, improve, and control. Then, the corresponding nursing measures were taken. Results: The difference of the fall inci-dences before and after six sigma management was statistically significant (all P<0. 01). Conclusions:Six-sigma management can ef-ficiency reduce falls incidence for the patients with mental disorders.

  13. 品管圈对降低产科护理用药错误率的应用分析%QCC application analysis of obstetric care to reduce the medication error rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨烨; 朱凌怡; 孙琴


    Objective To apply quality control circles,improve nurses' ability,reduce nursing medication error rate,care for maternal and child safety. Methods To form a"care",according to the qc circle the ten steps of planning,implementation and improvement. Results Obstetrics by QCC activity,improve nursing medication error rate by 1.07%before/in February to 0.31%in February. Conclusion The quality control circle in obstetric achieve good effect,reduce the number of nursing medication errors and improve the business service level of the nursing staff,ensure the safety of the patient.%目的:运用品管圈,提升护理人员的业务能力,降低护理用药错误率,呵护母婴安全。方法组建“呵护圈”,按品管圈的十大步骤进行计划、实施和改进。结果我科通过开展QCC活动,使护理用药错误率由改善前的1.07%/2月降至0.31%/2月。结论品管圈在产科取得良好的效果,减少了护理用药错误次数,提升了护理人员的业务服务水平,保证了病人用药安全。

  14. Dai Minghuan Quality Management in Reducing the Application of Poor Perineal Wound Healing%戴明环质量管理在降低会阴切口愈合不良中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新红; 赵慧玲


    Objective Discussion about the effect of PDCA Cycle on reducing perineal incision infection.Method Set 612 virginal birth cases from January to December in 2014 as control group,set 646 virginal birth cases from January to November in 2015 as observation group.To apply general nursing to episiotomy incision in control group,and apply PDCA Cycle to continually improve quality of care in observation group.Result The rate of poor healing of episiotomy incision was lower than that of control group,and the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion Through continuous quality control of episiotomy wound ,PDCA quality management mode can reduce the incidence of poor healing of postpartum perineal incision.%目的:探讨戴明环(PDCA)质量管理对降低会阴伤口感染的效果。方法将2014年1月至12月在我院足月顺产的产妇612例设为对照组;2015年1月11月在我院足月顺产的产妇646例设为观察组。对照组产后按常规进行会阴切口护理,观察组采用PDCA质量管理方法进行持续性质量管理。结果观察组产妇会阴切口愈合不良发生率低于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论遵循PDCA质量管理模式,通过会阴切口护理质量的持续改进,能降低产妇产后的会阴切口愈合不良发生率。

  15. Application of quality control circle activity in reducing the operating room nurses tour times out%品管圈活动在减少手术室巡回护士外出次数中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:运用品管圈(QCC)活动减少手术室巡回护士外出次数。方法:组建品管圈活动小组,通过圈员投票将减少巡回护士外出作为本次活动的主题,按照品管圈活动步骤及方法,对影响手术间巡回护士外出次数的原因进行分析,制定相应的措施并组织实施。结果:手术间巡回护士外出次数由品管圈活动前的8.29次/台降低到5.61次/台,降幅达32.32%。结论:通过品管圈活动能提高护士工作效率,保证患者手术安全,推进手术室护理管理标准化。%Objective:To apply quality control circle (QCC) tour activities to reduce go out of the operating room nurses.Method:Reduced the visiting nurse go out as the theme of the event by circle member vote to form QCC activity group,according to the QCC activity method,analyzed the reasons of the affecting operation between circuit nurses,and the number of out formulate corresponding measures and organize their implementation.Results:Between operation circuit nurses out by QCC activity times 8.29 times down to 5.61 times,drop of 32.32%.Conclusion:Through the QCC activity increase work efficiency of nurses,to ensure the safety of patients,and promote standardization of the operating room nursing management.

  16. Application of lean six sigma management:A case study on reducing power consumption of PASSIM cigarette maker%精益六西格玛管理的应用--以降低PASSIM卷烟机电耗为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有远; 李强; 谢成明


    Advantages and disadvantages of lean production and six sigma management were analyzed and its application in tobacco industry was explored. Three key points in implementing lean six sigma in tobacco industry were identified. Suggestions in implementing lean six sigma to improve performance efficiency and enhance market competitiveness were proposed.%分析了精益生产与六西格玛管理的优缺点,以及精益六西格玛在工业生产管理中的优势,介绍了精益六西格玛的实施步骤。以某卷烟厂降低PASSIM卷烟机生产过程中的电耗为例,说明了精益六西格玛在企业中的实施方法。

  17. Fast Clustering using MapReduce


    Ene, Alina; Im, Sungjin; Moseley, Benjamin


    Clustering problems have numerous applications and are becoming more challenging as the size of the data increases. In this paper, we consider designing clustering algorithms that can be used in MapReduce, the most popular programming environment for processing large datasets. We focus on the practical and popular clustering problems, $k$-center and $k$-median. We develop fast clustering algorithms with constant factor approximation guarantees. From a theoretical perspective, we give the firs...

  18. Reducing or enhancing chaos using periodic orbits. (United States)

    Bachelard, R; Chandre, C; Leoncini, X


    A method to reduce or enhance chaos in Hamiltonian flows with two degrees of freedom is discussed. This method is based on finding a suitable perturbation of the system such that the stability of a set of periodic orbits changes (local bifurcations). Depending on the values of the residues, reflecting their linear stability properties, a set of invariant tori is destroyed or created in the neighborhood of the chosen periodic orbits. An application on a paradigmatic system, a forced pendulum, illustrates the method.

  19. QCC Application Research on Reducing the Rate of Occurrence of VAP in Patients with Mechanical Ventilation%品管圈活动在降低机械通气患者VAP发生率中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:降低机械通气患者VAP的发生率。方法成立品管圈(QC小组),以"降低VAP发生率"为主题,拟定活动计划书,进行现况把握、设立目标、解析、真因验证、制定措施并组织实施。结果选定的改进重点问题经品管改善后,累计百分比从74.8%下降为40%,下降幅度为46.5%;品管前 VAP发生率为64.8%,品管后VAP发生率为30.3%,目标达成率为118.6%。进步率为53.2%。结论品管圈是一个集体思考、全员运作的有效管理工具,不仅能有效改进护理质量,更能提升成员职业及管理效能,值得广泛推广。%Objective:to reduce the incidence of VAP in patients with mechanical ventilation. Methods:to set up quality control circle (QC group),to"reduce the incidence rate of VAP" as the theme,to plan,conduct,set goals,grasp the analytic,real y,for verification measures and organize the implementation. Results: the selected improvement focus by quality control is improved, the cumulative percentage decreased from 74.8% to 40%,a decline of 46.5%;quality control of the incidence of VAP was 64.8%,the incidence rate was 30.3%,VAP quality management,the target rate of 118.6%.The improvement rate was 53.2%. Conclusion:quality control circle is a col ective thinking, ful operation of the ef ective management tools,not only can ef ectively improve the quality of nursing,and improve management ef iciency of occupation and members,and is worth widely.

  20. iHadoop: Asynchronous Iterations Support for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam


    MapReduce is a distributed programming framework designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter- iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This thesis also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  1. Application of the MOVE algorithm for the identification of reduced order models of a core of a BWR type reactor; Aplicacion del algoritmo MOVE para la identificacion de modelos de orden reducido del nucleo de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria R, M.A.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    Presently work is applied the modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE) to a reduced order model of 5 differential equations of the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with the purpose of estimating the parameters that model the dynamics. The viability is analyzed of carrying out an analysis that calculates the global dynamic parameters that determine the stability of the system and the uncertainty of the estimate. The modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE), is a method applied to the parametric identification of systems, in particular to the estimate of groups of parameters (PSE for their initials in English). It is looked for to obtain the ellipsoid of smaller volume that guarantees to contain the real value of the parameters of the model. The PSE MOVE is a recursive identification method that can manage the sign of noise and to ponder it, the ellipsoid represents an advantage due to its easy mathematical handling in the computer, the results that surrender are very useful for the design of Robust Control since to smaller volume of the ellipsoid, better is in general the performance of the system to control. The comparison with other methods presented in the literature to estimate the reason of decline (DR) of a BWR is presented. (Author)

  2. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Wattanathana, Worawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Jongrungruangchok, Suchada [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, 12000 (Thailand); Veranitisagul, Chatchai [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110 (Thailand); Koonsaeng, Nattamon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Laobuthee, Apirat, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand)


    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO{sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedeff


    Full Text Available The work present the results obtained after dynamic analyze the pollution emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and O2 on evacuation channels of burnt gas on boiler of 420 t/h steam, having right the basic combustible the lignite, and auxiliary combustible the fuel oil and the natural gas. The values of pollution emission was analyze beside the admissible maxims values required by European legislation for Romania in the year 2005. The conclusion elaborated it adverted to: the values of oxides azoth, carry they frame in the limits provide in Environmental Authorization, under 60 mg/Nmc on 6% oxygen, the concentration values of SO2 which was bigger in report with one authorized comprised between 3500-3900 mg/Nmc confronted by 3400 mg/Nm. For integration in the foresee Government Decision 541/2003 aren't sufficient just proceeding of below reduce SO2, must take and another measures such as: get the fuel with quantity of sulphur 0.5% and with a content of ash below 35%.

  4. Enhanced computational efficiency in the direct determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation with application to ground and excited states of conjugated π-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, Andrew M.; Mazziotti, David A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)


    Determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) from the solution of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) yields accurate energies and properties for both ground and excited states. Here, we develop a more efficient method to solving the ACSE that uses second-order information to select a more optimal step towards the solution. Calculations on the ground and excited states of water, hydrogen fluoride, and conjugated π systems show that the improved ACSE algorithm is 10-20 times faster than the previous ACSE algorithm. The ACSE can treat both single- and multi-reference electron correlation with the initial 2-RDM from a complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation. Using the improved algorithm, we explore the relationship between truncation of the active space in the CASSCF calculation and the accuracy of the energy and 2-RDM from the ACSE calculation. The accuracy of the ACSE, we find, is less sensitive to the size of the active space than the accuracy of other wavefunction methods, which is useful when large active space calculations are computationally infeasible.

  5. Enhanced computational efficiency in the direct determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation with application to ground and excited states of conjugated π-systems. (United States)

    Sand, Andrew M; Mazziotti, David A


    Determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) from the solution of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) yields accurate energies and properties for both ground and excited states. Here, we develop a more efficient method to solving the ACSE that uses second-order information to select a more optimal step towards the solution. Calculations on the ground and excited states of water, hydrogen fluoride, and conjugated π systems show that the improved ACSE algorithm is 10-20 times faster than the previous ACSE algorithm. The ACSE can treat both single- and multi-reference electron correlation with the initial 2-RDM from a complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation. Using the improved algorithm, we explore the relationship between truncation of the active space in the CASSCF calculation and the accuracy of the energy and 2-RDM from the ACSE calculation. The accuracy of the ACSE, we find, is less sensitive to the size of the active space than the accuracy of other wavefunction methods, which is useful when large active space calculations are computationally infeasible.

  6. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.


    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  7. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations (United States)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.


    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  8. Reduced graphene oxide by chemical graphitization. (United States)

    Moon, In Kyu; Lee, Junghyun; Ruoff, Rodney S; Lee, Hyoyoung


    Reduced graphene oxides (RG-Os) have attracted considerable interest, given their potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits. However, very little is known regarding the chemically induced reduction method of graphene oxide (G-O) in both solution and gas phases, with the exception of the hydrazine-reducing agent, even though it is essential to use the vapour phase for the patterning of hydrophilic G-Os on prepatterned substrates and in situ reduction to hydrophobic RG-Os. In this paper, we report a novel reducing agent system (hydriodic acid with acetic acid (HI-AcOH)) that allows for an efficient, one-pot reduction of a solution-phased RG-O powder and vapour-phased RG-O (VRG-O) paper and thin film. The reducing agent system provided highly qualified RG-Os by mass production, resulting in highly conducting RG-O(HI-AcOH). Moreover, VRG-O(HI-AcOH) paper and thin films were prepared at low temperatures (40 °C) and were found to be applicable to flexible devices. This one-pot method is expected to advance research on highly conducting graphene platelets.

  9. The European Procedure on Reduced Value Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia


    Full Text Available Maintaining and developing the area of freedom, security and justice is a major objective of theEuropean Community, which guarantees the free movement of persons. As a result of litigations regardingthe applications with a reduced value arising among physical or legal persons, it was felt the need for acommunity legislation that would guarantee identical conditions, both for creditors and debtors throughoutthe entire European Union territory. The European procedure regarding the debts recovery of reducedvalue facilitates the access to justice and it is characterized by simplifying and expediting the settling of thetransboundary litigations, reducing costs, the recognition and execution of the court order in a MemberState given in another Member State. This procedure is available to litigants as an alternative to theprocedures provided by the laws of Member States. The Regulation (EC no. 861/2007 establishing aEuropean procedure regarding the applications with reduced value applies in civil and commercial matters inthe transboundary cases, regardless the nature of the court when the application value, without taking intoaccount the interest, expenditures and other costs, does not exceed 2000 Euro at the time of receiving theapplication form by the competent court. This procedure does not apply to revenue, customs oradministrative matters or in regard to state responsibility for acts or omissions in exercising the publicauthority, and other matters specifically referred to in the Regulation. A cause is transboundary in naturewhen one of the parties has its habitual residence in a Member State, other than the one where the courtreceives such application. The proper procedure of application resolution for the recovery of debts withreduced value is governed by the rules of procedural law of the Member State in which the proceedings areconducted, and the execution of court of law is made by state legislation in which it takes place. The

  10. 应用品管圈在降低甲状腺手术患者术后体位综合征发生率的效果评价%Evaluation of the Effect of the Application of the Coil in Reducing the Incidence of Postoperative Postural Syndrome in Patients With Thyroid Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚男; 张智慧; 李斯琦


    Objective To evaluate the effect of the application of tube loop in reducing the incidence of postoperative postural syndrome in patients with thyroid surgery.Methods The establishment of the Department of quality control circle group, the incidence of thyroid patients with postoperative posture syndrome investigation, the development of appropriate measures. Results Application of benign thyroid surgery, the incidence of postoperative postural syndrome in patients with thyroid surgery was signiifcantly reduced, the incidence of postoperative postural syndrome was reduced from 64.71% to 46.04%.Conclusion QCC in reducing postoperative patients after thyroidectomy posture syndrome occurrence, improve has obvious effect in patients undergoing thyroid surgery before the completion of postural training and patient satisfaction with nursing service quality aspects.%目的:探讨应用品管圈在降低甲状腺手术患者术后体位综合征发生率的效果评价。方法科室内建立品管圈小组,对甲状腺患者发生术后体位综合征进行调查,制定相应的措施。结果应用品管圈良性干预后,甲状腺患者术后体位综合征的发生显著减少,患者术后体位综合征发生率由64.71%降至46.04%。结论品管圈活动在降低甲状腺手术患者术后体位综合征的发生、提高甲状腺手术患者术前体位训练的完成、患者对护理工作服务质量的满意度方面有明显的效果。

  11. 品管圈在降低我院门诊药房药品过期损耗中的应用%Application of quality control circle in reducing the loss rate of expired medicine in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晋涛; 刘萍; 曹媛媛; 柴栋


    [ABSTRACT]Objective:To explore the effect of quality control circle (QCC) activity in reducing the medicine loss caused by expiration.Methods:Each step was carried out according to QCC. Speciifcally, brainstorming method was applied to analyze the reason of a high level for the expired medicine, ifshbone diagram and association graph were used to explore solutions and evaluate tangible results (reported loss rate of expired medicine), while radar diagram was adopted for assessing intangible outcomes (ability of QCC) and formulating standardized process.Results:The results strongly suggested that the major reasons for high loss rate of expired medicine were the inefifcient communication with doctors about medicine information, the careless omission in pharmacists' work, the frequent change of medicine speciifcation, producer, batch number and the commercial distribution of medicines which were close to the expired date, etc. Corresponding working system and many measures were brought into working process of medicine conservation to improve the situation. As a result, the reported loss rate of the expired drug decreased from 0.230% to 0.021%. Some remarkable elevations in terms of QCC skills, sense of responsibility, team spirit, capability of communication and coordination were registered. Conclusion: Implementation of QCC plays an important role in reducing ratio of the overdue medicines in our hospital.%目的:探讨品管圈活动对降低药品过期造成的药品损耗的效果。方法:成立品管圈,按照品管圈的步骤实施各项活动,运用头脑风暴法分析产生药品过期损耗高的原因,采取鱼骨图及关联图手法探讨解决的对策并实施,评价有形成果(过期药品报损率),采用雷达图评价无形成果(圈能力)。结果:我院过期药品损耗率高的主要原因是医生获得药品信息不.,药师工作有疏漏,频繁更换药品规格、厂家、批号及商业配送近效期药

  12. Study on the Application of Membrane Treatment Method to Reduce the De?gree of Mineralization of Oily Wastewater%膜处理法降低含油污水矿化度工业化应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗宝林; 孙冰; 班辉; 胡家明; 张永丰


    In the process of polymer flooding in Daqing oil field, because of the high de-gree of mineralization of oil bearing wastewater, it will cause the degradation of polymer, so it is generally used to prepare polymer solution with low salinity water. In recent years, with the increasing scale of polymer flooding development,the low salinity water consumption in-creased significantly, resulting in the imbalance of oil production and water injection, the emergence of sewage efflux. From 2012, the second oil production plant began the study of the preparation of the polymer technology for reducing the degree of oil production, and small scale laboratory experiments and field tests were conducted in the field test. In 2012, a 5 000 m3 low salinity oil bearing wastewater treatment station was built,which was used to sep-arate the ion from oily wastewater by lon exchange membrane process.Using low salinity wa-ter to replace the water to dilute the polymer,can reduce the cost of water about 5.9 yuan/m3, and annual cost sauhgs about 978 million.%在大庆油田聚驱开发过程中,由于采出的含油污水矿化度高,会造成聚合物降解,因此一般采用低矿化度清水配制聚合物溶液.随着聚驱开发规模不断扩大,低矿化度清水用量大幅度增加,导致含油污水采注失衡,出现污水外排现象.为此,开展了含油污水降矿化度配制聚合物工艺技术的研究.先后进行了室内实验、现场小试、现场中试等试验研究,并于2012年新建设1座日产5 000 m3低矿化度含油污水试验站,采用超滤膜+离子交换膜工艺技术,将离子从含油污水中分离,使处理后的污水水质满足配注聚合物的用水标准.对含油污水进行改性后,保证了含油污水配制的聚合物溶液黏度不低于清水.采用低矿化度污水替代清水稀释聚合物,可减少清水费用5.9元/m3,年节约成本978万元.

  13. 品管圈活动在“降低无菌包不合格件数”中的应用%Application of QCC in"Reduce Aseptic Package Failed in the Number"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠英; 李黎


    Objective To apply the qc circle management methods to reduce the unqualified aseptic package number. Methods Using quality management circle activity 1 ~ 28 July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed Japan hospital disinfection disinfection sterilization supply center 2500 sterile packet loss situation, put forward the cor esponding countermeasures for the cause of loss occur ed, and in 2013 October 1 ~ 28 strictly implemented. Comparing the circle of qc activity aseptic package unqualified number before and after intervention. Results October 2013 to 1 ~ 28 disinfection sterilization, 2500 aseptic package to intervene after the sterile package unqualified number by activity fel to 15.75 /weeks before 5.25 /weeks, compared with the same year 7 phases of the moon has dropped significantly, the dif erence statistical y significant ( < 0.01). Conclusion The quality control circle activities in reducing the aseptic package quantity of unqualified, the satisfactory ef ect, worthy of promotion. Al the members of the ability to solve the problem, the sense of responsibility, cohesion, motivation, communication, cooperation, pleasure, quality management technique, harmonious degree has been improved.%目的运用品管圈管理方法来降低无菌包不合格件数。方法利用品管圈活动回顾性分析2013年7月1日~28日本院消毒供应中心消毒灭菌的2500个无菌物品包缺失情况,针对缺失发生的原因提出相应的对策措施,并于2013年10月1日~28日严格执行。比较品管圈活动干预前后无菌包不合格件数。结果对2013年10月1日~28日消毒灭菌的2500个无菌包进行干预后无菌包不合格件数由活动前15.75件/w降至活动后的5.25件/w,与同年7月相比较有显著下降,差异具有统计学意义(<0.01)。结论品管圈活动在降低无菌包不合格件数中,取得满意效果,值得推广。全体圈成员对解决问题的能力、责任感、凝聚力、积极性、沟通配合、

  14. The application of root cause analytical method in reducing infections related to central venous catheter%根因分析法在降低中心静脉导管相关性感染中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江寅芳; 郭海珍; 夏娟; 夏肖枫; 冯惠春


    OBJECTIVE To reduce the incidence of central venous catheter‐related infections and improve the safety of the patients with central venous catheter by root cause analytical method .METHODS The clinical data of 768 cases and 838 cases treated with central venous catheter in 2012 and 2013 were investigated .Through using the method of root cause analysis to analyze proximal causes and root causes for the 84 cases of catheter‐related infections in 2012 ,the central venous catheter assessment and monitoring mechanism were set to improve the catheter insertion method and the maintenance method ,and strengthen the training of nurses and the mission to patients and their families .The effect was traced in 2013 .RESULTS There were 84 cases with central venous catheter‐related infections in 2012 ;the infection rate was 10 .9% .And in 2013 ,this number was 46 cases;the infection rate was 5 .5% .The differences of the two years′infection rate was significant(P<0 .05) .The insertion site infection and catheter‐related infection (CRBSI) incidence of 2013 were 29(3 .5% )and 17(2 .0% ) ,lower than those of 2012 ,60(7 .8% )and 24(3 .1% ) ,there was significant differences (P<0 .05) .According to the days of the central catheter indwelling statistics ,the daily infection rate fell from 7 .2/1000 to 3 .5/1000 .CONCLUSION Root cause analytical method can provide a scientific way for systematically and effectively reducing the occurrence of central venous catheter‐related infections .%目的:通过根因分析减少中心静脉置管后相关性感染的发生率,提高置管患者的安全性。方法调查2012、2013年行中心静脉置管各768、838例患者资料,对2012年发生中心静脉导管感染患者,运用根因分析方法进行近端原因、根本原因分析,制定中心静脉导管的评估和监控机制,改进导管的置管与维护方法,强化对护士的培训和对患者及家属的宣教,于2013年对改

  15. 品管圈在降低住院药房药品损耗件数方面的应用%Application of Quality Control Circle in Reducing the Amount of Drug Wastage in Inpatient Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓萍; 许剑安; 吴轶; 曹蕾


    Objective In order to reduce the amount of drug wastage in inpatient pharmacy, improve the quality and ef iciency of work, and promote the staf ' ability of self-controling and problem-solving. Methods The processes of planing, doing, confirming and disposaling are carried out by fol owing the ten procedures of QCC. Results The amount of drug wastage in inpatient pharmacy declined from 78.84 per month to 32 per month after carrying out QCC. Conclusion The implemention of QCC can effectively lower the amount of drug wastage. Besides, the staf 's consciousness of team cooperation and sense of responsibility are strengthened. Furthermore, the staf 's problem-solving skil s can be enhanced by QCC.%目的:应用品管圈手法降低住院药房药品损耗件数,提高工作质量和效率,提升员工的自我管理意识和解决问题的能力。方法按照品管圈的十大步骤进行计划、实施、确认和处置。结果开展品管圈活动后,住院药房药品损耗件数由活动前的78.84件/月下降到活动后的32件/月。结论开展品管圈活动能够有效降低住院药房药品损耗件数,增强员工的团队合作意识及责任心,提升员工解决问题的能力。

  16. Fosfitos aplicados em pós-colheita reduzem o mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' Postharvest application of phosphites reduces blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum


    Full Text Available O mofo-azul (Penicillium expansum é uma podridão pós-colheita comum em maçãs (Malus domestica. O uso de substâncias menos ofensivas ao ambiente, como o fosfito (ácido fosforoso, é uma das alternativas de controle dessa doença. Visou-se, então, a avaliar neste estudo a eficiência de fosfito-K (40% de P2O5 e 30% de K2O e fosfito-CaB (10,7% de P2O5, 3,89% de Ca e 0,5% de B no controle do mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala'. Os testes foram delineados em blocos ao acaso com seis repetições de 20 frutos cada. Os frutos foram desinfestados em hipoclorito de Na (1% por três minutos, lavados em água esterilizada, feridos (1mm de diâmetro e de profundidade com agulha em quatro pontos eqüidistantes, imersos nos tratamentos por 15 minutos e armazenados a 15-20ºC. Nas suspensões contaminadas com Penicillium expansum (10² conídios.mL-1, foram adicionadas as seguintes substâncias: benomil (150 mg.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5 a 1,5 mL.L-1 e fosfito-CaB (1,5 a 3,0 mL.L-1. As maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' imersas em água com fosfito-CaB (1,5 mL.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5-1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 foram menos afetadas pelo mofo-azul. A aplicação de fosfito-K (1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 nos frutos foi mais eficiente do que os demais tratamentos no controle do mofo-azul.Blue mold (Penicillium expansum is a common postharvest disease of apples (Malus domestica. Applications of less hazardous substances to the environment, such as phosphite (phosphonic acid, is an alternative to the control of blue mold. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of phosphite-K (40% P2O5 and 30% K2O and phosphite-CaB (10.7% P2O5, 3.89% Ca, and 0.5% B for the control of blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples. Tests were designed in randomized blocks with six replications of 20 fruits. Fruits were decontaminated with Na hypochlorite (1% for three minutes, washed with sterilized water, needle wounded (with a diameter and deepness of 1mm in four

  17. 行星传动原理在NGW型减速器中应用%Research on the application of planetary gear transmission technology in the NGW model reducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Since the involute gear planetary transmission features with transmission load by several gears at the same time to divide power. It is widely used in the fields like metallurgy,aviation,shipbuilding,engineering machinery,machine tools and other industries for the gear assembly of reduction gear,overdrive gear or variable gear,which is playing more important role. In order to further enhance the accuracy of involute gear planetary transmission and to expand the applications of involute gear planetary gear,a new method on the plane tary transmission technology is presented it for completing the velocity complex,in which structural design,the stress analysis as well as power allocation and installation methods are also introduced in detail which feasibility and reliability are verified by experiments.%由于渐开线齿轮行星传动具有几个齿轮同时传递载荷,使功率分流的特点,所以在冶金、航空、船舶、工程机械、机床等行业作减速、增速或变速齿轮传动装置,发挥较为重要作用.为了进一步提高渐开线齿轮行星传动的精度,扩大渐开线齿轮行星传动的应用范围,提出了一种采用行星传动技术来完成速度合成的新方法,并对其结构设计、受力分析、功率分配以及安装方法等进行了详细的介绍,并通过实验验证了该方法的简便易行,可靠性要求.

  18. 应用Nd:YAG激光减轻牙周刮治术中疼痛的临床观察%Clinical observation on application of Nd: YAG laser to reduce periodontal scaling pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑; 丁芳; 吕亚林; 段向青; 刘莹; 宣玮


    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effect of Nd: YAG laser on periodontal treatment. Methods: One hundred and one patients over 60 years old with chronic periodontitis were randomly selected. Teeth on left or right side were treated with Nd: YAG laser combined with hand assisted and ultrasonic scaling device (served as experimental group). On the other side, hand assisted and ultrasonic scaling device were barely used (served as control group). After treatment, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) values were evaluated and recorded immediately, followed by comparation of pain degrees created by two groups. Results: The mean of VAS values (1.67± 0.67) of the experimental group was significantly lower than the mean of the control group (6.18± 0.87) (P 0.05). Conclusion: Nd: YAG laser could reduced pain sensitivity in periodontal treatment.%目的:探讨Nd:YAG激光在牙周病治疗中的镇痛效果方法:通过101例60岁以上的慢性牙周炎患者自身对照,左、右侧各选一侧使用Nd:YAG激光牙周治疗仪辅助超声+手用刮治器,另一侧使用超声+手用刮治器作为对照,治疗后即刻进行视觉模拟评分法(Visual Analogue Scale,VAS)评分,对比Nd:YAG激光与传统牙周刮治术在临床应用中的疼痛程度结果:激光治疗侧的VAS值(1.67±0.67)明显低于牙周机械治疗侧(6.18±0.87),其差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).女性在激光侧和对照侧的VAS值均高于男性,但无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:Nd:YAG激光在牙周病治疗术中使疼痛敏感程度降低,患者的舒适度较高.

  19. The clinical application of psychological assistance to reduce the psychological stress of cancer patients%心理援助缓解癌症患者心理压力效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪霞; 千年松; 黄瑛; 穆婷婷; 罗莎莉


    Objective:To evaluate the effect of psychological support by establishing pychological assistance sys-tem on reducing the stress levels of cancer patients.Methods:All 43 hospitalized cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy and received the psychological assistance voluntarily were enrolled.Psychological support intervention was provided.Psychological pressure scores were analysed before and after each intervention.Results:The psychologi-cal pressure score(31.442 ±9.898)after the first intervention of the first 43 patients significantly decreased com-pare with the score (44.512 ±3.708)before the intervention(P <0.001).The psychological stress score (26.162 ±4.266)in the 37 patients actively accepting the second psychological intervention notebaly decreased compare with the score(42.270 ±11.690)before the first intervention and the score(30.189 ±7.453)after the first intervention (P <0.001).The psychological stress score(26.364 ±5.178)in the 22 patients taking the initiative to accept the third psychological intervention decreased significantly compare with the score before(41.636 ±10.158)and after (32.091 ±8.479)the first intervention(P <0.001).The psychological stress score(24.444 ±4.613)in the 9 pa-tients taking the initiative to accept the fourth psychological intervention decreased significantly compare with the score before (46.000 ±12.083)and after (34.222 ±7.259)the first intervention(P <0.001).The psychological pressure score(24.444 ±4.613)in the patients who accept four times psychological intervention decreased significantly compare with the score before(46.000 ±12.083)the first intervention,which indicates that continued psychological intervention can effectively reduce psychological stress of cancer patients and improve the quality of life.Conclusion:Psychological aid intervention can make patients get rid of fear to improve compliance.%目的:研究建立癌症患者心理援助系统进行心理支持干预对降低癌症患者心理

  20. 品质管理活动圈对降低会阴侧切率的应用效果%The application effect of quality control circle in reducing the rate of lateral episiotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任惠琼; 贾金平


    Objective To explore effect of quality control circle ( QCC) in reducing the rate of lateral episiotomy and improving the obstetrical nursing quality .Methods 3 871 puerperas with natural labor in the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Huadu District in 2012 were selected as the control group , 3 600 puerperas with natural labor after the implementation of QCC from 2013 were selected as the observation group .The rate of lateral episiotomy , degree of perineal laceration , incidence of vaginal hematoma , postpartum pain , incidence of postpartum urinary retention , maternal satisfaction , incidence of neonatal asphyxia were retrospectively analyzed.Results The rate of lateral episiotomy [19.0%(684/3 600)], incidence of postpartum pain after 3 days[9.9%(356/3 600)], incidence of postpartum urinary retention [1.3%(45/3 600)], incidence of vaginal hematoma [2.0%(73/3 600)] of the observation group were lower than that of the control group [ 59.2%( 2 292/3 871 )、29.7%( 1 151/3 871 )、2.6%( 102/3 871 )、6.0%(232/3 871) respectively].The incidence of perineal lacerationⅠdegrees [55.9%(2 013/3 600)], incidence of non perineal laceration[20.4%(735/3 600)], maternal satisfaction[97.6%(3 515/3 600)] of observation group were higher than that of control group [31.3%(1 212/3 871)、9.5%(367/3 871)、89.5%(3 465/3 871) respectively] (all P0.05 ) .Conclusion QCC is effective in reducing the incidence of lateral episiotomy and improving the obstetrical nursing quality , which can improve the maternal satisfaction .%目的:探讨品质管理活动圈( quality control circle ,QCC)对降低会阴侧切率及提高产科护理工作质量的应用效果。方法选择广州市花都区妇幼保健院2012年顺产的3871例产妇为对照组,2013年起实施QCC后顺产的3600例产妇为观察组。回顾性分析比较两组产妇的会阴侧切率、会阴裂伤程度、阴道血肿发生率、产后疼痛、产后尿潴留发生率、产妇满意度及新生

  1. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim


    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  2. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudsk, Per


    Full Text Available Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1 that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced rates will result in maximum effects, 2 that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3 that less than maximum effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based on information on crop development and status and the composition of the weed flora, provide farmers with a list of herbicide solutions often recommending the use of reduced rates. The potential of CPO-Weed to reduced herbicide input has been proven in numerous validation trials. In recent years the use of reduced herbicide rates has been linked to the increasing number of cases of non-target resistance in outcrossing grass weed species like Alopecurus myosuroides and Lolium ssp. The underlying hypothesis is that the least susceptible individuals in the population will survive the use of reduced rates and that recombination will lead to a gradual increase in the resistance level in the weed population. This scenario is only valid if the use of reduced herbicide rates is prompted by acceptance of a lower effect but not if a high susceptibility of the weed species present in the field or optimum conditions are the reasons for reducing herbicide rates. This is an aspect that is often overlooked in the on-going discussion on herbicide rates and resistance. Large weed

  3. Implementing Parallel Google Map-Reduce in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Loogen, Rita


    Recent publications have emphasised map-reduce as a general programming model (labelled Google map-reduce), and described existing high-performance implementations for large data sets. We present two parallel implementations for this Google map-reduce skeleton, one following earlier work, and one...... of the Google map-reduce skeleton in usage and performance, and deliver runtime analyses for example applications. Although very flexible, the Google map-reduce skeleton is often too general, and typical examples reveal a better runtime behaviour using alternative skeletons....

  4. Two-step greedy algorithm for reduced order quadratures

    CERN Document Server

    Antil, Harbir; Herrmann, Frank; Nochetto, Ricardo H; Tiglio, Manuel


    We present an algorithm to generate application-specific, global reduced order quadratures (ROQ) for multiple fast evaluations of weighted inner products between parameterized functions. If a reduced basis (RB) or any other projection-based model reduction technique is applied, the dimensionality of integrands is reduced dramatically; however, the cost of evaluating the reduced integrals still scales as the size of the original problem. In contrast, using discrete empirical interpolation (DEIM) points as ROQ nodes leads to a computational cost which depends linearly on the dimension of the reduced space. Generation of a reduced basis via a greedy procedure requires a training set, which for products of functions can be very large. Since this direct approach can be impractical in many applications, we propose instead a two-step greedy targeted towards approximation of such products. We present numerical experiments demonstrating the accuracy and the efficiency of the two-step approach. The presented ROQ are ex...

  5. Study on significance of application of dexmedetomidine in reducing agitation and throat pain in patients after general anesthesia%右美托咪定预防全麻术后躁动和咽喉疼痛的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟剑平; 何绍旋


    time,extubation time and postoperative sore throat werecomparedbetweenbothgroups.Results Therestorationofspontaneousbreathingtimeandextubationtimehadbeencomparedbetweenthese two groups,the difference was not statistically significant( P ﹥0. 05). In postoperative agitation,53 cases in observation group with grade 0,agi-tation rate was 7. 02%;and 34 patients in control group with grade 0,the agitation rate was 40. 35%. Agitation in observation group was signifi-cantly lower than that of control group( P ﹤0. 05). In postoperative sore throat,46 cases in observation group with grade 0,rate of throat pain was 19. 30%;and 30 cases in control group with grade 0,throat pain rate was 47. 37%. The rate of throat pain in observation group was signifi-cantlylowerthanthatofcontrolgroup(P﹤0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidinehasagoodpreventiveeffectonagitationandthroatpainafter general anesthesia,and it also does not increase the risk of respiratory depression,hence it is worthy to be used for clinical application.

  6. Towards Control of MapReduce Performance and Availability


    Cerf, Sophie; Berekmeri, Mihaly; Robu, Bogdan; Marchand, Nicolas; Bouchenak, Sara


    International audience; MapReduce is a popular programming model for distributed data processing and Big Data applications. Extensive research has been conducted either to improve the dependability or to increase performance of MapReduce, ranging from adaptive and on-demand fault-tolerance solutions, adaptive task scheduling techniques to optimized job execution mechanisms. This paper investigates a novel solution that controls MapReduce systems and provides guarantees in terms of both perfor...

  7. Analysis and Use of MapReduce for Recommender Systems


    Vezočnik, Melanija


    MapReduce is a programming model for developing scalable parallel applications for processing large data sets, an execution framework that supports the programming model and coordinates the execution of programs and an implementation of the programming model and the execution framework. The goal of the thesis is to analyse MapReduce and to use it on two examples of recommender systems. The goal is achieved by developing the computation with MapReduce successfully. At first the programming mod...

  8. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  9. Model Reduction via Reducibility Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Abdalla; Othman Alsmadi


    In this work, a new model reduction technique is introduced. The proposed technique is derived using the matrix reducibility concept. The eigenvalues of the reduced model are preserved; that is, the reduced model eigenvalues are a subset of the full order model eigenvalues. This preservation of the eigenvalues makes the mathematical model closer to the physical model. Finally, the outcomes of this method are fully illustrated using simulations of two numeric examples.

  10. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just;


    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is sti...

  11. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce. (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin


    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  12. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang


    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  13. Reduced Quantum General Relativity in Higher Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej


    The higher dimensional Quantum General Relativity of a Riemannian manifold being an embedded space in a space-time being a Lorentzian manifold is investigated. The model of quantum geometrodynamics, based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation reduced to a first order functional quantum evolution supplemented through an additional eigenequation for the scalar curvature, is formulated. Furthermore, making use of the objective quantum gravity and global one-dimensional conjecture, the general wave function beyond the Feynman path integral technique is derived. The resulting quantum gravity model creates the opportunity of potentially new theoretical and phenomenological applications for astrophysics, cosmology, and physics.

  14. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T


    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  15. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants (United States)

    Campbell, Brian


    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  16. Towards a Persuasive Mobile Application to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dantzig, S.; Geleijnse, G.; Van Halteren, A.T.


    Prolonged sitting is a potential health risk, not only for people with an inactive lifestyle, but also for those who do meet the recommended amount of physical activity. In this paper, we present two waysto promote the reduction of sedentary behavior. First, we report onan experiment in which office

  17. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications? (United States)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  18. Reducing Adsorption in Nanochannels : from fundamental understanding to practical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kutubi, Hanan; Mathwig, Klaus


    Electrochemical nanofluidic devices are chip-based sensors consisting of a nanochannel of approximately 100 nm in height. By employing a pair of electrodes positioned at the top and bottom of this channel, the detected current can be greatly amplified, allowing much higher sensitivity and the possib

  19. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin


    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  20. BSP vs MapReduce


    Pace, Matthew Felice


    The MapReduce framework has been generating a lot of interest in a wide range of areas. It has been widely adopted in industry and has been used to solve a number of non-trivial problems in academia. Putting MapReduce on strong theoretical foundations is crucial in understanding its capabilities. This work links MapReduce to the BSP model of computation, underlining the relevance of BSP to modern parallel algorithm design and defining a subclass of BSP algorithms that can be efficiently imple...

  1. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z


    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  2. Nanomaterials for reducing amyloid cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Mao, Xiaobo; Yu, Yue; Wang, Chen-Xuan; Yang, Yan-Lian; Wang, Chen


    This review is intended to reflect the recent progress on therapeutic applications of nanomaterials in amyloid diseases. The progress on anti-amyloid functions of various nanomaterials including inorganic nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials and biomolecular aggregates, is reviewed and discussed. The main functionalization strategies for general nanoparticle modifications are reviewed for potential applications of targeted therapeutics. The interaction mechanisms between amyloid peptides and nanomaterials are discussed from the perspectives of dominant interactions and kinetics. The encapsulation of anti-amyloid drugs, targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release and drug delivery crossing blood brain barrier by application of nanomaterials would also improve the therapeutics of amyloid diseases.

  3. Reduce the noise of punch press with the equivalent damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To reduce the noise of the punch press during the punching process, the polyurethane elastomer is used as the damping material. The experiments of reducing noise were made by means of adding the polyurethane elastomer at different positions on the 100 kN and 1 000 kN punch presses. The better effect of reducing noise was obtained. After researching and analyzing a large number of test data, the "equivalent damping hypothesis" is put forward. The hypothesis makes the experiment of reducing noise simpler and also more economical. It is estimated that there is a vast application in the research area of vibration control and noise reduction.

  4. Reducible braids and Garside theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan


    We show that reducible braids which are, in a Garside-theoretical sense, as simple as possible within their conjugacy class, are also as simple as possible in a geometric sense. More precisely, if a braid belongs to a certain subset of its conjugacy class which we call the stabilized set of sliding circuits, and if it is reducible, then its reducibility is geometrically obvious: it has a round or almost round reducing curve. Moreover, for any given braid, an element of its stabilized set of sliding circuits can be found using the well-known cyclic sliding operation. This leads to a polynomial time algorithm for deciding the Nielsen-Thurston type of any braid, modulo one well-known conjecture on the speed of convergence of the cyclic sliding operation.

  5. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories



    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  6. Learning to REDUCE: A Reduced Electricity Consumption Prediction Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor


    Utilities use Demand Response (DR) to balance supply and demand in the electric grid by involving customers in efforts to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. To implement and adapt DR under dynamically changing conditions of the grid, reliable prediction of reduced consumption is critical. However, despite the wealth of research on electricity consumption prediction and DR being long in practice, the problem of reduced consumption prediction remains largely un-addressed. In this paper, we identify unique computational challenges associated with the prediction of reduced consumption and contrast this to that of normal consumption and DR baseline prediction.We propose a novel ensemble model that leverages different sequences of daily electricity consumption on DR event days as well as contextual attributes for reduced consumption prediction. We demonstrate the success of our model on a large, real-world, high resolution dataset from a university microgrid comprising of over 950 DR events across a diverse set of 32 buildings. Our model achieves an average error of 13.5%, an 8.8% improvement over the baseline. Our work is particularly relevant for buildings where electricity consumption is not tied to strict schedules. Our results and insights should prove useful to the researchers and practitioners working in the sustainable energy domain.

  7. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  8. Rare-gas liquids - Equation of state and reduced-pressure, reduced-bulk-modulus, and reduced-sound-velocity functions (United States)

    Schlosser, Herbert


    This paper is concerned with verification of the applicability of the Vinet et al. (1987) universal equation of state to the liquid phase of the rare-gas elements under pressure. As previously observed in solids and liquids metals, to a good approximation, in the absence of phase transitions, plots of the logarithms of the reduced pressure function, of the reduced sound velocity, and of the reduced bulk modulus, are all linear functions of 1 - X over the entire experimental pressure range. The results obtained on the rare-gas liquids are comparable in accuracy to those obtained in previous work on solids and liquid metals.

  9. 品管圈活动在降低神经内科住院患者睡眠障碍发生率中的应用效果%Application of quality control circle on reducing the incidences of sleep disorder in patients of Neurology Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宏丽; 吕秀英; 张丽华; 石蕾


    目的 通过开展品管圈活动降低神经内科住院患者睡眠障碍发生率,提高护理质量及患者满意度. 方法 成立品管圈,选定降低患者睡眠障碍发生率为活动主题,采取现况把握、目标设定、解析、拟定对策、效果确认等基本步骤. 结果 品管圈活动后患者睡眠障碍发生率由活动前的87. 00%下降至62. 51%,目标达标率64. 447%;同时提高了圈员的6项能力及患者对护理人员服务的满意度,差异有统计学意义(P<0. 01). 结论 品管圈活动可降低神经内科住院患者睡眠障碍发生率,规范护理人员的护理行为,是提高神经内科睡眠障碍患者护理质量的有效途径之一.%Objective To reduce the incidence of sleep disorders in patients of neurology department by the application of quality control circle, thereby improving the quality of care and patient satisfaction. Methods The quality control circle was established, and the theme of activities was selected as"reducing the patient′s incidence of sleep disorders". The fundamental procedures included mastering of current status, goal setting, analysis, solutions protocol, effects confirmation, etc. Results The incidences of sleep disorder dropped from 87. 00% to 62. 51% after the application of quality control circle activities with goal attainment rate 64. 447%. At the same time, the six kind of abilities in the members of quality control circle and patients satisfaction with nursing services were improved (P <0. 01). Conclusions The quality control circle can reduce the incidences of sleep disorder in patients of neurology department and regulate the behavior of nursing staffs. It is an effective way to improve the patients′nursing quality of sleep disorders in neurology department.

  10. Study on application of failure mode and effect analysis in reducing the risk of peripherally inserted central catheter%应用失效模式和效果分析降低经外周静脉中心静脉导管置管风险的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽萍; 夏海英; 孙佩红


    Objective To apply failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to reduce nursing risk of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC).Methods 100 patients with PICC in central hospital of Minxing District of Shanghai were named as the experimental group,failure mode and effect analysis were performed in this group to obtain the value of risk priority number (PRN) and array them according to the RPN value to work out improved plan systematically and put it into practice to guide the clinical operation and nursing care.98 PICC patients in Xinzhuang health service center and Tumor Hospital of Minhang district were set as the control group,which were subjected to traditional nursing.All statistical analysis were done by SPSS 11.0 software package,the differences of the incidence of PICC-related nursing risk between the two groups due to the implementation of FMEA was analyzed by X2 test.Results Application of FMEA could reduce the nursing risk of PICC,After the application of FMEA,the incidence of PICC-related complications such as focal or systemic infection,puncture site oozing and bleeding,skin allergies,mechanical phlebitis,too deeply placed catheter,catheterization into cervical veins and reflexed into axillary vein,catheter occlusion,catheter migration,difficult removal of catheter,puncture failure in the experimental group decreased obviously,the differences had statistical meaning.Conclusions The application of failure mode and effects analysis can reduce the nursing risk of PICC,decrease medical disputes,alleviate the suffering of patients,reduce medical costs caused by PICC-related complications,and improve the satisfaction degree of patients and the quality of nursing care.%目的 应用失效模式和效果分析降低经外周置入中心静脉导管(PICC)置管护理风险.方法 以上海市闵行区中心医院100例PICC患者为实验组,应用失效模式和效果分析,计算风险顺序数(RPN)值风险排列,根据RPN值的大小判断确定计划,

  11. Sleep can reduce proactive interference. (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T


    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  12. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  13. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  14. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum. (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V


    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  15. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking. (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R


    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  16. Power and reduced temporal discounting. (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J


    Decision makers generally feel disconnected from their future selves, an experience that leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future gains. This pervasive tendency is known as temporal discounting, and researchers across disciplines are interested in understanding how to overcome it. Following recent advances in the power literature, we suggest that the experience of power enhances one's connection with the future self, which in turn results in reduced temporal discounting. In Study 1, we found that participants assigned to high-power roles were less likely than participants assigned to low-power roles to display temporal discounting. In Studies 2 and 3, priming power reduced temporal discounting in monetary and nonmonetary tasks, and, further, connection with the future self mediated the relation between power and reduced discounting. In Study 4, experiencing a general sense of power in the workplace predicted actual lifetime savings. These results have important implications for future research.

  17. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.


    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  18. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)


    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  19. Interference, Reduced Action, and Trajectories (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.


    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the trajectories of the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function’s trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  20. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, E R


    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function's trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  1. Multi-Channel Noise Reduced Visual Evoked Potential Analysis (United States)

    Palaniappan, Ramaswamy; Raveendran, Paramesran; Nishida, Shogo

    In this paper, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to reduce noise from multi-channel Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) signals. PCA is applied to reduce noise from multi-channel VEP signals because VEP signals are more correlated from one channel to another as compared to noise during visual perception. Emulated VEP signals contaminated with noise are used to show the noise reduction ability of PCA. These noise reduced VEP signals are analysed in the gamma spectral band to classify alcoholics and non-alcoholics with a Fuzzy ARTMAP (FA) neural network. A zero phase Butterworth digital filter is used to extract gamma band power in spectral range of 30 to 50 Hz from these noise reduced VEP signals. The results using 800 VEP signals give an average FA classification of 92.50 % with the application of PCA and 83.33 % without the application of PCA.

  2. Reduced False Memory after Sleep (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.


    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  3. Reduced basis heterogeneous multiscale methods


    Abdulle, Assyr


    Numerical methods for partial differential equations with multiple scales that combine numerical homogenization methods with reduced order modeling techniques are discussed. These numerical methods can be applied to a variety of problems including multiscale nonlinear elliptic and parabolic problems or Stokes flow in heterogenenous media.

  4. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  5. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.


    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  6. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels


    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  7. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents. (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.


    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  8. Synthesis of reduced collagen crosslinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwendijk, A.M.C.H. van den; Benningshof, J.C.J.; Wegmann, V.; Bank, R.A.; Koppele, J.M. te; Brussee, J.; Gen, A. van der


    A new synthetic route to reduced collagen crosslinks (LNL and HLNL) is described in this report. It enables an enantioselective synthesis of LNL. HLNL was obtained as a mixture of two diastereoisomers. This method also provides the possibility to introduce radio-labels during the synthesis.

  9. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.


    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  10. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman


    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  11. Reducing Spreadsheet Risk with FormulaDataSleuth

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenn, Bill


    A new MS Excel application has been developed which seeks to reduce the risks associated with the development, operation and auditing of Excel spreadsheets. FormulaDataSleuth provides a means of checking spreadsheet formulas and data as they are developed or used, enabling the users to identify actual or potential errors quickly and thereby halt their propagation. In this paper, we will describe, with examples, how the application works and how it can be applied to reduce the risks associated with Excel spreadsheets.

  12. Child poverty can be reduced. (United States)

    Plotnick, R D


    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  13. Towards A Cross-Domain MapReduce Framework


    Nguyen, Thuy D.; Gondree, Mark A.; Khosalim, Jean; Irvine, Cynthia E.


    The Apache™ Hadoop® framework provides parallel processing and distributed data storage capabilities that data analytics applications can utilize to process massive sets of raw data. These Big Data applications typically run as a set of MapReduce jobs to take advantage of Hadoop’s ease of service deployment and large-scale parallelism. Yet, Hadoop has not been adapted for multilevel secure (MLS) environments where data of different security classifications co-exist...

  14. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.


    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Reduced multiple empirical kernel learning machine. (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lu, MingZhe; Gao, Daqi


    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is demonstrated to be flexible and effective in depicting heterogeneous data sources since MKL can introduce multiple kernels rather than a single fixed kernel into applications. However, MKL would get a high time and space complexity in contrast to single kernel learning, which is not expected in real-world applications. Meanwhile, it is known that the kernel mapping ways of MKL generally have two forms including implicit kernel mapping and empirical kernel mapping (EKM), where the latter is less attracted. In this paper, we focus on the MKL with the EKM, and propose a reduced multiple empirical kernel learning machine named RMEKLM for short. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first to reduce both time and space complexity of the MKL with EKM. Different from the existing MKL, the proposed RMEKLM adopts the Gauss Elimination technique to extract a set of feature vectors, which is validated that doing so does not lose much information of the original feature space. Then RMEKLM adopts the extracted feature vectors to span a reduced orthonormal subspace of the feature space, which is visualized in terms of the geometry structure. It can be demonstrated that the spanned subspace is isomorphic to the original feature space, which means that the dot product of two vectors in the original feature space is equal to that of the two corresponding vectors in the generated orthonormal subspace. More importantly, the proposed RMEKLM brings a simpler computation and meanwhile needs a less storage space, especially in the processing of testing. Finally, the experimental results show that RMEKLM owns a much efficient and effective performance in terms of both complexity and classification. The contributions of this paper can be given as follows: (1) by mapping the input space into an orthonormal subspace, the geometry of the generated subspace is visualized; (2) this paper first reduces both the time and space complexity of the EKM-based MKL; (3

  16. 品管圈在降低Braden评分≤16分老年患者压疮发生率中的应用%Application of quality control circle in reducing incidence rate of pressure ulcers in elderly patients whose Braden scale ≤16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春红; 吴金凤; 傅阳阳


    Objective To explore the application and effect of quality control circle in reducing incidence rate of pressure ulcers in elderly patients whose Braden scale ≤16. Methods The actual reasons in elderly patients with pressure ulcers were found through the application of quality control circle method, which included the following six aspects: single prevention equipment of pressure ulcers; imperfect execution path of prevention measures of pressure ulcers;imperfect prevention process of special patients with pressure ulcers;not improve the risk assessment content of pressure ulcers in time; no educational manual of pressure ulcers prevention with pictures; new progress in pressure ulcer prevention knowledge training of not reach the designated position. According to the true cause, countermeasures were made and standardized management was implementation, and quality improvement was continued. According to the true cause, corresponding measures were formulated and implemented, and the standardized management system was maintained.Results After the implementation of quality control circle, the incidence rate of elderly patients with pressure ulcers whose Braden scale ≤16 points was decreased from 6. 06% to 2. 19% after the implementation of quality control circle. Conclusions The application of quality control circle method in security management of elderly patients whose Braden score ≤ 16 points, can reduce the incidence rate of pressure ulcers in elderly patients whose Braden scale ≤16, and also can improve the quality of nursing, circle member work enthusiasm, creative thinking, responsibility and honor, QCC technique application and team spirit.%目的:探讨品管圈活动在降低Braden评分≤16分老年患者压疮发生率中的应用与效果。方法应用品管圈方法进行原因分析,找出实际造成老年患者压疮发生的原因包括压疮预防用具单一;压疮预防措施的执行路径不完善;特殊患者压疮预防流程

  17. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A


    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  18. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;


    ) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those......BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity...

  19. Medical waste: reducing its generation. (United States)

    Belkin, N L


    1. Materials that can be recycled have yet to be proven to be a more cost-effective means of reducing medical waste. The literature indicates that the efficacy of reusable textiles is at least equal to that of some disposables--and reusable items reduce the generation of blood-contaminated waste. 2. The perioperative nursing community should consider replacing single-use items with materials intended for multiple uses. 3. "Source reduction" entails the replacement of single-use items with reusable items. Successful source-reduction programs require changes in individual and collective behavior patterns. 4. Recycling of materials renders them suitable for another use in a product similar to that in which they were originally used. On the other hand, reprocessing is an all-descriptive term of what must be done to an item to render it suitable for another identical use.

  20. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej


    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  1. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka


    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  2. Mindfulness reduces the correspondence bias. (United States)

    Hopthrow, Tim; Hooper, Nic; Mahmood, Lynsey; Meier, Brian P; Weger, Ulrich


    The correspondence bias (CB) refers to the idea that people sometimes give undue weight to dispositional rather than situational factors when explaining behaviours and attitudes. Three experiments examined whether mindfulness, a non-judgmental focus on the present moment, could reduce the CB. Participants engaged in a brief mindfulness exercise (the raisin task), a control task, or an attention to detail task before completing a typical CB measure involving an attitude-attribution paradigm. The results indicated that participants in the mindfulness condition experienced a significant reduction in the CB compared to participants in the control or attention to detail conditions. These results suggest that mindfulness training can play a unique role in reducing social biases related to person perception.

  3. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  4. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher


    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  5. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption (United States)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  6. Variational Integrators for Ideal and Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Maj, Omar; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela


    Ideal and reduced magnetohydrodynamics are simplified sets of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. Discrete exterior calculus is used for the discretisation of the field variables in order to preserve their geometrical character. The resulting integrators preserve important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As these integrators are free of numerical resistivity, the magnetic field line topology is preserved and spurious reconnection is absent in the ideal case. Only when effects of finite electron mass are added, magnetic reconnection takes place. The excellent conservation properties of the methods are exemplified with numerical examples in 2D. We conclude with an outlook towards the treatment of general geometries in 3D and full magnetohydrodynamics.

  7. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter


    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...... in the optical field causes spatial hole-burning and thus filamentation. To reduce filamentation we propose a new, relatively simple design based on inhomogeneous pumping in which the injected current has a gradual transverse profile. We confirm the improved laser performance theoretically and experimentally...

  8. Care bundles reduce readmissions for COPD. (United States)

    Matthews, Healther; Tooley, Cathy; Nicholls, Carol; Lindsey-Halls, Anna

    In 2011, the respiratory nursing team at the James Paget University Hospital Foundation Trust were considering introducing a discharge care bundle for patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. At the same time, the trust was asking for applications for Commissioning for Quality and Innovation schemes (CQUINs). These are locally agreed packages of quality improvement goals and indicators, which, if achieved in total, enable the provider to earn its full CQUIN payment. A CQUIN scheme should address the three domains of quality, safety and effectiveness, patient experience and also show innovation. This article discusses how the care bundle was introduced and how, over a 12-month period, it showed tangible results in improving the care pathway for COPD patients as well as reducing readmissions and saving a significant amount of money.

  9. Reduced-Precision Redundancy on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Pratt


    Full Text Available Reduced-precision redundancy (RPR has been shown to be a viable alternative to triple modular redundancy (TMR for digital circuits. This paper builds on previous research by offering a detailed analysis of the implementation of RPR on FPGAs to improve reliability in soft error environments. Example implementations and fault injection experiments demonstrate the cost and benefits of RPR, showing how RPR can be used to improve the failure rate by up to 200 times over an unmitigated system at costs less than half that of TMR. A novel method is also presented for improving the error-masking ability of RPR by up to 5 times at no additional hardware cost under certain conditions. This research shows RPR to be a very flexible soft error mitigation technique and offers insight into its application on FPGAs.

  10. Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice. (United States)

    Turner, Rhiannon N; Crisp, Richard J


    Recent research has demonstrated that imagining intergroup contact can be sufficient to reduce explicit prejudice directed towards out-groups. In this research, we examined the impact of contact-related mental imagery on implicit prejudice as measured by the implicit association test. We found that, relative to a control condition, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards elderly people in general. In a second study, we demonstrated that, relative to a control condition, non-Muslim participants who imagined talking to a Muslim stranger subsequently showed more positive implicit attitudes towards Muslims in general. We discuss the implications of these findings for furthering the application of indirect contact strategies aimed at improving intergroup relations.

  11. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)


    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  12. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti


    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  13. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit


    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  14. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serra


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

  15. Refinement of reduced-models for dynamic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A refinement procedure for the reduced models of structural dynamic systems is presented in this article. The refinement procedure is to "tune" the parameters of a reduced model, which could be obtained from any traditional model reduction scheme, into an improved reduced model. Upon the completion of the refinement, the improved reduced model matches the dynamic characteristics - the chosen structural frequencies and their mode shapes - of the full order model. Mathematically, the procedure to implement the model refinement technique is an application of the recently developed cross-model cross-mode (CMCM) method for model updating. A numerical example of reducing a 5-DOF (degree-of-freedom) classical mass-spring (or shear-building) model into a 3-DOF generalized mass-spring model is demonstrated in this article.

  16. Some combinatorial models for reduced expressions in Coxeter groups

    CERN Document Server

    Denoncourt, Hugh


    Stanley's formula for the number of reduced expressions of a permutation regarded as a Coxeter group element raises the question of how to enumerate the reduced expressions of an arbitrary Coxeter group element. We provide a framework for answering this question by constructing combinatorial objects that represent the inversion set and the reduced expressions for an arbitrary Coxeter group element. The framework also provides a formula for the length of an element formed by deleting a generator from a Coxeter group element. Fan and Hagiwara, et al$.$ showed that for certain Coxeter groups, the short-braid avoiding elements characterize those elements that give reduced expressions when any generator is deleted from a reduced expression. We provide a characterization that holds in all Coxeter groups. Lastly, we give applications to the freely braided elements introduced by Green and Losonczy, generalizing some of their results that hold in simply-laced Coxeter groups to the arbitrary Coxeter group setting.

  17. Reduced-activation steels: Future development for improved creep strength (United States)

    Klueh, R. L.


    Reduced-activation steels for fusion applications were developed in the 1980s to replace the elevated-temperature commercial steels first considered. The new steels were patterned after the commercial steels, with the objective that the new steels have yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness in a Charpy test comparable to or better than the steels they replaced. That objective was achieved in reduced-activation steels developed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Although tensile and impact toughness of the reduced-activation steels exceed those of the commercial steels they were patterned after, their creep-rupture properties are inferior to some commercial steels they replaced. They are even more inferior to commercial steels developed since the 1980s. In this paper, compositional differences between reduced-activation steels and new commercial steels are examined, and compositions are proposed for development of new-and-improved reduced-activation steels.

  18. A Fast Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine. (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Ong, Yew-Soon; Zheng, Qing-Hua


    In this paper, we present a fast and accurate kernel-based supervised algorithm referred to as the Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (RKELM). In contrast to the work on Support Vector Machine (SVM) or Least Square SVM (LS-SVM), which identifies the support vectors or weight vectors iteratively, the proposed RKELM randomly selects a subset of the available data samples as support vectors (or mapping samples). By avoiding the iterative steps of SVM, significant cost savings in the training process can be readily attained, especially on Big datasets. RKELM is established based on the rigorous proof of universal learning involving reduced kernel-based SLFN. In particular, we prove that RKELM can approximate any nonlinear functions accurately under the condition of support vectors sufficiency. Experimental results on a wide variety of real world small instance size and large instance size applications in the context of binary classification, multi-class problem and regression are then reported to show that RKELM can perform at competitive level of generalized performance as the SVM/LS-SVM at only a fraction of the computational effort incurred.

  19. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars


    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  20. Challenging and Reducing Cultural Stereotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Abstract:Anyplace where differences are found leaves room for stereotypes.Each of us hears or makes stereotypical comments every day,and although sometimes it is necessary to make stereotypes in foreign language teaching and learning,we should always be aware of the negative effects of stereotyping people from other cultures when we use them to interpret behavior.This paper defines stereotypes,discusses how they impede communication and then focuses on some ways to challenge and reduce stereotypes in cross-cultural communication.

  1. Empowerment to reduce health disparities. (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina


    This article articulates the theoretical construct of empowerment and its importance for health-enhancing strategies to reduce health disparities. Powerlessness is explored as a risk factor in the context of social determinants, such as poverty, discrimination, workplace hazards, and income inequities. Empowerment is presented and compared with social capital and community capacity as strategies to strengthen social protective factors. A case study of a youth empowerment and policy project in New Mexico illustrates the usefulness of empowerment strategies in both targeting social determinants, such as public policies which are detrimental to youth, and improving community capacities of youth to be advocates for social change. Challenges for future practice and research are articulated.

  2. Approximate Deconvolution Reduced Order Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xuping; Wang, Zhu; Iliescu, Traian


    This paper proposes a large eddy simulation reduced order model(LES-ROM) framework for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. In this LES-ROM framework, the proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) is used to define the ROM basis and a POD differential filter is used to define the large ROM structures. An approximate deconvolution(AD) approach is used to solve the ROM closure problem and develop a new AD-ROM. This AD-ROM is tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient(10^{-3})

  3. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng


    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  4. Reduced minimax filtering by means of differential-algebraic equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallet, V.; Zhuk, S.


    A reduced minimax state estimation approach is proposed for high-dimensional models. It is based on the reduction of the ordinary differential equation with high state space dimension to the low-dimensional Differential-Algebraic Equation (DAE) and on the subsequent application of the minimax state

  5. Novel dielectric reduces corona breakdown in ac capacitors (United States)

    Loehner, J. L.


    Dielectric system was developed which consists of two layers of 25-gage paper separated by one layer of 50-gage polypropylene to reduce corona breakdown in ac capacitors. System can be used in any alternating current application where constant voltage does not exceed 400 V rms. With a little research it could probably be increased to 700 to 800 V rms.

  6. Methods Reduce Cost, Enhance Quality of Nanotubes (United States)


    For all the challenges posed by the microgravity conditions of space, weight is actually one of the more significant problems NASA faces in the development of the next generation of U.S. space vehicles. For the Agency s Constellation Program, engineers at NASA centers are designing and testing new vessels as safe, practical, and cost-effective means of space travel following the eventual retirement of the space shuttle. Program components like the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, intended to carry astronauts to the International Space Station and the Moon, must be designed to specific weight requirements to manage fuel consumption and match launch rocket capabilities; Orion s gross liftoff weight target is about 63,789 pounds. Future space vehicles will require even greater attention to lightweight construction to help conserve fuel for long-range missions to Mars and beyond. In order to reduce spacecraft weight without sacrificing structural integrity, NASA is pursuing the development of materials that promise to revolutionize not only spacecraft construction, but also a host of potential applications on Earth. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are one material of particular interest. These tubular, single-layer carbon molecules - 100,000 of them braided together would be no thicker than a human hair - display a range of remarkable characteristics. Possessing greater tensile strength than steel at a fraction of the weight, the nanotubes are efficient heat conductors with metallic or semiconductor electrical properties depending on their diameter and chirality (the pattern of each nanotube s hexagonal lattice structure). All of these properties make the nanotubes an appealing material for spacecraft construction, with the potential for nanotube composites to reduce spacecraft weight by 50 percent or more. The nanotubes may also feature in a number of other space exploration applications, including life support, energy storage, and sensor technologies. NASA s various

  7. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu


    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  8. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.


    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  9. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa


    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  10. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa


    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  11. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob


    of gambling due to their specific structural characteristics. These include a high event frequency (number of games per minute), a high frequency of small wins and near misses, and auditory as well as visual feedback that reinforce extended gambling behavior [1].   This study focused on gambling behavior...... (play longer, be more excited from gambling and more willing to continue gambling) compared with controls.   No differences were found in the pay back percentage between the two conditions, so they were merged in a preliminary data analysis. The results showed that pathological gamblers played...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  12. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption. (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan


    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  13. Feature Analysis of STEP Application Protocol and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper uses semantic data modelling and CAD/CAPP/CAM integration to analyze the features defined in the STEP AP214, its characteristics of definition and distribution, and its influence on the complexity of CAD/CAPP/CAM application integration. A framework is developed for applications of CAD/CAPP/CAM integration based on the STEP to reduce the complexity of integration implementation. Two application program interfaces (API), namely, application protocol API and application API, are developed. The frameworks hierarchy structure and the application program interfaces between the layers make the integration of applications easier.

  14. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz


    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  15. The application of the quality control circle activity in reducing the non-planned extubation rate of gynecology postoperative patients%品管圈活动在降低妇科术后患者非计划性拔管率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩清波; 廖爱红; 陈雪梅


    目的::探讨运用品管圈管理工具在降低妇科术后患者非计划性拔管发生率中的作用。方法:在妇科病区成立品管圈活动小组,回顾分析2013年1~4月妇科住院病区腹腔镜及宫腔镜术后放置Ⅰ、Ⅱ类导管患者发生非计划性拔管的状况,通过现状调查与原因分析找出引起非计划性拔管的主要原因,制定相应的防范措施,并组织实施,将改进前、后非计划拔管发生率进行比较。结果:妇科术后患者非计划性拔管发生率由品管圈活动前的1.52%降低至活动后的0.41%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:通过运用品管圈质量改进工具,有效降低了妇科术后患者非计划性拔管发生率,提高了患者安全管理质量,增强了护理人员的品质意识和参与质量管理的能力,提高了质量改进效率和效果。%Objective:To explore the application effect of the quality control circle management tools in reducing the non-planned extubation rate of gyne-cology postoperative patients. Methods:Built the quality control circle activity team in the gynecology inpatient area. Made retrospective analysis of the non-planned extubation conditions of the patients with type I and type II inserted catheters after the laparoscope operation and hysteroscope operation in the gyne-cology inpatient area from January to April 2013. Through the status investigation and causes analysis,observed the primary causes of the non-planned ex-tubation, then made corresponding precautionary measures and made the organization for implementation. Compared the non-planned extubation occur-rence rate before and after the modification. Results:After the implementation of activity, the non-planned extubation occurrence rate of gynecology postop-erative patients dropped from 1. 52%,which marked before the quality control circle activity, to 0. 41%. The difference had statistic significance ( P<0. 05). Conclusion

  16. 外敷扶正敛汗液降低肿瘤放疗患者自汗盗汗的效果研究%Effect of external application of Fuzheng hidroschesis liquid to reduce spontaneous perspiration and night sweating of patients with tumor radio-therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅芳芳; 鲍婷婷; 徐德静


    目的::探讨中药散剂外敷神阙穴对肿瘤患者放疗期间出现自汗盗汗的治疗效果。方法:将160例放疗期间出现自汗盗汗的肿瘤患者随机等分为试验组和对照组,试验组给予自制的扶正敛汗液外敷神阙穴,对照组给予常规生脉胶囊口服,比较两组患者自汗盗汗症状改善情况。结果:试验组患者疗效优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:外敷扶正敛汗液对降低肿瘤放疗患者自汗盗汗症状有效。%Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicine powder applied on Shenque acupoint of cancer patients with spontaneous perspi-ration and night sweating during radiotherapy. Methods:Randomly divided 160 cases of cancer patients with spontaneous perspiration and night sweating dur-ing radiotherapy into experimental group and control group equally. The experimental group was given homemade fuzheng hidroschesis liquid applied on shenque acupoint. The control group was treated with routine Shengmai capsules orally. The symptoms of spontaneous perspiration and night sweating of two groups were compared. Results:The effect of the experimental group was better than that of the control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion:External application of Fuzheng hidroschesis liquid is effective in reducing spontaneous perspiration and night sweating in patients with tumor radiotherapy.

  17. 品管圈活动在降低血液透析患者内瘘穿刺渗血发生率中的应用%Application of quality control circle activities in reducing the incidence rate of fistula puncture bleeding in hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童赟; 林泽文; 李英文; 刘艳华; 黄霞


    Objective To probe into the application effect of quality control circle (QCC) activity in reducing the incidence rate of fistula puncture bleeding in hemodialysis patients.Methods Thirty-six hemodialysis patients in our hospital from January to June 2012 were chosen as the control group (before the QCC activity) ; 36 hemodialysis patients with the same rule in 1 group from July to December 2012 were chosen as the experiment group (after the QCC activity).Six nurses from nephrology volunteer to group a "circle" in order to build-up the QCC activity with the subject of reducing the blood exudation rate during hemodialysis fistula piercing.Before the QCC activity,the data of blood exudation rate was calculated,and the root cause of blood exudation was analyzed during hemodialysis fistula piercing; then the improvement plan was made-up,and the counter measure was implemented.The blood exudation rate during hemodialysis fistula piercing was compared before and after the QCC activity.Results The incidence rate of fistula puncture bleeding after QCC activity was 3.76%,was lower than 7.66% before the QCC activity,and was better than the origin target,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =20.634,P < 0.05).Conclusions The implementation of QCC activity is not only benefit to reducing the incidence rate of fistula puncture bleeding in hemodialysis patients,but also is good at circle members' professional technical level and quality management capability,promote the quality improvement of hemodialysis.%目的 探讨品管圈活动在降低血液透析患者内瘘穿刺渗血发生率中的应用效果.方法 选择广东省第二人民医院肾内科2012年1-6月规律血液透析患者36例,设为品管圈活动前;2012年7-12月,同组规律血液透析患者36例,设为品管圈活动后.肾内科内部6名护士自愿组成一个“圈”,确立“降低血液透析患者内瘘穿刺渗血发生率”为活动主题,对活动前血液透析过程

  18. 品管圈在降低膝关节镜术后患者早期功能锻炼缺失率中的应用%Application of Quality Control Circle in Reducing Early Functional Exercise of Patients with Knee Arthroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌艳; 王钦


    目的:探讨品管圈在降低膝关节镜术后患者早期功能锻炼缺失率中的应用效果。方法成立品管圈,通过品管圈活动步骤,运用质量管理常用工具对骨科膝关节镜术后功能锻炼存在问题进行改进.并将改进前后状况进行比较。结果骨科膝关节镜术后患者早期功能锻炼缺失率由开展前的42.90%,降低到19.12%,目标达成率为118.84%,进步率为65.87%。此外,品管圈活动前后所有圈员就解决问题能力、责任心、沟通协调、自信心、团队凝聚力、积极性、品管手法、和谐度等均有明显提高。结论运用品管圈对骨科膝关节镜术后患者早期功能锻炼缺进行管理,医护康配合,不仅提高了患者依从性、功能锻炼正确率及完成率,同时也提高了患者满意度,减少住院费用,提高床位周转率,符合医院等级评审要求,提升了优质护理质量内涵。%Objective To explore the quality control circle in reducing postoperative knee arthroscopy patients with early functional exercise in the application ef ect of the loss rate.Methods To set up quality control circle, circle activities step by QC, using quality management tools used by the improvement of the existing problems of functional exerciseDepartment of orthopedics after arthroscopic knee surgery.And the improved conditionwere compared before. Results The Department of orthopedics after arthroscopic knee surgery in patients with early functional exercise car ied out in front of the loss rate by 42.90%, reduced to 19.12%, the target rate is 118.84%, the improvement rate was 65.87%. In addition, before and after the QCC al members on the problem solving ability, sense of responsibility, communication and coordination, team cohesion, self-confidence, enthusiasm, quality control tools, harmonious degree increased. Conclusion The use of quality control circle of early functional exercise of patients in the Department of

  19. The application of quality control circles in reducing skin allergy rate on sticking spots after PICC catheterization%品管圈在降低PICC置管术后敷贴部位皮肤过敏率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓琴; 易敏; 黄国会; 张月; 刘为; 陈文均


    目的:探讨品管圈活动对PICC置管患者敷贴部位皮肤过敏率的影响。方法选取2014年1月1日至2014年6月30日在某三级甲等医院行PICC导管维护的肿瘤患者581例,实施品管圈活动前(2014年1月1日至3月15日)305例,实施品管圈活动后(2014年3月16日至6月30日)280例。观察实施品管圈前后皮肤过敏情况,评价品管活动前后QCC成员个人能力及团队功能。结果品管圈活动前后PICC置管患者敷贴部位皮肤过敏率由12.6%(38/301)降低到4.3%(12/280),差异有统计学意义(χ2=12.825,P<0.01);QCC成员个人能力及团队功能得以提升。结论通过运用品管圈的管理方法,降低了PICC置管术后敷贴部位皮肤过敏率,说明QCC是护理工作有效科学管理方法。%Objective To study the effects of quality control circles(QCC) activities in reducing skin allergy rate on stick-ing spots after PICC catheterization. Methods A total of 581 tumor patients treated with PICC catheterization admitted by a cer-tain grade A class 3 hospital from January 1,2014 to June 30,2014 were collected,including 305 cases before joining in quality control circles(QCC) activities(January 1,2014-March 15,2014) and 280 cases after joining in quality control circles(QCC) activities(March 16,2014-June 30,2014). It is observed the skin allergy condition, personal abilities and team functions of QCC members before and after the implementation of QCC activities. Results The skin allergy rate[12.6%(38/301)] of the patients with PICC catheterization before QCC activities was reduced to 4.3%(12/280)] after QCC activities. The difference had statistical sig nificance(χ2=12.825,P<0.01). The individual abilities and team functions of QCC members were improved. Conclusion The ap-plication of QCC activities may reduce the allergy rate of the PICC catheterization ,demonstrating that QCC is a scientific man-agement method for nursing work.

  20. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians. (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H


    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  1. Reducing power usage on demand (United States)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.


    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  2. Desempenho do cultivar de arroz BRS pelota e controle de capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp. submetidos a quatro épocas de entrada d'água após aplicação de doses reduzidas de herbicidas Performance of rice cultivar BRS pelota and control of (Echinochloa spp. submitted to four flooding times after reduced herbicide dose application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andres


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a possibilidade de reduzir as doses de herbicidas na lavoura de arroz irrigado, com a supressão das plantas daninhas pela antecipação da entrada da lâmina de água, bem como avaliar o controle de capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp. em arroz irrigado, o desempenho da cultura e os efeitos dos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência sobre os atributos fisiológicos da cultura de arroz. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas principais foram as entradas de água (A aos 5, 10, 15 e 20 dias após aplicação dos herbicidas; as subparcelas, os herbicidas (H bispyribac-sodium e bispyribac-sodium + clomazone; e as subsubparcelas, as doses de bispyribac-sodium (D de 32, 40 e 48 g ha-1 isoladas e em mistura com 300 g ha-1 de clomazone. O bispyribac-sodium foi eficiente no controle de capim-arroz, com três folhas, quando a entrada de água ocorreu até cinco dias após a aspersão e/ou até o perfilhamento do arroz irrigado, quando em mistura com clomazone. É possível trabalhar com doses inferiores à recomendada de bispyribac-sodium isoladamente, desde que a submersão seja imediata após a aplicação deste, ou até o perfilhamento quando em mistura com clomazone.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of reducing herbicide rates in flooded rice, using flooding as a tool to avoid weed emergence; to evaluate Echinochloa spp. control, culture establishment and growth and the effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence on the physiological attributes of the rice culture. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with split-split plots, four floodings, two herbicides and three rates, with four replications. The plots were the floodings (A 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after herbicide application and the split plots were the herbicides (H bispyribac-sodium and bispyribac

  3. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Anan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  4. Effects of Reducing Nitrogen and Biochar Application on CO2 and N2O Emissions from Summer Maize-Winter Wheat Field in North China%减氮和施生物炭对华北夏玉米-冬小麦田土壤CO2和N2O排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范靖尉; 白晋华; 任寰宇; 韩雪; 刁田田; 郭李萍


    from a summer maize-winter wheat field using static chamber and gas chromatography method. The results indicated that, (1)soil CO2 emission was 21.8-1022.7mg·m-2·h-1for this agriculture system and was significantly influenced by soil temperature and moisture. Soil moisture was more important for the N2O emissions during the summer maize growth period while N2O emissions during winter wheat growth period was more significantly influenced by the soil temperature. The cumulative CO2 emissions under LF and LFC treatments were significantly lower than F treatment especially during the winter wheat growing season. (2)Soil N2O emission was significantly influenced by fertilizer application and irrigation. N2O emissions during the fertilization period accounted for 73.9%-74.5% and 40.5%-43.6% of cumulative N2O emissions in summer maize and winter maize growing season, respectively. The peak of emission fluxes was primarily affected by fertilizer rate while irrigation determined the occurrence time when emissions would peak and could affect the mitigation effect of practices. Reduce the nitrogen application rate to 200kg·ha-1from 250kg·ha-1 could decrease cumulative N2O emissions by 15.7%-16.8% and 18.1%-18.5% during summer maize and winter wheat growing seasons, respectively, therefore decreasing nitrogen application is an effective N2O mitigation practice for high-yielding and intensive farmland. Biochar application did not show no significant influence on soil N2O mitigation of biochar application at suitable nitrogen level(200kg·ha-1) in the short term. (3)N2O emission factors of applied nitrogen were 0.60% and 0.56% for F and LF treatment, respectively, indicating that reducing the nitrogen application rate is an appropriate measure to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions without impact on crop yields in intensive farmlands in North China.

  5. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience. (United States)

    Risor, H


    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  6. Meditation Helps Reduce Hardened Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue; Pleming; 林兆佩


    沉思冥想可以减少人体冠状动脉内壁的厚度、降低心脏病和中风的危险。这话听上去有点玄乎,可是,这是事实。而且,这不是崇尚气功的国人的结论,而是美国医生的实验所证实的事实。 简称为TM(由Transcendental[超然的;超验的]Meditation的首字母所组成)的方法每日进行两次,每次20分钟。同时还得使用所谓a specific sound or“mental vehicle”(精神媒介物)。其目的是:…enabled the person to experiencequieter states of thinking.其背后的原因是:…heart disease was associated withpsychological stress and that meditating could reduce this。以下一句间接告诉我们:所谓TM,并非一两句话就能交代明白: The meditation group was given five to eight hours of tuition on TM tech—niques… 美国的研究人员常运用“对比法”来作下结论。本文也不例外。 本文给我们的重要启示是:…heart disease was associated with psychologicalstress.而quieter states of thinking是强身健体之关键。

  7. The intrinsic beauty of polytropic spheres in reduced variables

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R


    The concept of reduced variables is revisited with regard to van der Waals' theory and an application is made to polytropic spheres, where the reduced radial coordinate is ${\\rm red}(r)=r/R=\\xi/\\Xi$, $R$ radius, and the reduced density is ${\\rm red}(\\rho)=\\rho/\\lambda=\\theta^n$, $\\lambda$ central density. Reduced density profiles are plotted for several polytropic indexes within the range, $0\\le n\\le5$, disclosing two noticeable features. First, any point of coordinates, $({\\rm red}(r),{\\rm red}(\\rho))$, $0\\le{\\rm red}(r)\\le1$, $0\\le{\\rm red}(\\rho)\\le1$, belongs to a reduced density profile of the kind considered. Second, sufficiently steep i.e. large $n$ reduced density profiles exhibit an oblique inflection point, where the threshold is found to be located at $n=n_{\\rm th}=0.888715$. Reduced pressure profiles, ${\\rm red}(P)=P/\\varpi=\\theta^{n+1}$, $\\varpi$ central pressure, Lane-Emden fucntions, $\\theta=(\\rho/\\lambda)^{1/n}$, and polytropic curves, ${\\rm red}(P)={\\rm red}(P)({\\rm red}(\\rho))$, are also plot...

  8. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity. (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G


    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  9. Survey of MapReduce frame operation in bioinformatics. (United States)

    Zou, Quan; Li, Xu-Bin; Jiang, Wen-Rui; Lin, Zi-Yu; Li, Gui-Lin; Chen, Ke


    Bioinformatics is challenged by the fact that traditional analysis tools have difficulty in processing large-scale data from high-throughput sequencing. The open source Apache Hadoop project, which adopts the MapReduce framework and a distributed file system, has recently given bioinformatics researchers an opportunity to achieve scalable, efficient and reliable computing performance on Linux clusters and on cloud computing services. In this article, we present MapReduce frame-based applications that can be employed in the next-generation sequencing and other biological domains. In addition, we discuss the challenges faced by this field as well as the future works on parallel computing in bioinformatics.

  10. About the solubility of reduced SWCNT in DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Jingwen; Martinez-Rubi, Yadienka; Denommee, Stephane; Ruth, Dean; Kingston, Christopher T; Daroszewska, Malgosia; Barnes, Michael; Simard, Benoit [Molecular and Nanomaterial Architectures Group, Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0R6 (Canada)], E-mail:


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been reduced with sodium naphthalide in THF. The reduced SWCNT are not only soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to form a stable solution/suspension, but also react spontaneously at room temperature with DMSO to evolve hydrocarbon gases and are converted into functionalized SWCNT. The degree of functionalization is about 2C% and the addends are mainly methyl and small oxygen-containing hydrocarbons. The functionalized SWCNT are apparently more soluble and stable in DMSO solution. It may open a new era for further processing and applications.

  11. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics. (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter


    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.

  12. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob


    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  13. Electromagnetic therapeutic coils design to reduce energy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrek Przemyslaw


    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of power loss reduction in applicators used in magnetotherapy. To generate magnetic field whose distribution is optimal and to reduce the power loss, the authors establish a set of parameters to evaluate the model of device. Results make it possible to infer that the real power input necessary to operate the magnetic field generator properly may vary significantly depending on construction and localization. The issues raised in this paper should be treated as a basis for further discussion on the construction of applicators used, e.g., in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

  14. MARIANE: MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadika, Zacharia; Dede, Elif; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya


    MapReduce is increasingly becoming a popular framework, and a potent programming model. The most popular open source implementation of MapReduce, Hadoop, is based on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). However, as HDFS is not POSIX compliant, it cannot be fully leveraged by applications running on a majority of existing HPC environments such as Teragrid and NERSC. These HPC environments typicallysupport globally shared file systems such as NFS and GPFS. On such resourceful HPC infrastructures, the use of Hadoop not only creates compatibility issues, but also affects overall performance due to the added overhead of the HDFS. This paper not only presents a MapReduce implementation directly suitable for HPC environments, but also exposes the design choices for better performance gains in those settings. By leveraging inherent distributed file systems' functions, and abstracting them away from its MapReduce framework, MARIANE (MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments) not only allows for the use of the model in an expanding number of HPCenvironments, but also allows for better performance in such settings. This paper shows the applicability and high performance of the MapReduce paradigm through MARIANE, an implementation designed for clustered and shared-disk file systems and as such not dedicated to a specific MapReduce solution. The paper identifies the components and trade-offs necessary for this model, and quantifies the performance gains exhibited by our approach in distributed environments over Apache Hadoop in a data intensive setting, on the Magellan testbed at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  15. A novel loss reduced modulation strategy for matrix converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    This paper presents a new modulation strategy for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters. The new modulation strategy is applicable whenever the output voltage reference is below half the input voltage. By applying this new modulation method, the switching losses are reduced by 15......-35% compared to the conventional modulation scheme. The waveform quality of the new modulation strategy is evaluated with regard to both output flux harmonic distortion and input charge harmonic distortion....

  16. Certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hesthaven, Jan S; Stamm, Benjamin


    This book provides a thorough introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations. Central aspects ranging from model construction, error estimation and computational efficiency to empirical interpolation methods are discussed in detail for coercive problems. More advanced aspects associated with time-dependent problems, non-compliant and non-coercive problems and applications with geometric variation are also discussed as examples.

  17. Metal-Ion Additives Reduce Thermal Expansion Of Polyimides (United States)

    Stoakley, Diane M.; St. Clair, Anne K.; Emerson, Burt R., Jr.; Willis, George L.


    Polyimides widely used as high-performance polymers because of their excellent thermal stability and toughness. However, their coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's) greater than those of metals, ceramics, and glasses. Decreasing CTE's of polyimides increase usefulness for aerospace and electronics applications in which dimensional stability required. Additives containing metal ions reduce coefficients of thermal expansion of polyimides. Reductions range from 11 to over 100 percent.

  18. Study of two-phase flows in reduced gravity (United States)

    Roy, Tirthankar

    Study of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions is extremely important. One of the major applications of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions is in the design of active thermal control systems for future space applications. Previous space crafts were characterized by low heat generation within the spacecraft which needed to be redistributed within the craft or rejected to space. This task could easily have been accomplished by pumped single-phase loops or passive systems such as heat pipes and so on. However with increase in heat generation within the space craft as predicted for future missions, pumped boiling two-phase flows are being considered. This is because of higher heat transfer co-efficients associated with boiling heat transfer among other advantages. Two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions also find important applications in space propulsion as in space nuclear power reactors as well as in many other life support systems of space crafts. Two-fluid model along with Interfacial Area Transport Equation (IATE) is a useful tool available to predict the behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions. It should be noted that considerable differences exist between two-phase flows under reduced and normal gravity conditions especially for low inertia flows. This is because due to suppression of the gravity field the gas-liquid two-phase flows take a considerable time to develop under reduced gravity conditions as compared to normal gravity conditions. Hence other common methods of analysis applicable for fully developed gas-liquid two-phase flows under normal gravity conditions, like flow regimes and flow regime transition criteria, will not be applicable to gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions. However the two-fluid model and the IATE need to be evaluated first against detailed experimental data obtained under reduced gravity conditions. Although lot of studies

  19. Map Reduce: A Survey Paper on Recent Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafali Agarwal


    Full Text Available A rapid growth of data in recent time, Industries and academia required an intelligent data analysis tool that would be helpful to satisfy the need to analysis a huge amount of data. MapReduce framework is basically designed to compute data intensive applications to support effective decision making. Since its introduction, remarkable research efforts have been put to make it more familiar to the users subsequently utilized to support the execution of massive data intensive applications. Our survey paper emphasizes the state of the art in improving the performance of various applications using recent MapReduce models and how it is useful to process large scale dataset. A comparative study of given models corresponds to Apache Hadoop and Phoenix will be discussed primarily based on execution time and fault tolerance. At the end, a high-level discussion will be done about the enhancement of the MapReduce computation in specific problem area such as Iterative computation, continuous query processing, hybrid database etc.

  20. Flywheels: Mobile applications (United States)

    Rabenhorst, D. W.


    The characteristics of modern flywheel energy storage systems uniquely qualify the flywheel for use in a variety of road vehicles, off road vehicles and rail vehicles. About sixty studies and vehicle demonstration programs in a dozen countries indicate that future such flywheel powered vehicles will have improved performance, reduced energy and fuel consumption and reduced life cycle cost. Flywheel capabilities and mobile applications were reviewed.