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Sample records for applications reduce phytophagy

  1. Reduced Multiplicative Tolerance Ranking and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sitarz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a reduced multiplicative tolerance - a measure of sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP is presented. By using this new measure a method for ranking the set of efficient extreme solutions is proposed. The idea is to rank these solutions by values of the reduced tolerance. This approach can be applied to many MOLP problems, where sensitivity analysis is important for a decision maker. In the paper, applications of the presented methodology are shown in the market model and the transportation problem.

  2. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e fecundidade foram similares entre as plantas, porém o peso de machos e longevidade de fêmeas foram reduzidos em Desmodium tortuosum e R. communis, respectivamente. Com base nos parâmetros de tabela de vida foi estimada melhor performance do predador em Amaranthus hybridus, D. tortuosum e R. communis. Ninfas submetidas à escassez total de presas viveram mais em Ageratum conyzoides, B. pilosa, D. tortuosum e Euphorbia heterophylla; porém não viveram além do terceiro ínstar. A longevidade de fêmeas do predador foi favorecida pela presença de A. conyzoides em relação a Gossypium hirsutum, vivendo em média 15,7 e 29,8 dias, respectivamente. No entanto, a disponibilidade de plantas não foi suficiente para as fêmeas atingirem maturação sexual e produção de ovos, quando submetidas à escassez total de presas.This work evaluated the effect of six weeds and cotton plants on predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae development, reproduction and survival under partial prey scarcity, three days feeding intervals, and total absence of prey. Nymphal developmental periods under partial prey scarceness with three days of feeding intervals were higher on Ricinus communis and lower on Bidens pilosa. Partial prey scarcity did not affect nymphal viability, adult female weight and reproductive characteristics, but male weight and female longevity were reduced in Desmodium tortuosum and R. communis, respectively

  3. Reduced Comparator Flash ADC for ECG Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan. V. A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A CMOS based low power 4-bit Flash Analog to Digital Converter (ADC design with reduced number of comparators than the conventional Flash Analog to Digital Converter and multiplexer based architecture is proposed. For improving the conversion rate, both the analog and digital parts of the ADC are fully modified and the architecture uses only 4 comparators instead of 15 as used in conventional flash ADC, thus saving considerable amount of power. The proposed 4-bit ADC is designed and simulated in TANNER tools with 1.2 V supply voltage using TSpice simulation. The proposed design consumes low power of 2.15mW and operates at a faster rate hence it is suitable for ECG applications.

  4. Reducing decay using pre- and post harvest sanitizer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of sanitizers to fruit surfaces reduces the microbial populations and therefore reduces contamination by these organisms thus increasing shelf life and increasing the quality of food for consumption. However, the type of fruit, the topography of the peel and other field factors affe...

  5. On Modeling CPU Utilization of MapReduce Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rizvandi, Nikzad Babaii; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to predict the total CPU utilization in terms of CPU clock tick of applications when running on MapReduce framework. Our approach has two key phases: profiling and modeling. In the profiling phase, an application is run several times with different sets of MapReduce configuration parameters to profile total CPU clock tick of the application on a given platform. In the modeling phase, multi linear regression is used to map the sets of MapReduce configuration parameters (number of Mappers, number of Reducers, size of File System (HDFS) and the size of input file) to total CPU clock ticks of the application. This derived model can be used for predicting total CPU requirements of the same application when using MapReduce framework on the same platform. Our approach aims to eliminate error-prone manual processes and presents a fully automated solution. Three standard applications (WordCount, Exim Mainlog parsing and Terasort) are used to evaluate our modeling technique on pseu...

  6. Deep reduced PEDOT films support electrochemical applications: Biomimetic color front.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toribio Fernandez OTERO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced conducting polymers. Here we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, towards the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, towards the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation (ESCR model explains those results.

  7. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers. PMID:23957687

  8. Reducing Instruction Issue Overheads in Application-Specific Vector Processors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, Jaroslav; Bartosinski, Roman; Kohout, Lukáš; Daněk, Martin; Honzík, P.

    Izmir: Conference Publishing Services, 2012 - (Niar, S.), s. 600-607 ISBN 978-0-7695-4798-5. [15th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design. Cesme (TR), 05.09.2012-08.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7H10001 Grant ostatní: Commission EU(XE) Artemis JU 100230 Keywords : custom accelerators * vector processing * FPGA * DSP Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZS/sykora-reducing instruction issue overheads in application-specific vector processors.pdf

  9. An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Lokpriya Mohanrao; Teli, Shivagond Nagappa; Majali, Vijay Shashikant; Bhushi, Umesh Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz. process yield with well-executed control plans. Six Sigma improves the process performance (process yield) of the critical operational process, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  10. Advanced applications of reduced density matrices in electronic structure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Adam Eric

    This dissertation describes several applications of reduced density matrices (RDMs) in electronic structure theory. RDM methods are a valuable addition to the library of electronic structure theories because they reduce a many-electron problem to the space of just two electrons without approximation. New theoretical and computational avenues enabled by the two-electron RDM (2-RDM) have already shown substantial progress in calculating atomic and molecular energies and properties with an eye toward predictive chemistry. More than simply accurate calculations, RDM methods entail a paradigm shift in quantum chemistry. While one-electron approaches are conceptually easy to understand, the importance of the 2-RDM quantifies the centrality of a two-body framework. The 2-RDM facilitates a two-electron interpretation of quantum mechanics that will undoubtedly lead to a greater understanding of electron correlation. Two applications presented in the dissertation center around near-exact evaluation of the 2-RDM in chemical systems without the many-electron wave function, but approach the problem from different angles. The first applies variational 2-RDM theory to a model quantum dot; the second attempts non-variational determination of the 2-RDM in open-shell atomic and molecular systems using an extension of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrodinger equation (ACSE). An example reaction is presented to demonstrate how energies computed with the 2-RDM can facilitate an understanding of chemical reactivity. A third application uses the one-electron RDM (1-RDM) as a tool for understanding molecular conductivity. In this case, the 1-RDM is valuable because it integrates out many extraneous degrees of freedom from metal baths, simplifying the electron transport problem but retaining enough information to predict the dependence of current on applied voltage. The results are competitive with other conductivity theories, including a dominant scattering-based understanding, but

  11. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m−1), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g−1) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance

  12. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbi, Hamdane; Yu, Lei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Yanbo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Liu, Lianhe [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-01-15

    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m{sup −1}), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g{sup −1}) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance.

  13. Security issues relating to inadequate authentication in MapReduce applications

    OpenAIRE

    James Dyer and Ning Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss security issues relating to inadequate authentication in MapReduce applications. We examine MapReduce applications deployed in the cloud, as this environment significantly increases security risks to the applica-tions. We outline a generic model of MapReduce computation and then perform a detailed threat analysis of this model. Then, based on this threat analysis, we produce a set of security requirements for the design of an authentication solution for MapReduce app...

  14. Reduced Circular Sinusoidal Cone-beam CT for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    XIA, DAN; Cho, Seungryong; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) plays an important role in industrial, nondestructive testing applications not to mention in medical applications. Circular scanning configuration is widely used for its mechanical simplicity and for readily available and efficient reconstruction algorithms based on the Feldkamp algorithm. However, due to the lack of data sufficiency, circular CBCT does not guarantee image accuracy, and is not free from image artifacts related to the cone-angle and axial v...

  15. Review Applications to Prevent Corrosion Reducing Gas Pipe Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Setoudeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Including ways to reduce corrosion of corrosion inhibitors is. Inhibiting substance that low amount is added to the system to slow or stop the chemical reaction does. When inhibitors of corrosion medium are added, the speed of corrosion decreases to zero takes. For the first time a deterrent mineral called arsenate sodium for inhibition steels carbon in oil wells was used to corrosion of CO2 prevented, but due to low yield was not satisfactory and therefore the other inhibitors were used. In the years 1945 to 1950 properties, excellent composition polar chain long was discovered. The discovery process of experiments related to organic inhibitors used in wells and pipes and oil Garza changed. This article examines the use of inhibitors to reduce corrosion in gas wells deals.

  16. Reduced order constrained optimization (ROCO): Clinical application to lung IMRT

    OpenAIRE

    Stabenau, Hans; Rivera, Linda; Yorke, Ellen; Yang, Jie; Lu, Renzhi; Richard J. Radke; Jackson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors use reduced-order constrained optimization (ROCO) to create clinically acceptable IMRT plans quickly and automatically for advanced lung cancer patients. Their new ROCO implementation works with the treatment planning system and full dose calculation used at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The authors have implemented mean dose hard constraints, along with the point-dose and dose-volume constraints that the authors used for our previous work on the prostat...

  17. Application of heat in postcook meat chillers reduces Listeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Electrical air-blowing heaters were used to heat and dry out holding chillers used for postcook commercial processed meats in an attempt to control the presence of Listeria. A baseline study of the prevalence of Listeria in holding chillers in seven facilities was undertaken. Listeria was detected in four of the seven chillers, and swab samples showed Listeria prevalence ranging from 7 (7.8%) of 90 to 6 (20%) of 30, depending on the facility. Two of the facilities with established Listeria contamination (A and E) were chosen for further studies. The heating trials consisted of three individual heating interventions at each of the two facilities, with 2 weeks of postintervention sampling after each treatment. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller A was 19 (10.6%) of 180, and treatment at 37°C for 36 h reduced prevalence to 3 (1.7%) of 180. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller E was 7 (7.8%) of 90, and treatment at 50°C for 2 h reduced prevalence to 0 of 90. Both reductions were statistically significant at P good manufacturing practices has effectively reduced prevalence of Listeria in chillers. PMID:21669080

  18. Reduced parameter model on trajectory tracking data with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正明; 朱炬波

    1999-01-01

    The data fusion in tracking the same trajectory by multi-measurernent unit (MMU) is considered. Firstly, the reduced parameter model (RPM) of trajectory parameter (TP), system error and random error are presented,and then the RPM on trajectory tracking data (TTD) is obtained, a weighted method on measuring elements (ME) is studied and criteria on selection of ME based on residual and accuracy estimation are put forward. According to RPM,the problem about selection of ME and self-calibration of TTD is thoroughly investigated. The method improves data accuracy in trajectory tracking obviously and gives accuracy evaluation of trajectory tracking system simultaneously.

  19. Reduced risk HTGR concept for industrial heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial process heat market has been identified as major market for the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), however, this market introduces stringent availability requirements on the reactor system relative to electric plants which feed a large existing grid. The characteristics and requirements of the industrial heat markets are summarized; the risks associated with serving this market with a single large HTGR will be discussed; and the modular concept, which has the potential to reduce both safety and investment risks, will be described. The reference modular concept described consists of several small, relatively benign nuclear heat sources linked together to supply heat energy to a balance-of-plant incorporating a process gas train/thermochemical pipe line system and a normal steam-electric plant

  20. Application of the symbolic manipulation program REDUCE to system availability analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many symbolic manipulation computer programs have been developed to perform complicated algebraic manipulations. Among them REDUCE is readily available for users of the CRAY computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center, Livermore, California. In this paper applications of REDUCE in nuclear power plant system availability analyses are discussed. An imaginative reader might find other useful applications

  1. An Experimental Evaluation of the Application of Smart Damping Materials for Reducing Structural Noise and Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Jeric, Kristina Marie

    1999-01-01

    An Experimental Evaluation of the Application of Smart Damping Materials for Reducing Structural Noise and Vibrations Kristina M. Jeric (ABSTRACT) This study evaluates the application of smart damping materials for reducing structural noise and vibrations. The primary purposes of this study are to: 1. Explore the feasibility of smart damping materials, such as piezoelectric materials, for augmenting and improving the noise and v...

  2. BlobSeer: Bringing High Throughput under Heavy Concurrency to Hadoop Map-Reduce Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae, Bogdan; Moise, Diana; Antoniu, Gabriel; Bougé, Luc; Dorier, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Hadoop is a software framework supporting the Map/Reduce programming model. It relies on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) as its primary storage system. The efficiency of HDFS is crucial for the performance of Map/Reduce applications. We substitute the original HDFS layer of Hadoop with a new, concurrency-optimized data storage layer based on the BlobSeer data management service. Thereby, the efficiency of Hadoop is significantly improved for data-intensive Map/Reduce applications, w...

  3. Application of Reduced Corn Cultivation Technology in Agro-Ecosystem of Cazin Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Veladžić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive corn cultivation is predominant in current agriculture of the Una-Sana Canton. One of the corn cultivation methods in agro-ecosystem is reduced cultivation. The paper presents the experiment of “Osmak žuti” (eight-row yellow corn cultivation on two control sites with application of reduced and intensive cultivation in Cazin municipality. The objectives of this research were to examine the possibility of application of reduced corn cultivation; analyze statistical variation elements (length, circumference and weight of corn cob; and determine cost effectiveness of reduced relative to intensive production. The results indicate extremely high statistically significant difference (p<0.001 for all parameters in both cultivation methods. The cost effectiveness of reduced relative to intensive cultivation of Osmak žuti corn is higher by 36%. The experiment encourages introduction of reduced corn cultivation practice.

  4. Experimental research on biomimetic drag-reducing surface application in natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yuehao; Zhang, Deyuan [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2012-12-15

    In the context of natural gas pipelines the application of biomimetic drag-reducing technology has been proposed for the purpose of reducing wall resistance and increasing the transportation capacity by virtue of smooth internal coating. In this article, in order to validate the drag reduction effect, the precured micro-rolling technology (PCMRT) was adopted to fabricate the biomimetic drag-reducing pipes, and the field testing experiment with natural gas was performed for the first time, achieving a maximum drag reduction of 8.68%, which proves the feasibility of the application of this new technology in natural gas pipelines. (orig.)

  5. A Study on Using Uncertain Time Series Matching Algorithms in Map-Reduce Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rizvandi, Nikzad Babaii; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study CPU utilization time patterns of several Map-Reduce applications. After extracting running patterns of several applications, the patterns with their statistical information are saved in a reference database to be later used to tweak system parameters to efficiently execute unknown applications in future. To achieve this goal, CPU utilization patterns of new applications along with its statistical information are compared with the already known ones in the reference database to find/predict their most probable execution patterns. Because of different patterns lengths, the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) is utilized for such comparison; a statistical analysis is then applied to DTWs' outcomes to select the most suitable candidates. Moreover, under a hypothesis, another algorithm is proposed to classify applications under similar CPU utilization patterns. Three widely used text processing applications (WordCount, Distributed Grep, and Terasort) and another application (Exim Mainlog parsing) ar...

  6. A Reduced Basis Framework: Application to large scale non-linear multi-physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daversin C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present applications of the reduced basis method (RBM to large-scale non-linear multi-physics problems. We first describe the mathematical framework in place and in particular the Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM to recover an affine decomposition and then we propose an implementation using the open-source library Feel++ which provides both the reduced basis and finite element layers. Large scale numerical examples are shown and are connected to real industrial applications arising from the High Field Resistive Magnets development at the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses.

  7. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs. PMID:26905799

  8. Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts using Medipix3RX: With applications from biomaterial science

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, K; de Ruiter, N J A; Chernoglazov, A I; Panta, R K; Butler, A P H; Butler, P H; Bell, S T; Anderson, N G; Woodfield, T B F; Tredinnick, S J; Healy, J L; Bateman, C J; Aamir, R; Doesburg, R M N; Renaud, P F; Gieseg, S P; Smithies, D J; Mohr, J L; Mandalika, V B H; Opie, A M T; Cook, N J; Ronaldson, J P; Nik, S J; Atharifard, A; Clyne, M; Bones, P J; Bartneck, C; Grasset, R; Schleich, N; Billinghurst, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects using spectral data for biomaterial applications. A small-animal spectral scanner operating in the diagnostic energy range was used. We investigate the use of photon-processing features of the Medipix3RX ASIC in reducing beam hardening and associated artefacts. A fully operational charge summing mode was used during the imaging routine. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. Narrow high energy acquisition using the photon-processing detector revealed substantial reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts.

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF ON-FARM COSTS OF TIMING N APPLICATIONS TO REDUCE N LOSSES

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wen-Yuan; Hewitt, Tracy I.; Shank, David

    1998-01-01

    Timing nitrogen applications to the biological needs of a crop is an effective way to reduce nitrogen losses to the environment. However, this strategy may carry a production risk and conflict with farmersÂ’' economic objectives. A field-level production decision model was used to estimate on-farm costs associated with timing nitrogen applications for crop needs in Indiana. For risk-neutral farmer, the estimated cost is less than $1 per acre with a reduction of 11 pounds of residual nitrogen....

  10. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kasai; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Hitoshi Ohnishi; Kazutaka Suzuki; Daisuke Hayasaka; Koichi Goka

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3...

  11. ReWAP: Reducing Redundant Transfers for Mobile Web Applications via App-Specific Resource Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuanzhe; Ma., Yun; Dong, Shuailiang; Liu, Yunxin; Xie, Tao; Huang, Gang; Mei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Redundant transfer of resources is a critical issue for compromising the performance of mobile Web applications (a.k.a., apps) in terms of data traffic, load time, and even energy consumption. Evidence shows that the current cache mechanisms are far from satisfactory. With lessons learned from how native apps manage their resources, in this paper, we propose the ReWAP approach to fundamentally reducing redundant transfers by restructuring the resource loading of mobile Web apps. ReWAP is base...

  12. Reduced pipe loadings for temporary conditions -- Criteria development and application experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative procedure for evaluating the effects of short-term temporary loads on piping systems and supports is described. This includes the reduction of seismic loads and adjustment of the design basis load sets to account for the short duration of the temporary loads. The rationale for the criteria are reviewed along with industry and regulatory agency evaluations. Sample applications are discussed to quantify the benefits of using these methods to reduce pipe loadings for temporary conditions

  13. Reduced-order constrained optimization (ROCO): Clinical application to head-and-neck IMRT

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Linda; Yorke, Ellen; Kowalski, Alex; Yang, Jie; Richard J. Radke; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present the application of the reduced order constrained optimization (ROCO) method, previously successfully applied to the prostate and lung sites, to the head-and-neck (H&N) site, demonstrating that it can quickly and automatically generate clinically competitive IMRT plans. We provide guidelines for applying ROCO to larynx, oropharynx, and nasopharynx cases, and report the results of a live experiment that demonstrates how an expert planner can save several hours of tr...

  14. Development and Commercial Application of RFCC Catalyst for Reducing Sulfur Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingde; Zhu Yuxia; Huang Lei; Hou Dianguo

    2007-01-01

    The sulfur-reducing functional component-the Lewis acid-base pair compound-and associated active zeolite component were developed to prepare the RFCC catalyst DOS for reducing sulfur content in gasoline.The results of catalyst evaluation have revealed that the Lewis acid-base pair compound developed hereby could enhance the conversion of macromolecular sulfur compounds by the catalyst to promote the proceeding of desulfurization reactions,and the synergetic action of the selected zeolite and the Lewis acid-base pair compound could definitely reduce the olefins and sulfur contents in gasoline.The heavy oil conversion capability of the catalyst DOS thus developed was higher coupled with an enhanced resistance to heavy metals contamination to reduce the sulfur content in gasoline by over 20%.The commercial application of this catalyst at the SINOPEC Jiujiang Branch Company has revealed that compared to the GRV-C catalyst the oil slurry yield obtained by the catalyst DOS was reduced along with an improved coke selectivity,an increased total liquid yield,and a decreased olefin content in gasoline.The ratio of sulfur in gasoline/sulfur in feed oil could be reduced by 20.3 m%.

  15. A heuristic re-mapping algorithm reducing inter-level communication in SAMR applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensland, Johan; Ray, Jaideep

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims at decreasing execution time for large-scale structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) applications by proposing a new heuristic re-mapping algorithm and experimentally showing its effectiveness in reducing inter-level communication. Tests were done for five different SAMR applications. The overall goal is to engineer a dynamically adaptive meta-partitioner capable of selecting and configuring the most appropriate partitioning strategy at run-time based on current system and application state. Such a metapartitioner can significantly reduce execution times for general SAMR applications. Computer simulations of physical phenomena are becoming increasingly popular as they constitute an important complement to real-life testing. In many cases, such simulations are based on solving partial differential equations by numerical methods. Adaptive methods are crucial to efficiently utilize computer resources such as memory and CPU. But even with adaption, the simulations are computationally demanding and yield huge data sets. Thus parallelization and the efficient partitioning of data become issues of utmost importance. Adaption causes the workload to change dynamically, calling for dynamic (re-) partitioning to maintain efficient resource utilization. The proposed heuristic algorithm reduced inter-level communication substantially. Since the complexity of the proposed algorithm is low, this decrease comes at a relatively low cost. As a consequence, we draw the conclusion that the proposed re-mapping algorithm would be useful to lower overall execution times for many large SAMR applications. Due to its usefulness and its parameterization, the proposed algorithm would constitute a natural and important component of the meta-partitioner.

  16. Application of Olefin-Reducing Catalyst in FCC Unit at Daqing Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinfeng; Yang Daoxue; Zhang Guojing; Yao Hua

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the application of DOCO olefin-reducing catalyst developed by RIPP and manufactured by the Catalyst Factory of Changling Refining and Chemical Company in the 1.4 Mt/a RFCCU at Daqing Petrochemical Company. Results of operation over two months had revealed that this catalyst had good olefin-reducing ability and heavy oil converting ability adapted to paraffinic feedstock. The gasoline olefin yield had been reduced to 36.1 v% from 54.2 v% with gasoline RON rating decreased by 1.4 units. The induction period of gasoline had significantly increased to 952 mm, while the coke yield was increased by 0.05 percentage point with light oil yield dropping by only 0.02 percentage point. The FCC product distribution is favorable.

  17. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which

  18. Demonstration of methods to reduce E. coli runoff from dairy manure application sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Donald W; Braun, David C

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by bacteria is a leading cause of impairment in U.S. waters, particularly in areas of livestock agriculture. We evaluated the effectiveness of several practices in reducing Escherichia coli levels in runoff from fields receiving liquid dairy (Bos taurus) manure. Runoff trials were conducted on replicated hay and silage corn (Zea mays L.) plots using simulated rainfall. Levels of E. coli in runoff were approximately 10(4) to 10(6) organisms per 100 mL, representing a significant pollution potential. Practices tested were: manure storage, delay between manure application and rainfall, manure incorporation by tillage, and increased hayland vegetation height. Storage of manure for 30 d or more consistently and dramatically lowered E. coli counts in our experiments, with longer storage providing greater reductions. Manure E. coli declined by > 99% after approximately 90 d of storage. On average, levels of E. coli in runoff were 97% lower from plots receiving 30-d-old and > 99% lower from plots receiving 90-d-old manure than from plots where fresh manure was applied. Runoff from hayland and cornland plots where manure was applied 3 d before rainfall contained approximately 50% fewer E. coli than did runoff from plots that received manure 1 d before rainfall. Hayland vegetation height alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in runoff, but interactions with rainfall delay and manure age were observed. Manure incorporation alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in cornland plot runoff, but incorporation could reduce bacteria export by reducing field runoff and interaction with rainfall delay was observed. Extended storage that avoids additions of fresh manure, combined with application several days before runoff, incorporation on tilled land, and higher vegetation on hayland at application could substantially reduce microorganism loading from agricultural land. PMID:16738394

  19. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  20. The application study of polycarboxylates water-reducing admixture in passenger dedicated line engineering%The application study of polycarboxylates water-reducing admixture in passenger dedicated line engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhijiu

    2012-01-01

    Polycarboxylate water-reducing admixture possesses the capability which could meet with the comprehensive performance of high performance concrete used in passenger dedicated line engineering. The problems of polycarboxylates water-reducing admixtures existed in the engineering application of were analyzed. At present the key for polycarboxylates application was to settle the compatibility between the water-reducing admixture and the cement and to keep the quality retention of this admixture.

  1. Efforts to Reduce Radioactive Wastes at High Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) has the equipment to treat the gaseous radioactive waste generated within itself but it does not have proper ways to treat the waste in either a liquid or solid form. For the last 5 years, every effort has been made to reduce the radioactive wastes in HANARO. Improvements of the equipment and operating procedures regarding the generation of radioactive waste in the field have resulted in an effective reduction of the radioactive waste. In addition, as an outgrowth of the research efforts in connection with the demand in the field, several new methods have been developed to effectively treat the radioactive waste. Efforts to reduce and treat the radioactive waste in HANARO will continue and that will contribute greatly to an improvement of the reliability and safety of HANARO. (authors)

  2. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, A.; Arshad, E.; Jasmin, C.; Pai, S.S.; BrightSingh, I.S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, A.

    propitious alternative to antibiotics in recent years (Wainwright, 1998; Lee et al., 2004; Konopka and Goslinski, 2007; Donnelly et al., 2008; Almeida et al., 2009; Garland et al., 2009; Wainwright, 2009; Nakonechny et al., 2010; Wainwright, 2010). a...., 2000b; Defoirdt et al., 2007; Anas et al., 2009). Despite in vitro successes with these strategies, their wide spread application is limited by their inconsistency in the field and more importantly their handicap to provide protection during...

  3. A Class AB Amplifier with a Reduced Crossover Distortion for Real Time Video Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Beohar; Dr. R. K. Baghel

    2010-01-01

    A class AB amplifier with reduced crossover distortion which is suitable for high resolution real time video applications . The ckt contains two stage amplifiers with both input and output stage based on the new principle realized on a nano scale technology and the residual offset due to charge injection. A low voltage CMOS op amp design is present in this paper. The circuit uses complementary input pairs to achieve a rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. Special attention has been gi...

  4. Application of gamma irradiation to reduce microbial contamination in herbal cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the decontamination of herbal powder cosmetics by gamma irradiation to reduce the total microbial colony count in facial herbal powder, herbal rose brush on and talcum. Pre-irradiated samples showed total colony counts of 3.00×104, 2.70×104 and 1.00×103 CFU/g. At 3rd day after application, irradiation reduced the total colony counts to 1.90×102, 6.00×102 and 1.20×102 CFU/g. Moreover, the total colony counts of the three samples were found to be less than 100 CFU/g after 3 months storage. The non-uniformity of ΔE⁎ revealed that time affected the color of brush on and talcum, which differed from their original color; however, irradiation affected the colors of the brush on only (P<0.05), by reducing its brightness and increasing redness and yellowness of the products. Paired preference tests were conducted in facial herbal powder and herbal rose brush on. The results showed no significant preferences between the non irradiated and irradiated of the two products at P max=75%, α=0.05, β=0.10. This concludes that the irradiation does not affect the preference of the products, and it can be an alternative technology to reduce microbial decontaminations in herbal products. - Highlights: ► This study addresses the decontamination of herbal powder cosmetics by gamma irradiation to reduce the total microbial colony count. ► At 3 days after application, irradiation reduced the total colony count at level 102 CFU/g and less than 100 CFU/g after 3 months storage. ► The non-uniformity of ΔE* revealed that time affected the color of brush on and talcum; however, irradiation affected the colors of the brush on only (P<0.05). ► Paired preference tests showed that there were no significant preferences between the non irradiated and irradiated.

  5. Biochar application reduces N2O emission in intensively managed temperate grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is seen as an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce N2O emissions. Mainly used in highly weathered tropical soils, the interest of using biochar in intensively managed temperate soils is increasing. Our previous laboratory incubations have shown N2O reduction potentials of between 20 and 100% for temperate soils after biochar application (Felber et al., Biogeosciences Discuss, 2012). To assess the effect of biochar application under field conditions, a plot experiment (3 control vs. 3 biochar amended plots of 3x3 m size at a rate of 15 t ha-1) was set up in a temperate intensively managed grassland soil. N2O and CO2 emissions were quasi-continuously measured by static chambers under standard management practice over 8 months. In parallel soil samples were taken monthly from all plots and their N2O and CO2 productions were measured under controlled conditions in the lab. At the beginning of the field measurements (April 2011) cumulative N2O fluxes from biochar amended plots were above those of control plots, but the pattern reversed towards reduced fluxes from biochar plots after 3 months and the reduction reached about 15% by the end of 2011. The biochar effect on reducing N2O emissions in the laboratory was two times that of the field measurements, indicating that results from laboratory experiments are not directly transferable to field conditions. The experiments indicate a substantial N2O emission reduction potential of biochar in temperate grassland fields.

  6. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide and polypyrrole/reduced graphene oxide composite coated stretchable fabric electrodes for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Stretchable rGO coated fabric electrode was prepared by a dyeing approach. • This conductive fabric could sustain conductivity at 200% strain. • Its specific capacitance was improved after a polypyrrole coating. • These stretchable electrodes showed improved performance at 50% strain. -- Abstract: The advent of self-powered functional garments has given rise to a demand for stretchable energy storage devices that are amendable to integration into textile structures. The electromaterials (anode, cathode and separator) are expected to sustain a deformation of 3% to 55% associated with body movement. Here, we report a stretchable fabric supercapacitor electrode using commonly available nylon lycra fabric as the substrate and graphene oxide (GO) as a dyestuff. It was prepared via a facile dyeing approach followed by a mild chemical reduction. This reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coated fabric electrode retains conductivity at an applied strain of up to 200%. It delivers a specific capacitance of 12.3 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 in 1.0 M lithium sulfate aqueous solution. The capacitance is significantly increased to 114 F g−1 with the addition of a chemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) coating. This PPy-rGO-fabric electrode demonstrates an improved cycling stability and a higher capacitance at 50% strain when compared to the performance observed with no strain

  8. Implementation of a protein reduced point charge model toward molecular dynamics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2011-11-17

    A reduced point charge model was developed in a previous work from the study of extrema in smoothed charge density distribution functions generated from the Amber99 molecular electrostatic potential. In the present work, such a point charge distribution is coupled with the Amber99 force field and implemented in the program TINKER to allow molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins. First applications to two polypeptides that involve α-helix and β-sheet motifs are analyzed and compared to all-atom MD simulations. Two types of coarse-grained (CG)-based trajectories are generated using, on one hand, harmonic bond stretching terms and, on the other hand, distance restraints. Results show that the use of the unrestrained CG conditions are sufficient to preserve most of the secondary structure characteristics but restraints lead to a better agreement between CG and all-atom simulation results such as rmsd, dipole moment, and time-dependent mean square deviation functions. PMID:21800922

  9. High Performance Computing for the Reduced Basis Method. Application to Natural Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenone E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in applying the reduced basis methodology (RBM to steady-state natural convection problems. The latter has applications in many engineering domains and being able to apply the RBM would allow to gain huge computation savings when querying the model for many parameter evaluations. In this work, we focus on the order reduction of the model — in particular the handling of the non-linear terms, — as well as the design of the RBM computational framework and the requirements on high performance computing to treat 3D models using Feel++, a C++ open source library to solve partial differential equations. Numerical experiments are presented on 2D and 3D models.

  10. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioinformatics researchers are increasingly confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date.

  11. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication and application of reduced enrichment fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers presented in the following areas: (1) Reduced Enrichment Fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program Status; (2) Fuel Development; (3) Fuel Demonstrations; (4) General Topics; and (5) Specific Reactor Applications

  12. Novel precision enhancement algorithm with reduced image noise in cosmic muon tomography applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sangkyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new algorithm that improves muon-based generated tomography images with increased precision and reduced image noise applicable to the detection of nuclear materials. Cosmic muon tomography is an interrogation-based imaging technique that, over the last decade, has been frequently employed for the detection of high-Z materials. This technique exploits a magnitude of cosmic muon scattering angles in order to construct an image. The scattering angles of the muons striking the geometry of interest are non-uniform, as cosmic muons vary in energy. The randomness of the scattering angles leads to significant noise in the muon tomography image. GEANT4 is used to numerically create data on the momenta and positions of scattered muons in a predefined geometry that includes high-Z materials. The numerically generated information is then processed with the point of closest approach reconstruction method to construct a muon tomography image; statistical filters are then developed to refine the point of closest approach reconstructed images. The filtered images exhibit reduced noise and enhanced precision when attempting to identify the presence of high-Z materials. The average precision from the point of closest approach reconstruction method is 13 %; for the integrated method, 88 %. The filtered image, therefore, results in a seven-fold improvement in precision compared to the point of closest approach reconstructed image.

  13. Resistive switching behavior of reduced graphene oxide memory cells for low power nonvolatile device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Xiao, Bo; Mishra, Saswat; Killam, Alex; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) based low cost flexible electronics and memory cell have recently attracted more attention for the fabrication of emerging electronic devices. As a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory technology, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can be widely used for non-volatile switching memory applications because of its large surface area, excellent scalability, retention, and endurance properties. We demonstrated that the fabricated metal/RGO/metal memory device exhibited excellent switching characteristics, with on/off ratio of two orders of magnitude and operated threshold switching voltage of less than 1 V. The studies on different cell diameter, thickness, scan voltages and period of time corroborate the reliability of the device as resistive random access memory. The microscopic origin of switching operation is governed by the establishment of conducting filaments due to the interface amorphous layer rupturing and the movement of oxygen in the GO layer. This interesting experimental finding indicates that device made up of thermally reduced GO shows more reliability for its use in next generation electronics devices.

  14. Subspace methods for multi-physics reduced order modeling in nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript proposes a new extension to a reduced order modeling algorithm, previously introduced for single-physics models, to multi-physics models. This manuscript focuses on loosely-coupled physics models wherein the output of one physics model is fed as input to the next physics model, and each physics model is solved separately while freezing all other physics models. The idea is to perform three reductions at each physics-to-physics interface, one based on the upstream physics, another for the downstream physics, and a third for the interaction thereof. Accurately capturing the interaction between the reduced physics models is an essential feature of the proposed algorithm, and will be the key measure for its success. For standard model execution, this interaction is often captured using an iterative technique that loops over the different physics until convergence or meeting some stopping criterion. We adopt a similar approach in which the effective dimensionality of each physics-to-physics interface is updated iteratively until a user-defined error tolerance is met. A quarter PWR fuel assembly depleted to 32 GWD/MTU by iteratively solving the quasi-static transport-depletion approximation is used to exemplify the application of the proposed algorithm. Active subspaces for the nuclear cross-sections and neutron flux are determined, and compared to the active subspaces obtained without the physics coupling.(author)

  15. A Class AB Amplifier with a Reduced Crossover Distortion for Real Time Video Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Beohar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A class AB amplifier with reduced crossover distortion which is suitable for high resolution real time video applications . The ckt contains two stage amplifiers with both input and output stage based on the new principle realized on a nano scale technology and the residual offset due to charge injection. A low voltage CMOS op amp design is present in this paper. The circuit uses complementary input pairs to achieve a rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. Special attention has been given to the reduction of the op amp’s systematic offset voltage. An experimental prototype amplifier is implemented with CMOS 90 nm technologies, and the circuit exhibits the settling time of 4 μs, for a voltage swing of 5 V under a 600 pF capacitance load with a power supply of 5 V. The offset voltage of the amplifier reduced to a small value of 0.128mv.The area of this amplifier is 50*80 μm2.

  16. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple. PMID:26007196

  17. Topical application of silymarin reduces chemical-induced irritant contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Hwa; Yoon, Won Kee; Lee, Hyunju; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Kiho; Park, Song-Kyu; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Hwan Mook; Kang, Jong Soon

    2007-12-15

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a non-allergic local inflammatory reaction of a skin and one of the most frequent occupational health problems. Silymarin has been clinically used in Europe for a long time to treat liver diseases and also known to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we report that topical application of silymarin reduces chemical-induced ICD. Topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced an ear swelling in BALB/c mice and silymarin suppressed DNCB-induced increase in ear thickness. Prophylactic and therapeutic application of silymarin showed similar effect on DNCB-induced increase in ear thickness and skin water content. In addition, phobor ester- or croton oil-induced increase in ear thickness was also inhibited by silymarin treatment. Silymarin also blocked neutrophil accumulation into the ear induced by these irritants. Further study demonstrated that DNCB-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in mouse ear was suppressed by silymarin. DNCB-induced expression of KC, one of the main attractors of neutrophil in mice, and adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin in mouse ear were also inhibited by silymarin. Moreover, TNF-alpha-induced expression of cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and a chemokine, IL-8, were suppressed by silymarin treatment in human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Silymarin also blocked TNF-alpha- and DNCB-induced NF-kappaB activation in HaCaT. Collectively, these results demonstrate that topically applied silymarin inhibits chemical-induced ICD in mice and this might be mediated, at least in part, by blocking NF-kappaB activation and consequently inhibiting the expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules. PMID:17996674

  18. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  19. System analysis for application of operation at reduced temperature in YGN 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary Water Stress Corrosion Craking(PWSCC) is one of the main reason threatening the integrity of steam generator(SG). The rate of PWSCC increases logarithmically with the temperature of reactor coolant. In order to delay the replacement of SG and save the O and M cost, it is decided to apply Operation at Reduced Temperature(ORT) in YGN 3,4 which is equipped with In-600 SG tube and is operating with the highest coolant temperature in the world. In this study, the system performance of YGN 3,4 is analyzed by sensitivity analysis to decide the operating condition of ORT. The F612 deg of hot-leg coolant temperature which can maintain the 100% of reactor power without the modification of Turbine-Generator(TG) hardware is selected as the economical initial operating condition for ORT. Considering the possibility of power uprating and the experience of ORT application at Palo Verde plants, the F611 deg of hot-leg coolant temperature is decided as the analysis condition for ORT

  20. Application of a novel colour imaging technique to thermal convection under reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative measurement performance and the robustness of a novel high-speed imaging system using a liquid crystal tunable filter have been verified by a fluid dynamic experiment in a reduced gravity environment. This new type of diagnostic tool is a combination of a monochrome high-speed CCD camera with fast ferroelectric liquid crystal control. The filter can be tuned to red, green and blue colour planes (RGB filter), which provides real colour images without loss of resolution. The scientific application was the investigation of the influence of buoyancy on the surface tension-driven flow around a bubble on heated wall. The flow velocity and temperature patterns were observed in gravity and microgravity environments. The measuring technique is based on particle image velocimetry and thermometry (PIV/T). The principle of this optical full-field technique relies on seeded thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as signal particles, which change colour depending on their temperature. The experimental results of the flow investigations under 1-g and μ-g conditions are discussed and compared with one another

  1. Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. E.; Morrow, C. A.; Byerlee, J. D.

    1982-09-01

    The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in significant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electrolyte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1-10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subsequent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption.

  2. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    OpenAIRE

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  3. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  4. Effect of reducing agent on graphene synthesis and its influence on charge storage towards supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical reduction route was adopted for graphene preparation. • Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 6 M KOH. • Better electrochemical properties obtained for graphene than graphene oxide. • A high specific capacitance of 284.3 F/g was observed for SR1:10. - Abstract: A simple chemical route was adopted for the preparation of graphene by chemical reduction route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent. A systematic study was done to show the effect of NaBH4 on the reduction and the obtained graphene samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microcopy and High resolution transmission electron microscopy. Better reduction of GO was observed at GO and NaBH4 ratio of 1:10 (denoted as SR1:10). Further, the investigation was emphasized to show the effect of the above GO to reductant ratio on its charge storage properties. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte and the results show that the capacitance performance was increased in the order of GO < SR1:8 < SR1:4 < SR1:12 < SR1:10. A high specific capacitance of 284.3 F/g was observed for SR1:10 electrode at 5 mV/s scan rate could be due to better electrical conductivity of sample. The ratio of GO and NaBH4 was optimized to 1:10 for high degree reduction of graphene, which has higher capacitance towards supercapacitor applications

  5. Enhanced monolithic diffraction gratings with high efficiency and reduced polarization sensitivity for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Peter; Diehl, Torsten; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles and as well as lamellar profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular

  6. An assessment of planting flexibility options to reduce the excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    W-Y Huang; N D Uri

    1992-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is directed at estimating the marginal value of a base acre, the nitrogen rate of fertilizer use, the corn yield, and the excess nitrogen fertilizer application rate under alternative policy options designed to encourage planting flexibility in response to changing relative agricultural commodity prices. Encouragement of planting flexibility via an option of detaching deficiency payments from the base acreage is an effective way to reduce the excessive application r...

  7. Effect of additives in reducing ash sintering and slagging in biomass combustion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liang

    2012-07-01

    formation of low temperature melting potassium rich silicates and phosphates, causing severe sintering of the WCob ash at elevated temperatures. In contrast, both the Pioneer corn cob (PCob) and Surcin corn cob (SCob) contained high contents of Cl, Ca and Mg that promote K release from the ashes to a certain extent and inhibit formation of low temperature melting K rich silicates and phosphates. In addition, abundance of Ca and Mg in the PCob and SCob facilitated formation of high temperature melting Ca/Mg-K-silicates and Ca/Mg-K-phosphates, reducing sintering degrees of ashes derived from these two corn cobs. Utilizing additives is an efficient way to mitigate ash related operational problems in biomass combustion applications. The useful additives can be proximately categorized into Al-Si-based, S-based, calcium-based and phosphorus-based, according to the major chemical composition in the additives. After fed into biomass combustion systems with different approaches, the additives can decrease amounts of problematic ash species through five possible mechanisms, which prevent and/or abate ash related problems consequently. It is interesting to exploit additives from waste materials, which are normally characterized with rather high chemical reactivity, physical adsorption capacity, abundance of refractory compounds themselves and low costs. More detailed studies are needed to clarify effects of these additives on ash transformation during biomass combustion processes. Sintering characteristics of biomass ashes and effects of additives were investigated. The work revealed that severe fusion of wheat straw ash was associated with intensive formation and melting of potassium silicates under heating. Whereas, sintering of wood waste ash was caused by generation of low temperature melting potassium/sodium aluminum silicates and potassium/sodium calcium silicates. The best anti-sintering effect was achieved by using the marble sludge as additive. The dilution effect from the

  8. Reduced-Complexity Cyclotomic FFT and Its Application in Reed-Solomon Decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ning

    2007-01-01

    Cyclotomic fast Fourier transform (CFFT) was recently proposed and shown to be efficient for lengths up to 511. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to reduce the additive complexity of CFFT. When used in transform-domain Reed-Solomon decoders, our improved CFFT reduces the complexity of the transform portion by up to 72%.

  9. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended. PMID:27033991

  10. 7 CFR 245.6 - Application, eligibility and certification of children for free and reduced price meals and free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application, eligibility and certification of children for free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.6 Section 245.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR...

  11. Commercial Application of X-62 Catalyst for Reducing Olefins in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenhui; Liu Jingxiang; Xu Wuqing; Hou Yubao

    2005-01-01

    In order to reduce the coke yield and increase the economic benefits of FCC unit under the prerequisites of securing the olefin content of gasoline in compliance with the requirement, SINOPEC Luoyang Branch Company applied in the period from July through October 2004 the new generation X-62 catalyst (FlexTec-LOL1) developed by the Engelhard Corporation of USA to improve the heavy oil conversion and to reduce coke make. The result of tests has shown that indicators on reducing the unit catalyst consumption,amplitude on reduction of non-ideal products (coke+oil slurry+dry gas) yield, and amplitude on reduction of coke yield were comparatively satisfactory.

  12. Reduced-order modeling for cardiac electrophysiology. Application to parameter identification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulakia, Muriel; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A reduced-order model based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is proposed for the bidomain equations of cardiac electrophysiology. Its accuracy is assessed through electrocardiograms in various configurations, including myocardium infarctions and long-time simulations. We show in particular that a restitution curve can efficiently be approximated by this approach. The reduced-order model is then used in an inverse problem solved by an evolutionary algorithm. Some attempts are presented to identify ionic parameters and infarction locations from synthetic ECGs.

  13. Reducing academic procrastination for junior secondary school students : the application of the temporal motivational theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Man-hong; 馮文康

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a motivational package developed based on the components of the temporal motivational theory on reducing the participants’ tendency to procrastinate. Characteristics of a sample of 308 junior secondary school students (formed 14 groups) were matched and randomly assigned (in group unit) into treatment and control conditions. Through watching a video in a workshop, the treatment group learned the skills to reduce procrastination while the control group l...

  14. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  15. Application of a reduced order model to BWR corewide stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of system stability parameters from power readings is a problem usually solved by time series techniques such as autoregressive modeling. These techniques are capable of determining the system stability, but ignore the physics of the process and focus on the determination of a nth order linear model. A nonlinear reduced order system is used in conjunction with estimation techniques to present a different approach for stability determination. The simulation of the reduced order model shows the importance of the feedback reactivity imposed by the thermal-hydraulics; the dominant contribution to this feedback is provided by the void reactivity, being a function of power, burnup, power distribution, and in general of the operating conditions of the system. The feedback reactivity is estimated from power measurements and used in conjunction with a reduced order model to determine the system stability properties in terms of the decay ratio

  16. A Reduced Form for Linear Differential Systems and its Application to Integrability of Hamiltonian Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Monforte, Ainhoa Aparicio; Weil, Jacques-Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Let $[A]: Y'=AY$ with $A\\in \\mathrm{M}_n (k)$ be a differential linear system. We say that a matrix $R\\in {\\cal M}_{n}(\\bar{k})$ is a {\\em reduced form} of $[A]$ if $R\\in \\mathfrak{g}(\\bar{k})$ and there exists $P\\in GL_n (\\bar{k})$ such that $R=P^{-1}(AP-P')\\in \\mathfrak{g}(\\bar{k})$. Such a form is often the sparsest possible attainable through gauge transformations without introducing new transcendants. In this article, we discuss how to compute reduced forms of some symplectic differentia...

  17. 75 FR 38592 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for Reducing the Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... traumatic interventions and to advance evidence-based recommendations for controlling the risks associated... the applicability of current knowledge about post traumatic interventions and to advance evidence... technical efforts (e.g., holding a Ph.D. in psychology or related fields, having peer-reviewed...

  18. QoS oriented MapReduce Optimization for Hadoop Based BigData Application

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan Ul Islam Khan; Rashidah F. Olanrewaju

    2014-01-01

    International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computa...

  19. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  20. Reduced working electrode based on fullerene C60 nanotubes-DNA: Characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuzhi [Key Laboratory of Eco-Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No. 106, Nanjing Road, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Qu Yongtao [Key Laboratory of Rubber-plastics of Ministry of Education, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Piao Guangzhe, E-mail: piao@qust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Rubber-plastics of Ministry of Education, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhao Jian [Key Laboratory of Rubber-plastics of Ministry of Education, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Jiao Kui, E-mail: Kjiao@qust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2010-11-25

    Fullerene C{sub 60} nanotubes (FNTs) were functionalized with sequence-specific single-stranded DNA to form a kind of complexes (FNT-DNA), which could be brought efficiently into aqueous solution. The dispersed FNT-DNA could form a layer of stable film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In the Britton-Robinson buffer solution of pH {>=}7.0, the FNT-DNA modified on the GCE presented an irreversible two-step six-electron transfer reduction reaction. The reduced modified electrode had a rather wide electrochemical window and could be used as a functionalized working electrode, which showed a good enrichment capability towards the positively charged molecules. The selective detection of dopamine in the presence of a high amount of ascorbic acid could be realized at the reduced FNT-DNA-modified GCE in neutral buffer solution.

  1. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioinformatics researchers are now confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. Description An overview is given of ...

  2. A novel SOI MESFET by reducing the electric field crowding for high voltage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Jam, Moein Eslami; Nejaty, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) is presented by reducing the electric field crowding. The charge distribution in channel modifies by reducing the electric field crowding and results in the breakdown voltage (VBR) improves. To reduce the electric field crowding, a buried field plate (BFP) is employed in the buried oxide of the SOI MESFET and connected to source. DC and frequency response characteristics of the SOI MESFET with BFP (BFP-SOI MESFET) are analyzed via a 2-D numerical simulation and the results are compared with characteristics of a conventional SOI MESFET (C-SOI MESFET) structure. The BFP has outstanding effect on the VBR of the device. The VBR of the proposed BFP-SOI MESFET improves by 84% compared with that of the C-SOI MESFET. Although the saturation drain current of the proposed structure has decreased to a small extent, 37% increase in maximum power density is obtained. In addition, the proposed structure showed an approximately 70% decrease in the gate-drain capacitance (Cgd), which in-turn resulted in 5 dB maximum available gain (MAG) improvement at 2 GHz. As a result of employing the buried field plate, the BFP SOI-MESFET has an outstanding DC and frequency response performance compared with the C-SOI MESFET.

  3. Reduced-Rank Shift-Invariant Technique and Its Application for Synchronization and Channel Identification in UWB Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy RodneyA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate reduced-rank shift-invariant technique and its application for synchronization and channel identification in UWB systems. Shift-invariant techniques, such as ESPRIT and the matrix pencil method, have high resolution ability, but the associated high complexity makes them less attractive in real-time implementations. Aiming at reducing the complexity, we developed novel reduced-rank identification of principal components (RIPC algorithms. These RIPC algorithms can automatically track the principal components and reduce the computational complexity significantly by transforming the generalized eigen-problem in an original high-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional space depending on the number of desired principal signals. We then investigate the application of the proposed RIPC algorithms for joint synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems, where general correlator-based algorithms confront many limitations. Technical details, including sampling and the capture of synchronization delay, are provided. Experimental results show that the performance of the RIPC algorithms is only slightly inferior to the general full-rank algorithms.

  4. Shape design by optimal flow control and reduced basis techniques: applications to bypass configurations in haemodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rozza, Gianluigi; Quarteroni, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop numerical methods for optimization, control and shape design in computational fluid dynamics, more precisely in haemodynamics. The application studied is related with the shape optimization of an aorto-coronaric bypass. The optimization process has to keep into account aspects which are very different and sometimes conflicting, for this reason the process has been organized in more levels dealing with a geometrical scale. Moreover we have chosen to use...

  5. QoS oriented MapReduce Optimization for Hadoop Based BigData Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ul Islam Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

  6. Automatically Securing Permission-Based Software by Reducing the Attack Surface: An Application to Android

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Alexandre; Klein, Jacques; Monperrus, Martin; Le Traon, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Android based devices are becoming widespread. As a result and since those devices contain personal and confidential data, the security model of the android software stack has been analyzed extensively. One key feature of the security model is that applications must declare a list of permissions they are using to access resources. Using static analysis, we first extracted a table from the Android API which maps methods to permissions. Then, we use this mapping within a tool we developed to ch...

  7. Gas Sensors on Plastic Foil with Reduced Power Consumption for Wireless Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Courbat, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in developing so-called "smart" RFID tags for logistic applications. These smart tags incorporate sensing devices to monitor environmental parameters such as humidity and temperature throughout the supply chain. To fulfill these requirements cost-effectively, RFID tags were produced on plastic foil through large scale manufacturing techniques. To benefit from sensing capabilities on these systems, the integration ...

  8. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  9. Lattice Boltzmann flow simulations with applications of reduced order modeling techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2014-01-01

    With the recent interest in shale gas, an understanding of the flow mechanisms at the pore scale and beyond is necessary, which has attracted a lot of interest from both industry and academia. One of the suggested algorithms to help understand flow in such reservoirs is the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The primary advantage of LBM is its ability to approximate complicated geometries with simple algorithmic modificatoins. In this work, we use LBM to simulate the flow in a porous medium. More specifically, we use LBM to simulate a Brinkman type flow. The Brinkman law allows us to integrate fast free-flow and slow-flow porous regions. However, due to the many scales involved and complex heterogeneities of the rock microstructure, the simulation times can be long, even with the speed advantage of using an explicit time stepping method. The problem is two-fold, the computational grid must be able to resolve all scales and the calculation requires a steady state solution implying a large number of timesteps. To help reduce the computational complexity and total simulation times, we use model reduction techniques to reduce the dimension of the system. In this approach, we are able to describe the dynamics of the flow by using a lower dimensional subspace. In this work, we utilize the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique, to compute the dominant modes of the flow and project the solution onto them (a lower dimensional subspace) to arrive at an approximation of the full system at a lowered computational cost. We present a few proof-of-concept examples of the flow field and the corresponding reduced model flow field.

  10. A Way Memoization Technique for Reducing Power Consumption of Caches in Application Specific Integrated Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, Tohru; Fallah, Farzan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for eliminating redundant cache-tag and cache-way accesses to reduce power consumption. The basic idea is to keep a small number of Most Recently Used (MRU) addresses in a Memory Address Buffer (MAB) and to omit redundant tag and way accesses when there is a MAB-hit. Since the approach keeps only tag and set-index values in the MAB, the energy and area overheads are relatively small even for a MAB with a large number of entries. Furthermore, the approach does n...

  11. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander;

    2015-01-01

    tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...... for different organic wastes influenced the specific draught. Overall, the decrease in draught force could lead to a decrease in tractor fuel consumption for soil tillage of up to 25% for compost applied at an accelerated rate and up to 14% for compost applied at a normal rate. This reduced fuel consumption...

  12. A technique for reducing diverse habits survey data and its application to seafood consumption near Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habits surveys provide basic information to enable doses to appropriate critical groups of members of the public to be assessed. In some cases, the relevant habits of those to be included in the critical group can be quite diverse, and a simplifying method may be needed. A technique for this is described, and exemplified in relation to liquid radioactive waste discharges from AEE Winfrith, an area where the range of seafoods and radionuclide concentrations in them result in a wide variation of doses. Weighted mean consumption rates are derived for the critical group, and an example of their application in setting a revised liquid discharge authorisation is given. (author)

  13. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  14. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  15. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  16. Lipid-lipid interactions in aminated reduced graphene oxide interface for biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Azahar; Kamil Reza, K; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved Varun; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2014-04-15

    A label-free biosensor based on antiapolipoprotein B 100 functionalized-aminated reduced graphene oxide interface has been fabricated for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL or lipid) cholesterol. The aminated reduced graphene oxide (NH2-rGO) based electrode surface is covalently functionalized with antiapolipoprotein B 100 (AAB or lipid) using EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The lipid-lipid interactions at the NH2-rGO electrode surface have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopic technique. The structural and morphological investigations of NH2-rGO based immunosensor have been accomplished via transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible, and electrochemical techniques. The impedimetric response of the proposed immunosensor shows excellent sensitivity (612 Ω mg(-1) dL cm(-2)), a response time of 250 s, and a low detection limit of 5 mg/dL of LDL molecules. The association, dissociation, and equilibrium rate constants for this immunoelectrode are found to be 1.66 M(-1) s(-1), 0.6 s(-1), and 2.77 M(-1), respectively. The long-term stability and excellent reproducibility of the proposed immunosensor indicates a suitable platform for detection of LDL or lipid molecules. This immunosensor provides an efficient platform for analysis of the antigen-antibody interactions of lipid molecules. PMID:24673363

  17. Reducing bioaerosol dispersion from wastewater treatment and its land application: a review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Richard E; Rubin, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems and spray irrigation of treated water may spread microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses through dispersion of aerosol particles. A recent review (Brooks, Josephson, Gerba, & Pepper, 2004) identifies appropriate reports. Teltsch and co-authors report findings that suggest effective management controls involve providing buffer zones, irrigating in the daytime and in times of low humidity, reducing microorganism levels in water used for spraying, and testing for multiple types of viruses and bacteria (Teltsch & Katzenelson, 1978; Teltsch, Shuval, & Tadmor, 1980; Teltsch, Kedmi, Bonnet, Borenzstajn-Rotem, & Katzenelson, 1980). Camann, Moore, Harding, and Sorber support these findings. They also note that fecal streptococci are hardier than fecal coliform and appear frequently in background samples, suggesting that this bacterium is a better indicator of background and downwind conditions than are fecal coliform bacteria. In their study, storage prior to spray irrigation reduced microorganism concentrations by 99 percent. Downwind concentrations of sprayed reservoir water were often comparable to background values (Camann, Moore, Harding, & Sorber, 1988). Italian researchers (Brandi, Sisti, & Amagliani, 2000; Carducci, Gemelli, Cantiani, Casini, & Rovini, 1999; Carducci et al., 2000) confirm variable die-away rates of microorganisms, observe a positive association between fecal streptococci and the presence of viruses, and recommend consideration of submerged aeration for sludge digestion at sewage treatment plants. No reports are available that measure dispersion of bioaerosols from wastewater consistently treated to meet contemporary disinfection standards. PMID:16220719

  18. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state. PMID:25308517

  19. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.

    2010-10-01

    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  20. Modeling an aquatic ecosystem: application of an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping to reduce prediction uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic ecosystem models can potentially be used to understand the influence of stresses on catchment resource quality. Given that catchment responses are functions of natural and anthropogenic stresses reflected in sparse and spatiotemporal biological, physical, and chemical measurements, an ecosystem is difficult to model using statistical or numerical methods. We propose an artificial adaptive systems approach to model ecosystems. First, an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network is trained using the set of available sparse and disparate data variables. Second, an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping is applied to reduce the number of ecosystem variables to an optimal set. Third, the optimal set of ecosystem variables is used to retrain the ML network. Fourth, a stochastic cross-validation approach is applied to quantify and compare the nonlinear uncertainty in selected predictions of the original and reduced models. Results are presented for aquatic ecosystems (tens of thousands of square kilometers) undergoing landscape change in the USA: Upper Illinois River Basin and Central Colorado Assessment Project Area, and Southland region, NZ.

  1. A Way Memoization Technique for Reducing Power Consumption of Caches in Application Specific Integrated Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for eliminating redundant cache-tag and cache-way accesses to reduce power consumption. The basic idea is to keep a small number of Most Recently Used (MRU) addresses in a Memory Address Buffer (MAB) and to omit redundant tag and way accesses when there is a MAB-hit. Since the approach keeps only tag and set-index values in the MAB, the energy and area overheads are relatively small even for a MAB with a large number of entries. Furthermore, the approach does not sacrifice the performance. In other words, neither the cycle time nor the number of executed cycles increases. The proposed technique has been applied to Fujitsu VLIW processor (FR-V) and its power saving has been estimated using NanoSim. Experiments for 32kB 2-way set associative caches show the power consumption of I-cache and D-cache can be reduced by 40% and 50%, respectively.

  2. Synthesis and modification of reduced graphene oxide aerogels for biofuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratowicz Izabela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out the preparation of reduced graphene oxide aerogels using eco-friendly method that is based on the Hummers method of graphite oxidation without the use of NaNO3 that produces toxic gases. To obtain a porous 3D structure of reduced graphene oxide, we performed the hydrothermal reduction at elevated temperature. We also prepared the rGO aerogel/CNT composite using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as linkers. The rGO aerogels are promising materials as they possess good electrical conductivity (up to 100 S/m and high surface area and porous structure (~500 m2/g. The main goal was to obtain the material for electrodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. Thus, the proper modification was performed using free radical functionalization. It was shown that in order to synthesize rGO aerogels modified with anthracene, the proper order of reactions needs to be provided. The morphology of anthracene modified electrodes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed their porous structure with non-uniform pore size distribution that ranged between few nanometers to microns. Data obtained by Raman spectroscopy confirmed the successful oxidation and reduction of analyzed materials. UV-Vis spectra revealed the presence of anthracene moieties in examined materials. We also recorded preliminary cyclic voltammograms that confirm an electric conductivity of the obtained structures.

  3. Application of real time digital simulation in modeling wind turbines with reduced and full converter schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protsenko, K.; Badrzadeh, B. [Vestas Technology R and D, Aarhus (Denmark); Mayer, P.F. [Vestas Technology R and D, Singapore (Singapore); Luo, Z. [Vestas Americas, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the application of a real-time digital simulation program for wind turbine modeling of a doubly-fed induction generator (type 3) and a fully-converted permanent magnet synchronous generator (type 4). Vestas type 3 and type 4,3 MW turbines are taken as representative for the two turbine types, respectively. The paper begins with an overview of the hardware details used for the simulation studies, outlines the assumptions applied to derive the models, and highlights the limitations imposed by the use of a real time digital simulation program. The implementation of both types of turbine models is then discussed. The validation of both models against electromagnetic time domain simulation results obtained from PSCAD is shown. The validation test performed is the evaluation of low voltage ride through capability of the turbine. Results obtained from the real time digital simulation provide a good match with the PSCAD simulation results, which have in turn been validated against field measurements. This gives confidence in the future application of such real time models, for example in wind power plant protection relay coordination. (orig.)

  4. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  5. Functionalization of reduced graphene oxide by electroactive polymer for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel biosensing platform was designed by the functionalizing reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) with electroactive copolymer juglone. The composite film showed well-defined, stable electroactivity in a biocompatible buffer medium. Square wave voltammetry is used to record the redox signal for DNA hybridization. Current increase upon hybridization (signal-on) evidenced that short DNA target as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so called ‘real sample’ products, related to different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. The signal-on reached ∼40% with 1 nM of short DNA (25 mer) target, while PCR product (Africanum, EAI and Beijing strains) produced a current change of ∼20%. (paper)

  6. APPLICATION OF SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY TO REDUCE REWORK AT EARTHMOVING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMATHA.K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation of Six-sigma methodology in reducing rework of the components which occur due to non conformance with respect to the required standard specifications in the fabrication shop. This results in higher rework time, rework cost and lowers customer satisfaction. The Six-sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control approach has been used for the process improvement. This results in reduction of the rework time and cost. The increase in the sigma level from 2.30 to 3.28 and from 3.00 to 3.10 for Left hand and Right hand Deck respectively was achieved. Six Sigma improves the process performance which leads to predictable input and predictable output, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations resulting in continuous improvement and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  7. Facile synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide hybrids and their application in electromagnetic interference shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Hu, Li; Dai, HongXia; Tang, YuXia

    2014-07-01

    A fast and environmentally friendly method was proposed toward one-pot synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide (Ag-RGO) hybrids by a chemical reduction method assisted by microwave irradiation treatment with the use of sodium citrate as green reductant. The as-synthesized samples were characterized systematically, and the results indicated the successful synthesis of Ag-RGO. Ag-RGO was further applied as filler in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix polymer composites, and their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance was investigated. The prepared Ag-RGO/PMMA composites with 3.0 vol% Ag-RGO exhibited an excellent EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of average 26.8 dB in the 8-12 GHz X-band range, which outperformed the RGO/PMMA composites (18.4 dB) with bare RGO as fillers.

  8. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.cn; Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  9. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g−1. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g−1 to 20 A g−1) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode

  10. A Distributed Look-up Architecture for Text Mining Applications using MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Atilla Soner; Foster, Ian; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2011-11-01

    Text mining applications typically involve statistical models that require accessing and updating model parameters in an iterative fashion. With the growing size of the data, such models become extremely parameter rich, and naive parallel implementations fail to address the scalability problem of maintaining a distributed look-up table that maps model parameters to their values. We evaluate several existing alternatives to provide coordination among worker nodes in Hadoop [11] clusters, and suggest a new multi-layered look-up architecture that is specifically optimized for certain problem domains. Our solution exploits the power-law distribution characteristics of the phrase or n-gram counts in large corpora while utilizing a Bloom Filter [2], in-memory cache, and an HBase [12] cluster at varying levels of abstraction. PMID:25356441

  11. Facile hydrothermal preparation of niobium pentaoxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, M.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Jayavel, R.

    2016-04-01

    Facile synthesis of graphene-Nb2O5 composite has been reported. Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummer's method. The metal oxide (Nb2O5) was introduced to the graphene to form the composite by the hydrothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM results revealed that the metal oxide particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of thin sheets of well-defined multilayered graphene structure. Thermal stability of the graphene metal oxide nanocomposites was also investigated. The CV measurements reveal a significant enhancement in the specific capacitance reaching 321 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. With promising electrochemical characteristics, Nb2O5 decorated graphene nanocomposite are explored as potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  12. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid Reduces Postoperative Bleeding in Open-Heart Surgery: Myth or Fact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical application of Tranexamic acid in controlling postoperative bleeding in open-heart surgery. Study Design: Double blind randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Cardiac Surgery and Intensive Care of Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC-NIHD), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from May to October 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive adult patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgeries were randomly divided in groups A and B. A study solution that contained 2.5 g of Tranexamic acid in 250 ml normal saline in group-A and equal amount of normal saline (placebo) in group-B was poured in the pericardial cavity over the mediastinal tissues before sternal closure. Postoperative bleeding was measured in both groups for 24 hours in the cardiac surgical ICU. Efficacy of Topical Tranexamic Acid / Placebo was measured in terms of mean postoperative bleeding in ml. Kindly again include these lines which seem to have been omitted in the final proof. Results: There was significant difference in the mean postoperative bleeding within 24 hours among the two groups 340.1 ± 112.4 ml in Tranexamic acid group vs. 665 ± 187.28 ml in placebo group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients who did not have topical Tranexamic acid before chest closure had a significantly higher postoperative bleeding. Topical Tranexamic acid application is an effective and economical way for controlling non-surgical bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. (author)

  13. Efficacy of port-site and intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine in reducing early post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic efficacy of Bupivacaine application at port-site and intraperitoneal infiltration in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Place and Duration: The study was conducted at Rehman Medical Institute (RMI) Peshawar, Pakistan from June 2009 to June 2012. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the study period were included in the study. Eighty patients were randomized into two groups, study group and control group. The study group received 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine intraoperatively as intraperitoneal infiltration and local infiltration at the port sites. Pain assessment was done using visual analogue pain score (VAS) of 0-10 at fixed intervals during the first 24 hours post surgery. Results: The mean VAS score in the study group was less as compared to the control group throughout the 24 hours assessment period, however this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001) only during the first three assessments at 1 hour, 4 hours and 8 hours post surgery. The analgesia requirement was also significantly (p<0.001) decreased in the study group. Conclusion: Port site and intraperitoneal application of local anesthetic bupivacaine significantly reduced pain during the first 8 hours post surgery and total analgesia requirement was also significantly reduced. It is a simple and easily applicable technique which increases patient comfort and can be safely used to decrease post operative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (author)

  14. Application of remote sensing in crop growth simulation and an ensembles approach to reduce model uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Nelson, A.; Ravis, J.; Maunahan, A.; Villano, L.; Li, T.; Bouman, B.

    2012-12-01

    A semi-empirical model derived from the water-cloud model was used to convert synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) backscattering data into LAI. The SAR-based LAI at early rice growth stages were in a close agreement (90%) with LAI derived from MODIS data for the same study location in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. ORYZA2000 simulated rice yield of 4.5 Mg ha-1 for the 2008 wet season in Nueva Ejica, Philippines when using LAI inputs derived from SAR data, which is closer to the observed yield of 3.9 Mg ha-1, whereas simulated yield without SAR-derived LAI inputs was 5.4 Mg ha-1. The dynamic water and nitrogen balances were accounted in these simulations based on site-specific soil properties and actual fertilizer N and water management. The use of remote sensing data was promising for model application to approximate actual growth conditions and to compensate for limitations in the model due to relevant underlining processes absent in model formulations such as detailed tillering, leaf shading effect, etc., and also limiting factors not accounted in the model such as biotic factors and abiotic factors other than water and N shortages. This study also demonstrated the use an ensembles approach for provincial level rice yield estimation in the Philippines. Such ensembles approach involved statistical classifications of agronomic management settings into 25% percentile, median, and 75% levels followed by generation of factorial combinations. For irrigated lowland system, 4 factors were considered that include transplanting date, plant density, fertilizer N rate, and amount of irrigation water. For rainfed lowland system, there were 3 agronomic management factors (transplanting date, plant density, fertilizer N) and 1 soil parameter (depth of ground water table). These 4 management/soil factors and 3 statistical levels resulted in 81 total factorial combinations representing simulation scenarios for each area of interest (province in the Philippines) and water environments

  15. Assessment of Reduced-Kinetics Mechanisms for Combustion of Jet Fuel in CFD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Kundu, Krihna P.; Yungster, Shaye J.

    2014-01-01

    A computational effort was undertaken to analyze the details of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for next-generation LDI design. The National Combustor Code (NCC) was used to perform reacting flow computations on single-element LDI injector configurations. The feasibility of using a reduced chemical-kinetics approach, which optimizes the reaction rates and species to model the emissions characteristics typical of lean-burning gas-turbine combustors, was assessed. The assessments were performed with Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) time-integration, with a Lagrangian spray model with the NCC code. The NCC predictions for EINOx and combustor exit temperature were compared with experimental data for two different single-element LDI injector configurations, with 60deg and 45deg axially swept swirler vanes. The effects of turbulence-chemistry interaction on the predicted flow in a typical LDI combustor were studied with detailed comparisons of NCC TFNS with experimental data.

  16. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  17. Theoretical research of carbon dioxide power cycle application in automobile industry to reduce vehicle's fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current work discusses means to utilize low-grade small-scale energy in vehicle exhaust gases, to reduce the vehicle's fuel consumption and to make it run more environmental friendly. To utilize the energy in the exhaust gas, a CO2 bottoming system in the vehicle's engine system is proposed. Several basic cycles-according to the different design concepts-are presented, and the efficiencies are calculated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Several thermodynamic models in EES show that after system optimization, in CO2 Transcritical power cycle with a gas heater pressure of 130bars and 200 deg.. C expansion inlet temperature, about 20% of energy in the exhaust gas can be converted into useful work. Increasing the pressure in the gas heater to 300 bars and with same expansion inlet temperature, about 12% of exhaust gas energy can be converted. When raising the pressure both in the gas cooler and in the gas heater, the cycle runs completely above the critical point, and the efficiency is about 19%. Besides, in the CO2 combined cycle, the system COP is 2.322 and about 5% of exhaust gas energy can be converted

  18. Characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay for reduced, carboxymethylated human luteinizing hormone α-subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have established a double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum prepared against reduced, carboxymethylated (RCXM) human LH α-subunit, with RCXM-α as tracer and standard. This antiserum did not cross-react with any native gonadotropins or subunit, and reacted only weakly with RCXM-α. A tryptic digest of RCXM α-subunit was completely reactive, while chymotryptic digestion abolished all immunoreactivity. By testing with separate tryptic fragments, the recognition site could be localized to a segment close to the amino-terminus of the peptide chain. When applied to measurement of serum and urine, an immunoreactive species, parallel to RCXM α-subunit by serial dilution, was found in concentrations of 1-2 ng/ml in serum and 3-4 ng/ml in urine. Similar levels of the immunoreactive component were found in conditions of elevated gonadotropins (e.g. pregnancy) as well as gonadotropin deficiency (panhypopituitarism and Kallmann's syndrome). After stimulation with LHRH, no rise was noted at times up to 6 h despite the fact that both LH and LH-α were elevated. The data indicate that the sequence-specific antiserum may be detecting an immunoreactive form of α-subunit of LH whose kinetics of appearance and disappearance differs from those of the native subunit

  19. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  20. Exopeptidases and their application to reduce bitterness in food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksakulthai, Rocharake; Haard, Norman F

    2003-01-01

    When exopeptidases catalyze hydrolysis of peptide bonds, the product(s) may have a less bitter taste, and the free amino acids or small peptides formed may function in food as pleasant-tasting flavor compounds or as flavor precursors. There are several classes of exopeptidase based on specificity for hydrolysis of synthetic substrates. Exopeptidases in food-stuff may be of natural origin or may be extrinsic, that is, produced by microorganisms or parasites. Exopeptidases used to modify foods are also becoming increasingly available in the industrial enzyme market. Exopeptidases contribute to a variety of quality changes in postharvest fruit, meats, and food fermentations. Foodstuff impacted by these enzymes during processing include cocoa, beer, aged and cured meat products, koji, fish sauce, ripened cheeses, and protein hydrolysates. An important role of exopeptidases in food is the hydrolysis of hydrophobic, bitter peptides. The relationship between peptide structure and sensory transduction/receptor models is discussed. Research on the use of exopeptidases to reduce bitterness is reviewed. PMID:12940418

  1. Application of ionizing irradiation for food preservation and for reducing microbiological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing irradiation can be an alternative or combinatory technique for food preservation. Several experiments proved that relatively small dosage (2-6 kGy) effectively reduces the number of microscopic fungi and bacteria in food. In addition the survivors had become more sensitive to salt and heat. No change in the quality of the treated food has been observed while their storability improved substantially. Some results of an extended experiment using Co-60 and Co-137 radioactive isotopes are listed below: (1) The storability of raw, sliced pork and beef improved 3-4 times after a 2 kGy dosage of irradiation. (2) The storability of chicken after the same treatment can be prolonged by 4-5 times. (3) 2.5 kGy dosage allowed to keep strawberries 2-3 times longer in the cold storage. (4) Wet (18-23 water) wheat's storability can be prolonged to 60 days by a 4 kGy treatment. (5) By using irradiated spices Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5 when making canned meat

  2. The application of queue theory in cloud computing to reduce the waiting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Bharkad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new technology in computer field to provide on line service to the customers. -Cloud computing has got enormous popularity as it offers dynamic, low-cost computing solutions. To get the service of cloud the user has to be in queue until he is served. Each arriving Cloud computing User (CCU requests Cloud computing Service Provider (CCSP to use the resources, if server is available, the arriving user will seize and hold it for a length of time, which leads to queue length and more waiting time. A new arrival leaves the queue with no service. After service completion the server is made immediately available to others. From the user’s point of view he needs to be served immediately and to prevent waiting the CCSP’s can use infinite servers to reduce waiting time & queue length. The arrival pattern is often Poisson in queuing theory. In this article we analyzed the dynamic behavior of the system with infinite servers by finding various effective measures like response time, average time spend in the system, utilization and throughput.

  3. Solar radiation for buildings application: comparing reduced data set for mediterranean sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing diffusion of computer programs for the thermal simulation of buildings is occurring in the last year; they allow the description of the thermal behaviour of buildings during the year, in order to verify their energy efficiencies and to suggest eventual improvements, even at the design stage. These thermal simulation programs generally need a complete input data set and among these, information particularly referring to the climatic conditions of the site where the building will be built-up. As it is well known, a climatic issue, particularly important for the thermal energy balance, is the solar radiation. In this work we have updated a short reference year of the solar radiation, more precisely the Monthly Average Day (MAD) for a town of the Southern Italy (Palermo), which shows climatic features similar to other places in the Mediterranean basin. In addition, we have compared the climatic data of the MAD (for the global and diffuse solar radiations) obtained from hourly measures for seven years, with those obtained both from geo-astronomical parameters and from the monthly average of the daily global solar radiation, which is commonly adopted on purposes. The comparison does suggest a particular caution in the choice of the method used for generating reduced data sets of the solar radiation for these mediterranean.(Author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Y2O3-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, T.; Anandan, P.; Azhagurajan, M.; Arivanandhan, M.; Pazhanivel, K.; Hayakawa, Y.; Jayavel, R.

    2016-07-01

    Yittrium oxide (Y2O3)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite was prepared by a low temperature solution process by mixing different weight ratios of chemically derived rGO and Y2O3. The structural properties of nanocomposite materials have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction. Laser Raman spectroscopic study further confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite materials. The morphology of the nanocomposite has been analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. From the FE-SEM and TEM images, it was found that the nanocrystals of Y2O3 were interpolated in the graphene sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that the rGO has a reasonable amount of C-O groups as the doublet was observed in the C 1s spectrum. Moreover, the O 1s peak illustrates the doublet peaks which confirms the presence of OH and other functional groups at the surfaces of rGO. Electrochemical behavior of the nanocomposite was studied by cyclic voltammetric studies. The nanocomposite with higher weight percent of rGO shows better photocatalytic performance compared to the samples with low weight percent of rGO. The photocatalytic characteristics of the nanocomposite have been discussed based on the XPS results. The presence of hydroxyl group in the rGO of nanocomposites increases the OH radical formation and suppresses the recombination of excitons, which is responsible for the rapid decomposition of dye molecules.

  5. Multifunctional magnetic reduced graphene oxide dendrites: synthesis, characterization and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, for the first time, we have reported the novel synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) dendrite kind of nanomaterial. The proposed r-GO dendrite possesses multifunctional properties in various fields of sensing and separation. The dendrite was synthesized by chemical reaction in different steps. Initially, the r-GO sheet was conjugated with silane group modified magnetic nanoparticle, resulting in nanoparticle decorated r-GO. The above r-GO sheet was further reacted with a new r-GO sheet, resulting in the formation of r-GO dendrite type of structure. Multifunctional behavior of this r-GO dendrite structure was studied by different methods. First, magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and it was found that dendrite structure shows good magnetic susceptibility (180.2 emu/g). The proposed r-GO dendrite also shows a very good antibacterial behavior for Escherichia coli and excellent electrochemical behavior towards ferrocyanide probe molecule. Along with these, it also acts as a substrate for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer for europium metal ion, a lanthanide. The proposed imprinted sensor shows a very high selectivity and sensitivity for europium metal ion (limit of detection= 0.019 μg L(-1)) in aqueous as well as real samples. PMID:25682500

  6. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  7. Investigation and application of reduced-order methods for flows study in heat exchanger tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this thesis is to study the ability of model reduction for investigations of flow-induced vibrations in heat exchangers tube bundle systems.These mechanisms are a cause of major concern because heat exchangers are key elements of nuclear power plants and on-board stoke-holds.In a first part, we give a recall on heat exchangers functioning and on vibratory problems to which they are prone. Then, complete calculations leaded with the CFD numerical code Code-Saturne are carried out, first for the flow around a single circular cylinder (fixed then elastically mounted) and then for the case of a tube bundle system submitted to cross-flow. Reduced-order method POD is applied to the flow resolution with fixed structures. The obtained results show the efficiency of this technique for such configurations, using stabilization methods for the dynamical system resolution in the tube-bundle case. Multiphase-POD, which is a method enabling the adaptation of POD to fluid-structure interactions, is applied. Large displacements of a single cylinder elastically mounted under cross-flow, corresponding to the lock-in phenomenon,are well reproduced with this reduction technique. In the same way, large displacements of a confined moving tube in a bundle are shown to be faithfully reconstructed.Finally, the use of model reduction is extended to parametric studies. First, we propose to use the method which consists in projecting Navier-Stokes equations for several values of the Reynolds number on to a unique POD basis. The results obtained confirm the fact that POD predictability is limited to a range of parameter values. Then, a basis interpolation method, constructed using Grassmann manifolds and allowing the construction of a POD basis from other pre-calculated basis, is applied to basic cases. (author)

  8. Application of an optimum filter for a neptune 10 PC linac to reduce electron contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Skin sparing is one of the most desirable characteristics of high energy photon beams. However, photons emerging from the target of linacs are contaminated with secondary electrons as a result of their interactions with air, collimators, flattening filter and any other objects in their path. This phenomenon tends to increase patients skin dose. A practical way to reduce the contribution of electron contamination is to place a sheet of medium to high Z material just after the secondary collimators. Filters of different thicknesses and atomic numbers were applied. The dose reduction effect was evaluated by direct measurement using a pinpoint 0.015 cm3 PTW 31006 chamber in a Scanditronix water phantom. For this purpose, the percent depth dose was measured at various depths ranging from 0 to 210 mm. These measurements were carried out for three field sizes of 10 10, 20 20 and 25 25 cm2. The setup was adjusted for SSD = 100 cm. The surface dose and D20/D10 were used as the criteria to determine the optimum filter. The complete geometry of the linac, filters and water phantom were also simulated by MCNP-4C code to compute the optimum filter. The results show a good agreement between the experimental and calculated data. A 0.4 mm thick lead foil produces the optimum condition. For open beams, the utilization of the optimum filter resulted in a 5.7, 7.9 and 9.6% reduction in PDD of 10 10, 20 20 and 25 25 cm2 respectively without any significant change in the quality of the x-ray beam. The flatness and homogeneity of the cross-line dose profile did not show significant changes at the 10 cm and the depth of maximum dose. (authors)

  9. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils

  10. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster ra...

  11. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    David Revalds Lubans; Jordan eSmith; Geoff eSkinner; Philip James Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory ...

  12. β-Cyclodextrin polymer functionalized reduced-graphene oxide: Application for electrochemical determination imidacloprid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • β-CDP/rGO nanocomposites were prepared by a facile strategy. • β-CDP/rGO nanocomposites displayed the excellent water-dispersity and stability. • β-CDP/rGO exhibited high supramolecular recognition and enrichment capability. • β-CDP/rGO electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance for IDP. -- Abstract: Reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) modified with water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer (β-CDP) were successfully prepared by using a simple wet chemical strategy. The obtained β-CDP/rGO nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), static contact angle measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which confirmed that β-CDP molecules had been effectively loaded onto the surface of rGO. β-CDP/rGO nanocomposites displayed the excellent water-dispersity and stability. More significantly, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry measurement showed that the β-CDP/rGO could exhibit high supramolecular recognition and enrichment capability, and consequently display excellent electrochemical response toward a pesticide-imidacloprid (IDP). As compared with various modified electrodes, β-CDP/rGO modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance for IDP. Based on the cyclic voltammograms (CV) of different concentration of IDP at pH 6.8, the detection line range of IDP is 1 × 10−6 to 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1 IDP and the detection limit is 1 × 10−7 mol L−1. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement at β-CDP/rGO/GCE modified electrode revealed that the reduction peak current increased linearly with the concentration of IDP in linear range of 5 × 10−8 to 1.5 × 10−5 mol L−1 and 2 × 10−5 to 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1 with detection limit of 2 × 10−8 mol L−1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3

  13. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment. PMID:26102989

  14. Does a meditation protocol supported by a mobile application help people reduce stress? Suggestions from a controlled pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissoli, Claudia; Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a 3 week mindfulness inspired protocol, delivered by an Android application for smartphones, in reducing stress in the adult population. By using a controlled pragmatic trial, a self-help intervention group of meditators was compared with a typical control group listening to relaxing music and a waiting list group. The final sample included 56 Italian workers as participants, block randomized to the three conditions. The self-reported level of perceived stress was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Participants were also instructed to track their heart rate before and after each session. The results did not show any significant differences between groups, but both self-help intervention groups demonstrated an improvement in coping with stress. Nevertheless, meditators and music listeners reported a significant decrease in average heartbeats per minute after each session. Furthermore, both groups perceived a moderate but significant change in stress reduction perceptions, even if with some peculiarities. Limitations and opportunities related to the meditation protocol supported by the mobile application to reduce stress are discussed. PMID:25584730

  15. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. PMID:26048395

  16. Applications of the MapReduce programming framework to clinical big data analysis: current landscape and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called "big data" challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. THE MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK USES TWO TASKS COMMON IN FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by

  17. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C;

    1993-01-01

    and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface......The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used. The...... cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...

  18. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  19. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Yu; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P [Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio Sate University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Chung, Y-C [Siemens Medical Solutions, Inc., Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)], E-mail: yu.ding@osumc.edu

    2009-06-21

    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR.

  20. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2009-06-21

    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR. PMID:19491455

  1. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR.

  2. Application of the structured history taking of medication use tool to optimise prescribing for older patients and reduce adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Shane; O'Mahony, Denis; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Background Older patients, due to polypharmacy, co-morbidities and often multiple prescribing doctors are particularly susceptible to medication history errors, leading to adverse drug events, patient harm and increased costs. Medication reconciliation at the point of admission to hospital can reduce medication discrepancies and adverse events. The Structured HIstory taking of Medication use (SHiM) tool was developed to provide a structure to the medication reconciliation process. There has been very little research with regards to SHiM, it's application to older patients and it's potential to reduce adverse events. Objective To determine whether application of SHiM could optimise older patients' prescriptions on admission to hospital, and in-turn reduce adverse events, compared to standard care. Setting A sub-study of a large clinical trial involving hospital inpatients over the age of 65 in five hospitals across Europe. Method A modified version of SHiM was used to obtain accurate drug histories for patients after the attending physician had obtained a medication list via standard methods. Discrepancies between the two lists were recorded and classified, and the clinical relevance of the discrepancies was determined. Whether discrepancies in patients' medication histories, as revealed by SHiM, resulted in actual clinical consequences was then investigated. As this study was carried out during the observation phase of the clinical trial, results were not communicated to the medical teams. Main outcome measure Discrepancies between medication lists and whether these resulted in clinical consequences. Results SHiM was applied to 123 patients. The mean age of the participants was 78 (±6). 200 discrepancies were identified. 90 patients (73 %) had at least one discrepancy with a median of 1.0 discrepancies per patient (IQR 0.00-2.25). 53 (26.5 %) were classified as 'unlikely to cause patient discomfort or clinical deterioration', 145 (72.5 %) as 'having potential

  3. Analyzing Web Application Log Files to Find Hit Count Through the Utilization of Hadoop MapReduce in Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Narkhede, Sayalee; Baraskar, Trupti; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2014-01-01

    MapReduce has been widely applied in various fields of data and compute intensive applications and also it is important programming model for cloud computing. Hadoop is an open-source implementation of MapReduce which operates on terabytes of data using commodity hardware. We have applied this Hadoop MapReduce programming model for analyzing web log files so that we could get hit count of specific web application. This system uses Hadoop file system to store log file and results are evaluated...

  4. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  5. The application of an integrated approach to design, procurement and construction in reducing overall nuclear power plant costs. Annex 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its on-going efforts to reduce the cost of CANDU nuclear power plants, AECL has embarked on an integrated approach to design, procurement and construction activities associated with new CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 projects. The approach is predicated on the fact there is a vast quantity of information that needs to be managed and controlled over the life of a nuclear power plant project. Therefore, ensuring the completeness and correctness of all the information needed by all project participants, facilitating sharing of this information amongst the project's participants, and automating the various deliverable production processes offers significant potential not only for overall project cost (and schedule) savings but also for reducing operations and maintenance costs once the plant enters service. Facilitating and indeed of key importance to this approach is the use of a suite of integrated information technology-based engineering, procurement and project control tools used throughout the design, engineering, procurement and construction phases of the project. A unique and important feature of these tools is their high degree of integration both from a work process and a data perspective. Use of these tools is well underway on AECL's Qinshan Project which is realizing significant benefits in cost and schedule. This paper will describe the approach AECL is taking, along with the tools it has both put in place, and those additional items planned for the future along with the cost, schedule and quality benefits that arise from their use. Progress to date on the Qinshan project also will be discussed as well as the expected application to the plant once it has gone into service will also be discussed. (author)

  6. Electron Beam Welding of Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic ODS-EUROFER Steel for Application in Helium Cooled Modular Divertor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For specific blanket and divertor applications in future fusion power reactors a replacement of presently considered Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steels as structural material by suitable oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic martensitic or ferritic steels would allow a substantial increase of the operating temperature from ∼ 550 oC to about 650 oC. In all cases appropriate joining technologies have to be developed. Diffusion welding techniques to perform similar and dissimilar joints have been studied successfully. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has shown a good potential but application is limited due to geometrical restrictions and needs further development. For the advanced helium-cooled modular divertor concept various joining techniques are required for joining the complex structural parts made of different materials. First attempts have been made for joining the divertor structures of ODS EUROFER by means of the Electron beam welding process with its highly concentrated energy input. This welding is widely used to produce high quality-high integrity welded similar and dissimilar joints of a large variety of materials. For this purpose, samples of ODS-EUROFER steel were welded using a PTR 150 kV/15 kW EB welding facility. Two different post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) were applied to investigate their influence on the mechanical and microstructural properties of the welded joints. Miniaturised tensile specimens were used to determine the tensile behaviour in the temperature range between RT and 700 oC. KLST specimens were used for Charpy impact tests. The microstructure of the weld and heat affected zone was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopical methods were applied to investigate the size and spatial distribution of the dispersed oxides and potential segregation phenomena. (author)

  7. ZnWO_4 nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide hybrids:Synthesis and their application for Li ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao; LI BoLong; LIU DaPeng; XIONG HuanMing

    2014-01-01

    ZnWO4,as an environment-friendly and economic material,has the potential for Li ion batteries(LIB)application.In this paper,a facile method has been developed to synthesize ZnWO4supported on the reduced graphene oxide(RGO)to improve its LIB performance.The cuboid-like ZnWO4nanocrystals are prepared by directly adding Na2WO4 powders into the graphene oxide/Zn aqueous solution followed by a hydrothermal treatment.The high-resolution TEM,XRD and XPS characterizations were employed to demonstrate structural information of the as-prepared ZnWO4/RGO hybrids carefully.Besides,we also discussed the LIB properties of the hybrids based on the detailed galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests.As a result,the specific capacity of the as-prepared ZnWO4/RGO hybrids reached more than 477.3 mA h g 1after 40 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g 1(only less than 159 mA g 1for bare ZnWO4).During the whole cyclic process,the coulombic efficiency steadily kept the values higher than 90%.

  8. Modification of reduced-charge montmorillonites by a series of Gemini surfactants: Characterization and application in methyl orange removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongxin; Gao, Manglai; Ye, Yage; Yang, Senfeng

    2015-01-01

    The influences that the spacer chain length of Gemini surfactants and clay layer charge have on the structures and sorption characteristics of organoclays have been investigated. Organoclays were obtained by modifying a series of reduced charge montmorillonites (RCMs) using three Gemini surfactants with different spacer length. And their structures and sorption characteristics for methyl orange (MO) were examined. It was suggested that the amount, spacer length of Gemini surfactant and clay layer charge had significant effects on the microstructure of the organoclays. The adsorption experiments results claimed that the uptake of MO onto organoclays was in the order: 16-4-16-Mt > 16-8-16-Mt > 16-6-16-Mt, while it increased with increasing clay layer charge. The adsorption isotherms of MO onto the organoclays could be best described by Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic was in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. This work will provide a deep insight into the interaction of Gemini-modified clays and MO, which pave the way for their practical applications in anionic dye adsorption.

  9. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Particle Damper-Based Energy Dissipation with Applications to Reduce Structural Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangqiang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle damping technology can greatly reduce vibration of equipment and structure through friction and inelastic collisions of particles. An energy dissipation model for particle damper has been presented based on the powder mechanics and the collision theory. The energy dissipation equations of friction and collision motion are developed for the particle damper. The rationality of energy dissipation model has been verified by the experiment and the distributions for the energy dissipation of particles versus acceleration are nonlinear. As the experiment process includes lots of factors of energy dissipation, such as the noise and the air resistance, the experimental value is about 7% more than the simulation value. The simulation model can provide an effective method for the design of particle damper. And the particle parameters for damper have been investigated. The results have shown that choosing an appropriate particle density, particle size, and particle filling rate determined based on the simulation model will provide the optimal damping effect for the practical application of particle damping technology.

  10. Application of direct torque control to electric screw presses for speeding up torque response and reducing starting current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yi; HUANG Shu-huai; LI Jun-chao; XIONG Xiao-hong

    2009-01-01

    Fast response and stable torque output are crucial to the performance of electric screw presses. This paper describes the design of a direct torque control (DTC) system for speeding up torque response and reducing the starting current of electric screw presses and its application to the J58K series of numerical control electric screw presses with a dual-motor drive. The DTC drive system encompasses speed control, torque reference control, and switching frequency control. Comparison of the DTC duaI-AC induction motor drive with corresponding AC servo motor drive showed that for the J58K-315 electric screw press, the DTC drive system attains a higher maximum speed (786 r/min) within a shorter time (1.13 s) during a 250 mm stroke and undergoes smaller rise in temperature (42.0 ℃) in the motor after running for 2 h at a 12 min strike fi'equency than the AC servo motor drive does (751 r/min within 1.19 s, and 50.6 ℃ rise). Moreover, the DTC AC induction motor drive, with no need for a tachometer or position encoder to feed back the speed or position of the motor shaft, enjoys increased reliability in a strong-shock work environment.

  11. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage. PMID:27119432

  12. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.

    2009-11-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  13. Reduced order model (ROM) of a pouch type lithium polymer battery based on electrochemical thermal principles for real time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate and fast estimation of state of charge and health during operations plays pivotal roles in prevention of overcharge or undercharge and accurately monitor the state of cells degradation, which requires a model that can be embedded in the battery management system. Currently, models used are based on either empirical equations or electric equivalent circuit components with voltage sources or a combination of the two. The models are relatively simple, but limited to represent a wide range of operating behaviors that includes the effects of temperature, state of charge (SOC) and degradation, to name a few. On the other hand, full order models (FOM) are multi-dimensional or multi-scale models based on electrochemical and thermal principles capable of representing the details of the cell behavior, but inadequate for real time applications, simply because of the high computational time. Therefore, there are needs for the development of a model with an intermediate performance and real time capability, which is accomplished by reduction of the FOM that is called a reduced order model (ROM). The battery used for development of the ROM is a pouch type of lithium ion polymer battery (LiPB) made of LiMn2O4 (LMO)/carbon. The reduction of the model was carried out for ion concentrations, potentials and kinetics, the ion concentration in the electrode using the polynomial approach and the ion concentration in the electrolyte using the state space method, and potentials and electrochemical kinetics by linearization. In addition, the energy equation is used to calculate the cell temperature, on which the diffusion coefficient and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) resistance are dependent. The computational time step is determined based on the total computational time and errors at a given SOC range and different C-rates. ROM responses are compared with those of the FOM and experimental data at a single cycle and multiple cycles under different operating conditions

  14. A universally calibrated microplate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for foods and applications to Manuka honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos de la Torre, Amparo Angelica S; Henderson, Terence; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K

    2015-05-01

    The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was recently adapted to a microplate format. However, microplate-based FRAP (mFRAP) assays are affected by sample volume and composition. This work describes a calibration process for mFRAP assays which yields data free of volume effects. From the results, the molar absorptivity (ε) for the mFRAP assay was 141,698 M(-1) cm(-1) for gallic acid, 49,328 M(-1) cm(-1) for ascorbic acid, and 21,606 M(-1) cm(-1) for ammonium ferrous sulphate. The significance of ε (M(-1) cm(-1)) is discussed in relation to mFRAP assay sensitivity, minimum detectable concentration, and the dimensionless FRAP-value. Gallic acid showed 6.6 mol of Fe(2+) equivalents compared to 2.3 mol of Fe(+2) equivalents for ascorbic acid. Application of the mFRAP assay to Manuka honey samples (rated 5+, 10+, 15+, and 18+ Unique Manuka Factor; UMF) showed that FRAP values (0.54-0.76 mmol Fe(2+) per 100g honey) were strongly correlated with UMF ratings (R(2)=0.977) and total phenols content (R(2) = 0.982)whilst the UMF rating was correlated with the total phenols (R(2) = 0.999). In conclusion, mFRAP assay results were successfully standardised to yield data corresponding to 1-cm spectrophotometer which is useful for quality assurance purposes. The antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey was found to be directly related to the UMF rating. PMID:25529660

  15. Modification of reduced-charge montmorillonites by a series of Gemini surfactants: Characterization and application in methyl orange removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhongxin; Gao, Manglai, E-mail: mlgao@cup.edu.cn; Ye, Yage; Yang, Senfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RCMs were modified by three Gemini surfactants with different spacer length. • The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of MO on organoclays were investigated. • Both the spacer length and clay layer charge have significant effects on the removal of MO. • The removal efficiency of MO increased with increasing clay layer charge. • Gemini surfactants modified RCMs were low-cost and high efficient adsorbents for the uptake of MO. - Abstract: The influences that the spacer chain length of Gemini surfactants and clay layer charge have on the structures and sorption characteristics of organoclays have been investigated. Organoclays were obtained by modifying a series of reduced charge montmorillonites (RCMs) using three Gemini surfactants with different spacer length. And their structures and sorption characteristics for methyl orange (MO) were examined. It was suggested that the amount, spacer length of Gemini surfactant and clay layer charge had significant effects on the microstructure of the organoclays. The adsorption experiments results claimed that the uptake of MO onto organoclays was in the order: 16-4-16-Mt > 16-8-16-Mt > 16-6-16-Mt, while it increased with increasing clay layer charge. The adsorption isotherms of MO onto the organoclays could be best described by Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic was in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. This work will provide a deep insight into the interaction of Gemini-modified clays and MO, which pave the way for their practical applications in anionic dye adsorption.

  16. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Revalds Lubans

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7± 0.5 years in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation and evaluation of the app are also described.Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app.Conclusions: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys.

  17. Development and Validation of a Reduced DME Mechanism Applicable to Various Combustion Modes in Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Gregory T.; J.-Y. Chen; Rapp, Vi H.; R. W. Dibble

    2011-01-01

    A 28-species reduced chemistry mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME) combustion is developed on the basis of a recent detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008). The construction of reduced chemistry was carried out with automatic algorithms incorporating newly developed strategies. The performance of the reduced mechanism is assessed over a wide range of combustion conditions anticipated to occur in future advanced piston internal combustion engines, such as HCCI, SAHCCI, and PCCI. Overall, the r...

  18. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhang; Xinxin Yu; Hongrui Hu; Yang Li; Mingzai Wu; Zhongzhu Wang; Guang Li; Zhaoqi Sun; Changle Chen

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4·7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide ...

  19. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martauz, P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Utility properties of novel hybrid cement (H-Cement are influenced by pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, latent hydraulic reaction of metallurgical slag together with the alkali activation of inorganic geopolymer based on precipitated waste water coming from bauxite residues. Content of Portland cement clinker is at maximum of 20 mass %, the remaining portion consists of inorganic geopolymer. Up to 80% of CO2 emissions are saved by H-Cement manufacture compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. No heat treatment or autoclaving is needed at H-Cement production. The field application of H-Cement is performed by the same way than that of common cements listed in EN 197-1, and is also connected with highly efficient recovery and safe disposal of red mud waste. H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.Las propiedades de un nuevo cemento híbrido (cemento-H vienen determinadas por la reaccion puzolánica de cenizas volantes, la hidráulica latente de las escorias metalúrgicas y la activación alcalina mediante las aguas residuales generadas por el tratamiento de la bauxita para dar un geopolímero inorgánico. La proporción máxima de clínker de cemento en este nuevo material es del 20%, y por ello, en su fabricación se emite hasta un 80% menos de CO2 que en la producción del cemento portland (OPC. El cemento-H se prepara sin necesidad de tratamiento térmico ni de estancia en autoclave y su aplicación es la misma que los cementos convencionales definidos en la norma EN 197-1. Por otra parte, su fabricación supone la recuperación y la valorización segura de los lodos rojos de bauxita. El cemento-H es apto para la preparación de hormigones premezclados hasta la categoría C30/37, presentando el nuevo material, además, una menor retracción que los cementos convencionales, por lo que su

  20. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  1. Timing of nitrogen application to improve quality, reduce lodging and minimise disease risks for hybrid and inbred wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodson, Bernard; Vancutsem, Françoise; Falisse, André

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium results of many trials carried out during the last seven years show the possibility of changing timing of nitrogen application with dose reduction during tillering and transfering this amount to flag leeaf application; with this nitrogen dressing, grain proteins are higher and lodging and diseases risks are lower.

  2. Development and Validation of a Reduced DME Mechanism Applicable to Various Combustion Modes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Chin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-species reduced chemistry mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME combustion is developed on the basis of a recent detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008. The construction of reduced chemistry was carried out with automatic algorithms incorporating newly developed strategies. The performance of the reduced mechanism is assessed over a wide range of combustion conditions anticipated to occur in future advanced piston internal combustion engines, such as HCCI, SAHCCI, and PCCI. Overall, the reduced chemistry gives results in good agreement with those from the detailed mechanism for all the combustion modes tested. While the detailed mechanism by Zhao et al. (2008 shows reasonable agreement with the shock tube autoignition delay data, the detailed mechanism requires further improvement in order to better predict HCCI combustion under engine conditions.

  3. Application of herbicides is likely to reduce greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingyan; Chen, Linmei; Sun, Qing; Sang, Mengmeng; Huang, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Herbicides have been widely used to control weeds in croplands; however, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain unclear. The effects of three wheat herbicides (acetochlor, AC; tribenuron-methyl, TBM; fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, FE) and two rice herbicides (butachlor, BC; bensulfuron-methyl, BSM) on N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated in this study. In the wheat growing season, applications of AC and FE + TBM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 31% compared with no herbicide use (p = 0.001). In the rice growing season, the application of BC significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 58% (p = 0.022), and BSM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 27% (p = 0.040); however, no significant difference among treatments with regard to the aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 in the CO2 equivalent for the 100-year horizon was observed (p > 0.05). Relative to control plots, which were not treated with herbicides, the combined application of the herbicides FE and TBM in the wheat season led to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by ∼41% (p = 0.002), and the application of BC together with BSM reduced GHGI by 22% in the rice season, although this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.158). Further investigation suggested that the inhibitory effect of herbicides on N2O emissions in the wheat field could be ascribed to low soil ammonium nitrogen and less abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The inhibitory effects of separate applications of BC on CH4 emissions in rice fields, in contrast, were linked to high soil nitrate nitrogen and urease activity.

  4. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  5. Statistics of reduced words in locally free and braid groups: Abstract studies and application to ballistic growth model

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Jean; Nechaev, Sergei

    1997-01-01

    We study numerically and analytically the average length of reduced (primitive) words in so-called locally free and braid groups. We consider the situations when the letters in the initial words are drawn either without or with correlations. In the latter case we show that the average length of the reduced word can be increased or lowered depending on the type of correlation. The ideas developed are used for analytical computation of the average number of peaks of the surface appearing in som...

  6. Validity of chalk and bentonite application in soil and water on reducing the absorption of ratio-strontium and radio-cerium by crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the chalk and bentonite application in soil and surface water respectively on reducing the absorption of 89Sr and 141Ce by crop (especially in the edible part of crop) were studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the specific activity of 89Sr in the ryegrass and Chinese cabbage could be decreased significantly by chalk application in the soil. The reduced ratio of 89Sr absorption of Chinese cabbage and ryegrass reached 77.7% and 35.2% respectively with the chalk application of 20 g/kg soil. The specific activity of 89Sr in ryegrass and Chinese cabbage followed obvious negative linear correlation with the quantity of application chalk in the soil. The specific activity of 141Ce in surface water, chaff and brown rice decreased by application bentonite in the surface water, which led to the lower accumulation of 141Ce in paddy. However, the absorption and accumulation of 141Ce in root and straw could not be changed. The specific activity of 141Ce in soil followed a negative exponential relation with depth of soil profile

  7. Evaluating input- and stock-based tax incentives to reduce and reallocate phosphor application across farm types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Hasler, Berit

    2014-01-01

    A non-linear agricultural optimisation model for a water catchment area is constructed and used to analyse the effect on agricultural soil-P accumulation from implementation of two tax systems. Regulation of P in the agricultural sector is central to reduce the risk of damaging aquatic eco-system...

  8. The determination of surface charge on nitrogen-containing reduced graphene oxides and its application to adsorb molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To speculate the performance of chemically reduced graphene oxide from different reductants, detailed investigation of chemical structures needs diverse characterizations. Surface charge, mainly resulting from surface functional groups, may provide a facile method to comprehensively predict performance on certain levels. Surface charge of hydrazine-reduced graphene oxide (HrGO) and p-phenylenediamine (p-PDA)-reduced graphene oxide (ArGO) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The charge generation mechanism was further analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of surface charge on the adsorptive properties. Furthermore, the experiments on MoO42− adsorbed by ArGO were carried out at different pH values. Results indicate that the surface charge on ArGO was more positive than that on HrGO, which is mainly due to protonation of amino group. MoO42− adsorption experiments indicate that relative positive charge made ArGO more efficient than HrGO to adsorb MoO42−. - Highlights: • The p-PDA reduced graphene oxide (ArGO) has positive charge on its surface. • Positive surface charge on ArGO is mainly from the protonation of amine groups. • Positive charge enhances the diffusion and adsorption of negative ions onto ArGO. • The maximum MoO42− adsorption capacity of ArGO can reach to 61 mg g−1

  9. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  10. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: daniel.cassidy@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: vipul.srivastava@ch2m.com [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: frank.dombrowski@we-energies.com [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: jlingle@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  11. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks

  12. Swine manure injection with a low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses in runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil, so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. With a field study we determined the effect of two swine manure application methods on phosphorus (P) fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L....

  13. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post harvest debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004-2005, early winter application of suspensions of Aureobasidium pullulans (AuP) conidia to post-harvest chickpea debris resulted in significantly fewer spring-time Ascochyta blight lesions on chickpea test plants relative to controls. Survival of plants adjacent to treated debris was higher t...

  14. Biochar reduces DOC but not NO3- leaching in relation to vinasse application in a tropical sugarcane soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, A. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Santos de Queiroz, E.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: Sugarcane cultivation for bioethanol production is associated with impacts on water quality, particularly those related to the application of vinasse, a corrosive, nutrient-dense effluent with high eutrophication potential (Martinelli et al. 2008 Ecol. Appl. 18:885-98). Vinasse is typically disposed of via soil application, which also recaptures waste nutrients and water (i.e., fertigation). However, vinasse constituents, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3-), are highly mobile in the soil and their presence can be observed at the catchment scale after vinasse application (Ometo et al. 2000 Freshwater Biol. 44:327-37). Biochar (charcoal produced from waste biomass via pyrolysis) has been investigated as a soil amendment to improve water and nutrient retention. Here, we evaluate the potential for biochar to mitigate carbon and nutrient leaching in a cultivated Oxisol in relation to vinasse application. Methods: Biochar was produced from dried filtercake (a solid organic waste obtained from cane juice filtration) via slow pyrolysis at 550°C for 3 h under N2. Sieved soil was packed into 12 PVC tubes (10 cm diameter, 50 cm tall) representing four treatments: soil alone as a control (S), soil with vinasse (S+V), soil with vinasse and 5% (w/w) biochar (S+V+B), and soil with 5% biochar (S+B). Columns were flushed with water, treated with 250 mL of water or vinasse (32 mm, equivalent to a moderate field application rate of ~300 m3 ha-1), and flushed again with water. Samples collected via vacuum filtration were analyzed for pH, ORP, conductivity and examined via UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected before and after leaching for residual soil nutrient analysis. Results: Biochar strongly attenuated the leaching of vinasse-derived DOC (p < 0.001). This was also related to a change in DOC composition as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vinasse application greatly increased total NO3- flux (p < 0

  15. A Bayesian Calibration-Prediction Method for Reducing Model-Form Uncertainties with Application in RANS Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J -L; Xiao, H

    2015-01-01

    Model-form uncertainties in complex mechanics systems are a major obstacle for predictive simulations. Reducing these uncertainties is critical for stake-holders to make risk-informed decisions based on numerical simulations. For example, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are increasingly used in mission-critical systems involving turbulent flows. However, for many practical flows the RANS predictions have large model-form uncertainties originating from the uncertainty in the modeled Reynolds stresses. Recently, a physics-informed Bayesian framework has been proposed to quantify and reduce model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by utilizing sparse observation data. However, in the design stage of engineering systems, measurement data are usually not available. In the present work we extend the original framework to scenarios where there are no available data on the flow to be predicted. In the proposed method, we first calibrate the model discrepancy on a related flow with available dat...

  16. Hierarchical Micro- and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces to Reduce Fibrous Encapsulation of Pacemaker Leads : Nanotechnology in Practical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this master’s thesis was to, by the use of nanotechnology, improve material properties of the biomedical polymer Optim™, used as the insulation of pacemaker leads. Improved material properties are required to reduce the extent of fibrous encapsulation of the leads. Today, laser ablation is used to be able to remove the pacemaker lead because of the fibrous tissue, which can cause the lead to adhere to vascular structures. Consequently, the laser ablation results in risks of dam...

  17. Application of Ozone and Oxygen to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand and Hydrogen Sulfide from a Recovered Paper Processing Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    A pilot study was performed at the Fox River Fiber recovered paper processing company in DePere, Wisconsin, to determine the extent to which injection of oxygen and ozone could reduce the high chemical oxygen demand, COD, in the effluent and the effectiveness of the ozone/oxygen stream in suppressing production of hydrogen sulfide gas in downstream sewage lines. Adaptive Ozone Solutions, LLC, supplied the oxygen/ozone generation and injection system. Samples were analyzed both befo...

  18. The determination of surface charge on nitrogen-containing reduced graphene oxides and its application to adsorb molybdate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingjie, E-mail: limingjie19870210@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Research Center of Distillation Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Chenming, E-mail: chmliu@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hongbin, E-mail: hbcao@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); Pan, Jiachuan, E-mail: jpan0618@gmail.com [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Zhao, He, E-mail: hzhao@ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Research Centre for Process Pollution Control, Beijing 100190 (China); and others

    2015-02-15

    To speculate the performance of chemically reduced graphene oxide from different reductants, detailed investigation of chemical structures needs diverse characterizations. Surface charge, mainly resulting from surface functional groups, may provide a facile method to comprehensively predict performance on certain levels. Surface charge of hydrazine-reduced graphene oxide (HrGO) and p-phenylenediamine (p-PDA)-reduced graphene oxide (ArGO) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The charge generation mechanism was further analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of surface charge on the adsorptive properties. Furthermore, the experiments on MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} adsorbed by ArGO were carried out at different pH values. Results indicate that the surface charge on ArGO was more positive than that on HrGO, which is mainly due to protonation of amino group. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} adsorption experiments indicate that relative positive charge made ArGO more efficient than HrGO to adsorb MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. - Highlights: • The p-PDA reduced graphene oxide (ArGO) has positive charge on its surface. • Positive surface charge on ArGO is mainly from the protonation of amine groups. • Positive charge enhances the diffusion and adsorption of negative ions onto ArGO. • The maximum MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} adsorption capacity of ArGO can reach to 61 mg g{sup −1}.

  19. An approach to quantum transport based on reduced hierarchy equations of motion: Application to a resonant tunneling diode

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Atsunori; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    The quantum dissipative dynamics of a tunneling process through double barrier structures is investigated on the basis of a rigorous treatment for the first time. We employ a Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian with an effective potential calculated self-consistently, accounting for the electron distribution. With this Hamiltonian, we use the reduced hierarchy equations of motion in the Wigner space representation to study the effects of non-Markovian thermal fluctuations and dissipation at finite t...

  20. An application of water quality index to reduce the effect of flood on water quality of rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoodreza Nooralinejad

    2016-01-01

    The rivers are among the most important resources of water supplying used for drinking consumptions, agriculture, industry, etc. Creation of a regular control plan and monitoring the water quality of these resources are the most important solutions in order to reduce the pollution and promote their qualitative conditions. The changes in climatic such as low levels of rainfall, is one of the factors influencing on the quantitative level of rivers. In addition, weather pollution and reduction i...

  1. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

  2. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy; Meredith,Steven; Alessi,Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Steven E Meredith, Sheila M Alessi, Nancy M Petry Calhoun Cardiology Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA Abstract: Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applic...

  3. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; ROCA, ENRIQUE

    2013-01-01

    International audience The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that t...

  4. Generalized rule application in bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus): using predator species as social tools to reduce punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismer, Sharon; Grutter, Alexandra; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-07-01

    Generalized rule application promotes flexible behavior by allowing individuals to adjust quickly to environmental changes through generalization of previous learning. Here, we show that bluestreak 'cleaner' wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) uses generalized rule application in their use of predators as social tools against punishing reef fish clients. Punishment occurs as cleaners do not only remove ectoparasites from clients, but prefer to feed on client mucus (constituting cheating). We tested for generalized rule application in a series of experiments, starting by training cleaners to approach one of two fish models in order to evade punishment (by chasing) from a 'cheated' client model. Cleaners learned this task only if the safe haven was a predator model. During consecutive exposure to pairs of novel species, including exotic models, cleaners demonstrated generalization of the 'predators-are-safe-havens' rule by rapidly satisfying learning criteria. However, cleaners were not able to generalize to a 'one-of-two-stimuli-presents-a-safe-haven' rule, as they failed to solve the task when confronted with either two harmless fish models or two predator models. Our results emphasize the importance of ecologically relevant experiments to uncover complex cognitive processes in non-human animals, like generalized rule learning in the context of social tool use in a fish. PMID:27016339

  5. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results...

  6. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system

  7. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel, E-mail: ingcastro.7@gmail.com [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala Av. Universidad Politecnica de Tlaxcala No.1, San Pedro Xalcaltzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90180 (Mexico); Martínez-Guerra, Rafael, E-mail: rguerra@ctrl.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Control Automático CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, D.F., México C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano, E-mail: juancrescenciano.cruz@uptlax.edu.mx [Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala Av. Universidad Politécnica de Tlaxcala No.1, San Pedro Xalcaltzinco, Tepeyanco, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90180 (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  8. Application of ozone, UV and ozone/UV processes to reduce diethyl phthalate and its estrogenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research study to monitor the micropollutant levels present in the Han River, a major drinking water source for the Seoul Metropolitan district in Korea, was performed over a five-year period from 2000 to 2004, inclusive. Of the detected micropollutants, phthalates were found to be the major contaminants. In this study, the estrogenic activities of the detected phthalates and raw water samples contaminated with the pollutants were assessed by the E-screen assay using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Of the phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed relatively high cell proliferation. Using DEP as a phthalate probe, three candidate processes, ozone alone, UV alone, and the ozone/UV combined, were evaluated for their efficiency in removing DEP and reducing its estrogenic activity. The ozone/UV process was shown to have the highest efficiency for the elimination of DEP and its by-products, leading to the complete mineralization of DEP. This study also found that the ozone/UV process is the best candidate to reduce the estrogenicity induced by DEP and its by-products

  9. Efficacy of application technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment to reduce school anxiety first form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the need to improve the mental state of first-graders and the possibility of achieving this goal, the lesson of physical culture at the expense of proper use of musical accompaniment exercise. Material : participated in the experiment experimental, control and background group (only 55 students of first class. Results : argues that music has a regulating effect on mental and physiological state of a person. It is noted that the combined effects of exercise and music on the body and psyche of a child reduces total anxiety in school. Also reduces the fear in a meaningful situation knowledge test. Found that the effect of exercise without music and with various embodiments use musical accompaniment in the lesson to address interpersonal relations student and the teacher has no significant difference. Conclusions : as a result of the pedagogical experiment to identify significantly positive, confirming the effectiveness of the technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment for the performance of most indicators of school anxiety.

  10. Approximation of skewed interfaces with tensor-based model reduction procedures: Application to the reduced basis hierarchical model reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Mario; Smetana, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    In this article we introduce a procedure, which allows to recover the potentially very good approximation properties of tensor-based model reduction procedures for the solution of partial differential equations in the presence of interfaces or strong gradients in the solution which are skewed with respect to the coordinate axes. The two key ideas are the location of the interface either by solving a lower-dimensional partial differential equation or by using data functions and the subsequent removal of the interface of the solution by choosing the determined interface as the lifting function of the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We demonstrate in numerical experiments for linear elliptic equations and the reduced basis-hierarchical model reduction approach that the proposed procedure locates the interface well and yields a significantly improved convergence behavior even in the case when we only consider an approximation of the interface.

  11. Synthesis of cationic hyperbranched multiarm copolymer and its application in self-reducing and stabilizing gold nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel hyperbranched multiarm copolymer of HBPO-star-PDEAEMA with a hydrophobic poly(3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl) oxetane)(HBPO) core and many cationic poly(2-(N,N-diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate)(PDEAEMA) arms has been synthesized through an atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP) method,and been applied to spontaneously reduce and stabilize gold nanoparticles(AuNPs) in water without other additional agents.The size of the nanoparticles could be effectively controlled at about 4 nm,and the nanoparticles are extremely stable in solution without aggregation even for one year.It was found that solution pH and the molar ratio of N/Au have certain effects on the size and stability of AuNPs.This work provides a simple method for the synthesis of uniform and highly stable AuNPs.

  12. An Approach to Quantum Transport Based on Reduced Hierarchy Equations of Motion: Application to a Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Atsunori; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2013-03-01

    The quantum dissipative dynamics of a tunneling process through double barrier structures is investigated on the basis of a rigorous treatment for the first time. We employ a Caldeira--Leggett Hamiltonian with an effective potential calculated self-consistently, accounting for the electron distribution. With this Hamiltonian, we use the reduced hierarchy equations of motion in the Wigner space representation to study the effects of non-Markovian thermal fluctuations and dissipation at finite temperature in a rigorous manner. Hysteresis, double plateau-like behavior, and self-excited current oscillation are observed in a negative differential resistance (NDR) region of the current--voltage curve. We find that while most of the current oscillations decay in time in the NDR region, there is a steady oscillation characterized by a tornado-like rotation in the Wigner space in the upper plateau of the NDR region.

  13. The use of a finite element code to reduce noise and vibration: Application on a steam turbine outer cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing the noise of an existing machine may prove to be a costly operation. In the case of a large company such as Electricite de France, the same machine is often present over many installations. This, for instance, is the case of components of the engine rooms in the power plants spread across France. This is an example of a configuration for which a conceptual treatment on the machine would be more suitable than local a posteriori modifications on the actual structures. For isolated cases also conceptual changes may be required: in some nuclear power plants, an important noise at 100Hz is heard in the engine rooms. The measurements done so far prove that the main radiators of this noise are the low-pressure turbines, and as these low frequencies are not easy to attenuate, modifications of the structure may turn out to be a way of limiting that peak at 100Hz

  14. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-12-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  15. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Verma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  16. REDUCING REJECTION/REWORK IN PRESSURE DIE CASTING PROCESS BY APPLICATION OF DMAIC METHODOLOGY OF SIX SIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javedhusen Malek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's ever-changing customer driven market, industries are needed to improve their products and processes to satisfy customer requirements. The Six Sigma approach has set a new paradigm of business excellence. Six Sigma as a process driven improvement methodology has been adopted successfully by many industries. From the review of various literatures, it is revealed that Six Sigma is well adopted in large scale enterprise but having less evidence of adoption in Indian SMEs. This paper is focused on providing path to Indian SMEs for initiating Six Sigma approach in their industries. The paper discusses the real life case where Six Sigma has been successfully applied at one of the Indian small-scale unit to improve rejection/rework rate in manufacturing products by pressure die casting process. This paper describes phase wise application of all the phases of define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC which also shows impact of Six Sigma in quality improvement.

  17. Shen's Experience in Application of the Drugs for Tonifying the Kidney to Reduce and Withdraw Adrenocortical Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Adrenocortical hormone (ACH) has antiinflammatory and antiallergic actions, changes stress state and controls the attack of some severe and obstinate diseases. The treatment of chronic diseases with ACH often leads to its dependence; especially oral administration of ACH for a long time is liable to inhibit the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-thymic axis (HPAT), and results in the hypo-reservation of adrenal cortex. Hence, sudden ACH withdrawal or decrease often causes the disease recurrence, even adrenocortical crisis. Academician Shen Ziyin has a wealth of clinical experience in both the withdrawal and reduction of ACH and the keeping of therapeutical effectiveness to form his unique remedy in the application of drugs. Shen's rich experience is described as follows.

  18. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed. PMID:27399702

  19. [Application of photodynamic therapy to reduce the amount of resection for non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A L; Rusanov, A A; Chistiakov, I V; Urtenova, M A; Kazakov, N V; Gerasin, A V; Papaian, G V

    2013-01-01

    A prospective analysis of results of combined treatment of 22 patients with central stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed (the defeat of the main bronchi or lower parts of the trachea), which initially had been regarded as unresectable or inoperable (12 patients for functional reasons could not pass pneumonectomy, and in 10 patients a contraindication to primary surgery was the involvement of the distal trachea in tumor), but underwent surgery after preoperative treatment.Combination therapy included preoperative endobronchial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy followed by surgery and intraoperative PDT resection margins. PDT was carried out with the use of chlorine E6 (Radachlorin) and light wavelength of 662 nm. Overall response rate after neoadjuvant treatment was 82 %, endoscopic remission was observed in 21 of 22 patients (95%). 10 patients underwent pneumonectomy, 12--lobectomy. 19 surgical interventions were regarded as radical (R0--86%), 3--as microscopically non-radical (R1--14%). Degree of lymphatic metastasis spreading pN0 was detected in 6 patients (27 %), pN1--in 14 (64%) and pN2--in 2 patients (9%). Surgical lethality was 5%. In the late time of the whole observation period none of the patients developed local recurrence. One-year survival was 95%, 3-year--91%. PDT can play an important role in combination with surgical treatment for NSCLC and reduces the amount of resection in part of initially unresectable or inoperable patients. PMID:24624784

  20. Quantitative assessment of an MR technique for reducing metal artifact: application to spin-echo imaging in a phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.J.; Janzen, D.L.; Munk, P.L.; McGowen, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); MacKay, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital (Canada); Dept. of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Xiang, Q.S. [Dept. of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dept. of Radiology, St. Paul' s Hospital and British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Objective. To quantify image artifact reduction using a new technique (MARS - metal artifact reduction sequence) in vitro.Design. Coronal T1-weighted MR images were obtained through two metal phantoms (titanium/chromium-cobalt and stainless steel femoral prostheses) immersed in water. Comparison of artifact volume was made with images obtained using conventional and modified (MARS) T1-weighted sequences. Signal intensity values outside a range of {+-}40% the average signal intensity for water were considered artifact and segmented into low or high signal artifact categories. Considering the arbitrary selection of this threshold value, volumetric calculations of artifact were also evaluated at {+-}50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% the mean signal for water.Results. Conventional T1-weighted images produced 87% more low signal artifact and 212% more high signal artifact compared with the MARS modified T1-weighted images of the stainless steel prosthesis. Conventional T1-weighted images of the titanium prosthesis produced 84% more low signal artifact and 211% more high signal artifact than the MARS modified sequence. The level of artifact reduction was essentially uniform for the various threshold levels tested and was greatest at {+-}20% the global signal intensity average for water.Conclusion. The MARS technique reduces the volume of image signal artifact produced by stainless steel and titanium/chromium-cobalt femoral prostheses on T1-weighted spin-echo images in a tissue phantom model. (orig.)

  1. Application of the MOVE algorithm for the identification of reduced order models of a core of a BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently work is applied the modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE) to a reduced order model of 5 differential equations of the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with the purpose of estimating the parameters that model the dynamics. The viability is analyzed of carrying out an analysis that calculates the global dynamic parameters that determine the stability of the system and the uncertainty of the estimate. The modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE), is a method applied to the parametric identification of systems, in particular to the estimate of groups of parameters (PSE for their initials in English). It is looked for to obtain the ellipsoid of smaller volume that guarantees to contain the real value of the parameters of the model. The PSE MOVE is a recursive identification method that can manage the sign of noise and to ponder it, the ellipsoid represents an advantage due to its easy mathematical handling in the computer, the results that surrender are very useful for the design of Robust Control since to smaller volume of the ellipsoid, better is in general the performance of the system to control. The comparison with other methods presented in the literature to estimate the reason of decline (DR) of a BWR is presented. (Author)

  2. Intrathecal application of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP reduced mortality and neuroinflammation in an experimental model of pneumococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Arndt; Kress, Eugenia; Podschun, Rainer; Pufe, Thomas; Tauber, Simone C; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AP) are important components of the innate immune system. Our previous work revealed a higher mortality rate and up-regulation of proinflammatory gene expression as well as glial cell activation in cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP)-deficient mice after bacterial meningitis. However, the influence of CRAMP application on the progression of inflammation and its impact on mortality after bacterial meningitis remains unknown. To assess the effects of continuous CRAMP exposure in the brain, C57BL/6 wildtype mice were given intracerebroventricular infusion of CRAMP to investigate the effects on mortality, glial cell activation and inflammation in a mouse model of pneumococcal meningitis using immunohistochemistry and realtime RT-PCR. Our results revealed a decrease of mortality after CRAMP infusion. The intrathecal CRAMP infusion after pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas the immune responses including the expression of pattern recognition receptors and chemokines were increased in bacterial meningitis. Taken together, the results support the important role of CRAMP as part of the innate immune response against pathogens in bacterial CNS infections. The APs may be a promising approach for the development of an adjuvant therapy for bacterial meningitis. PMID:25896094

  3. Application of a PID controller based on fuzzy logic to reduce variations in the control parameters in PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors are in nature nonlinear systems and their parameters vary with time as a function of power level. These characteristics must be considered if large power variations occur in power plant operational regimes, such as in load-following conditions. A PWR reactor has a component called pressurizer, whose function is to supply the necessary high pressure for its operation and to contain pressure variations in the primary cooling system. The use of control systems capable of reducing fast variations of the operation variables and to maintain the stability of this system is of fundamental importance. The best-known controllers used in industrial control processes are proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers due to their simple structure and robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions. However, designing a fuzzy controller is seen to be a much less difficult task. Once a Fuzzy Logic controller is designed for a particular set of parameters of the nonlinear element, it yields satisfactory performance for a range of these parameters. The objective of this work is to develop fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (fuzzy-PID) control strategies to control the level of water in the reactor. In the study of the pressurizer, several computer codes are used to simulate its dynamic behavior. At the fuzzy-PID control strategy, the fuzzy logic controller is exploited to extend the finite sets of PID gains to the possible combinations of PID gains in stable region. Thus the fuzzy logic controller tunes the gain of PID controller to adapt the model with changes in the water level of reactor. The simulation results showed a favorable performance with the use to fuzzy-PID controllers. (author)

  4. Fabrication of ultralong hybrid microfibers from nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide and transition-metal dichalcogenides and their application as supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gengzhi; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xuewan; Li, Hai; Yu, Yang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Peng

    2014-11-10

    Two-dimensional materials have attracted increasing research interest owing to their unique electronic, physical, optical, and mechanical properties. We thus developed a general strategy for the fabrication of ultralong hybrid microfibers from a mixture of reduced graphene oxide and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including MoS2 , TiS2 , TaS2 , and NbSe2 . Furthermore, we prepared fiber-based solid-state supercapacitors as a proof-of-concept application. The performance of thus-prepared supercapacitors was greatly improved by the introduction of the TMDs. PMID:25130600

  5. Improved properties of phosphor-filled luminescent down-shifting layers: reduced scattering, optical model, and optimization for PV application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Lipovšek, Benjamin; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Krč, Janez; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Topič, Marko; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the optical properties of polymer layers filled with phosphor particles in two aspects. First, we used two different polymer binders with refractive indices n = 1.46 and n = 1.61 (λ = 600 nm) to decrease Δn with the phosphor particles (n = 1.81). Second, we prepared two particle size distributions D50 = 12 μm and D50 = 19 μm. The particles were dispersed in both polymer binders in several volume concentrations and coated onto glass with thicknesses of 150 - 600 μm. We present further a newly developed optical model for simulation and optimization of such luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layers. The model is developed within the ray tracing framework of the existing optical simulator CROWM (Combined Ray Optics / Wave Optics Model), which enables simulation of standalone LDS layers as well as complete solar cells (including thick and thin layers) enhanced by the LDS layers for an improved solar spectrum harvesting. Experimental results and numerical simulations show that the layers of the higher refractive index binder with larger particles result in the highest optical transmittance in the visible light spectrum. Finally we proved that scattering of the phosphor particles in the LDS layers may increase the overall light harvesting in the solar cell. We used numerical simulations to determine optimal layer composition for application in realistic thin-film photovoltaic devices. Surprisingly LDS layers with lower measured optical transmittance are more efficient when applied onto the solar cells due to graded refractive index and efficient light scattering. Therefore, our phosphor-filled LDS layers could possibly complement other light-coupling techniques in photovoltaics.

  6. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped ZnS–Ag2S ternary composites synthesized via hydrothermal method: Applications in photocatalyst degradation of organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of ternary ZnS–Ag2S–RGO nanostructures without any additives. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • Near white light emission and stable cycling can lead these composites to find application in near UV-white LEDs and environmental protection issues. - Abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized ternary nanohybrid composite, ZnS–Ag2S wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using hydrothermal method without any surfactant. We have accessed the photocatalytic ability of ZnS–Ag2S–RGO nanocomposite using the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The superior photocatalytic ability of ZnS–Ag2S–RGO compared to bare ZnS, was ascribed to an efficient charge transfer from ZnS to Ag2S and graphene sheets. The recyclability results also demonstrated the excellent stability and reliability of the ZnS–Ag2S–RGO. In addition to the excellent photocatalytic degradation properties, the synthesized ZnS–Ag2S–RGO nanocomposite exhibited near white light emission, which implies that careful design and control of the composition could be lead to find application in near UV-white LEDs. The present work provides new insights into the synthesis and characterizations of ternary ZnS–Ag2S–RGO nanocomposites and its wide applications in the environmental protection issues

  7. Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin-shun; CAO Wei-dong; XIONG Jing; ZENG Nao-hua; GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of more efifcient management systems is crucial to achieving high grain yields with high nitrogen use efifciency (NUE). February Orchid-spring maize rotation system is a newly established planting system with the beneifts of ground cover and potential wind erosion in northern China. A ifeld experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with reduction of chemical fertilizers (INTEGRATED) on spring maize yield, N uptake, ammonium volatilization, and soil residual mineral N in northern China. Compared to farmers’ traditional fertilization (CON), integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizers (INTEGRATED) increased maize grain yield and biomass by 9.9 and 10.2%, respectively. The 0–100 cm soil residual Nmin at harvest was decreased by 58.5% and thus nitrogen use efifciency was increased signiifcantly by 26.7%. The nitrogen balance calculation further demonstrated that the INTEGRATED approach performed better than CON with lower apparent nitrogen loss (decreased by 48.9%) which evidenced by the ammonium volatilization of top-dressing fertilizer was decreased by 31.1%, the Nmin movement to the deeper soil layers was reduced, and the apparent nitrogen leaching loss nearly equal to 0 under the INTEGRATED treatment. Therefore, in northern China, integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizers is an efifcient management approach for improving maize yields and NUE simultaneously.

  8. Biocomposite based on reduced graphene oxide film modified with phenothiazone and flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase for glucose sensing and biofuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Yehonatan; Xia, Lin; Gun, Jenny; Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Medvedev, Alexander G; Lev, Ovadia; Alfonta, Lital

    2015-10-01

    A novel composite material for the encapsulation of redox enzymes was prepared. Reduced graphene oxide film with adsorbed phenothiazone was used as a highly efficient composite for electron transfer between flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and electrodes. Measured redox potential for glucose oxidation was lower than 0 V vs Ag/AgCl electrode. The fabricated biosensor showed high sensitivity of 42 mA M(-1) cm(-2), a linear range of glucose detection of 0.5-12 mM, and good reproducibility and stability as well as high selectivity for different interfering compounds. In a semibiofuel cell configuration, the hybrid film generated high power output of 345 μW cm(-2). These results demonstrate a promising potential for this composition in various bioelectronic applications. PMID:26334692

  9. Research on Heat Recovery Technology for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Dedicated Ventilation Systems: An Application to the Operating Model of a Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the application of heat pipes in the air handler dedicated to decoupling dehumidification from cooling to reduce energy consumption was simulated and investigated by simulations and experimental studies. The cooling load profiles and heat pipes with effectiveness of 0.45 and 0.6, respectively, were evaluated in achieving the desired space conditions and calculated hour by hour. The results demonstrated that for all examined cases, a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX can be used to save over 80% of the energy during the hours of operation of air conditioning. The overall energy reduction rate was from 3.2% to 4.5% under air conditioning system conditions. It was found that the energy saving potential of a laboratory was higher than for other kinds of buildings. Therefore, the dedicated ventilation system combined with heat recovery technology can be efficiently applied to buildings, especially for laboratories in subtropical areas.

  10. The special trench design near the through silicon vias (TSVs) to reduce the keep-out zone for application in three-dimensional integral circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trench structure is designed and used to release process induced stress, resulting from the different material thermal expansion coefficients, in three-dimensional integral circuits (3DICs). The stress in the designed trench structure is measured by atomic force microscope Raman technique experimentally, and simulated by the full process simulation model. With the help of this simulation model, the optimized trench structure near the copper-filled TSV is designed and reported. The experimental data demonstrate that the tensile stress near the TSV can be reduced from 600 MPa to 150 MPa and the corresponding keep-out zone (KOZ) can also be decreased ∼4 times with the designed trench structure having a depth of 10 µm and spacing distance of 8 µm to the TSV. This work provides one potential solution to release process induced stress for real application of 3DICs. (paper)

  11. Application of a Reduced Order Kalman Filter to Initialize a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Impact on the Prediction of El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Murtugudde, Ragu

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order Kalman Filter, based on a simplification of the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter equations, is used to assimilate observed fields of the surface wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level into the nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The SEEK filter projects the Kalman Filter equations onto a subspace defined by the eigenvalue decomposition of the error forecast matrix, allowing its application to high dimensional systems. The Zebiak and Cane model couples a linear reduced gravity ocean model with a single vertical mode atmospheric model of Zebiak. The compatibility between the simplified physics of the model and each observed variable is studied separately and together. The results show the ability of the model to represent the simultaneous value of the wind stress, SST and sea level, when the fields are limited to the latitude band 10 deg S - 10 deg N. In this first application of the Kalman Filter to a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction model, the sea level fields are assimilated in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby modes of the thermocline depth anomaly. An estimation of the error of these modes is derived from the projection of an estimation of the sea level error over such modes. This method gives a value of 12 for the error of the Kelvin amplitude, and 6 m of error for the Rossby component of the thermocline depth. The ability of the method to reconstruct the state of the equatorial Pacific and predict its time evolution is demonstrated. The method is shown to be quite robust for predictions I up to six months, and able to predict the onset of the 1997 warm event fifteen months before its occurrence.

  12. Application of in-service temperature lowering to reduce radioactivity corrosion product deposition on carbon steel piping of BWR residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of plant data and experiments on deposition of ion species on carbon steel were carried out in order to develop suitable countermeasures to reduce RHR (residual heat removal) piping dose rate. It was thought that radioactivity deposits on the RHR piping were mainly from radioactive ion species in the coolant and they were enhanced by the dehydration reaction of corrosion products on the piping. From an evaluation for temperature dependence of the dehydration reaction, it was proposed to lower the start-up temperature of RHR operation as a way to reduce radioactivity deposition. Feasibility studies of improved RHR operation were conducted and test operations were carried out in the Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. Application of the improved RHR operation resulted in a temperature reduction from 150degC to 110degC, and a radioactivity deposition reduction on the RHR piping to one-fifth of that in conventional RHR operation. The improved RHR operation has now been applied to more than fifteen Japanese BWRs and significant suppression effects of radioactivity deposition have been observed. (author)

  13. C-13 NMR spectroscopy of plasma reduces interference of hypertriglyceridemia in the H-1 NMR detection of malignancy; Application in patients with breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossell, E.T.; Hall, F.M. (Beth Israel Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charles E. Dana Research Institute, Boston (USA). Department of Radiology); McDonagh, J. (Beth Israel Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charles E. Dana Research Institute, Boston (USA). Department of Pathology)

    1991-05-01

    The authors have previously described the application of water-suppressed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectroscopy of plasma for detection of malignancy. Subsequently, hypertriglyceridemia has been identified as a source of false positive results. Here is described a confirmatory, adjunctive technique -analysis of the carbon-13 (C-13) NMR spectrum of plasma- which also identifies the presence of malignancy but is not sensitive to the plasma triglyceride level. Blinded plasma samples from 480 normal donors and 208 patients scheduled for breast biopsy were analyzed by water-suppressed H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Triglyceride levels were also measured. Among the normal donors, there were 38 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia of whom 18 had results consistent with malignancy by H-1 NMR spectroscopy. However, the C-13 technique reduced the apparent H-1 false positive rate from 7.0 to 0.6 percent. Similarly, in the breast biopsy cohort, C-13 reduced the false positive rate from 2.8 to 0.9 percent. Furthermore, the accuracy of the combined H-1/C-13 test in this blinded study was greater than 96 percent in 208 patients studied. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs.

  14. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. PMID:26657371

  15. The application of evidence-based measures to reduce surgical site infections during orthopedic surgery - report of a single-center experience in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Annette Erichsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures relating to the correct use of prophylactic antibiotics, perioperative normothermia, urinary tract catheterization and hand hygiene, important contributions can be made to reducing the risk of postoperative infections and device-related infections. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the application of intraoperative evidence-based measures, designed to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the type of surgery, i.e. total joint arthroplasty compared with tibia and femur/hip fracture surgery, affected the use of protective measures. Method Data on the clinical application of evidence-based measures were collected structurally on site during 69 consecutively included operations involving fracture surgery (n = 35 and total joint arthroplasties (n = 34 using a pre-tested observation form. For observations in relation to hand disinfection, a modified version of the World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method was used. Results In all, only 29 patients (49% of 59 received prophylaxis within the recommended time span. The differences in the timing of prophylactic antibiotics between total joint arthroplasty and fracture surgery were significant, i.e. a more accurate timing was implemented in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (p = 0.02. Eighteen (53% of the patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were actively treated with a forced-air warming system. The corresponding number for fracture surgery was 12 (34% (p = 0.04. Observations of 254 opportunities for hand hygiene revealed an overall adherence rate of 10.3% to hand disinfection guidelines. Conclusions The results showed that the utilization of evidence-based measures to reduce infections in clinical practice is not sufficient and there are unjustifiable differences in care depending on the type of surgery. The poor

  16. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  17. Proceedings of the international meeting on development, fabrication, and application of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). Base technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international effort to develop new fuel materials and designs which will make it feasible to fuel research and test reactors throughout the world with low-enrichment uranium, instead of high-enrichment uranium, has made significant progress during the past year. This progress has taken place at research centers located in many different countries, and is of crucial interest to reactor operators and licensors whose geographical distribution is even more varied. It is appropriate, therefore, that international meetings be held periodically to foster direct communication among the specialists in this area. To achieve this purpose, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, at the Argonne National Laboratory, sponsored this meeting as the third of a series which begun in 1978. The papers presented at this meeting were divided into sessions according to relevant subject: status of RERTR program and safety issues; development of new fuel types; testing of new fuel elements; specific reactor applications. These proceedings were edited by various members of the RERTR Program

  18. RERTR program activities related to the development and application of new LEU fuels. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor; low-enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A.

    1983-01-01

    The statue of the U.S. Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is reviewed. After a brief outline of RERTR Program objectives and goals, program accomplishments are discussed with emphasis on the development, demonstration and application of new LEU fuels. Most program activities have proceeded as planned, and a combination of two silicide fuels (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al and U/sub 3/Si-Al) holds excellent promise for achieving the long-term program goals. Current plans and schedules project the uranium density of qualified RERTR fuels for plate-type reactors to grow by approximately 1 g U/cm/sup 3/ each year, from the current 1.7 g U/cm/sup 3/ to the 7.0 g U/cm/sup 3/ which will be reached in late 1988. The technical needs of research and test reactors for HEU exports are also forecasted to undergo a gradual but dramatic decline in the coming years.

  19. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  20. Reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of energy intensive industries through decision support systems – An example of application to the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We describe an application of decision-support system to iron and steel industries. • The realised tool is useful in monitoring energy and CO2 performances of the plant. • Key processes are modelled through flowsheeting approach and included in the tool. • A mathematical optimisation model for the process gas management has been realised. • Implementation of the tool can help reducing plant costs and environmental impact. - Abstract: The management of process industries is becoming in the recent years more and more challenging, given the stringent environmental policies as well as raising energy costs and the always-present drive for profit. A way to help plant decision makers in their daily choices is to refer to decision-support tools, which can give advice on the best practices on how to operate a plant in order to reduce the energy consumption and the CO2 emissions keeping at the same time the costs under control. Such an approach can be useful in a variety of industries, particularly the most energy-intensive ones such as iron and steel industries. In this paper, an approach to the realisation of a software system, which allows to generate internal reports on the plant performances, as well as to simulate the plant behaviour in different scenarios, is described. The main production processes (coke plant, blast furnace, steel shop, hot rolling mill) are described and simulated focusing on the prediction of products flow rates and composition, energy consumption and GHGs (Greenhouse Gases) emissions in different operating conditions. The importance of a correct management of the CO2 within the plant is underlined, particularly with regard to the new EU Emission Trading System, which will be based on European benchmarks. The software tool is illustrated and a case study is included, which focuses on the simultaneous minimisation of the CO2 emissions and maximisation of the profit through an optimised management of the by-product gases. The

  1. Comparison of efficacy of the intermittent pneumatic compression with a high- and low-pressure application in reducing the lower limbs phlebolymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taradaj J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jakub Taradaj,1 Joanna Rosińczuk,2 Robert Dymarek,2 Tomasz Halski,3 Winfried Schneider4 1Department of Physiotherapy Basics, Academy School of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, 2Department of Nervous System Diseases, University of Medicine in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, 3Institute of Physiotherapy, Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole, Opole, Poland; 4Lymphology Center in Bad Berleburg, Bad Berleburg, Germany Introduction: The primary lymphedema and chronic venous insufficiency present an important medical problem, and effective physical therapeutic methods to treat this problem are still at the search phase. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC of a high- or low-pressure level in the treatment of primary phlebolymphedema of the lower limbs.Methods: The study included 81 patients with chronic venous insufficiency and primary lymphedema of the lower limbs. Group A consisted of 28 patients who underwent a monthly antiedematous therapy including a manual lymphatic drainage, multilayer bandaging, and IPC with the output pressure of 120 mmHg. Group B consisted of 27 patients who underwent the same basic treatment as group A and IPC with the output pressure of 60 mmHg. Group C (control consisted of 26 patients who underwent only a basic treatment – without IPC.Results: After completion of the study, it was found that the greatest reduction of edema occurred in patients who underwent treatment with a pressure of 120 mmHg. The comparison of percentage reduction of edema showed a statistically significant advantage of the group A over groups B and C, both for the changes in the right (P=0.01 and the left limb (P=0.01. Results in patients undergoing intermittent compression of the lower pressure (60 mmHg were similar to those obtained in the control group.Conclusion: The IPC with the pressure of 120 mmHg inside the chambers effectively helps to reduce a phlebolymphedema

  2. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  3. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  4. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  5. A NOVEL SINGLE IMPEDANCE NETWORK BASED NEUTRAL POINT CLAMPED SEVEN LEVEL THREE PHASE INVETER WITH REDUCED CLAMPING DIODES FOR REGENERATIVE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Raghavendiran; C.L.Kuppuswamy

    2012-01-01

    A Multilevel Inverter (MLI) can eliminate the need for the step-up transformer and reduce the harmonics produced by the inverter. This paper presents Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) seven level inverter with less number of clamping diodes which is suitable for regenerative loads such as three phase induction motor with regenerative braking. To reduce the stress across the main switches, diodes are clamped anti-parallel to the main switches. In Earlier configurations, the numbers of clamping diode...

  6. “All Bundled Out” - Application of Lean Six Sigma techniques to reduce workload impact during implementation of patient care bundles within critical care – A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagg, Heather (Woodward); El-Harit, Jamie; Vanni, Chris; Scott, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Within healthcare, clinical practice bundles have been used to implement standardized, nursing driven protocols resulting in standardized patient care and improved patient outcomes. Examples of these types of bundles include clinical practices shown through evidence based medicine to reduce occurrences of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia – VAP bundle; those shown to reduce the occurrences of central line infections – CL bundle; and those shown to significantly improve the outcomes of patients...

  7. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior; Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim Junior; Jorge Braz Torres; Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e ...

  8. Application of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to the thermal-hydraulics project of a PWR reactor core in reduced scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduced scale models design have been employed by engineers from several different industries fields such as offshore, spatial, oil extraction, nuclear industries and others. Reduced scale models are used in experiments because they are economically attractive than its own prototype (real scale) because in many cases they are cheaper than a real scale one and most of time they are also easier to build providing a way to lead the real scale design allowing indirect investigations and analysis to the real scale system (prototype). A reduced scale model (or experiment) must be able to represent all physical phenomena that occurs and further will do in the real scale one under operational conditions, e.g., in this case the reduced scale model is called similar. There are some different methods to design a reduced scale model and from those two are basic: the empiric method based on the expert's skill to determine which physical measures are relevant to the desired model; and the differential equation method that is based on a mathematical description of the prototype (real scale system) to model. Applying a mathematical technique to the differential equation that describes the prototype then highlighting the relevant physical measures so the reduced scale model design problem may be treated as an optimization problem. Many optimization techniques as Genetic Algorithm (GA), for example, have been developed to solve this class of problems and have also been applied to the reduced scale model design problem as well. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is investigated as an alternative optimization tool for such problem. In this investigation a computational approach, based on particle swarm optimization technique (PSO), is used to perform a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power operation on a forced flow cooling circulation and non-accidental operating conditions. A performance comparison

  9. A highly efficient reduced order electrochemical model for a large format LiMn2O4/Carbon polymer battery for real time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms for ion transport, diffusion and intercalation/deintercalation processes in batteries during charging and discharging are described by governing equations that consist of partial differential equations and nonlinear functions. Solving these equations numerically is computational intensive, particularly when the number of cells connected in series and parallel for high power or energy increases, whereas tolerance of errors should be kept under specified limits. Reduction of the computational time is required not only for enabling simulation of the behavior of packs, but also for development of a model capable of running in real time environments, so that new advanced estimation methods for state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) can be developed. In our previous research work, a reduced order model (ROM) was developed using different techniques including polymoninal approximation and residue grouping, which represents the physical behaviors of a battery. However, computational time has not been optimized. In this paper, methods to reduce the computational time are analyzed and employed to reduce the computational time while considering the accuracy. Apart from retaining the residue grouping method for the ion concentration in electrolyte and linearization of the Butler–Volmer equation, the Padé approximation is introduced to simplify the calculation of ion concentration in electrode particles governed by the Fick’s second law. Meanwhile, discretized governing equations for potentials in electrodes and electrolytes are reduced by employing proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). In addition, expressions of the equilibrium potentials for anodes and cathodes are fitted to different order polynomials. The reduced equations are coupled to construct a single cell model for a large format lithium polymer battery that is validated against experimental data. The results show that the ROM proposed can reduce the computational time at least to one

  10. Reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation for affinely parametrized elliptic coercive partial differential equations: Application to transport and continuum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    ROZZA, Gianluigi; Huynh, D.B. Phuong; Patera, Anthony T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider (hierarchical, Lagrange) reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation for linear functional outputs of affinely parametrized elliptic coercive partial differential equations. The essential ingredients are (primal-dual) Galerkin projection onto a low- dimensional space associated with a smooth ``parametric manifold'' --- dimension reduction; efficient and effective greedy sampling methods for identification of optimal and numerically stabl...

  11. [Effects of increased planting density with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application on rice yield, N use efficiency and greenhouse gas emission in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-cheng; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Ai-xing; Zhang, Wei-jian

    2016-02-01

    The traditional rice growing practice has to change to save resource and protect environment, and it' s necessary to develop new technology in rice cultivation. Therefore, a two-year field experiment of Japonica rice (Liaoxing 1) was conducted in Northeast China in 2012 and 2013 to investigate the integrated effects of dense planting with less basal nitrogen (N) and unchanged top-dressing N (IR) on rice yield, N use efficiency (NUE) and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared with traditional practice (CK), we increased the rice seedling density by 33.3% and reduced the basal N rate by 20%. The results showed that the average N agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity were improved by 49.6% (Pgreenhouse gas emissions were reduced by 9.9% and 12.7% (Pgreenhouse gas emission. PMID:27396117

  12. Biotransformation and Its Application: Biogenic Nano-Catalyst and Metal-Reducing-Bacteria for Remediation of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyunhee; Roh, Yul

    2015-08-01

    The use of ubiquitous metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) and the synthesis and transforming capability of nano-sized catalysts (BNC) provide enormous potential for the transformation of environmental waste to environmental catalysts, such as abandoned mine precipitates that are transformed into nontoxic and inexpensive catalysts for remediating contaminated groundwater. In this study, BNC from acid mine drainage (AMD) precipitates are transformed to nm-sized siderite after a fermenting process under anaerobic conditions, and MRB enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments were examined for efficiency in the Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization in upward flow-through sand column tests. As a result, BNC and MRB proved to have excellent Cr(VI) reducing/immobilizing capacity independently and when used in conjunction. In addition the combination of BNC+MRB showed to have a capacity enhanced with 20% more capability of Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization in flow-through column test for 168 h. PMID:26369131

  13. Multifunctional Electrochemical Platforms Based on the Michael Addition/Schiff Base Reaction of Polydopamine Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide: Construction and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Zhang, Si; Yang, Liuqing; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-08-19

    In this paper, a new strategy for the construction of multifunctional electrochemical detection platforms based on the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction of polydopamine modified reduced graphene oxide was first proposed. Inspired by the mussel adhesion proteins, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DA) was selected as a reducing agent to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and self-polymerize to obtain the polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide (PDA-rGO). The PDA-rGO was then functionalized with thiols and amines by the reaction of thiol/amino groups with quinine groups of PDA-rGO via the Michael addition/Schiff base reaction. Several typical compounds containing thiol and/or amino groups such as 1-[(4-amino)phenylethynyl] ferrocene (Fc-NH2), cysteine (cys), and glucose oxidase (GOx) were selected as the model molecules to anchor on the surface of PDA-rGO using the strategy for construction of multifunctional electrochemical platforms. The experiments revealed that the composite grafted with ferrocene derivative shows excellent catalysis activity toward many electroactive molecules and could be used for individual or simultaneous detection of dopamine hydrochloride (DA) and uric acid (UA), or hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), while, after grafting of cysteine on PDA-rGO, simultaneous discrimination detection of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) was realized on the composite modified electrode. In addition, direct electron transfer of GOx can be observed when GOx-PDA-rGO was immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). When glucose was added into the system, the modified electrode showed excellent electric current response toward glucose. These results inferred that the proposed multifunctional electrochemical platforms could be simply, conveniently, and effectively regulated through changing the anchored recognition or reaction groups. This study would provide a versatile method to design more detection or biosensing platforms through a chemical reaction strategy in the future. PMID

  14. A NOVEL SINGLE IMPEDANCE NETWORK BASED NEUTRAL POINT CLAMPED SEVEN LEVEL THREE PHASE INVETER WITH REDUCED CLAMPING DIODES FOR REGENERATIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Raghavendiran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Multilevel Inverter (MLI can eliminate the need for the step-up transformer and reduce the harmonics produced by the inverter. This paper presents Neutral Point Clamped (NPC seven level inverter with less number of clamping diodes which is suitable for regenerative loads such as three phase induction motor with regenerative braking. To reduce the stress across the main switches, diodes are clamped anti-parallel to the main switches. In Earlier configurations, the numbers of clamping diodes were increased proportionately with thenumber of levels and the number of impedance network required increases with increase number of levels. Therefore the cost and converter size increases as the number of levels goes high. In this paper a single impedance network based seven level neutral point clamped inverter with reduced number of clamping diodes without deterioration in performance is proposed, the simulation of proposed circuit is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink and the results for the same are presented. The MOSFET internal capacitance and body diodes are used for active clamping which eliminates the need for snubber circuit.

  15. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  16. Evaluation of reduced point charge models of proteins through Molecular Dynamics simulations: application to the Vps27 UIM-1-Ubiquitin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2014-02-01

    Reduced point charge models of amino acids are designed, (i) from local extrema positions in charge density distribution functions built from the Poisson equation applied to smoothed molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) functions, and (ii) from local maxima positions in promolecular electron density distribution functions. Corresponding charge values are fitted versus all-atom Amber99 MEPs. To easily generate reduced point charge models for protein structures, libraries of amino acid templates are built. The program GROMACS is used to generate stable Molecular Dynamics trajectories of an Ubiquitin-ligand complex (PDB: 1Q0W), under various implementation schemes, solvation, and temperature conditions. Point charges that are not located on atoms are considered as virtual sites with a nul mass and radius. The results illustrate how the intra- and inter-molecular H-bond interactions are affected by the degree of reduction of the point charge models and give directions for their implementation; a special attention to the atoms selected to locate the virtual sites and to the Coulomb-14 interactions is needed. Results obtained at various temperatures suggest that the use of reduced point charge models allows to probe local potential hyper-surface minima that are similar to the all-atom ones, but are characterized by lower energy barriers. It enables to generate various conformations of the protein complex more rapidly than the all-atom point charge representation. PMID:24316938

  17. Application of a drainage film reduces fibroblast ingrowth into large-pored polyurethane foam during negative-pressure wound therapy in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Springer, Steffen; Abel, Martin; Wesarg, Falko; Ruth, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2013-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an advantageous treatment option in wound management to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications. NPWT is mainly carried out using open-cell polyurethane (PU) foams that stimulate granulation tissue formation. However, growth of wound bed tissue into foam material, leading to disruption of newly formed tissue upon dressing removal, has been observed. Consequently, it would be of clinical interest to preserve the positive effects of open-cell PU foams while avoiding cellular ingrowth. The study presented analyzed effects of NPWT using large-pored PU foam, fine-pored PU foam, and the combination of large-pored foam with drainage film on human dermal fibroblasts grown in a collagen matrix. The results showed no difference between the dressings in stimulating cellular migration during NPWT. However, when NPWT was applied using a large-pored PU foam, the fibroblasts continued to migrate into the dressing. This led to significant breaches in the cell layers upon removal of the samples after vacuum treatment. In contrast, cell migration stopped at the collagen matrix edge when fine-pored PU foam was used, as well as with the combination of PU foam and drainage film. In conclusion, placing a drainage film between collagen matrix and the large-pored PU foam dressing reduced the ingrowth of cells into the foam significantly. Moreover, positive effects on cellular migration were not affected, and the effect of the foam on tissue surface roughness in vitro was also reduced. PMID:23937617

  18. 聚羧酸系高效减水剂在铁路预制箱梁中的应用%Application of the polycarboxylic high range water reducer on railway precast box beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏

    2009-01-01

    介绍了聚羧酸系高效减水剂在高性能混凝土中的应用情况,使用表明聚羧酸系高效减水剂具有减水率高、水泥适应性好、坍落度损失小、可泵性及和易性好、水泥用量低、早期强度高、收缩变形小并兼有防冻作用等一系列优势,已成为国内外外加剂应用的热点.%The author introduces the application situation of the polycarboxylic high range water reducer on high performance concrete. The u-tilization proves that the polycarboxylic high range water reducer has a series of advantages, such as high water-reducing rate, good cement adaptability, less slump losses, good purnpability and workability, low cement utilization quantity, high strength and less shrinkage deforma-tion and antifreezing effect, and the polycarboxylic high range water reducer has becoming hot point of admixture application at home and abroad.

  19. Does single application of topical chloramphenicol to high risk sutured wounds reduce incidence of wound infection after minor surgery? Prospective randomised placebo controlled double blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Clare F; Petra G Buettner; Cruickshank, Robert; Graham, David; Browning, Sheldon; Pendergast, Jayne; Drobetz, Herwig; Gluer, Robert; Lisec, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a single application of topical chloramphenicol ointment in preventing wound infection after minor dermatological surgery. Design Prospective randomised placebo controlled double blind multicentre trial. Setting Primary care in a regional centre in Queensland, Australia. Participants 972 minor surgery patients. Interventions A single topical dose of chloramphenicol (n=488) or paraffin ointment (n=484; placebo). Main outcome measure Incidence of infe...

  20. APPLICATION OF MINIMAX DISTRIBUTION FREE PROCEDURE AND CHEBYSHEV APPROACH IN MIXED INVENTORY MODEL INVOLVING REDUCIBLE LEAD-TIME AND SETUP COST WITH IMPRECISE DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    DHARMENDRA YADAV; S. R. Singh; RACHNA KUMARI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we extend Lin [Lin, YJ (2008). Minimax distribution free procedure with backorder price discount. International Journal of Production Economics, 111, 118–128] model by fuzzifying the demand rate, based on triangular fuzzy number to increase its applicability and solve the problem by using an alternative approach i.e., Chebyshev approach. We prove the concavity and convexity of the estimate of total variable cost per unit time in fuzzy sense. To compare the expected annual cost ...

  1. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

  2. High-tech and climate change : promoting the application of enabling and high-tech solutions to reduce GHG emissions : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) reducing potential of the high-tech sector with particular reference to the following 5 key technology convergence groups: biotechnology and bio-products; intelligent systems; information and communications technology; advanced materials; and, nanotechnology. It was noted that Canada's efforts to reduce GHG emissions in the abatement of climate change can drive innovation, stimulate economic growth and attain international leadership in technology solutions. Although Canada's strong economic growth has resulted in the creation of more highly skilled jobs, expansion in innovation and new infrastructure, there is a challenge of preserving the environmental and social quality within communities, and ensuring that productivity within companies does not lapse. In response, the government is shaping policy responses that drive innovation, productivity and prosperity and which help Canadian companies capitalize on emerging global opportunities while minimizing environmental and social impacts. This report includes information on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's Climate Change Action Plan and the emerging carbon marketplace. It also describes the role of technology innovation and the opportunity of convergence in spurring innovation. Several actions have been proposed to Industry Canada by different technology sectors to help climate change providers generate innovative solutions, commercialize products and expand market presence. This report includes those initiatives which further promote the convergence, growth and development of different enabling and high-tech sectors to develop climate change solutions; promote the opportunities that are emerging to apply innovative high-tech and enabling technologies to reduce GHG emissions; and help Canada meet its Kyoto commitments. 50 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. A new strategy for the synthesis of 3-D Pt nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide through surface functionalization, Application for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A functionalization method is introduced to control deposition of Pt nanoparticles on reduced graphene. • Heterogeneous deposition of nanometer-sized Pt islands on reduced graphene oxide was sued. • 4-Aminothiophenol used to modified reduced graphene oxide decorated with Pt nanoparticles. • The modified decorated graphene oxide was used for the oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. - Abstract: Here, a new functionalization method is introduced to control deposition of Pt nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this paper, we investigate the heterogeneous deposition of nanometer-sized Pt islands on rGO subjected to oxidation prior to deposition in the same conditions. We demonstrate that functional groups act as nucleation sites for Pt nanoparticle, and that homogeneous nucleation of small particles can be achieved by combining surface functionalization with diazonium chemistry and appropriate stabilizers in solution. For the purposes of this study, an effective electrochemical mediator is prepared using 4-aminothiophenol-modified rGO as a support decorated with Pt nanoparticles (Pt@SC6H4–rGO) for the oxidation of methanol and reduction of oxygen. The surface morphology and composition of Pt@SC6H4–rGO and Pt@rGO as well as their activity toward methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction are investigated by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X–ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that decoration of Pt nanoparticle on functionalized rGO leads to three-dimensional Pt nanostructures. Comparisons of the synthesized Pt@rGO and Pt@SC6H4–rGO in terms of their electrochemical performance also show that, compared to Pt@rGO, Pt@SC6H4–rGO has a better electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction in a solution containing 0.5 mol L−1 H2SO4 and/or 1.0 mol L−1 methanol

  4. Preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes hybrid film modified electrode, and its application to amperometric sensing of rutin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uling Yang; Gang Li; Meifang Hu; Lingbo Qu

    2014-07-01

    Through a facile electrochemical method, we prepared an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and characterized it by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) The experimental results demonstrated that ERGO-MWNTs/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward rutin as evidenced by the significant enhancement of redox peak currents in comparison with a bare GCE, ERGO/GCE and MWNTs/GCE. This method has been applied for the direct determination of rutin in real samples with satisfactory results.

  5. An application of low leakage loading pattern to reduce fast neutrons. Fluence on WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel in Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron exposure of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is one of the key factors that have to be quantified and assess reliably to provide plant life assurance and for an extension to operational life. This paper summarizes the principal methods that are used in core design optimisation for WWER-440 reactors in NPP-Kozloduy in order to reduce flux of fast neutrons at the RPV. Results of fast neutron fluence changes during the all last cycles of units 1-4 with WWER-440 reactors are considered (Authors)

  6. Two-loop fermion self-energy in reduced quantum electrodynamics and application to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2013-01-01

    We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Development and application of the integrated nitrogen model MITERRA-EUROPE . Task 1 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    OpenAIRE

    Velthof, G.L.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to have developed and applied a methodology allowing to assess and quantify the effects and costs of various policies and measures aiming at reducing the impact of agriculture on water air pollution and climate change. Both ancillary benefits and trade offs of measures have to be identified. In this report, the integrated approach of task 1 is described: development of an integrated approach. The model MITERRA-EUROPE is developed in this project. It is a model that can be use...

  8. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. PMID:25866906

  9. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. PMID:26868152

  10. Application of ZnO quantum dots dotted carbon nanotube for sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay based on simply electrochemical reduced Pt/Au alloy and a disposable device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Deng, Wenping; Zhang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Ge, Shenguang [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Yu, Jinghua, E-mail: ujn.yujh@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, 250022 (China); Song, Xianrang, E-mail: sxr@vip.163.com [Cancer Research Center, Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan, 250012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A sandwich-type electrochemluminence immunosensor was fabricated. • Simply electrochemical reduced Pt/Au alloy was selected as immunosensing probes. • ZnO@CNT composite was first employed as signal amplification label. Abstract: We report on a disposable microdevice suitable for sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). The method is making use of ZnO quantum dots dotted carbon nanotube (ZnO@CNT) and simply electrochemical reduced Pt/Au alloy. The latter was selected as immunosensing probe to modify screen-printed carbon electrode, due to its excellent electrical property. For further ultrasensitive, low-potential and stable ECL detection, ZnO@CNT composite was first synthesized using a facile solvothermal method, and employed as signal amplification label. In this work, two working electrodes in one device were used for one determination to obtain more exact results based on screen-print technique. Taking advantage of dual-amplification effects of the Pt/Au and ZnO@CNT, this immunosensor could detect the PSA quantitatively, in the range of 0.001–500 ng mL⁻¹, with a low detection limit of 0.61 pg mL⁻¹. The resulting versatile immunosensor possesses high sensitivity, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. This simple and specific strategy has vast potential to be used in other biological assays.

  11. In situ green synthesis of silver–graphene oxide nanocomposites by using tryptophan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their application in SERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Biwen; Liu, Zhiming; Guo, Zhouyi; Zhang, Wen; Wan, Mingming; Qin, Xiaochu; Zhong, Huiqing, E-mail: zhonghq@scnu.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Tryptophan (Trp) as a reducing and stabilizing agent was a green one-pot method. • The role of pH has been explored to obtain optimum reaction conditions during the growth process. • The synthesized Ag–GO nanocomposites exhibited excellent SERS activity. - Abstract: Silver–graphene oxide (Ag–GO) nanocomposites were in situ fabricated rapidly through a green one-pot method by using tryptophan (Trp) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The morphologies of synthesized Ag–GO nanocomposites were characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and micro-Raman system. The results indicated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with spherical size were well dispersed on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). The role of pH has been explored to obtain optimum reaction conditions during the growth process. Raman signals of GO were greatly enhanced after Ag NPs loaded on its surface. More importantly, the synthesized Ag–GO nanocomposites exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity as SERS substrates to detect crystal violet (CV) in aqueous solution, and the enhancement factor (EF) from the intensity of the vibrational mode at 1621 cm{sup −1} was calculated to be 1.6 × 10{sup 5}.

  12. Texture analysis of tinplate steel and its application in production of double reduced high strength tinplate grades with controlled earing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černík, M.; Gburík, R.; Hrabčáková, L.; Vranec, P.

    2015-04-01

    Several years of texture investigation via X-ray Diffraction and EBSD techniques clearly highlight the effect of steel chemistry and processing on the final texture development in individual tinplate grades produced by U.S. Steel Košice. The influence of chemical composition, degree of deformation, and the annealing process on the texture development in tinplate steel is presented for selected grades processed in production and using the material controlled laboratory experiments. “Non-earing and Ultra-low Earing” tinplate materials provide a good case study where the desired final texture, which contains a strong γ fiber along with other texture component, is achieved with precise control of key processing variables. Development and production of high strength double reduced material with isotropic properties can be achieved by detailed study of crystallographic texture. As-measured Inverse Pole Figure (IPF) maps and calculated Orientation Distribution Functions (ODFs) were used to characterize the strength of the γ fiber and selected texture components. Calculation of the normal anisotropy index, r, from the acquired texture information, was accomplished for these steels using available crystal plasticity models. Achieved results of detailed texture analysis of tinplate in the manufacture of double reduced high strength tinplate steel grades have been successfully applied.

  13. Reduced ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin with topical application of a photolyase-containing DNA repair enzyme cream: clues to skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, Enzo; Bertona, Marco; Altabas, Karmela; Altabas, Velimir; Emanuele, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    The exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the formation of DNA photolesions that give rise to photoaging, mutations, cell death and the onset of carcinogenic events. Photolyase (EC 4.1.99.3) is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses damage caused by exposure to UVR. We sought to investigate whether addition of photolyase enhances the protection provided by a traditional sunscreen (SS), by reducing the in vivo formation of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and UVR-induced apoptosis in human skin. Ten volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin type II) were exposed to solar-simulated (ss) UVR at a three times minimal erythema dose for 4 consecutive days. Thirty minutes prior to each exposure, the test materials [vehicle, SS (sun protection factor 50) alone, and SS plus photolyase from Anacystis nidulans] were applied topically to three different sites. One additional site was left untreated and one received ssUVR only. Biopsy specimens were taken 72 h after the last irradiation. The amount of CPDs and the extent of apoptosis were measured by ELISA. Photolyase plus SS was superior to SS alone in reducing both the formation of CPDs and apoptotic cell death (both P<0.001). In conclusion, the addition of photolyase to a traditional SS contributes significantly to the prevention of UVR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis when applied topically to human skin. PMID:22086236

  14. A novel reduced graphene oxide decorated with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-d-rGO hybrid composite and its flame-retardant application for polyamide 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Zhu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of flame-retardant properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 was achieved by using reduced graphene oxide decorated with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-d-rGO hybrid composite as the additive in PA6 matrix. The intimate integration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs through a three-step chemical functionalization, enabled the combination of their unique physical and chemical characteristics together. The nanostructure of HNTs-d-rGO was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A morphological study revealed that HNTs-d-rGO was dispersed uniformly in PA6 matrix. From the results of cone calorimetry measurements, the fire retardant properties of PA6 were further improved with the addition of HNTs-d-rGO when compared with that of either HNTs, or GO, or a mixture of HNTs and GO (HNTs-m-GO used in PA6 matrix. The results indicate clearly that higher flame-retardant activity of the integrated HNTs-d-rGO nanostructures than that of the simple mixture verifies the importance of the intimate integration between HNTs and rGO, which ascribe to the combination of the stable silica layer created by HNT and the barrier effect of rGO.

  15. Pre-harvest application of salicylic acid maintain the rind textural properties and reduce fruit rot and chilling injury of sweet orange during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees of citrus cvs Lane Late and Valencia Late oranges were sprayed ten days before anticipated harvest with salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 mM). Fruits were harvested and stored at 5 degree C for 93 days to investigate the effects of SA on fruit rot, chilling injury and quality relating parameters such as rind and fruit firmness as well as sugar and organic acid contents. Fruits were analyzed before storage and after 31, 62 and 93 days of storage and found that SA at 8 mM and 9 mM reduced fruit rot from 16.93% to 6.06% and 12.78% to 5.12% in Lane Late and Valencia Late, respectively. Chilling injury was significantly reduced at 8 mM and 9 mM treatments. Textural properties relating to rind puncture, rind tensile and fruit firmness forces showed that treated fruits were significantly firmer than those of control. Maintained contents of SSC, TA, individual sugars and organic acids in treated fruit with higher doses after 93 confirmed preliminary findings such as SA has anti-senescent effect. Our research suggests that pre-harvest spray of SA can be used effectively to minimize the post-harvest/storage losses of sweet oranges cultivars. (author)

  16. Reducing radiation dose by application of optimized low-energy x-ray filters to K-edge imaging with a photon counting detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seungwan; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-01-21

    K-edge imaging with photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) can improve image quality compared with conventional energy integrating detectors. However, low-energy x-ray photons below the K-edge absorption energy of a target material do not contribute to image formation in the K-edge imaging and are likely to be completely absorbed by an object. In this study, we applied x-ray filters to the K-edge imaging with a PCXD based on cadmium zinc telluride for reducing radiation dose induced by low-energy x-ray photons. We used aluminum (Al) filters with different thicknesses as the low-energy x-ray filters and implemented the iodine K-edge imaging with an energy bin of 34-48 keV at the tube voltages of 50, 70 and 90 kVp. The effects of the low-energy x-ray filters on the K-edge imaging were investigated with respect to signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and figure of merit (FOM). The highest value of SDNR was observed in the K-edge imaging with a 2 mm Al filter, and the SDNR decreased as a function of the filter thicknesses. Compared to the K-edge imaging with a 2 mm Al filter, the ESAK was reduced by 66%, 48% and 39% in the K-edge imaging with a 12 mm Al filter for 50 kVp, 70 kVp and 90 kVp, respectively. The FOM values, which took into account the ESAK and SDNR, were maximized for 8, 6 to 8 and 4 mm Al filters at 50 kVp, 70 kVp and 90 kVp, respectively. We concluded that the use of an optimal low-energy filter thickness, which was determined by maximizing the FOM, could significantly reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in the K-edge imaging with the PCXD. PMID:26733235

  17. Dispersant application: (1) during steam generator wet layup for removal of existing deposits, and (2) during the long-path recirculation cleanup process of the condensate/feedwater system to reduce startup corrosion product transport to the steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few decades, utilities have spent considerable resources minimizing corrosion product deposition within steam generators (SGs). In the past, two basic approaches have been used: Reducing the corrosion product ingress rate (e.g., by replacing secondary components containing corrosion-susceptible materials, implementing favorable chemistry changes, etc.); Removing corrosion products which have accumulated in the SGs through top-of-tubesheet (TTS) sludge lancing and other chemical and mechanical methods. Despite the success of these methods, there are limitations, including practical lower limits on the feedwater iron concentration and the high cost and effectiveness limits of cleaning techniques (particularly for crevices). A third approach is the online addition of a polymeric dispersant to promote suspension of corrosion iron, thereby reducing deposition onto SG surfaces and facilitating more efficient removal via blowdown. More than a decade of qualification work and two full-scale plant trials - at ANO-2 in 2000 and at McGuire Unit 2 from 2005 to 2007 - addressed initial technical concerns, paving the way for routine use in nuclear SGs. Online application of dispersant at the four Exelon plants with recirculating SGs is the focus of another paper at this conference. This paper is focused on the additional benefits that could be gained from similar dispersant applications during: normal SG wet layup to remove some of the existing deposit inventory; routine long-path recirculation cleanup of the PWR secondary side prior to startup. The addition of dispersant to the SGs during full wet layup periods could provide additional benefit by dispersing loose sludge powder that has accumulated, thereby facilitating its removal. Routine dispersant-assisted wet layup applications could be performed in conjunction with normal layup protocols without affecting the planned outage schedule, and could potentially reduce the frequency of more costly deposit

  18. Reduced graphene oxide decorated with FeF3 nanoparticles: Facile synthesis and application as a high capacity cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with FeF3 nanoparticles (FeF3NPs) by adding FeF3 aqueous solution to the rGO ethanol/water dispersion. The obtained FeF3/rGO nanocomposite is further tested as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries and found to have high discharge capacities, good rate capabilities and cycling performance. It can deliver a high discharge capacity of 476 mAh g−1 at a current density of 50 mA g−1 in the voltage range 1.0–4.5 V. It still delivers a discharge capacity of 146 mAh g−1 with 81% capacity retention after 50 charge–discharge cycles under a current density of 1000 mA g−1 in the voltage range 1.7–4.5 V

  19. The application of Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov methods to reduce the spin-up time of ocean general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsen, Erik; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Thies, Jonas; Wubs, Fred W.

    2010-10-01

    In present-day forward time stepping ocean-climate models, capturing both the wind-driven and thermohaline components, a substantial amount of CPU time is needed in a so-called spin-up simulation to determine an equilibrium solution. In this paper, we present methodology based on Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov methods to reduce the computational time for such a spin-up problem. We apply the method to an idealized configuration of a state-of-the-art ocean model, the Modular Ocean Model version 4 (MOM4). It is shown that a typical speed-up of a factor 10-25 with respect to the original MOM4 code can be achieved and that this speed-up increases with increasing horizontal resolution.

  20. One-pot synthesis of Palladium Silver nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide and their application for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide is synthesized by electrochemical method. • Reduced graphene supported Palladium silver is prepared via impregnation method. • Pd-Ag(1:1)/G is more stable than Pd/G in alkaline media. • Ethanol oxidation activity in alkaline media was 1000 mAcm−2mg−1Pd for Pd-Ag(1:1)/G. • Tafel slope of PdAg/G is much lower than that of Pd/G. - Abstracts: We report a Pd-Ag (1:1)/graphene (PdAg/G) catalyst through a one-step strategy, for the ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Graphene is synthesized from graphite electrodes using ionic liquid-assisted electrochemical exfoliation. Graphene-supported Pd-Ag electrocatalystis then was reduced by ethylene glycol as a stabilizing agent to prepare highly dispersed PdAg nanoparticles on carbon graphene oxide to be used as ethanol oxidation in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) catalysts. X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy techniques are used to investigate the crystallite size and the surface morphologies respectively. The electrochemical characteristics of the Pd-Ag(1:1)/G,Pd/G and Ag/G catalysts are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in nitrogen saturated sulfuric acid aqueous solutions and in mixed sulfuric acid and ethanol aqueous solutions. Detailed electrochemical studies (involving chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry) prove that the electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol at the Pd-Ag(1:1)/G is more stable, occurring at lower potential, giving lower Tafel slopes compared to Pd/G and Ag/G catalysts, which can reveal the particular properties of the exfoliated graphene supports and PdAg alloy

  1. TiO2 nanotube arrays co-loaded with Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide: Facile synthesis and promising photocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Methyl orange (MO) can be efficiently removed through photodegradation process using a novel photocatalyst, Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide co-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays. Highlights: •The photocatalyst is prepared by an one-step constant potential deposition process. •The ternary photocatalyst shows effective separation of photogenerated charges. •The photocatalyst displays almost 100% photocatalytic removal of methyl orange. •The photocatalyst is easily recovered with excellent cycling stability. -- Abstract: Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide co-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays (Au/RGO–TiO2 NTs) were prepared through a simple one-step constant-potential electrolysis of chloroauric acid and graphene oxide on TiO2 NTs. Compared with Au–TiO2 NTs, RGO–TiO2 NTs and un-modified TiO2 NTs, the Au/RGO–TiO2 NTs exhibited high efficiency in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under simulated solar light irradiation. The highly efficient photocatalytic activity is associated with broad absorption in the visible light region, increased photoinduced charge separation through transferring photogenerated electrons from TiO2 NTs to both Au and RGO, as well as the strong adsorption ability of RGO to MO molecules. Moreover, the Au/RGO–TiO2 NTs has an excellent stability. This work provides an insight into designing and synthesizing new TiO2 NTs-based hybrid materials for effective visible light-activated photocatalysis

  2. The application of molecular microbial ecology tools to facilitate the development of more efficient feeding systems and reduce adverse environmental effects of ruminant livestock in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruminant livestock in the developing world are a major global anthropogenic, human induced, source of methane gas emissions. Methane gas is produced in the digestive tract of ruminant livestock during feed digestion and released into the environment. As a result of international concern over climate change induced by rising greenhouse gas emissions, international policy makers and national governments are considering cost effective methods for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions. Global inventories of greenhouse gas emissions indicate that this source of methane is the largest individual source of methane, and in 1990 accounted for 23% of global methane emissions. Cattle are responsible for 73% of methane emissions from all livestock species, and more than half of the global cattle population is located in developing countries. The largest cattle populations in the developing world in the South Asia, Sub Saharan Africa, Latin America and China. The relationship between methane production, feed digestion and animal production efficiency will be discussed and the results of recent experimental studies will be presented. Any attempt to reduce methane emissions from livestock is unlikely to be adopted unless production efficiency is at least maintained if not enhanced. The challenge therefore is to devise strategies, which reduce methane emissions from ruminants and improve production efficiency. Approaches such as inhibitors of methanogens (e.g. synthetic or plant secondary metabolites), dietary approaches (e.g. use of polyunsaturated fatty acids or ingredients containing these acids), vaccination against methanogens, supplementation strategies, etc. have the potential to achieve this objective. The use of rumen molecular techniques in conjunction with conventional approaches such as measurement of methane by GC in in vitro and by sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer or gas mask technique in in vivo, apparent and true dry matter digestibility, and efficiency of

  3. The application of the reduced dosage of the contrast medium with saline flush in cerebral and carotid angiography with 64-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To utilize the reduced contrast dose with saline flush in cerebral and carotid angiography with 64-slice spiral CT. Methods: According to the contrast dose, 40 patients undergoing cerebral and carotid CTA examination were randomly divided into 2 groups, one group was treated with 50 ml contrast agent and 20 ml saline flush, the other group was administrated with 70 ml contrast agent. With double blindness method, the data were respectively evaluated and analyzed by two radiologists independently. Results: For the two radiologists, on the manifestation of carotid and cerebral arteries, the venous artefact and the CT value measurement aspects, the Kappa value was respectively 0.895, 0.814, 0.702, 0.836. By rank sum test, on the manifestation of carotid arteries aspect, the grading score of the two groups of radiologist A was respectively 1.3, l.2; and that of radiologist B was respectively 1.4, 1.2; the differences between the two groups of the two radiologists have no statistical significance(U=173, P>0.05; U=128, P>0.05). And on the manifestation of cerebral arteries aspect, the grading score of the two groups of radiologist A was respectively 1.4, l.2; and that of radiologist B was respectively 1.2, 1.2; the differences between two groups of the two radiologists both have no statistical significance (U=160, P>0.05; U=106, P>0.05). And on the artefacts produced by the high contrast densities in the right subclavian vein, brachiocephalic vein and vena cava, the grading score of the two groups of radiologist A was respectively 1.3, 2.1; and that of radiologist B was respectively 1.2, 1.9; the differences between the two groups of the two radiologists both have statistical significance (U=75, P0.05). The CT value of the arteries of the two groups from radiologist B was respectively 337.3, 329.5, 239.2, 192.8, 345.6, 341.2, 247.1, 210.5 HU; and the difference between the two groups has no statistical significance (t=0.233, P>0.05). Conclusion: On the CTA

  4. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates. PMID

  5. One step electrosynthesis of polyacrylamide crosslinked by reduced graphene oxide and its application in the simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite (PAM/rGO) with rGO nanosheets as cross-linkers were synthesized via electropolymerizing acrylamide in an aqueous suspension of GO containing sodium nitrate and potassium persulfate. The PAM/rGO was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns of the PAM/rGO indicated that rGO was fully exfoliated into individual sheets in the polymer matrix. SEM study exhibits the highly uniform coverage of PAM/rGO membrane on the GCE and its fibrous nanostructure. The electrochemical characteristics of the PAM/rGO modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), suggesting the extraordinary electrocatalytic effect of PAM/rGO/GCE towards the electro-oxidation of UA and DA. The PAM/rGO/GCE behaved linearly to DA and UA in the concentration range of 3 × 10−7 to 5 × 10−5 M and 1 × 10−6 to 5 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and 5 × 10−7 M, respectively. The proposed method was successfully utilized for simultaneous determination of UA and DA in real samples

  6. An optimized, sensitive and stable reduced graphene oxide–gold nanoparticle-luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system and its potential analytical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemiluminescence (CL) performance of luminol is improved using reduced graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle (rGO–AuNP) nano-composites as catalyst. To prepare this catalyst, we propose a linker free, one-step method to in-situ synthesize rGO–AuNP nano-composites. Various measurements are utilized to characterize the resulting rGO–AuNP samples, and it is revealed that rGO could improve the stability and conductivity. Furthermore, we investigate the CL signals of luminal catalyzed by rGO–AuNP. Afterwards, the size effect of particle and the assisted enhancement effect of rGO are studied and discussed in detail. Based on the discussion, an optimal, sensitive and stable rGO–AuNP-luminon–H2O2 CL system is proposed. Finally, we utilize the system as a sensor to detect hydrogen peroxide and organic compounds containing amino, hydroxyl, or thiol groups. The CL system might provide a more attractive platform for various analytical devices with CL detection in the field of biosensors, bioassays, and immunosensors. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. (0 0 1) Facet-exposed anatase-phase TiO2 nanotube hybrid reduced graphene oxide composite: Synthesis, characterization and application in photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xun; Shi, Tiejun; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Haiou

    2013-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO2 nanotube (TNT) with (0 0 1) facet-exposed anatase phase are covalently bonded together to synthesize TNT hybrid RGO (RGO-TNT) through consecutive process such as hydrothermal reaction, HCl washing, lyophilization and heat treatment with graphene oxide (GO), TiO2 powder and high concentration NaOH solution as the starting materials. The TNT with the diameter between 10 and 20 nm characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is in anatase phase proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. Additionally, the more active (0 0 1) facet is exposed identified by HRTEM. More significantly, TNT is bridged to RGO by Csbnd Ti bond by the measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra has testified that RGO in RGO-TNT can transfer and accept photoelectrons from TNT. The photocatalytic activity of RGO-TNT for degrading methylene blue (MB) is enhanced by contrast with pure TNT, and changeable by adjusting the mass ratios of GO to TiO2 powder. Simultaneously, lyophilization is benefit for maintaining the high active surface area of RGO-TNT, which is deeply in relationship with a higher photocatalytic activity. After four running cycles of photocatalytic degradation, RGO-TNT has shown a high stability and perfect reproducibility.

  8. (0 0 1) Facet-exposed anatase-phase TiO{sub 2} nanotube hybrid reduced graphene oxide composite: Synthesis, characterization and application in photocatalytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xun [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Shi, Tiejun, E-mail: stjhfut@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wu, Jing [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhou, Haiou [School of Chemical Engineering of Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Materials and Chemical Engineering of Anhui University of Architecture, Hefei 230901 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) with (0 0 1) facet-exposed anatase phase are covalently bonded together to synthesize TNT hybrid RGO (RGO-TNT) through consecutive process such as hydrothermal reaction, HCl washing, lyophilization and heat treatment with graphene oxide (GO), TiO{sub 2} powder and high concentration NaOH solution as the starting materials. The TNT with the diameter between 10 and 20 nm characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is in anatase phase proven by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM. Additionally, the more active (0 0 1) facet is exposed identified by HRTEM. More significantly, TNT is bridged to RGO by C-Ti bond by the measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra has testified that RGO in RGO-TNT can transfer and accept photoelectrons from TNT. The photocatalytic activity of RGO-TNT for degrading methylene blue (MB) is enhanced by contrast with pure TNT, and changeable by adjusting the mass ratios of GO to TiO{sub 2} powder. Simultaneously, lyophilization is benefit for maintaining the high active surface area of RGO-TNT, which is deeply in relationship with a higher photocatalytic activity. After four running cycles of photocatalytic degradation, RGO-TNT has shown a high stability and perfect reproducibility.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet Application to Reduce HIV Transmission Behavior Among HIV Infected Men Who have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Joel; Morris, Sheldon; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Xiaoying; Dubé, Michael P; Daar, Eric S; Jimenez, Gustavo; Haubrich, Richard

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial of an internet-based safer-sex intervention to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors. HIV-infected men who have sex with men (n = 179) were randomized to receive a monthly internet survey alone or a monthly survey plus tailored risk reduction messages over 12 months. The primary outcome was the cumulative sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence over 12 months. Secondary outcomes included self-reported unprotected sex with an at risk partner and disclosure of HIV status to partners. In a modified intent to treat analysis, there was no difference in 12-month STI incidence between the intervention and control arms (30 vs. 25 %, respectively; p = 0.5). Unprotected sex decreased and disclosure increased over time in both study arms. These improvements suggest that addition of the risk-reduction messages provided little benefit beyond the self-monitoring of risky behavior via regular self-report risk behavior assessments (as was done in both study arms). PMID:26487300

  10. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice. PMID:27295319

  11. Immobilization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger on κ-carrageenan hybrid matrix and its application on the production of reducing sugar from macroalgae cellulosic residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Inn Shi; Lee, Keat Teong

    2015-05-01

    A novel concept for the synthesis of a stable polymer hybrid matrix bead was developed in this study. The beads were further applied for enzyme immobilization to produce stable and active biocatalysts with low enzyme leakage, and high immobilization efficiency, enzyme activity, and recyclability. The immobilization conditions, including PEI concentration, activation time and pH of the PEI solution were investigated and optimized. All formulated beads were characterized for its functionalized groups, composition, surface morphology and thermal stability. Compared with the free β-glucosidase, the immobilized β-glucosidase on the hybrid matrix bead was able to tolerate broader range of pH values and higher reaction temperature up to 60 °C. The immobilized β-glucosidase was then used to hydrolyse pretreated macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR) for the production of reducing sugar and a hydrolysis yield of 73.4% was obtained. After repeated twelve runs, immobilized β-glucosidase retained about 75% of its initial activity. PMID:25465785

  12. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools (or at least the perception of their prevalence), more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense U.S. social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti-graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems (`big picture`) approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more to the general `order maintenance` of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  13. Systematic, appropriate, and cost-effective application of security technologies in U.S. public schools to reduce crime, violence, and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary W.

    1997-01-01

    As problems of violence and crime become more prevalent in our schools, more and more school districts will elect to use security technologies to control these problems. While the desired change in student and community attitudes will require significant systemic change through intense US social programs, security technologies can greatly augment school staff today by providing services similar to having extra adults present. Technologies such as cameras, sensors, drug detection, biometric and personnel identification, lighting, barriers, weapon and explosives detection, anti- graffiti methods, and duress alarms can all be effective, given they are used in appropriate applications, with realistic expectations and an understanding of limitations. Similar to a high-risk government facility, schools must consider a systems approach to security, which includes the use of personnel and procedures as well as security technologies, such that the synergy created by all these elements together contributes more tot he general 'order maintenance' of the facility than could be achieved by separate measures not integrated or related.

  14. Study on the application of reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials for simultaneous determination of catechol, hydroquinone, p-cresol and nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, the reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials (RGO–MWNTs) were prepared and a novel strategy for the simultaneous determination of multiple environmental contaminations has been proposed on the basis of RGO–MWNTs hybrid materials modified electrode. The hybrid materials were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption–desorption isotherms. Due to the excellent catalytic activity, enhanced electrical conductivity, high surface area and porous structure of the RGO–MWNTs, the RGO–MWNTs/GCE achieved the simultaneous measurement of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC), p-cresol (PC) and nitrite (NO2−) with well-separate four peaks. Scheme 1a illuminated the preparation process of the RGO–MWNTs hybrid materials. Scheme 1b explains the electron mediating properties of RGO–MWNTs/GCE towards the oxidation of HQ, CC, PC and NO2−. Scheme 1c presented the SEM image of RGO–MWNTs hybrid materials. Scheme 1d and e showed the 2D and 3D AFM images of RGO–MWNTs films, respectively. Highlights: ► The novel RGO–MWNTs hybrid materials were synthesized. ► The simultaneous detection of four environmental contaminations was achieved. ► SEM, AFM, XPS was employed to characterize the RGO–MWNTs hybrid materials. - Abstract: In this paper, the reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials (RGO–MWNTs) were prepared and a strategy for detecting environmental contaminations was proposed on the basis of RGO–MWNTs modified electrode. The hybrid materials were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption–desorption isotherms. Due to the excellent catalytic activity, enhanced electrical conductivity and high surface area of the RGO–MWNTs, the simultaneous measurement of hydroquinone

  15. Study on the application of reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials for simultaneous determination of catechol, hydroquinone, p-cresol and nitrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Fangxin [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Shihong, E-mail: cshong@swu.edu.cn [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Wang Chengyan [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yuan Dehua; Wang Cun [Education Ministry Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-04-29

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, the reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials (RGO-MWNTs) were prepared and a novel strategy for the simultaneous determination of multiple environmental contaminations has been proposed on the basis of RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials modified electrode. The hybrid materials were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N{sub 2} sorption-desorption isotherms. Due to the excellent catalytic activity, enhanced electrical conductivity, high surface area and porous structure of the RGO-MWNTs, the RGO-MWNTs/GCE achieved the simultaneous measurement of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC), p-cresol (PC) and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) with well-separate four peaks. Scheme 1a illuminated the preparation process of the RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials. Scheme 1b explains the electron mediating properties of RGO-MWNTs/GCE towards the oxidation of HQ, CC, PC and NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Scheme 1c presented the SEM image of RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials. Scheme 1d and e showed the 2D and 3D AFM images of RGO-MWNTs films, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simultaneous detection of four environmental contaminations was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM, AFM, XPS was employed to characterize the RGO-MWNTs hybrid materials. - Abstract: In this paper, the reduced graphene oxide and multiwall carbon nanotubes hybrid materials (RGO-MWNTs) were prepared and a strategy for detecting environmental contaminations was proposed on the basis of RGO-MWNTs modified electrode. The hybrid materials were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N{sub 2} sorption-desorption isotherms. Due to the excellent catalytic activity, enhanced electrical conductivity and high

  16. Application of a hybrid model to reduce bias and improve precision in population estimates for elk (Cervus elaphus inhabiting a cold desert ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Schoenecker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating the size of wildlife populations is critical to wildlife management and conservation of species. Raw counts or “minimum counts” are still used as a basis for wildlife management decisions. Uncorrected raw counts are not only negatively biased due to failure to account for undetected animals, but also provide no estimate of precision on which to judge the utility of counts. We applied a hybrid population estimation technique that combined sightability modeling, radio collar-based mark-resight, and simultaneous double count (double-observer modeling to estimate the population size of elk in a high elevation desert ecosystem. Combining several models maximizes the strengths of each individual model while minimizing their singular weaknesses. We collected data with aerial helicopter surveys of the elk population in the San Luis Valley and adjacent mountains in Colorado State, USA in 2005 and 2007. We present estimates from 7 alternative analyses: 3 based on different methods for obtaining a raw count and 4 based on different statistical models to correct for sighting probability bias. The most reliable of these approaches is a hybrid double-observer sightability model (model MH, which uses detection patterns of 2 independent observers in a helicopter plus telemetry-based detections of radio collared elk groups. Data were fit to customized mark-resight models with individual sighting covariates. Error estimates were obtained by a bootstrapping procedure. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to double-observer modeling. The resulting population estimate corrected for multiple sources of undercount bias that, if left uncorrected, would have underestimated the true population size by as much as 22.9%. Our comparison of these alternative methods demonstrates how various components of our method contribute to

  17. Robotic-locomotor training as a tool to reduce neuromuscular abnormality in spinal cord injury: the application of system identification and advanced longitudinal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M; Kindig, Matthew; Niu, Xun; Varoqui, Deborah; Conaway, Petra

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effect of the LOKOMAT, a robotic-assisted locomotor training system, on the reduction of neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity was examined, for the first time in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Twenty-three individuals with chronic incomplete SCI received 1-hour training sessions in the LOKOMAT three times per week, with up to 45 minutes of training per session; matched control group received no intervention. The neuromuscular properties of the spastic ankle were then evaluated prior to training and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of training. A parallel-cascade system identification technique was used to determine the reflex and intrinsic stiffness of the ankle joint as a function of ankle position at each time point. The slope of the stiffness vs. joint angle curve, i.e. the modulation of stiffness with joint position, was then calculated and tracked over the four-week period. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM), an advanced statistical method, was then used to classify subjects into subgroups based on similar trends in recovery pattern of slope over time, and Random Coefficient Regression (RCR) was used to model the recovery patterns within each subgroup. All groups showed significant reductions in both reflex and intrinsic slope over time, but subjects in classes with higher baseline values of the slope showed larger improvements over the four weeks of training. These findings suggest that LOKOMAT training may also be useful for reducing the abnormal modulation of neuromuscular properties that arises as secondary effects after SCI. This can advise clinicians as to which patients can benefit the most from LOKOMAT training prior to beginning the training. Further, this study shows that system identification and GMM/RCR can serve as powerful tools to quantify and track spasticity over time in the SCI population. PMID:24187312

  18. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as an effective peroxidase mimetic and its application in visual biosensing of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jianxin [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Yuxi Normal University, Yunnan 653100 (China); Cao, Haiyan; Jiang, Huan; Chen, Yujin [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Shi, Wenbing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408003 (China); Zheng, Huzhi [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Huang, Yuming, E-mail: yuminghuang2000@yahoo.com [The Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Real-time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2013-09-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The well-dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs on rGO surfaces were successfully synthesized. •The as-obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites exhibit an effective peroxidase-like activity. •They can catalyze the oxidation of TMB by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to produce an intensified blue reaction. •The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO-based colorimetric and visual biosensing of glucose was developed. -- Abstract: The well-dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) surfaces were successfully prepared by in situ controlled nucleation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs on GO sheets and subsequent in situ reduction of GO by low temperature hydrothermal reaction in ethanol media. The as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra. It was found that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were successfully decorated and well dispersed on the surface of rGO sheet without agglomeration. We discovered that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and catalase-like activity, and could catalytically oxidize 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to produce a intensified colour reaction. Results of electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments demonstrated that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/rGO nanocomposites showed catalytic ability to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition into ·OH radicals. On this basis, a simple and selective method for glucose detection was developed by coupling the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase (GOx). As low as 1 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} glucose could be detected with a linear range from 1 × 10{sup −6} to 1 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1}. The visual detection of glucose can be realized easily through the observable color change from colorless to blue by the naked

  19. Usability versus Persuasion in an Application Interface Design : A study of the relationship between Usability & Persuasion in a smart-phone application designed to help optimise domestic energy use and reduce CO² emission.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeney, Donal

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between usability and persuasion in the design of the interface for a smart-phone application. Using a usability study of an I-phone app combined with interviews with users and the designers, the roles of usability and persuasion in the design of the app and their influence on each other as design goals is discussed from both the users’ and designers’ perspectives. The application’s purpose is to support behavior change in users by giving them feedback on...

  20. Soluble calcium amendments: reducing pathogen losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. Its application to agricultural fields may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. It may also reduce fecal bacterial contamination of surface ...

  1. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  2. “品管圈”在减少住院药房药品损耗中的应用与成效%Application of quality control circle in reducing the loss of inhospital pharmacy drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 王晓丽; 潘静; 肖伟

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨品管圈活动在提高住院药房服务品质、降低住院药房药品损耗中的应用。方法:将品管圈活动应用到减少药品损耗中,分析其原因,制定相应的对策并实施,同时评估该活动的效果。结果:开展品管圈活动后,住院药房药品损耗下降了39.4%,收到良好效果。结论:推行品管圈活动,可降低住院药房药品损耗,在保证临床用药安全有效的前提下,实现了合理使用有限的医疗资源。%Objective:To investigate the application of quality control circle(QCC) in reducing the loss of inpatient pharmacy drugs and improving the service quality of inpaitient pharmacy. Methods: The QCC was implemented for reducing the loss of inpatient pharmacy drugs,and the effect of which was evaluated. Results:The loss of inpatient pharmacy drugs decreased significantly,which decreased to 39. 4% after implementing QCC. The effect of QCC action was good. Conclusions:The QCC action can reduce the loss of inpatient pharmacy drugs,and promote the rational use of the limited medical resources.

  3. 品管圈活动在降低我院门诊药房药品库存金额中的应用%Application of QCC Activity in Reducing Drug Inventory Amount in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席明名; 管静; 汤倩; 刘晓艳; 鲁瑶; 李炜; 王俐

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reduce inventory amount of outpatient pharmacy, and to improve pharmacy management. METHODS: On the subject of reducing drug inventory amount of outpatient pharmacy, the activities were conducted in outpatient pharmacy of our hospital according to 10 steps of quality control circle (QCC), and visible achievement and invisible achievement were evaluated. RESULTS: By conducting QCC activity, 3 countermeasure groups were set up: first, setting period and warning line of taking medicine; second, improving taking drug system; third, formulating unmarketable drug management system. In visible achievement, the inventory amount of outpatient pharmacy reduced from 1 147 503.89 yuan before improvement to 509 571.16 yuan, and the rate of achievement was 115.50%. In invisible achievement, the score of the application of quality control method and the ability of stretching their minds were improved significantly among all staff. CONCLUSION : QCC activity achieves good results in outpatient pharmacy, reduces the amount of drug inventory and improves work efficiency.%目的:降低医院门诊药房药品库存金额,提高药房管理水平.方法:以“降低门诊药房药品库存金额”为主题,在我院门诊药房按照品管圈活动的10个步骤实施各项活动,并评价该活动的有形成果和无形成果.结果:通过开展品管圈活动,拟定了3个对策群组:一是设定领药周期与警戒线,二是完善领药制度,三是制定滞销药品管理制度;有形成果方面,门诊药房药品库存金额由改善前的1 147 503.89元降至509 571.16元,目标达成率为115.50%;无形成果方面,全体员工在品管手法运用、思维开拓能力等方面的评分有明显提升.结论:品管圈活动在门诊药房取得了良好效果,降低了药品库存金额,提高了工作效率.

  4. Clinical Intervention in Reducing Postpartum Hemorrhage in Vaginal Delivery Application%浅析实施临床干预在降低阴道分娩产后出血率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春丽

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨临床干预在降低阴道分娩产后出血率的应用价值。方法选取自2012年10月~2013年10月在我院进行阴道分娩的1026例产妇,随机分为对照组和观察组,对对照组512例产妇进行常规护理,对观察组514例产妇进行临床干预。对比两组产妇的产后出血率和出血量。结果两组产妇阴道分娩后出血量差异较小。对照组阴道分娩产后出血率为4.49%,观察组阴道分娩产后出血率为1.36%。观察组阴道分娩产后出血率低于对照组,差异较大,有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论对产妇经阴道分娩进行临床干预,可以预防产后出血,降低产后出血率,具有极大的应用价值。%Objective To study the clinical intervention in reducing the rate of vaginal delivery postpartum hemorrhage application value. Methods To choose since October 2012~October 2013 in our hospital in 1026 cases of maternal vaginal delivery,randomly divided into control group and observation group,to normal control group, 512 cases of maternal care,observation group of 514 cases of puerpera clinical intervention.Comparison of two groups of maternal postpartum hemorrhage rate and the blood loss.Results Two groups of maternal blood loss dif erence smal er after vaginal delivery.The postpartum hemorrhage rate was 4.49%,control group vaginal delivery group vaginal delivery postpartum hemorrhage rate was 1.36%.Observation group of vaginal delivery postpartum hemorrhage rate is lower than the control group,the difference is larger,with statistical significance ( <0.05).Conclusion The clinical intervention by vaginal delivery, maternal can prevent postpartum hemorrhage,reduce postpartum hemorrhage rate,protect maternal health,has a great application value.

  5. Unique safety valve design using a floating magnetic coupler and metal-to-metal sealing capability reduces pressure equipment requirements and increases safety valve integrity in ultra deepwater applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinzant, Mike; Vick, James [Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. (United States); Parakka, Anthony [Dexter Magnetic Technology, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Simplified design concepts, increased use of non-elastomeric and metal-to-metal (M-t-M) sealing materials, and enhanced validation testing have drastically improved tubing-retrievable safety valve (TRSV) performance over the last decade. However, the demands imposed by deep-water, high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) environments, high-flow-rate gas reservoirs and remote subsea applications have also increased, and in spite of continuing improvement in safety-valve technology, equipment has continued to be pushed to its limits. This paper reviews the challenges in achieving 100% M-t-M sealing capability within a TRSV. In addition, this paper will review a unique TRSV design that is a revolutionary new concept. This design incorporates a floating magnetic coupler that allows the hydraulic actuator to be positioned in a dedicated chamber isolated from contact with well fluids and pressure. Since the hydraulic actuator has been separated from the tubing wellbore, this new valve is the first in the industry to have 100% M-t-M sealing with no moving seals within the tubing wellbore. The magnetic-coupler concept particularly benefits deep and ultra deep completions as the TRSV is set deeper, and thus, requires additional operating pressure. By using the magnetic coupler design, the operating pressure required for the TRSV is drastically reduced by removing any interaction between the hydraulic operating piston and the internal tubing-wellbore pressure. This is significantly beneficial for deep water systems where a lower operating pressure simplifies the overall operating system. This is important both for safety and costs since the use of the magnetic coupler design in subsea systems could eliminate the need for high-pressure equipment and the associated high-pressure umbilicals, far outweighing the cost of the TRSV. Some of the benefits of this new intrinsically simple design include: 1. Increases environmental and personnel safety; 2. Reduces system costs; 3

  6. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim

    2011-11-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  7. Facile synthesis of novel Ni(II)-based metal-organic coordination polymer nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites and their application for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenbo; Qin, Xiaoyun; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Sun, Xuping

    2013-01-21

    The present paper reports on the facile preparation of novel Ni(II)-based metal-organic coordination polymer nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (NiCPNP/rGO) nanocomposites for the first time. The formation of the nanocomposites occurs in a single step, carried out by hydrothermal treatment of the mixture of tannic acid functioned graphene oxide and NiCl(2) aqueous solution in N,N-dimethylformamide. It is found that the NiCPNP/rGO nanocomposite-modified electrode shows high electrocatalytic activity for glucose oxidation in alkaline medium. This nonenzymatic glucose sensor exhibits high selectivity toward glucose and the linear range and limit of detection are estimated to be from 0.01 to 8.75 mM (r: 0.997) and 0.14 μM with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. The application of this glucose sensor in human blood serum has also been demonstrated successfully. PMID:23172244

  8. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  9. Foliar application of selenium-silicon sol reduced arsenic accumulation in rice%叶面喷施硒硅复合溶胶抑制水稻砷积累效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向华; 刘传平; 唐新莲; 雷静; 顾明华; 李芳柏

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. It becomes a growing public concern on amelioration the As contamination in paddy soils and reduction the As transfer to rice in recent years. In order to reduce the accumulation of arsenic in rice (Oryza sativa L.), a series of concentrations of selenium doped silica sols were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The effects of foliar application of selenium-silica sols on the arsenic accumulation in rice were investigated with pot and field experiments. The results showed that foliar application of selenium doped silicon sol was effective in alleviating the arsenic toxicity to rice, increasing selenium content of rice, and inhibiting the accumulation of arsenic in rice. Comparing with the control in the pot experiments, 1%Se doped silica sol (1%Se-Si) foliar application increased the rice grain dry weight by 43.8%, while decreased the arsenic concentration in rice grain by 46% and increased Se concentration in rice grain from 0.050 mg·kg-1 to 0.272 mg·kg-1. Comparing with 1% sodium selenite foliar application (1%Se) in the pot experiments, the dry weight of rice grain increased by 65.4%, while the As concentration in rice grain decreased by 33.1% with 1% Se doped silica sol (1%Se-Si) treatment. Field experiment results showed that foliar application of selenium-silicon composite sol could significantly inhibit the accumulation of arsenic in rice. With the foliar application of selenium-silica composite sols, the arsenic concentration of rice grain decreased with the increasing doping amount of selenium added into the selenium-silica sols, while the selenium content increased significantly with the increasing doping amount of selenium. The optimal doping of selenium was 0.5%, foliar application of this kind of Se doped silica sol, the total arsenic concentration of rice decreased from 0.25 mg·kg-1 of control to 0.14 mg·kg-1, and the selenium concentration in rice grain was 0.26 mg·kg-1, which was

  10. 品管圈活动在降低腹膜透析腹膜炎发生率中的应用%Application of quality control circle activity on reducing the incidence rate of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓晨; 陈秀荣; 张兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈在降低腹膜透析腹膜炎发生率中的应用效果.方法:选择2013年1~12月在肾内科住院后出院进行居家腹膜透析的患者70例为对照组,选择2014年1~12月在肾内科住院后出院进行居家腹膜透析的患者78例为观察组,两组患者均给予常规的护理措施,观察组在常规护理措施的基础上开展品管圈活动,即成立品管圈活动小组,确定活动主题,进行现状调查、分析原因、设定目标、制定对策并实施,比较两组患者腹膜透析腹膜炎的发生率.结果:观察组患者腹膜透析腹膜炎的发生率低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:将品管圈活动应用于腹膜透析患者的教育培训中,通过成员间的相互协作,找出问题发生的原因并进行分析,设定目标并制定对策进行实施,可以降低患者腹膜炎的发生率,促进护理工作质量的持续改进.%Objective:To discuss the application effect of quality control circle on reducing the incidence rate of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Methods:Se-lected 70 cases of patients taking house peritoneal dialysis after being hospitalized in nephrology department in January-December 2013 as control group;selected 78 cases of patients taking house peritoneal dialysis after being hospitalized in nephrology department in January- December 2014 as observation group. Two groups patients were given conventional nursing management. The observation group undertook quality control circle based on the conventional nursing management, namely,established quality control circle activity group,determined activity theme,made status survey, analyzed reason,set objec-tives,developed and carried measures and compared the incidence rate of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis of two groups patients. Results:The incidence rate of peritoneal dialysis peritonitis of observation group was lower than that of control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion:Through the mutual cooperation of members, finding and

  11. 减少底肥施用量增加叶面施肥次数对玉米产量的影响%Effects of Reducing Application Amount of Base Fertilizer and Increasing Application Time of Leaf Fertilizer on Corn Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙蒙; 刘朝

    2015-01-01

    该试验目的是研究降低底肥施用量但是增加叶面肥施用次数方面对玉米产量的变化规律,旨在找出最经济的施肥方式以达到在保护环境的基础上提高经济效益的目的。试验表明,玉米产量随着底肥施用量的增加而提高,并且叶面肥喷施次数越多产量越高,每喷一次,可增加产量258~592.5 kg/hm2,增产幅度2.3%~5.6%。%This study aimed to investigate the effects of reducing application amount of base fertilizer and increasing application time of leaf fertilizer on corn yield so as to find out the most economical fertilization way for corn. On the basis of protecting environment, the economic benefits wil be also increased. The results showed that the corn yield was increased with the increase of application amount of base fertil-izer, and was also increased with the increase of application time of leaf fertilizer. For each time of spaying of leaf fertilizer, the corn yield was increased 258-592.5 kg/hm2 with increase amplitude ranging from 2.3%-5.6%.

  12. Reducing Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    By caring for and improving your soil, you will help it absorb water more readily, reducing runoff and erosion as well as improving plant health. This publication gives the homeowner tips to help prevent runoff and erosion on their property.

  13. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  14. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  15. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  16. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  17. Study on high Tc superconducting ripple reducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents study on application of high Tc superconductors as a ripple reducer for reduction of the toroidal field (TF) ripple without changing the design of TF coils. The feasibility of the ripple reducer is first demonstrated on the basis of experiments. Next, parameter survey of the ripple reducer is performed for the configuration of the outline design of ITER, and a guideline for the design of the ripple reducer is presented with the consideration of constraints from the technological viewpoint of the fusion reactor. (orig.)

  18. Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad/Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Tieghi (Argentina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

  19. Thesis Report: Resource Utilization Provisioning in MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, Hamidreza; Jaberi, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis report, we have a survey on state-of-the-art methods for modelling resource utilization of MapReduce applications regard to its configuration parameters. After implementation of one of the algorithms in literature, we tried to find that if CPU usage modelling of a MapReduce application can be used to predict CPU usage of another MapReduce application.

  20. Impact of seven years of glyphosate resistant corn and glyphosate applications under conventional and reduced tillage on bulk and rhizosphere soil exoenzyme activities and corn root endophytic microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Conservation tillage practices across the country have been implementing genetically engineered glyphosate resistant corn crops along with applications of the herbicide glyphosate. We tested the hypothesis that seven years of glyphosate applications to both glyphosate resistant and non-r...

  1. Efeito da aplicação de nitrato na redução biogênica de sulfeto sob diferentes concentrações iniciais de bactérias redutoras de nitrato e sulfato Effect of nitrate application on reduction of biogenic sulphide under different initial concentrations of nitrate and sulphate-reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kally Alves de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sodium nitrate application in the reduction of biogenic sulphide was evaluated through a 2k complete factorial design, using as variable response the production of sulfide at intervals of incubation of 7, 14 and 28 days. The most effective condition for reducing the sulphide production (final concentrations from 0.4 to 1.6 mg S2- L-1 was obtained with an initial population of sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria of 10(4 MPN mL-1 and 427.5 mg L-1 nitrate. The results also suggested that the applications of nitrate to control the process of souring should follow a continuous scheme.

  2. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  3. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr90, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  4. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  5. CBCT在减少下牙槽神经损伤风险中的应用%Application of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Reducing the Risk of Interior Alveolar Nerve Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宾; 王继红

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨CBCT在减少行下颌阻生第三磨牙拔除术治疗的患者下牙槽神经损伤风险中的应用价值。方法选取2014年3月~2015年4月于本院治疗的下颌神经管与第三磨牙根端重叠的患者,经评估下牙槽神经易损伤病例共64例,其中下颌阻生第三磨牙81侧,对患者行CBCT检查。选取具有多年临床经验的口腔外科医师、影像医师各两名,分两组根据CBCT图像以及曲面体层片对拔除第三磨牙患者的下牙槽神经损伤风险进行预估,同时设计相应的手术方案,对两组医师的设计方案进行测评。结果与曲面体层片比较,CBCT图像可呈现下颌神经管与阻生磨牙间三维图像的空间分布,可让医师做出更为精准的手术方案(P<0.001)。结论在对行下颌阻生第三磨牙拔出术患者的下牙槽神经损伤的风险评估中,CBCT图像较曲面体层片更具识别力,可有效帮助医师设计更为合适的手术方案。%Objective To discuss the application value of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in reducing the risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury in patients who have underwent mandibular third molar extraction surgery.Methods The research selected patients with mandibular canal overlapped by third molar root canal from March 2014 to April 2015. The assessment showed that there were sixty-four cases of inferior alveolar nerve injury, among which there were eighty-one sides of impacted mandibular third molars. All the sixty-four patients underwent CBCT examination. Two experienced denta surgeon and two radiologists were chosen to conduct preliminary assessment of the risk of interior alveolar nerve injury in patients undergoing third molar extraction surgery based on CBCT and panoramic tomography images. Meanwhile the correspondent surgical plans were designed,the design schemes proposed by the two groups of physicians were tested and evaluated.Results Compared with images of panoramic

  6. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  7. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  8. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  9. Risk-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Federica; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-10-01

    Mastectomy rates have significantly increased over the last decades, likely due to the rising trend of risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM) in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Growing evidence suggests that aggressive risk-reducing surgical strategies are only justified in high-risk breast cancer situations. Notably, in this selected cohort of women, prophylactic mastectomies offer evident benefit for local and contralateral disease control, and may also provide a survival benefit. Nevertheless, the extent of the increasing frequency of this operation is not explained by the broadening of the medical indications alone. Here we analyze the current evidence regarding RRM, its clinical practice, and possible explanations for the rising phenomenon of aggressive surgical locoregional control strategies. PMID:26785281

  10. Reducing Children's Media Viewing

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Clyne; Jason, Leonard A.

    2011-01-01

    This case study evaluates the use of a Restrictive aide and the complementary use of parental mediation techniques to reduce media viewing among children. A family was provided a TV Token Timer, which involved a positive reward in exchange for participating in activities outside of watching television. Media viewing habits decreased from the baseline to the completion of the intervention at week 8 for both children. The parent reported high levels of Instructive mediation and positively evalu...

  11. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Devin G.; Price, Joseph; Wolfers, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  12. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov Ana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reason...

  13. Reducing volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  14. Coupling Reduces Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John. F.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how coupling nonlinear dynamical systems can reduce the effects of noise. For simplicity we investigate noisy coupled map lattices. Noise from different lattice nodes can diffuse across the lattice and lower the noise level of individual nodes. We develop a theoretical model that explains this observed noise evolution and show how the coupled dynamics can naturally function as an averaging filter. Our numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the model predictions.

  15. Does democracy reduce corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar Kolstad; Arne Wiig

    2011-01-01

    While democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption, there are obvious endogeneity problems in measuring the impact of democracy on corruption. This paper addresses the endogeneity of democracy by exploiting the common observation that democracies seldom go to war against each other. We instrument for democracy using a dummy variable reflecting whether a country has been at war with a democracy in the period 1946-2009, while controlling for the extent to which countries have been at war...

  16. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  17. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  18. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  19. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  20. Reducing patients' suicide ideation through training mental health teams in the application of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior : study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beurs, Derek P.; de Groot, Marieke H.; Bosmans, Judith E.; de Keijser, Jos; Mokkenstorm, Jan; Verwey, Bas; van Duijn, Erik; de Winter, Remco F. P.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To strengthen suicide prevention skills in mental health care in The Netherlands, multidisciplinary teams throughout the country are trained in the application of the new Dutch guideline on the assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior. Previous studies have shown beneficial effects

  1. Reducing GWAS Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Conti, David V; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A; Coetzee, Gerhard A

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups. PMID:26771711

  2. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  3. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  4. 基于减基法的结构快速设计方法及其应用研究%FAST STRUCTURAL DESIGN METHOD BASED ON REDUCED-BASIS METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军; 雷飞; 陈新

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid algorithm consisted of reduced-based method (RBM) and finite element method has been suggested to improve the efficiency of structure optimal design by enhancing the speed of every single computation.The hybrid algorithm has been applied to the design of racing car' s body.The design of static and dynamic problems has been mainly taken into account to accelerate the calculation while keeping the necessary accuracy.For each given case,the hybrid algorithm firstly needs to construct a reasonable reduced space.Then by Galerkin projection on a reduced space,the original large scale problems has been reduced into a much smaller one.The computational efficiency of this small problem is much higher than the original problem.Then based on the reduced model,the optimal design has been carried out.The results indicate that the hybrid algorithm is effective in structural design.%针对基于有限元方法的结构优化设计计算效率较低的问题,将减基法与有限元方法结合,对结构进行快速计算,从而实现结构的快速设计.以某型赛车车身结构设计为研究对象,主要考虑减基法在静力学和模态动力学中与有限元的混合数值方法,在保证精度的前提下,提高单次静力学和动力学的计算速度.该方法通过构建合理的解空间,将原设计空间缩减为较精简的设计空间,从而提高计算效率.在该空间基础上,以轻量化为目标,对该赛车车身结构进行设计.结果表明,在典型工况下该方法能够在节约计算成本的同时取得较好的优化效果.

  5. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population...... the collaboration and linkage of very different research disciplines and modeling tools. In the paper we combine several analytical tools in search of an effective pesticide instrument and an optimal application of such an instrument. The tools under considerations are firstly a CGE model used for evaluating...... of a key species of farmland bird, caused to changes in production and landscape. The results from the agricultural sector model are also used in evaluation of pesticide usage and the leaching of pesticides to ground water. First we analyze the implication of three different scenarios in all of the above...

  6. A Comprehensive Study of the Use of Cu(I)/4,4’-Dicarboxy-2,2’-biquinoline Complexes to Measure the Total Reducing Capacity: Application in Herbal Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel, Hariane; Moya, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of total reducing capacity (TRC) based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by antioxidants in a buffered solution (pH 7.0) containing 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-biquinoline acid (BCA) was developed. Absorbance values at 558 nm characteristic of the Cu(I)/BCA complexes formed were used to determine the TRC of aqueous extracts of twelve Brazilian plants. The TRC values obtained with the suggested method correlated well with values obtained using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl...

  7. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  8. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.)

  9. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  10. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  11. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  12. 三合一减速电机在桥式起重机上的应用%Application of "three in one" speed reducing motor in bridge crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小安; 代文蕤; 李建文

    2011-01-01

    In one plant of WISCO,The bridge crane's big car use "three in one" reducing motor.In the using process we must pay attention to the conjunction beteen the electricity brake of converter and the electromagnetism brake of reducing motor.We can improve the leaking oil of reductor by additiving sealing and dust prevention cover.In maintaining the brake we must pay attention to keeping the gap of friction and clearing the dust in friction disk.%武钢某厂桥式起重机大车行走机构大量采用三合一减速电机,在使用过程中需要注意变频器的电气制动与减速电机的电磁制动之间的配合,通过添加密封和防尘盖可以解决减速机的漏油问题,在维护制动器时需要注意保证间隙和及时清除摩擦粉尘。

  13. A Comprehensive Study of the Use of Cu(I/4,4’-Dicarboxy-2,2’-biquinoline Complexes to Measure the Total Reducing Capacity: Application in Herbal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariane R. Manoel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the determination of total reducing capacity (TRC based on the reduction of Cu(II to Cu(I by antioxidants in a buffered solution (pH 7.0 containing 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-biquinoline acid (BCA was developed. Absorbance values at 558 nm characteristic of the Cu(I/BCA complexes formed were used to determine the TRC of aqueous extracts of twelve Brazilian plants. The TRC values obtained with the suggested method correlated well with values obtained using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method (r2 = 0.959. They were also compared with the total polyphenol content (using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the good agreement (r2 = 0.919 indicates that the polyphenols should be responsible for this reducing capacity. The method proposed here (and successfully applied in plant extracts can be used to measure the TRC of aqueous samples derived from other plants (e.g., teas, juices, beers and wines and even in biological samples (e.g., serum, urine and follicular fluid. To achieve a structure-activity relationship of the proposed reaction, the reduction capability of 25 standard antioxidants (phenolic derivatives, flavonoids, stilbenoids, vitamins, etc. was individually evaluated and the apparent molar absorptivity values (at 558 nm obtained were compared and discussed.

  14. A Comprehensive Study of the Use of Cu(I)/4,4'-Dicarboxy-2,2'-biquinoline Complexes to Measure the Total Reducing Capacity: Application in Herbal Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoel, Hariane R; Moya, Horacio D

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of total reducing capacity (TRC) based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by antioxidants in a buffered solution (pH 7.0) containing 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-biquinoline acid (BCA) was developed. Absorbance values at 558 nm characteristic of the Cu(I)/BCA complexes formed were used to determine the TRC of aqueous extracts of twelve Brazilian plants. The TRC values obtained with the suggested method correlated well with values obtained using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (r² = 0.959). They were also compared with the total polyphenol content (using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent) and the good agreement (r² = 0.919) indicates that the polyphenols should be responsible for this reducing capacity. The method proposed here (and successfully applied in plant extracts) can be used to measure the TRC of aqueous samples derived from other plants (e.g., teas, juices, beers and wines) and even in biological samples (e.g., serum, urine and follicular fluid). To achieve a structure-activity relationship of the proposed reaction, the reduction capability of 25 standard antioxidants (phenolic derivatives, flavonoids, stilbenoids, vitamins, etc.) was individually evaluated and the apparent molar absorptivity values (at 558 nm) obtained were compared and discussed. PMID:26694328

  15. The ITER reduced cost design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years of joint work under the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) EDA agreement yielded a mature design for ITER which met the objectives set for it (ITER final design report (FDR)), together with a corpus of scientific and technological data, large/full scale models or prototypes of key components/systems and progress in understanding which both validated the specific design and are generally applicable to a next step, reactor-oriented tokamak on the road to the development of fusion as an energy source. In response to requests from the parties to explore the scope for addressing ITER's programmatic objective at reduced cost, the study of options for cost reduction has been the main feature of ITER work since summer 1998, using the advances in physics and technology databases, understandings, and tools arising out of the ITER collaboration to date. A joint concept improvement task force drawn from the joint central team and home teams has overseen and co-ordinated studies of the key issues in physics and technology which control the possibility of reducing the overall investment and simultaneously achieving the required objectives. The aim of this task force is to achieve common understandings of these issues and their consequences so as to inform and to influence the best cost-benefit choice, which will attract consensus between the ITER partners. A report to be submitted to the parties by the end of 1999 will present key elements of a specific design of minimum capital investment, with a target cost saving of about 50% the cost of the ITER FDR design, and a restricted number of design variants. Outline conclusions from the work of the task force are presented in terms of physics, operations, and design of the main tokamak systems. Possible implications for the way forward are discussed

  16. 风险管理应用在实习护生减少差错事故中的观察%The risk management mechanism to practice nurses reduce mistakes in the accident application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲梅; 刘凯; 杨亚红; 王坦; 王敏; 徐丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨将护理风险管理机制运用于实习护生减少差错事故中的效果调查,防范或减少护理风险的发生,以提高护生护理质量.方法 分析可能引起护生护理风险的相关因素,建立完善的风险管理制度,制订风险防范措施,进行护生培训,强化护生风险意识,提高风险防范能力.结果 实施护理风险管理后,实习护生差错事故的发生率均较实施前有所下降,经统计学分析,均P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 将风险管理机制应用于实习护生在实习中的管理,减少了护理差错事故的发生,有效地提高护理质量.%Objective To discuss to care risk management mechanism used in practice nurses reduce mistakes in the accident investigation,prevent or reduce the effect of the occurrence of nursing risk,in order to improve the quality of nursing and protect life.Methods The nursing risks related factors were analyzed,building risk management system,making measures to prevent risks,and protecting life training,strengthening the protection of life risk consciousness and improve risk prevention ability.Results Implementation of nursing risk management,the accident rate of practice nurses mistake was declined,the statistical analysis,P < 0.05,there was statistically significant difference.Conclusions Risk management mechanism used in practice nurses in practice of management,could reduce the nursing error accidents,effectively improve the quality of nursing.

  17. Optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure to reduce impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: An application to the Trail Creek Watershed, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Theller, Lawrence O; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Engel, Bernard A

    2016-05-15

    The adverse impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrology and water quality can be mitigated by applying green infrastructure practices. In this study, the impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality in the 153.2km(2) Trail Creek watershed located in northwest Indiana were estimated using the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for the following environmental concerns: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx). Using a recent 2001 land use map and 2050 land use forecasts, we found that land use change resulted in increased runoff volume and pollutant loads (8.0% to 17.9% increase). Climate change reduced runoff and nonpoint source pollutant loads (5.6% to 10.2% reduction). The 2050 forecasted land use with current rainfall resulted in the largest runoff volume and pollutant loads. The optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure practices using L-THIA-LID 2.1 model were conducted. Costs of applying green infrastructure were estimated using the L-THIA-LID 2.1 model considering construction, maintenance, and opportunity costs. To attain the same runoff volume and pollutant loads as in 2001 land uses for 2050 land uses, the runoff volume, TSS, TP, TKN, and NOx for 2050 needed to be reduced by 10.8%, 14.4%, 13.1%, 15.2%, and 9.0%, respectively. The corresponding annual costs of implementing green infrastructure to achieve the goals were $2.1, $0.8, $1.6, $1.9, and $0.8 million, respectively. Annual costs of reducing 2050 runoff volume/pollutant loads were estimated, and results show green infrastructure annual cost greatly increased for larger reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads. During optimization, the most cost-efficient green infrastructure practices were selected and implementation levels increased for greater reductions of runoff and nonpoint source pollutants

  18. Clinical applications of basic research that shows reducing skin tension could prevent and treat abnormal scarring: the importance of fascial/subcutaneous tensile reduction sutures and flap surgery for keloid and hypertrophic scar reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Huang, Chenyu; Dohi, Teruyuki; Aoki, Masayo; Omori, Yasutaka; Koike, Sachiko; Kobe, Kyoko; Akimoto, Masataka; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2011-01-01

    We use evidence-based algorithms to treat abnormal scarring, including keloids and hypertrophic scars (HSs). This involves a multimodal approach that employs traditional methods such as surgical removal, postoperative radiotherapy, corticosteroid injection, laser, and silicone gel sheets. As a result, the rate of abnormal scarring recurrence has decreased dramatically over the past 10 years. However, several problems remain to be solved. First, despite the optimization of a radiotherapy protocol, over 10% of cases who are treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy still recur in our facility. Second, the treatment options for cases with huge keloids are very limited. To address these problems, we performed basic research on the mechanisms that drive the formation of keloids and HSs. Extrapolation of these research observations to the clinic has led to the development of two treatment strategies that have reduced the rate of abnormal scar recurrence further and provided a means to remove large scars. Our finite element analysis of the mechanical force distribution around keloids revealed high skin tension at the keloid edges and lower tension in the keloid center. Moreover, when a sophisticated servo-controlled device was used to stretch wounded murine dorsal skin, it was observed that the stretched samples exhibited upregulated epidermal proliferation and angiogenesis, which are also observed in keloids and HSs. Real-time RT-PCR also revealed that growth factors and neuropeptides are more strongly expressed in cyclically stretched skin than in statically stretched skin. These findings support the well-established notion that mechanical forces on the skin strongly influence the cellular behavior that leads to scarring. These observations led us to focus on the importance of reducing skin tension when keloids/HSs are surgically removed to prevent their recurrence. Clinical trials revealed that subcutaneous/fascial tensile reduction sutures, which apply

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a binary oxide ZrO2–TiO2 and its application in chlorophyll dye-sensitized solar cell with reduced graphene oxide as counter electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asha R Pai; Bipin Nair

    2015-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used to sensitize TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells, but they still require pigment purification and co-adsorption of other compounds. In this study, nanocrystalline ZrO2–TiO2 films sensitized with the bioorganic dye, chlorophyll extracted from green leaves of Chromolaena odorata were investigated. The nanocrystalline ZrO2–TiO2 films were synthesized by the precipitation synthesis. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrodes were prepared using ZrO2–TiO2 sensitized with the chlorophyll dye and the counter electrodes using reduced graphene oxide. The shift in the absorption wavelength of chlorophyll showed an increase of adsorption of dye. The conversion efficiency was also studied.

  20. Application of quality control circle in reducing dispensing error in outpatient pharmacy%运用“品管圈”手法降低门诊药房调剂差错

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:降低门诊药房处方调剂差错,提高服务质量。方法运用“品管圈”(QCC)的手法,进行“现况分析”、“解析”、“对策拟定”、“实施检讨”等步骤,降低门诊药房调剂差错。结果调剂差错数从改善前的每周28件下降为改善后的每周9件,提高了药学服务水平,药师的业务能力和综合素质也得到了提高。结论运用“品管圈”的质量管理手法,能够帮助药师解决工作中亟待解决的问题,能够持续改善门诊药房的服务质量。%Objective To reduce the dispensing error in outpatient pharmacy and to improve the service quality. Methods The quality control circle (QCC) was applied in reducing dispensing error in outpatient pharmacy through steps of current status analysis, resolution, measure protocoling, and implement review. Results By applying QCC, the number of dispensing error was dropped from 28 cases per week to 9 cases per week. Pharmaceutical service quality and professional ability and overall quality of pharmacists were all improved. Conclusion The quality management of QCC can help pharmacists to solve problems at work, and can continually improve the service quality of outpatient pharmacy.

  1. Application of QCC in reducing allocation internal errors in outpatient pharmacy%品管圈活动在降低门诊药房调剂内差中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯爱国; 徐德洲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈活动在降低门诊药房调剂内差中的应用及实际效果。方法:依据PDCA循环将品管圈理论、方法应用于降低药房调剂内差中,针对问题制定可行对策并组织实施。结果:内差周均件数由28.8件/周下降至12.6件/周,下降56.25%,目标达成率105.3%。全体圈员能够熟练运用PDCA循环,在积极性、责任感、凝聚力、自信心等方面有很大提高。结论:在门诊药房开展品管圈活动可行性高,有助于降低调剂内差,提升药学服务质量。%Objective:To study the effect of QCC activities in the reducion of outpatient pharmacy allocation internal errors. Methods:PDCA cycle based on theoretical approaches will be applied to reduce the QCC pharmacy in the poor,to develop a viable countermeasure for the problem and implement.Results:The number of pieces were poor week decreased from 28.8 / week to 12.6 /week, down 56.25 percent,the target rate reached 105.3%. Able to skillfully use the PDCA cycle, has greatly improved in motivation, responsibility, cohesion, confidence and so on. Conclusion: pharmacies carry QCC high feasibility, helps to reduce the difference between the swap, improve pharmacy service quality.

  2. 六西格玛管理在降低精神病患者跌倒发生率中的应用%Application of six sigma management in reducing fall incidence for patients with mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳红; 耿在香

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨利用六西格玛管理减少精神病患者跌倒的效果。方法:应用六西格玛管理的DMAIC流程,即界定阶段( D),测量阶段( M)、分析阶段( A)、改进阶段( I)和控制阶段( C),找出引起跌倒的主要原因,针对这些原因采取护理措施。结果:对实施管理前后跌倒的发生率比较,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01)。结论:利用六西格玛管理可有效降低精神病患者跌倒发生率。%Objective:To discuss effects of six sigma management in reducing fall incidence for patients with mental disorders. Methods:The main reasons for falls were found out by applying the DMAIC process of six sigma management, that was, define, meas-ure, analyze, improve, and control. Then, the corresponding nursing measures were taken. Results: The difference of the fall inci-dences before and after six sigma management was statistically significant (all P<0. 01). Conclusions:Six-sigma management can ef-ficiency reduce falls incidence for the patients with mental disorders.

  3. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  4. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications

  5. Application of the MOVE algorithm for the identification of reduced order models of a core of a BWR type reactor; Aplicacion del algoritmo MOVE para la identificacion de modelos de orden reducido del nucleo de un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria R, M.A.; Morales S, J.B. [UNAM, DEPFI, Campus Morelos, en IMTA Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: angelvr@gmail.com

    2005-07-01

    Presently work is applied the modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE) to a reduced order model of 5 differential equations of the core of a boiling water reactor (BWR) with the purpose of estimating the parameters that model the dynamics. The viability is analyzed of carrying out an analysis that calculates the global dynamic parameters that determine the stability of the system and the uncertainty of the estimate. The modified algorithm of the ellipsoid of optimal volume (MOVE), is a method applied to the parametric identification of systems, in particular to the estimate of groups of parameters (PSE for their initials in English). It is looked for to obtain the ellipsoid of smaller volume that guarantees to contain the real value of the parameters of the model. The PSE MOVE is a recursive identification method that can manage the sign of noise and to ponder it, the ellipsoid represents an advantage due to its easy mathematical handling in the computer, the results that surrender are very useful for the design of Robust Control since to smaller volume of the ellipsoid, better is in general the performance of the system to control. The comparison with other methods presented in the literature to estimate the reason of decline (DR) of a BWR is presented. (Author)

  6. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A. [Blasting Technology, Inc., Maui, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  7. Enhanced computational efficiency in the direct determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation with application to ground and excited states of conjugated π-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) from the solution of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) yields accurate energies and properties for both ground and excited states. Here, we develop a more efficient method to solving the ACSE that uses second-order information to select a more optimal step towards the solution. Calculations on the ground and excited states of water, hydrogen fluoride, and conjugated π systems show that the improved ACSE algorithm is 10-20 times faster than the previous ACSE algorithm. The ACSE can treat both single- and multi-reference electron correlation with the initial 2-RDM from a complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation. Using the improved algorithm, we explore the relationship between truncation of the active space in the CASSCF calculation and the accuracy of the energy and 2-RDM from the ACSE calculation. The accuracy of the ACSE, we find, is less sensitive to the size of the active space than the accuracy of other wavefunction methods, which is useful when large active space calculations are computationally infeasible

  8. Enhanced computational efficiency in the direct determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix from the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation with application to ground and excited states of conjugated π-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Andrew M.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) from the solution of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) yields accurate energies and properties for both ground and excited states. Here, we develop a more efficient method to solving the ACSE that uses second-order information to select a more optimal step towards the solution. Calculations on the ground and excited states of water, hydrogen fluoride, and conjugated π systems show that the improved ACSE algorithm is 10-20 times faster than the previous ACSE algorithm. The ACSE can treat both single- and multi-reference electron correlation with the initial 2-RDM from a complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation. Using the improved algorithm, we explore the relationship between truncation of the active space in the CASSCF calculation and the accuracy of the energy and 2-RDM from the ACSE calculation. The accuracy of the ACSE, we find, is less sensitive to the size of the active space than the accuracy of other wavefunction methods, which is useful when large active space calculations are computationally infeasible.

  9. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors' experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its' incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced

  10. Design of a circular photonic crystal fiber with flattened chromatic dispersion using a defected core and selectively reduced air holes: Application to supercontinuum generation at 1.55 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjouri, Abdelkader; Simohamed, Lotfy Mokhtar; Ziane, Omar; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Becer, Zoubir

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present and numerically investigate a new and simple design of Circular Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (CL-PCF) with near zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion. The near zero dispersion is obtained by introducing a defect into the solid core and the dispersion flatness is achieved by appropriately reducing the diameter of the core-neighboring air holes ring. Simulations are performed by using the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method combined with the perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition. Results show that an ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion as small as ±0.66 ps/nm km is obtained over a broad band of 400 nm with high nonlinearity and ultra-low confinement loss. Furthermore, the supercontinuum (SC) generation over a short length of the proposed CL-PCF is numerically investigated. Results indicate that flat SC spectrum with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 600 nm is achieved with 25 cm of fiber length.

  11. THE DETERMINATION THE POLLUTION EMISSIONS OF SO2, NOX, CO, CO2 AND O2 FROM THE CHANNELS OF BURNT GAS ON BOILER OF 420 T/H - STEAM, IN THE SIGHT APPLICATION PROCEEDING TO REDUCE OF THESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedeff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The work present the results obtained after dynamic analyze the pollution emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and O2 on evacuation channels of burnt gas on boiler of 420 t/h steam, having right the basic combustible the lignite, and auxiliary combustible the fuel oil and the natural gas. The values of pollution emission was analyze beside the admissible maxims values required by European legislation for Romania in the year 2005. The conclusion elaborated it adverted to: the values of oxides azoth, carry they frame in the limits provide in Environmental Authorization, under 60 mg/Nmc on 6% oxygen, the concentration values of SO2 which was bigger in report with one authorized comprised between 3500-3900 mg/Nmc confronted by 3400 mg/Nm. For integration in the foresee Government Decision 541/2003 aren't sufficient just proceeding of below reduce SO2, must take and another measures such as: get the fuel with quantity of sulphur 0.5% and with a content of ash below 35%.

  12. BF topological theories and infinitely reducible systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caicedo, M I; Bol, S; Bol, Simon

    1996-01-01

    We present a rigurous disscusion for abelian BF theories in which the base manifold of the U(1) bundle is homeomorphic to a Hilbert space. The theory has an infinte number of stages of reducibility. We specify conditions on the base manifold under which the covarinat quantization of the system can be performed unambiguously. Applications of the formulation to the superparticle and the supertstring are also discussed.

  13. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation. PMID:26665478

  14. Nonuniform Banking for Reducing Memory Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Ozcan; Kandemir, Mahmut

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDAA (http://www.edaa.com/) International audience Main memories can consume a large percentage of overall energy in many data-intensive embedded applications. The past research proposed and evaluated memory banking as a possible approach for reducing memory energy consumption. One of the common characteristics/assumptions made by most of the past work on banking is that all the banks are of the same size. While this makes the formulation of the problem easy, it a...

  15. A proportional counter with reduced wall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proportional counter, using gaseous sources, in which the wall effects are considerably reduced, is described. The counter is fitted with a ring of internal shielding counters in anti-coincidence, separated from the main central counter only by a number of cathode wires. The counter can be readily assembled, giving flexibility in research investigations. Applications to a measurement of the L/K capture ratio in A37 and Fe55 are described. (author)

  16. Application of PDCA Circulation Method Reduced the Incidence of Occupational Exposure to Infectious Diseases Hospital Nurse%运用PDCA循环法降低传染病院护士职业暴露的发生率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华; 周海翠; 彭胜利

    2015-01-01

    目的:将PDCA循环法运用于传染病院护士的职业防护中,以降低临床护士职业暴露的发生率。方法对传染病院2008~2013年护士发生的67例职业暴露案例进行全面分析,找出根本原因,通过PDCA循环法进行管理。结果实施后临床护士职业暴露发生率由2013年的3.74%下降至2014年的1.57%。结论 PDCA循环法用于职业防护,有助于提高护士的防护意识,保证职业安全。%Objective To reduce the incidence of occupation exposure, PDCA cycle method is applied in the occupation protection for clinical nurses in infectious disease hospital.MethodsWe have comprehensively analyzed 67 cases of nurse occupation exposure factors in infectious disease hospital from 2008 to 2013, to find out the root cause. Then managed the hospital through the PDCA circulation method. ResultsOne year later, the clinical nurse occupation exposure rate decreased to 1.57% from 3.74% in 2013.Conclusion PDCA cycle method applied in occupation protection can help to improve the nurses’ protection consciousness, and to guarantee occupation safety.

  17. Application of solar technology in energy-saving and emission-reducing for coal-fired boiler of industry%太阳能技术在工厂燃煤锅炉节能减排中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天奇; 杨东欣; 王维; 吴学红

    2012-01-01

    A plan of energy conservation and emission reduction was proposed and designed based on adding solar energy water heating system, heat preservation storage tank and improving automatic control device in the factory coal-fired boilers. The effect of energy saving and emission reduction was investigated by theoretical analysis and experiment of model. The results showed that coal-fired cost savings every year accounted for 9. 3% of the total investment, static payback period is 11 a, the proportion of all kinds of pollutants was reduced by approximately 4%. The solar water heating system used in the coal-fired boiler can achieve the desired effect of energy saving and emission reduction.%提出并设计了在工厂燃煤锅炉供水系统中增加太阳能热水系统和保温储热水箱,并改进其自动控制装置的节能减排方案,通过理论分析和模型实验研究该方案的节能减排效果.研究结果表明:年节约燃煤费用占总投资的比例为9.3%左右,静态回收期为11a;减少各类污染物排放的比例大约为4%,达到了预期的节能减排效果.

  18. Fosfitos aplicados em pós-colheita reduzem o mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' Postharvest application of phosphites reduces blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O mofo-azul (Penicillium expansum é uma podridão pós-colheita comum em maçãs (Malus domestica. O uso de substâncias menos ofensivas ao ambiente, como o fosfito (ácido fosforoso, é uma das alternativas de controle dessa doença. Visou-se, então, a avaliar neste estudo a eficiência de fosfito-K (40% de P2O5 e 30% de K2O e fosfito-CaB (10,7% de P2O5, 3,89% de Ca e 0,5% de B no controle do mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala'. Os testes foram delineados em blocos ao acaso com seis repetições de 20 frutos cada. Os frutos foram desinfestados em hipoclorito de Na (1% por três minutos, lavados em água esterilizada, feridos (1mm de diâmetro e de profundidade com agulha em quatro pontos eqüidistantes, imersos nos tratamentos por 15 minutos e armazenados a 15-20ºC. Nas suspensões contaminadas com Penicillium expansum (10² conídios.mL-1, foram adicionadas as seguintes substâncias: benomil (150 mg.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5 a 1,5 mL.L-1 e fosfito-CaB (1,5 a 3,0 mL.L-1. As maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' imersas em água com fosfito-CaB (1,5 mL.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5-1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 foram menos afetadas pelo mofo-azul. A aplicação de fosfito-K (1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 nos frutos foi mais eficiente do que os demais tratamentos no controle do mofo-azul.Blue mold (Penicillium expansum is a common postharvest disease of apples (Malus domestica. Applications of less hazardous substances to the environment, such as phosphite (phosphonic acid, is an alternative to the control of blue mold. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of phosphite-K (40% P2O5 and 30% K2O and phosphite-CaB (10.7% P2O5, 3.89% Ca, and 0.5% B for the control of blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples. Tests were designed in randomized blocks with six replications of 20 fruits. Fruits were decontaminated with Na hypochlorite (1% for three minutes, washed with sterilized water, needle wounded (with a diameter and deepness of 1mm in four

  19. iHadoop: Asynchronous Iterations Support for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam

    2011-08-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming framework designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter- iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This thesis also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Asghari

    Full Text Available The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻ and ammonium (NH₄⁺ loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  1. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  2. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  3. Application of quality control circle for reducing the rate of injection allocation errors in inpatient pharmacy%品管圈在降低住院药房针剂内部调剂差错中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦璐; 吴凤雯; 李健萍; 梁令仪; 陈斯韵; 罗红英

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To improve the management awareness of pharmacy professionals and the ability of resolving issues,reduce the rate of inpatient pharmacy injection allocation errors,ensure drug safety ,and improve the quality of pharmacy service,through the implement of QCC activities in inpatient pharmacy.Methods:Through implementing"quality control circle(QCC)",we found out the main reasons of injection allocation errors and took relevant countermeasures,following the steps of PDCA circle. Results: Carrying out QCC in inpatient pharmacy , the rate of injection allocation errors is from 37.57% down to 16.53% before the event, and the working environment has been greatly improved,the attitude of the pharmacists is also improved.Conclusions: QCC activities achieves satisfactory results in errors reduction and the pharmacy management in inpatient pharmacy,raise the accuracy of allocating drug for pharmacists and patients'' satisfaction with the inpatient pharmacy.At the same time,it ensures the safety of using drugs for patients and harmonizes the relationship between pharmacists,nurses,doctors and patients.%目的:在住院药房开展降低针剂内部调配差错的品管圈活动,提升药事服务质量,提高药学专业人员的自我管理意识和解决问题的能力,保证临床用药安全有效. 方法:通过药师自发组成品管圈,找出针剂内部调配差错的主要原因,运用多种品管方法制定对策,依循"PDCA循环"开展各项活动. 结果:住院药房在开展品管圈活动之后,针剂内部调剂差错率由活动前的37.57%降到16.53%,工作环境与服务得到了改善.结论:住院药房开展品管圈活动能有效地降低住院药房针剂内部调配差错率,同时通过品管圈这种自下而上的管理方法,提高了圈员的自我管理能力以及病区对住院药房的满意度,最大限度地保障了患者的用药安全,和谐药护患关系.

  4. Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Concrete shrinkage cracking is a common problem in all types of concrete structures, especially for structures and environments where the cracks are prevalent and the repercussions are most severe. A liquid shrinkage reducing admixture for concrete, developed by GRACE Construction Products and ARCO Chemical Company, that reduces significantly the shrinkage during concrete drying and potentially reduces overall cracking over time.

  5. The European Procedure on Reduced Value Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining and developing the area of freedom, security and justice is a major objective of theEuropean Community, which guarantees the free movement of persons. As a result of litigations regardingthe applications with a reduced value arising among physical or legal persons, it was felt the need for acommunity legislation that would guarantee identical conditions, both for creditors and debtors throughoutthe entire European Union territory. The European procedure regarding the debts recovery of reducedvalue facilitates the access to justice and it is characterized by simplifying and expediting the settling of thetransboundary litigations, reducing costs, the recognition and execution of the court order in a MemberState given in another Member State. This procedure is available to litigants as an alternative to theprocedures provided by the laws of Member States. The Regulation (EC no. 861/2007 establishing aEuropean procedure regarding the applications with reduced value applies in civil and commercial matters inthe transboundary cases, regardless the nature of the court when the application value, without taking intoaccount the interest, expenditures and other costs, does not exceed 2000 Euro at the time of receiving theapplication form by the competent court. This procedure does not apply to revenue, customs oradministrative matters or in regard to state responsibility for acts or omissions in exercising the publicauthority, and other matters specifically referred to in the Regulation. A cause is transboundary in naturewhen one of the parties has its habitual residence in a Member State, other than the one where the courtreceives such application. The proper procedure of application resolution for the recovery of debts withreduced value is governed by the rules of procedural law of the Member State in which the proceedings areconducted, and the execution of court of law is made by state legislation in which it takes place. The

  6. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  7. The Methods For Reducing Pain Due To Intramuscular Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek KARA

    2013-01-01

    The preparation and implementation properly of intramuscular injections is one of the important nursing procedures. Intramuscular injection is an application that causes the pain in individual. However, a correct intramuscular injection application will reduce the pain due to injection. In the literature, different methods have been applied to reduce the pain associated with intramuscular injections with various studies from the past to the present. The aim of this review is to offer the meth...

  8. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  9. Implementing Parallel Google Map-Reduce in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Loogen, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Recent publications have emphasised map-reduce as a general programming model (labelled Google map-reduce), and described existing high-performance implementations for large data sets. We present two parallel implementations for this Google map-reduce skeleton, one following earlier work, and one...... of the Google map-reduce skeleton in usage and performance, and deliver runtime analyses for example applications. Although very flexible, the Google map-reduce skeleton is often too general, and typical examples reveal a better runtime behaviour using alternative skeletons....

  10. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  11. Sensitivity analysis via reduced order adjoint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notwithstanding the voluminous literature on adjoint sensitivity analysis, it has been generally dismissed by practitioners as cumbersome with limited value in realistic engineering models. This perception reflects two limitations about adjoint sensitivity analysis: a) its most effective application is limited to calculation of first-order variations; when higher order derivatives are required, it quickly becomes computationally inefficient; and b) the number of adjoint model evaluations depends on the number of responses, which renders it ineffective for multi-physics model where entire distributions, such as flux and power distribution, are often transferred between the various physics models. To overcome these challenges, this manuscript employs recent advances in reduced order modeling to re-cast the adjoint model equations into a form that renders its application to real reactor models practical. Past work applied reduced order modeling techniques to render reduction for general nonlinear high dimensional models by identifying mathematical subspaces, called active subspaces, that capture all dominant features of the model, including both linear and nonlinear variations. We demonstrate the application of these techniques to the calculation of first-order derivatives, or as commonly known sensitivity coefficients, for a fuel assembly model with many responses. We show that the computational cost becomes dependent on the physics model itself, via the so-called rank of the active subspace, rather than the number of responses or parameters. (author)

  12. Adaptive motion artifact reducing algorithm for wrist photoplethysmography application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Guijin; Shi, Chenbo

    2016-04-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) technology is widely used in wearable heart pulse rate monitoring. It might reveal the potential risks of heart condition and cardiopulmonary function by detecting the cardiac rhythms in physical exercise. However the quality of wrist photoelectric signal is very sensitive to motion artifact since the thicker tissues and the fewer amount of capillaries. Therefore, motion artifact is the major factor that impede the heart rate measurement in the high intensity exercising. One accelerometer and three channels of light with different wavelengths are used in this research to analyze the coupled form of motion artifact. A novel approach is proposed to separate the pulse signal from motion artifact by exploiting their mixing ratio in different optical paths. There are four major steps of our method: preprocessing, motion artifact estimation, adaptive filtering and heart rate calculation. Five healthy young men are participated in the experiment. The speeder in the treadmill is configured as 12km/h, and all subjects would run for 3-10 minutes by swinging the arms naturally. The final result is compared with chest strap. The average of mean square error (MSE) is less than 3 beats per minute (BPM/min). Proposed method performed well in intense physical exercise and shows the great robustness to individuals with different running style and posture.

  13. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  14. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  15. Application of Filters to Multiway Joins in MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taewhi Lee

    2014-01-01

    be replicated, so multiple sets of filters need to be created, which depend on the number of join attributes. The experimental results showed that our approach outperformed a cascade of two-way joins and basic multiway joins in cases where small portions of input datasets were joined.

  16. Fungicide Spray Program to Reduce Application in Anthracnose of Strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Myeong Hyeon Nam; Hyeon Suk Kim; Yun Gyu Nam; Peres, N. A.; Hong Gi Kim

    2011-01-01

    The effect of various fungicides on anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, wasdetermined in vitro, and in greenhouse and field trials. The EC50 values of benomyl were clearly differentbetween two sensitive and resistant groups of isolates. Iminoctadine tris had lower EC50 values than mancozeband propineb as protective fungicides and the response of mancozeb, propineb and azoxystrobin was variabledepending on the isolate. In the greenhouse, pre- and post- inoculat...

  17. Reduced alphabet for protein folding prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-04-01

    What are the key building blocks that would have been needed to construct complex protein folds? This is an important issue for understanding protein folding mechanism and guiding de novo protein design. Twenty naturally occurring amino acids and eight secondary structures consist of a 28-letter alphabet to determine folding kinetics and mechanism. Here we predict folding kinetic rates of proteins from many reduced alphabets. We find that a reduced alphabet of 10 letters achieves good correlation with folding rates, close to the one achieved by full 28-letter alphabet. Many other reduced alphabets are not significantly correlated to folding rates. The finding suggests that not all amino acids and secondary structures are equally important for protein folding. The foldable sequence of a protein could be designed using at least 10 folding units, which can either promote or inhibit protein folding. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key folding kinetic information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning and data mining applications in protein structure prediction, sequence alignment and protein design. PMID:25641420

  18. A Generalization of Chaplygin's Reducibility Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, O E; Bloch, A M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study Chaplygin's Reducibility Theorem and extend its applicability to nonholonomic systems with symmetry described by the Hamilton-Poincare-d'Alembert equations in arbitrary degrees of freedom. As special cases we extract the extension of the Theorem to nonholonomic Chaplygin systems with nonabelian symmetry groups as well as Euler-Poincare-Suslov systems in arbitrary degrees of freedom. In the latter case, we also extend the Hamiltonization Theorem to nonholonomic systems which do not possess an invariant measure. Lastly, we extend previous work on conditionally variational systems using the results above. We illustrate the results through various examples of well-known nonholonomic systems.

  19. Reduced Quantum General Relativity in Higher Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The higher dimensional Quantum General Relativity of a Riemannian manifold being an embedded space in a space-time being a Lorentzian manifold is investigated. The model of quantum geometrodynamics, based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation reduced to a first order functional quantum evolution supplemented through an additional eigenequation for the scalar curvature, is formulated. Furthermore, making use of the objective quantum gravity and global one-dimensional conjecture, the general wave function beyond the Feynman path integral technique is derived. The resulting quantum gravity model creates the opportunity of potentially new theoretical and phenomenological applications for astrophysics, cosmology, and physics.

  20. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems in...... parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  1. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  2. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  3. EFFICACY OF TOPICAL APPLICATION OF EPHEDRINE AND FURACILIN NASAL DROPS COMBINED WITH TETRACAINE IN REDUCING COMPLICATIONS OF POSTOPERATIVE NASAL PACK REMOVAL%局部应用呋麻滴鼻液及丁卡因减少鼻腔填塞物拔除时并发症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振英; 蔡邦; 陈国锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of topical application of Ephedrine and furacilin nasal drops combined with tetracaine in reducing complications of pack removal after nasal surgery.Methods 81caseshaving un-dergone nasal septum surgery were randomly divided into the experimental group and control group: the former were treated with Ephedrine and furacilin nasal drops combined with tetracaine and the blank control group.The occur-rence of complications at removing nasal fillers after nasal surgery was assessed.Results The hemorrhage and pain in the experimental group were significantly less than those in the blank control group (p <0.05).Conclusion top-ical application of Ephedrine and furacilin nasal drops combined with tetracaineis an effective method for reducing the pains of pack removal after nasal surgery.%目的:探索减少鼻腔填塞物拔除时并发症的方法。方法81例鼻中隔手术后患者采用随机对照的方法,通过鼻腔填塞物局部应用呋麻滴鼻液及丁卡因或空白对照,评估鼻腔填塞物拔除时的并发症发生情况。结果鼻腔填塞物局部用药组在出血及疼痛方面优于空白对照组。结论通过呋麻滴鼻液及丁卡因的局部混合应用,达到明显减少患者鼻腔填塞物拔除的痛苦的效果。

  4. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenzwaay, van, B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and targeted animal testing. Replacing complex animal tests may be achieved by a battery of in vitro test addressing the adverse outcome pathway in question. Kinetics models are needed to translate in ...

  5. Biomass Pyrolysis Solids as Reducing Agents: Comparison with Commercial Reducing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Adrados

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the most suitable options to be used as renewable energy source due to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures can produce a quality solid product, which could be applicable to several metallurgical processes as reducing agent (biocoke or bioreducer. Two woody biomass samples (olives and eucalyptus were pyrolyzed to produce biocoke. These biocokes were characterized by means of proximate and ultimate analysis, real density, specific surface area, and porosity and were compared with three commercial reducing agents. Finally, reactivity tests were performed both with the biocokes and with the commercial reducing agents. Bioreducers have lower ash and sulfur contents than commercial reducers, higher surface area and porosity, and consequently, much higher reactivity. Bioreducers are not appropriate to be used as top burden in blast furnaces, but they can be used as fuel and reducing agent either tuyére injected at the lower part of the blast furnace or in non-ferrous metallurgical processes where no mechanical strength is needed as, for example, in rotary kilns.

  6. Reducible braids and Garside theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We show that reducible braids which are, in a Garside-theoretical sense, as simple as possible within their conjugacy class, are also as simple as possible in a geometric sense. More precisely, if a braid belongs to a certain subset of its conjugacy class which we call the stabilized set of sliding circuits, and if it is reducible, then its reducibility is geometrically obvious: it has a round or almost round reducing curve. Moreover, for any given braid, an element of its stabilized set of sliding circuits can be found using the well-known cyclic sliding operation. This leads to a polynomial time algorithm for deciding the Nielsen-Thurston type of any braid, modulo one well-known conjecture on the speed of convergence of the cyclic sliding operation.

  7. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  8. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Barragan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  9. M2m Automation: Matlab-To-Map Reduce Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana C S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- MapReduce is a very popular parallel programming model for cloud computing platforms, and has become an effective method for processing massive data by using a cluster of computers. Program language -to-MapReduce Automator is a possible solution to help traditional programmers easily deploy an application to cloud systems through translating sequential codes to MapReduce codes.M2M Automation mainly focuses on automating numerical computations by using hadoop at the back end. M2M automates Hadoop, for faster execution of Matlab commands using MapReduce code.

  10. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  11. Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures in Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Seguí Femenias, Yurena

    2011-01-01

    Cracking caused by drying or autegenous shrinkage is a real risk for cementitious material and compromise its durability as crack may serve as intgression paths for gases and salts or might permit leaching. Due to special requirements as application thickness, spray application, etc. on the one hand and durability as well as strength on the other hand repair mortars show an increased shrinkage and crack probability, which is highly undesired. In this study it will be investigated wich are the...

  12. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  13. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function. PMID:18498507

  14. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  15. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  16. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  17. Reduced port laparoscopic gastrectomy: a review, techniques, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaki, Noriyuki

    2015-02-01

    Reduced port laparoscopic surgery has been used increasingly. It is a concept that has grown out of the various efforts aimed at minimally invasive surgery, with SILS being the ultimate reduced port technique. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery has been used to perform sleeve gastrectomy in bariatric surgery and excision of benign gastric submucosal tumor, applications that generally do not require lymph node dissection or complicated reconstruction. It can be done safely, result in a permanent cure, and offer good cosmetic outcomes. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer has a short history, and its usefulness has not yet been fully established. This review describes the present situation and challenges faced as well as standardized procedures and the future prospects of reduced port laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer, which my team performs almost daily. These aspects of reduced port laparoscopic surgery are presented in light of the literature. PMID:25496345

  18. Reducing chlorination of niobium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of cylindric briquettes of Nb2O5 and carbon are presented. The effects of chlorine flow, dimension of the briquettes, porosity, percentage of the reducing agent in the mixture and temperature are analysed. The volatilization aspect of Nb2O5 by the briquettes and the structural transformations of the samples are described. (M.A.C.)

  19. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  20. Ways to reduce miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Discussion is presented of the use of attendance programs at mines, to reduce interruptions to production, decrease labour costs, and to improve safety. Techniques described include use of absentee charts, frequency of attendance charts, and rewards for good attendance. 3 figs.

  1. Solitons reduced from Heterotic fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1992-01-01

    In view of the expectation that the solitonic sector of the lower dimensional world may be originated from the solitonic sector of string theory, various solitonic solutions are reduced from the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. These solitons in principle can appear after proper compactifications, {\\it e.g.} toroidal compactifications.

  2. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  3. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding d...

  4. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  5. A reduced-turbulence, reduced-entrainment electrostatic precipitator

    OpenAIRE

    Bahner, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes testing of an electrostatic precipitator that has a portion of the main precipitator flow drawn through a porous (fabric) collecting surface. Tests investigated effects of flow through the collecting surface (side flow) on precipitator turbulence and particulate removal efficiency. Particulate removal tests were conducted at both ambient temperature and boiler slipstream conditions. Side flow was shown to reduce turbulence in the boundary layers of the collecting plat...

  6. A novel loss reduced modulation strategy for matrix converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new modulation strategy for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters. The new modulation strategy is applicable whenever the output voltage reference is below half the input voltage. By applying this new modulation method, the switching losses are reduced by 15-35% compa......This paper presents a new modulation strategy for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters. The new modulation strategy is applicable whenever the output voltage reference is below half the input voltage. By applying this new modulation method, the switching losses are reduced by 15...

  7. Towards A Cross-Domain MapReduce Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuy D.; Gondree, Mark A.; Khosalim, Jean; Irvine, Cynthia E.

    2013-01-01

    The Apache™ Hadoop® framework provides parallel processing and distributed data storage capabilities that data analytics applications can utilize to process massive sets of raw data. These Big Data applications typically run as a set of MapReduce jobs to take advantage of Hadoop’s ease of service deployment and large-scale parallelism. Yet, Hadoop has not been adapted for multilevel secure (MLS) environments where data of different security classifications co-exist...

  8. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A , RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  9. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide molecular sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeremy T; Perkins, F Keith; Snow, Eric S; Wei, Zhongqing; Sheehan, Paul E

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate reduced graphene oxide as the active material for high-performance molecular sensors. Sensors are fabricated from exfoliated graphene oxide platelets that are deposited to form an ultrathin continuous network. These graphene oxide networks are tunably reduced toward graphene by varying the exposure time to a hydrazine hydrate vapor. The conductance change of the networks upon exposure to trace levels of vapor is measured as a function of the chemical reduction. The level of reduction affects both the sensitivity and the level of 1/ f noise. The sensors are capable of detecting 10 s exposures to simulants of the three main classes of chemical-warfare agents and an explosive at parts-per-billion concentrations. PMID:18763832

  11. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  12. Structural reducibility of multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Arenas, Alexandre; Latora, Vito

    2015-04-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks consisting of distinct types of interactions, which can be categorized as links belonging to different layers. For example, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, accounting for different genetic and physical interactions, each containing thousands of protein-protein relationships. A fundamental open question is then how many layers are indeed necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayered complex system. Here we introduce a method based on quantum theory to reduce the number of layers to a minimum while maximizing the distinguishability between the multilayer network and the corresponding aggregated graph. We validate our approach on synthetic benchmarks and we show that the number of informative layers in some real multilayer networks of protein-genetic interactions, social, economical and transportation systems can be reduced by up to 75%.

  13. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  14. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  15. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    HENNINGFIELD, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T; DAVIS, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of ...

  16. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  17. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations in...... the optical field causes spatial hole-burning and thus filamentation. To reduce filamentation we propose a new, relatively simple design based on inhomogeneous pumping in which the injected current has a gradual transverse profile. We confirm the improved laser performance theoretically and...

  18. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  19. Using LEDs to reduce energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweni, Chukwuebuka E.

    The most popularly used light bulb in homes is the incandescent. It is also the least energy efficient. The filament in the bulb is so thin that it causes resistance in the electricity, which in turn causes the electricity's energy to form heat. This causes the incandescent to waste a lot of energy forming heat rather than forming the light. It uses 15 lumens per watt of input power. A recorded MATLAB demonstration showcased LED versatility and how it can be used by an Arduino UNO board. The objective of this thesis is to showcase how LEDs can reduce energy consumption through the use of an Arduino UNO board and MATLAB and to discuss the applications of LED. LED will be the future of lighting homes and will eventually completely incandescent bulbs when companies begin to make the necessary improvements to the LED.

  20. ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM REDUCING POULTRY LITTER PHOSPHORUS WITH MICROBIAL PHYTASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Zhu, Minkang; Kornegay, Ervin T.

    1997-01-01

    Requiring that crop applications of manure be based on phosphorus content (P-standard) could increase poultry litter disposal costs. Microbial phytase reduces litter P content and could reduce litter disposal costs under a P-standard. For a representative Virginia turkey farm, phytase costs $2,500 and could increase value of litter used for fertilizer on the turkey farm by $390 and reduce supplemental P feed costs by $1,431. Based on assumed litter demand and supply, estimated litter export p...

  1. Reduced-Order Model Development for Airfoil Forced Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana V. Grandhi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new reduced-order models are developed to accurately and rapidly predict geometry deviation effects on airfoil forced response. Both models have significant application to improved mistuning analysis. The first developed model integrates a principal component analysis approach to reduce the number of defining geometric parameters, semianalytic eigensensitivity analysis, and first-order Taylor series approximation to allow rapid as-measured airfoil response analysis. A second developed model extends this approach and quantifies both random and bias errors between the reduced and full models. Adjusting for the bias significantly improves reduced-order model accuracy. The error model is developed from a regression analysis of the relationship between airfoil geometry parameters and reduced-order model error, leading to physics-based error quantification. Both models are demonstrated on an advanced fan airfoil's frequency, modal force, and forced response.

  2. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  3. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  4. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  5. FIREhose: Reducing Data from FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Haley Diane; Lambrides, Erini; Faherty, Jackie; Cruz, Kelle L.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects that do not have enough mass to ignite hydrogen fusion in their core. Their mass is between 0.08 solar masses and the mass of our sun. Brown dwarfs are very bright in the near-infrared wavelength band (0.8- 2.5 microns). We reduced data from the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) instrument on the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. FIRE is a medium-resolution echelle spectrometer, whose data reduction results in a spectrum of a star. When reducing FIRE data, it is important to account for inconsistencies in the data, such as bad pixels, cosmic rays, and the effects of our atmosphere. Using the FIREhose pipeline, these inconsistencies can be accounted for and corrected using a A0 telluric with a known spectrum. After telluric correcting, the data reduction results in a primed spectrum for an object, which can then be used to determine an object's physical properties, such as atmospheric composition, radial velocity, effective temperature and surface gravity.

  6. Soldering Tested in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Watson, J. Kevin; Down, Robert S.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Whether used occasionally for contingency repair or routinely in nominal repair operations, soldering will become increasingly important to the success of future long-duration human space missions. As a result, it will be critical to have a thorough understanding of the service characteristics of solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The National Center for Space Exploration Research (via the Research for Design program), the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole (see the drawing and image on the preceding figure) and surface-mounted devices are being investigated. This effort (the low-gravity portion being conducted on NASA s KC-135 research aircraft) uses the soldering hardware currently available on the International Space Station. The experiment involves manual soldering by a contingent of test operators, including both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews. The experiment uses both flux-cored solder and solid-core solder with an externally applied flux. Other experimental parameters include the type of flux, gravitational level (nominally zero,

  7. Plant solutions to reduce energy consumption in reheating furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soresina, R.; Arrighi, E.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the energy required for the hot rolling cycle is still used in the heating phase, therefore most efforts were concentrated in reducing the energy necessary to the process. The paper illustrates the new technology to optimize the efficiency and quality of reheating and energy recovery. The results of some industrial application of such technology are reported.

  8. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  9. Methods Reduce Cost, Enhance Quality of Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the challenges posed by the microgravity conditions of space, weight is actually one of the more significant problems NASA faces in the development of the next generation of U.S. space vehicles. For the Agency s Constellation Program, engineers at NASA centers are designing and testing new vessels as safe, practical, and cost-effective means of space travel following the eventual retirement of the space shuttle. Program components like the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, intended to carry astronauts to the International Space Station and the Moon, must be designed to specific weight requirements to manage fuel consumption and match launch rocket capabilities; Orion s gross liftoff weight target is about 63,789 pounds. Future space vehicles will require even greater attention to lightweight construction to help conserve fuel for long-range missions to Mars and beyond. In order to reduce spacecraft weight without sacrificing structural integrity, NASA is pursuing the development of materials that promise to revolutionize not only spacecraft construction, but also a host of potential applications on Earth. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are one material of particular interest. These tubular, single-layer carbon molecules - 100,000 of them braided together would be no thicker than a human hair - display a range of remarkable characteristics. Possessing greater tensile strength than steel at a fraction of the weight, the nanotubes are efficient heat conductors with metallic or semiconductor electrical properties depending on their diameter and chirality (the pattern of each nanotube s hexagonal lattice structure). All of these properties make the nanotubes an appealing material for spacecraft construction, with the potential for nanotube composites to reduce spacecraft weight by 50 percent or more. The nanotubes may also feature in a number of other space exploration applications, including life support, energy storage, and sensor technologies. NASA s various

  10. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  11. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  12. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  13. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  14. Periocular Recognition Using Reduced Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika D R,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is science of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data. Biometric system establishes identity of a person based on unique physical or behavioural characteristic possessed by an individual. Behavioural biometrics measures characteristics which are acquired naturally over time. Physical biometrics measures inherent physical characteristics on a n individual. Over the last few decades enormous attention is drawn towards ocular biometrics. Cues provided by ocular region have led to exploration of newer traits. Feasibility of periocular region as a useful biometric trait has been explored recently. With the promising results of preliminary examination, research towards periocular region is currently gaining lot of prominence. Researchers have analyzed various techniques of feature extraction and classification in the periocular region. The current paper investigates the effect of using Lower Central Periocular Region (LCPR for identification. The results obtained are comparable with those acquired for the entire periocular region with an advantage of reduced periocular area.

  15. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of...... gambling due to their specific structural characteristics. These include a high event frequency (number of games per minute), a high frequency of small wins and near misses, and auditory as well as visual feedback that reinforce extended gambling behavior [1].   This study focused on gambling behavior in...... pathological gamblers and healthy controls, using one of the most popular slot machines in Denmark, ’Orient Expressen‘. The study included 20 pathological gamblers (10 females) and 20 healthy non-gambling controls (10 females). While being videotaped the subjects played two versions of the slot machine in...

  16. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  17. Reducing catalytic converter pressure loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article examines why approximately 30--40% of total exhaust-system pressure loss occurs in the catalytic converter and what can be done to reduce pressure loss. High exhaust-system backpressure is of concern in the design of power trains for passenger cars and trucks because it penalizes fuel economy and limits peak power. Pressure losses occur due to fluid shear and turning during turbulent flow in the converter headers and in entry separation and developing laminar-flow boundary layers within the substrate flow passages. Some of the loss mechanisms are coupled. For example, losses in the inlet header are influenced by the presence of the flow resistance of a downstream substrate. Conversely, the flow maldistribution and pressure loss of the substrate(s) depend on the design of the inlet header.

  18. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  19. Reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Meija

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report on reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing is presented. Tests were conducted on board the NASA KC-135 RGA in Houston, Texas. The objective was to analyze the effects of large angle rotations on flexible, multi-segmented structures. The flight experiment was conducted to provide data which will be compared to the data gathered from ground tests of the same configurations. The flight and ground tested data will be used to validate the TREETOPS software, software which models dynamic multibody systems, and other multibody codes. The flight experiment consisted of seven complete flights on board the KC-135 RGA during two one-week periods. The first period of testing was 4-9 Apr. 1993. The second period of testing was 13-18 Jun. 1993.

  20. Effects of Reduced Tillage and Planting Systems on Seed Cotton Yield and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, İbrahim

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing scientific and practical interest in the importance of reduced tillage systems for increasing yield, and obtaining it more economically, in cotton production. Reduced tillage systems which involve lesser field applications have several advantages when compared to conventional systems. Field trials were conducted over 2 years. The aim was to establish the greatest applicability of reduced tillage systems. The 4 types of tillage compared were conventional, precision, strip a...

  1. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the MapReduce framework from an algorithmic standpoint and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of $M=\\Theta(N^\\epsilon)$, for a small constant $\\epsi...

  2. Production of worm-gear speed reducers for NPP charging machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main features and performance of three types of worm-gear speed reducers applied in WWER-1000 charging machines are presented and described. All types of reducers have a single worm; worm gearings in them are clearance free. The reducer design provides for minimal cost of production preparation and requires minimal application of special production equipment

  3. Feature Analysis of STEP Application Protocol and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses semantic data modelling and CAD/CAPP/CAM integration to analyze the features defined in the STEP AP214, its characteristics of definition and distribution, and its influence on the complexity of CAD/CAPP/CAM application integration. A framework is developed for applications of CAD/CAPP/CAM integration based on the STEP to reduce the complexity of integration implementation. Two application program interfaces (API), namely, application protocol API and application API, are developed. The frameworks hierarchy structure and the application program interfaces between the layers make the integration of applications easier.

  4. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  5. Regulating environments to reduce obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Cheryl L; Moran, Patricia A; Ford, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity appears to be attributable to environmental conditions that implicitly discourage physical activity while explicitly encouraging the consumption of greater quantities of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. In the United States food environment, consumers are bombarded with advertising for unhealthy food, and receive inadequate nutritional information, especially at restaurants. In the US school environment children have access to sugary sodas and unhealthy a la carte foods in their cafeterias, at the same time getting inadequate physical activity and nutrition education. In the built environment, sprawl has reduced active living. We describe these environments and explore the potential effects of regulatory measures on these environments. In the United States, regulatory opportunities exist at the national, state and local levels to mandate action and to allocate funds for promising health-promoting strategies. Regulatory approaches, much like litigation, can transform the entire environment in which corporations operate. Even with incomplete enforcement of rules, they send a public message about what is acceptable behavior for corporations and individuals. Additionally, because the United States is party to many multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and is an active participant in the GATT/WTO framework, US regulatory actions promise to have a beneficial impact both domestically and globally. PMID:15683074

  6. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  7. Electrolysis resistance reduced by magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, R.N. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water has been known for many years, and the Nernst equation has been used to produce pressurized hydrogen. It has also been thought that the cost of hydrogen produced by electrolysis is higher than by steam reduction of natural gas. However, the consensus of opinion in research efforts is that hydrogen is at least 2.5 times the cost of gasoline per watt hour of energy. This paper described an experiment that used the main attributes of a cell outlined from Kirk-Othmer. Since the cell was difficult to construct and insufficient data was collected on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) process, a simpler, easily portable demonstration cell was devised. Experiments were run and the data were plotted both as impressed voltage at constant current versus time and resistance at constant current versus time. The cells were small, the electrolyte was enough to flood the cell and allow egress of hydrogen and oxygen. Since much of the raw data needed for a real calculation applicable to the industry was absent, only laboratory scale MHD scale experimental data was presented, and the volatile cost of petroleum was not assessed or included. It was not possible to claim that hydrogen was as cheap as gasoline for internal combustion engines or fuel cell cars, but water electrolysis in MHD conditions clearly rated consideration. 2 figs.

  8. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Anan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  9. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, (varepsilon). So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  10. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  11. Reducing the invasiveness of modelling frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.

    2010-12-01

    There are several modelling frameworks available that allow for environmental models to exchange data with other models. Many efforts have been made in the past years promoting solutions aimed at integrating different numerical models with each other as well as at simplifying the way to set them up, entering the data, and running them. Meanwhile the development of many modeling frameworks concentrated on the interoperability of different model engines, several standards were introduced such as ESMF, OMS and OpenMI. One of the issues with applying modelling frameworks is the invasessness, the more the model has to know about the framework, the more intrussive it is. Another issue when applying modelling frameworks are that a lot of environmental models are written in procedural and in FORTRAN, which is one of the few languages that doesn't have a proper interface with other programming languages. Most modelling frameworks are written in object oriented languages like java/c# and the modelling framework in FORTRAN ESMF is also objected oriented. In this research we show how the application of domain driven, object oriented development techniques to environmental models can reduce the invasiveness of modelling frameworks. Our approach is based on four different steps: 1) application of OO techniques and reflection to the existing model to allow introspection. 2) programming language interoperability, between model written in a procedural programming language and modeling framework written in an object oriented programming language. 3) Domain mapping between data types used by model and other components being integrated 4) Connecting models using framework (wrapper) We compare coupling of an existing model as it was to the same model adapted using the four step approach. We connect both versions of the models using two different integrated modelling frameworks. As an example of a model we use the coastal morphological model XBeach. By adapting this model it allows for

  12. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  13. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  14. Meditation Helps Reduce Hardened Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue; Pleming; 林兆佩

    2000-01-01

    沉思冥想可以减少人体冠状动脉内壁的厚度、降低心脏病和中风的危险。这话听上去有点玄乎,可是,这是事实。而且,这不是崇尚气功的国人的结论,而是美国医生的实验所证实的事实。 简称为TM(由Transcendental[超然的;超验的]Meditation的首字母所组成)的方法每日进行两次,每次20分钟。同时还得使用所谓a specific sound or“mental vehicle”(精神媒介物)。其目的是:…enabled the person to experiencequieter states of thinking.其背后的原因是:…heart disease was associated withpsychological stress and that meditating could reduce this。以下一句间接告诉我们:所谓TM,并非一两句话就能交代明白: The meditation group was given five to eight hours of tuition on TM tech—niques… 美国的研究人员常运用“对比法”来作下结论。本文也不例外。 本文给我们的重要启示是:…heart disease was associated with psychologicalstress.而quieter states of thinking是强身健体之关键。

  15. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. The intrinsic beauty of polytropic spheres in reduced variables

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R

    2016-01-01

    The concept of reduced variables is revisited with regard to van der Waals' theory and an application is made to polytropic spheres, where the reduced radial coordinate is ${\\rm red}(r)=r/R=\\xi/\\Xi$, $R$ radius, and the reduced density is ${\\rm red}(\\rho)=\\rho/\\lambda=\\theta^n$, $\\lambda$ central density. Reduced density profiles are plotted for several polytropic indexes within the range, $0\\le n\\le5$, disclosing two noticeable features. First, any point of coordinates, $({\\rm red}(r),{\\rm red}(\\rho))$, $0\\le{\\rm red}(r)\\le1$, $0\\le{\\rm red}(\\rho)\\le1$, belongs to a reduced density profile of the kind considered. Second, sufficiently steep i.e. large $n$ reduced density profiles exhibit an oblique inflection point, where the threshold is found to be located at $n=n_{\\rm th}=0.888715$. Reduced pressure profiles, ${\\rm red}(P)=P/\\varpi=\\theta^{n+1}$, $\\varpi$ central pressure, Lane-Emden fucntions, $\\theta=(\\rho/\\lambda)^{1/n}$, and polytropic curves, ${\\rm red}(P)={\\rm red}(P)({\\rm red}(\\rho))$, are also plot...

  17. Evaluation of Data Processing Using MapReduce Framework in Cloud and Stand - Alone Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Daneshyar; Ahmed Patel

    2012-01-01

    An effective technique to process and analyse large amounts of data is achieved through using theMapReduce framework. It is a programming model which is used to rapidly process vast amount of datain parallel and distributed mode operating on a large cluster of machines. Hadoop, an open-sourceimplementation, is an example of MapReduce for writing and running MapReduce applications. Theproblem is to specify, which computing environment improves the performance of MapReduce to processlarge amoun...

  18. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  19. A reduced basis localized orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Assyr; Henning, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    In this work we combine the framework of the Reduced Basis method (RB) with the framework of the Localized Orthogonal Decomposition (LOD) in order to solve parametrized elliptic multiscale problems. The idea of the LOD is to split a high dimensional Finite Element space into a low dimensional space with comparably good approximation properties and a remainder space with negligible information. The low dimensional space is spanned by locally supported basis functions associated with the node of a coarse mesh obtained by solving decoupled local problems. However, for parameter dependent multiscale problems, the local basis has to be computed repeatedly for each choice of the parameter. To overcome this issue, we propose an RB approach to compute in an "offline" stage LOD for suitable representative parameters. The online solution of the multiscale problems can then be obtained in a coarse space (thanks to the LOD decomposition) and for an arbitrary value of the parameters (thanks to a suitable "interpolation" of the selected RB). The online RB-LOD has a basis with local support and leads to sparse systems. Applications of the strategy to both linear and nonlinear problems are given.

  20. Reduced order modeling of wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    Modeling turbulent flow near a wall is a pacing item in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace applications and geophysical flows. Gradual progress has been made in statistical modeling of near wall turbulence using the Reynolds averaged equations of motion, an area of research where John Lumley has made numerous seminal contributions. More recently, Lumley and co-workers pioneered dynamical systems modeling of near wall turbulence, and demonstrated that the experimentally observed turbulence dynamics can be predicted using low dimensional dynamical systems. The discovery of minimal flow unit provides further evidence that the near wall turbulence is amenable to reduced order modeling. The underlying rationale for potential success in using low dimensional dynamical systems theory is based on the fact that the Reynolds number is low in close proximity to the wall. Presumably for the same reason, low dimensional models are expected to be successful in modeling of the laminar/turbulence transition region. This has been shown recently using dynamic mode decomposition. Furthermore, it is shown that the near wall flow structure and statistics in the late and non-linear transition region is strikingly similar to that in higher Reynolds number fully developed turbulence. In this presentation, I will argue that the accumulated evidence suggests that wall modeling for LES using low dimensional dynamical systems is a profitable avenue to pursue. The main challenge would be the numerical integration of such wall models in LES methodology.

  1. Survey of MapReduce frame operation in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Quan; Li, Xu-Bin; Jiang, Wen-Rui; Lin, Zi-Yu; Li, Gui-Lin; Chen, Ke

    2014-07-01

    Bioinformatics is challenged by the fact that traditional analysis tools have difficulty in processing large-scale data from high-throughput sequencing. The open source Apache Hadoop project, which adopts the MapReduce framework and a distributed file system, has recently given bioinformatics researchers an opportunity to achieve scalable, efficient and reliable computing performance on Linux clusters and on cloud computing services. In this article, we present MapReduce frame-based applications that can be employed in the next-generation sequencing and other biological domains. In addition, we discuss the challenges faced by this field as well as the future works on parallel computing in bioinformatics. PMID:23396756

  2. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  3. MARIANE: MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadika, Zacharia; Dede, Elif; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-07-06

    MapReduce is increasingly becoming a popular framework, and a potent programming model. The most popular open source implementation of MapReduce, Hadoop, is based on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). However, as HDFS is not POSIX compliant, it cannot be fully leveraged by applications running on a majority of existing HPC environments such as Teragrid and NERSC. These HPC environments typicallysupport globally shared file systems such as NFS and GPFS. On such resourceful HPC infrastructures, the use of Hadoop not only creates compatibility issues, but also affects overall performance due to the added overhead of the HDFS. This paper not only presents a MapReduce implementation directly suitable for HPC environments, but also exposes the design choices for better performance gains in those settings. By leveraging inherent distributed file systems' functions, and abstracting them away from its MapReduce framework, MARIANE (MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments) not only allows for the use of the model in an expanding number of HPCenvironments, but also allows for better performance in such settings. This paper shows the applicability and high performance of the MapReduce paradigm through MARIANE, an implementation designed for clustered and shared-disk file systems and as such not dedicated to a specific MapReduce solution. The paper identifies the components and trade-offs necessary for this model, and quantifies the performance gains exhibited by our approach in distributed environments over Apache Hadoop in a data intensive setting, on the Magellan testbed at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  4. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Botermans, Jos; Gustafsson, Gösta; Jeppsson, Knut-Håkan; Brown, Nils; Rodhe, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In this literature review, measures of reducing the ammonia (NH3) emissions from pig production are described, with focus on systems that can be used under Swedish conditions. The entire production chain with feed, housing, manure storage and application on the field is described and taken into consideration. However, in order to limit the study, the production of crops for feed is not included. As compared to many other countries, emissions of NH3 in Swedish pig production are already low, d...

  5. Certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hesthaven, Jan S; Stamm, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of certified reduced basis methods for parametrized partial differential equations. Central aspects ranging from model construction, error estimation and computational efficiency to empirical interpolation methods are discussed in detail for coercive problems. More advanced aspects associated with time-dependent problems, non-compliant and non-coercive problems and applications with geometric variation are also discussed as examples.

  6. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source contr...

  7. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new match depends on the applicant's unem­ployment duration and on the method of search. The hiring subsidy raises job destruction and extends contrary to Mortensen-Pissarides (1999, 2003) the duration o...

  8. Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Hugo; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; McEvoy, Niall; O'Brien, Sean; Nicolosi, Valeria; Duesberg, Georg S

    2014-02-14

    Herein we use Nitrogen-doped reduced Graphene Oxide (N-rGO) as the active material in supercapacitor electrodes. Building on a previous work detailing the synthesis of this material, electrodes were fabricated via spray-deposition of aqueous dispersions and the electrochemical charge storage mechanism was investigated. Results indicate that the functionalised graphene displays improved performance compared to non-functionalised graphene. The simplicity of fabrication suggests ease of up-scaling of such electrodes for commercial applications. PMID:24418938

  9. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine eSczesny; Magdalena eFormanowicz; Franziska eMoser

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she inste...

  10. Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erica; Kitao, Nahoko; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori; Otsubo, Yasufumi

    The effects of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood were investigated. Urea, catechin and vanillin were examined as the natural formaldehyde reducers. The microemission cell, with an internal volume of 35 ml, the maximum exposed test surface area of 177 cm 2 and an air purge flow rate of 50 ml min -1, was used to measure specific emission rate (SER). In the case of no reducer treatment, formaldehyde emission from plywood was fast and SERs were 4.4 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 15 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When this plywood was treated with the natural compounds, the SERs of formaldehyde were decreased at all temperatures. In the case of urea treatment, the SERs of formaldehyde decreased to 0.30 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 0.65 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When the urea treatment was applied to the inside of kitchen cabinet (made from plywood; 270 cm wide, 60 cm deep, 250 cm high), the concentration of formaldehyde was reduced substantially from 1600 to 130 μg m -3. The reducing effect of formaldehyde continued during the observation period (6 months), with a mean concentration of 100 μg m -3. Reducers in the plywood would react with released formaldehyde. Application of natural compounds such as urea, catechin and vanillin could provide a simple and effective approach for suppressing formaldehyde emission from plywood.

  11. 大鼠角膜穿通伤后局部应用 IL-10抑制视网膜炎症和抗神经溃变的研究%Topical application of IL-10 inhibits inflammation and reduces neural degeneration of the retina after corneal penetrating injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 周月鹏; 肖寿华; 张志坚

    2014-01-01

    -200和血影蛋白,造成神经溃变;局部应用 IL-10可减轻炎症反应,抑制 m-calpain 对骨架蛋白的降解,从而对视网膜细胞产生保护作用。%Objective:To investigate the mechanisms of that IL-1 0 inhibits inflammation and reduces neural degeneration of the retina after corneal penetrating injury in rats.Methods:A total of 50 adult fe-male rats were randomly divided into three groups:A,the normal control group(8 rats);B,the corneal penetrating injury group(21 rats);and C,the IL-1 0 treated group(21 rats ).B and C groups were subdi-vided into the subgroups suffered from corneal penetrating injury for 24 hours,48 hours and 72 hours,re-spectively.The animals of C group suffered from corneal penetrating injury and then were treated with topi-cal application of IL-1 0.Two rats in each group were used to make tissue sections of eyeball.The sections were immunofluorescence stained with antibodies against IL-1 β,IL-6,TNF-α,neurofilament protein-200 (NF200),α-Ⅱ spectrin and m-calpain.The relative contents of activated m-calpain and the degradation products of NF200 and αⅡ spectrin of the retina tissues were detected by western blotting.Results:Theimmunofluorescence staining of IL1 β,IL6,TNFαand mcalpain in normal retina were very weak,andbecame stronger in the retina of corneal penetrating injury groups.After treated with IL1 0,the intensity ofimmunofluorescence staining of IL1 β,IL6,TNFαand mcalpain reduced.The immunofluorescence staining of NF200 and αⅡ spectrin were weaker in the corneal penetrating injury group than those in the normal group;after treated with IL1 0,the intensity of immunofluorescence staining of NF200 and αⅡ spectrin became stronger than those in the corneal penetrating injury group.Western blotting showed that therelative contents of activated mcalpain and the degradation products of NF200 and αⅡ spectrin of the retina tissues in IL1 0 treated

  12. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  13. Map Reduce: A Survey Paper on Recent Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafali Agarwal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid growth of data in recent time, Industries and academia required an intelligent data analysis tool that would be helpful to satisfy the need to analysis a huge amount of data. MapReduce framework is basically designed to compute data intensive applications to support effective decision making. Since its introduction, remarkable research efforts have been put to make it more familiar to the users subsequently utilized to support the execution of massive data intensive applications. Our survey paper emphasizes the state of the art in improving the performance of various applications using recent MapReduce models and how it is useful to process large scale dataset. A comparative study of given models corresponds to Apache Hadoop and Phoenix will be discussed primarily based on execution time and fault tolerance. At the end, a high-level discussion will be done about the enhancement of the MapReduce computation in specific problem area such as Iterative computation, continuous query processing, hybrid database etc.

  14. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  15. Microwave Antenna With Reduced Noise Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, A. G.

    1986-01-01

    Gain or gain-to-temperature ratio of dual-shaped subreflector receiving antenna increased when illumination is tapered near aperture edge. Taper imposed in antenna feed reduces spillover in transmitting mode and reduces noise pickup in receiving mode.

  16. Advanced access: reducing waiting and delays in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mark; Berwick, Donald M

    2003-02-26

    Delay of care is a persistent and undesirable feature of current health care systems. Although delay seems to be inevitable and linked to resource limitations, it often is neither. Rather, it is usually the result of unplanned, irrational scheduling and resource allocation. Application of queuing theory and principles of industrial engineering, adapted appropriately to clinical settings, can reduce delay substantially, even in small practices, without requiring additional resources. One model, sometimes referred to as advanced access, has increasingly been shown to reduce waiting times in primary care. The core principle of advanced access is that patients calling to schedule a physician visit are offered an appointment the same day. Advanced access is not sustainable if patient demand for appointments is permanently greater than physician capacity to offer appointments. Six elements of advanced access are important in its application balancing supply and demand, reducing backlog, reducing the variety of appointment types, developing contingency plans for unusual circumstances, working to adjust demand profiles, and increasing the availability of bottleneck resources. Although these principles are powerful, they are counter to deeply held beliefs and established practices in health care organizations. Adopting these principles requires strong leadership investment and support. PMID:12597760

  17. Reducing the heterogeneity of xylan through processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Johnson, Amanda M; Barone, Justin R; Renneckar, Scott

    2016-10-01

    Glycerol thermal processing (GTP) of hardwood biomass at temperatures between 200 and 240°C facilitated stepwise biopolymer fractionation, while limiting significant degradation of the major hemicellulose, glucuronoxylan, into water-extractable oligosaccharides. After GTP pretreatment and sequential water and organic solvent extraction, up to 80% of the initial xylan remained in the pretreated biomass. The majority of the xylan from GTP pretreated and water/solvent extracted biomass was removed using a mild alkali extraction and the composition was compared to xylan directly isolated from untreated hardwood. The precipitated xylan from the neutralized alkaline filtrate was isolated as a water insoluble xylan portion (WIX). The residual xylan dissolved in the neutralized filtrate was precipitated in cold methanol and recovered as the water soluble xylan portion (WSX). Results showed that xylan in WIX was in a polymeric form with a number average degree of polymerization (DP) over 100, whereas the WSX had a much lower average DP of 27 (ca) and contained more substitution. As the processing severity increased during GTP pretreatment, the proportion of WIX increased and the purity of the xylan within the WIX sample reached 84% based on compositional analysis. FT-IR analysis of WIX revealed that xylan isolated after GTP contained peaks related to a reduced carbonyl signal compared to the control. Furthermore, crude WSX contained less xylan with more lignin contamination at severe GTP conditions. The recovery of the xylan in two portions facilitated a preferential purification strategy resulting in WIX with an extremely narrow polydispersity index between 1.1 and 1.25, dependent upon the GTP severity. This study provided insight into fractionating higher molecular weight xylan that may serve value-added applications such as healthcare materials and advanced packaging. PMID:27312636

  18. Applicability of lives saved tool in projecting effects of scaling up interventions on reducing maternal mortality rates in the rural area of Guangxi province in China%运用生命挽救工具预测降低广西农村孕产妇死亡率的干预措施健康效果的适用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆大胜; 陈荔丽; 韦萍; 江震; 郭岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate applicability of lives saved tool (LiST) in projecting effects of maternal health interventions on reducing maternal mortality in the rural area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China,and provide evidence for promoting LiST in China.Methods:By using maternal intervention coverage and other information collected through the cross-sectional household survey,literature review and expert consultation,LiST projection was performed and modeled.The maternal mortality reduction and causes of death were measured and compared,and the differences were analyzed.SPSS 19.0 was used in the household survey data analysis.Results:Coverage of calcium supplementation,MgSO4-management of pre-eclampsia and institutional delivery reached 51.9%,99.0% and 98.4% respectively in rural Guangxi in 2011.The LiST captured the general trend of maternal mortality in rural Guangxi.The modeled maternal mortality rate was 4.71%,lower than the measured in 2009 and 10.43% higher in 2010.Maternal mortality rate would decreased to 18/100 000 in 2015 assuming all relevant interventions reached full coverage,and 90% of the maternal morality reduction was attributed to the labor and delivery management.Conclusion:LiST can be applied to project effects of maternal health interventions on reducing the maternal mortality in rural Guangxi,but its accuracy was limited by the fact that the effect of relevant interventions on some major causes of maternal death,such as amniotic embolism,was not calculated in LiST and maternal deaths caused by those causes varied by the year in the area.Based on the LiST projection,labor and delivery management was found to be the priority intervention in improving maternal health in rural Guangxi.Improving the quality of obstetric care in township hospitals and facilitating referral of high-risk pregnant women were highly recommended.%目的:运用生命挽救工具(lives saved tool,LiST)预测在广西农村地区扩大相关干预措施

  19. Application of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to the thermal-hydraulics project of a PWR reactor core in reduced scale; Aplicacao da tecnica de otimizacao por enxame de particulas no projeto termo-hidraulico em escala reduzida do nucleo de um reator PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2008-09-15

    The reduced scale models design have been employed by engineers from several different industries fields such as offshore, spatial, oil extraction, nuclear industries and others. Reduced scale models are used in experiments because they are economically attractive than its own prototype (real scale) because in many cases they are cheaper than a real scale one and most of time they are also easier to build providing a way to lead the real scale design allowing indirect investigations and analysis to the real scale system (prototype). A reduced scale model (or experiment) must be able to represent all physical phenomena that occurs and further will do in the real scale one under operational conditions, e.g., in this case the reduced scale model is called similar. There are some different methods to design a reduced scale model and from those two are basic: the empiric method based on the expert's skill to determine which physical measures are relevant to the desired model; and the differential equation method that is based on a mathematical description of the prototype (real scale system) to model. Applying a mathematical technique to the differential equation that describes the prototype then highlighting the relevant physical measures so the reduced scale model design problem may be treated as an optimization problem. Many optimization techniques as Genetic Algorithm (GA), for example, have been developed to solve this class of problems and have also been applied to the reduced scale model design problem as well. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is investigated as an alternative optimization tool for such problem. In this investigation a computational approach, based on particle swarm optimization technique (PSO), is used to perform a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power operation on a forced flow cooling circulation and non-accidental operating conditions. A performance

  20. Comparing Web Applications with Desktop Applications: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, many desktop applications have been ported to the world wide web in order to reduce (multiplatform) development, distribution and maintenance costs. However, there is little data concerning the usability of web applications, and the impact of their usability on the total cost of...... developing and using such applications. In this paper we present a comparison of web and desktop applications from the usability point of view. The comparison is based on an empirical study that investigates the performance of a group of users on two calendaring applications: Yahoo!Calendar and Microsoft...... Calendar. The study shows that in the case of web applications the performance of the users is significantly reduced, mainly because of the restricted interaction mechanisms provided by current web browsers....

  1. Effective post treatment for preparing highly conductive carbon nanotube/reduced graphite oxide hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian; Xu, Chaohe; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yangqiao

    2011-03-01

    SWCNT-reduced graphite oxide hybrid films were prepared by a filtration method. An efficient post-treatment procedure was designed to reduce GO and remove dispersants simultaneously. The sheet resistance decreased significantly after treatment, by a factor of 4-13 times. Films with excellent performance (95.6%, 655 Ω per square) were obtained and had great potential applications. PMID:21132173

  2. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  3. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; Korolev, S. P.; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  4. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  5. Interpretation of the reduced density gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Boto, Roberto A.; Contreras-García, Julia; Tierny, Julien; Piquemal, Jean-Philip

    2015-01-01

    An interpretation of the reduced density gradient in terms of the bosonic kinetic energy density is presented. Contrary to other bonding indicators based on the kinetic energy density such as the localised orbital locator (LOL) or the electron localization function (ELF), the reduced density gradient is not only able to identify covalent bondings, but also ionic and non-covalent interactions. This study reveals that the critical points of the reduced density gradient are closely connected wit...

  6. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains belonging to the species Pseudomonas chloritidismutans and a (per)chlorate-reducing strain Dechloromonas hortensis were isolated. The characterization of the chlorate-reducing strain AW-1, which was isolated from a bioreactor ...

  7. Reduced, tame and exotic fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Oliver, Bob; Ventura, Joana

    We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems, reduced fusion systems and tame fusion systems. These are motivated by our attempts to better understand and search for exotic fusion systems: fusion systems which are not the fusion systems of any finite group. Our main theorems say that...... every saturated fusion system reduces to a reduced fusion system which is tame only if the original one is realizable, and that every reduced fusion system which is not tame is the reduction of some exotic (nonrealizable) fusion system....

  8. Reduced, tame and exotic fusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Oliver, Bob; Ventura, Joana

    2010-01-01

    We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems, reduced fusion systems and tame fusion systems. These are motivated by our attempts to better understand and search for exotic fusion systems: fusion systems which are not the fusion systems of any finite group. Our main theorems say that every saturated fusion system reduces to a reduced fusion system which is tame only if the original one is realizable, and that every reduced fusion system which is not tame is the reduction of some...

  9. Reducing risks, protecting people. A harmonized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk training, education and communication usually refer to the responsibilities of those who generate risk (e.g. operators of nuclear power plants) towards those who are exposed to the risk (e.g. employees working in the plants and those living in the vicinity). In this context training, education and communication are intended to transfer information from risk professionals to a largely uninformed audience, with a view to improving standards or providing reassurance. However, with the growth of media such as the Internet those to whom such training, education and communication have traditionally been directed are now much better informed. In addition, increasing prosperity affects expectations and prompts questions, not only about the adequacy of the control measures intended to address specific hazards, but also about whether the hazardous activity is justified at all. Within the UK (and Europe) this is very evident for nuclear power, other applications of ionizing radiation, and in other areas such as genetically modified food. In consequence regulators of hazardous activities face considerable new challenges. Of course, regulators still have to formulate standards, communicate them to those responsible for risk reduction and see that the necessary controls are in place. But in addition regulators also have to be able to answer questions such as: - why is this hazardous activity (e.g. a nuclear power plant) allowed at all? - what level of risk is unacceptable? - is the approach to risk reduction sufficiently precautionary? - why shouldn't the risk be reduced further? - why are the risks from certain activities (e.g. those from ionizing radiation) controlled to much lower levels than those from other work activities? - how are decisions made, what criteria are applied and how are the stake holders involves? All this does not make life easy for regulators! The full paper will describe how the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has responded to these challenges by

  10. Survey of Parallel Data Processing in Context with MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Vaidya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available MapReduce is a parallel programming model and an associated implementation introduced by Google. In the programming model, a user specifies the computation by two functions, Map and Reduce. The underlying MapReduce library automatically parallelizes the computation, and handles complicated issues like data distribution, load balancing and fault tolerance. The original MapReduce implementation by Google, as well as its open-source counterpart, Hadoop, is aimed for parallelizing computing in large clusters of commodity machines.This paper gives an overview of MapReduce programming model and its applications. The author has described here the workflow of MapReduce process. Some important issues, like fault tolerance, are studied in more detail. Even the illustration of working of Map Reduce is given. The data locality issue in heterogeneous environments can noticeably reduce the Map Reduce performance. In this paper, the author has addressed the illustration of data across nodes in a way that each node has a balanced data processing load stored in a parallel manner. Given a data intensive application running on a Hadoop Map Reduce cluster, the auhor has exemplified how data placement is done in Hadoop architecture and the role of Map Reduce in the Hadoop Architecture. The amount of data stored in each node to achieve improved data-processing performance is explained here.

  11. Strategic materials: Technologies to reduce US import vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Three nations, South Africa, Zaire, and the U.S.S.R., account for over half of the world's production of chromium, cobalt, manganese, and platinum group metals. These metals are essential in the production of high-temperature alloys, steel and stainless steel, industrial and automotive catalysts, electronics, and other applications that are critical to the U.S. economy and the national defense. With minor exceptions, there is no domestic mine production of any of the four metals. Government actions to assure secure supplies of metals critical to the United States have been limited largely to reliance on the national defense stockpile to ensure the availability of materials required for national defense in time of war, leaving it to the free market to provide a diversity of suppliers for the industrial economy. An overall strategy to reduce U.S. reliance on uncertain sources of supply of strategic materials should be based on a combination of three technical approaches: increase the diversity of the world supply of strategic metals through the development of promising deposits; decrease demand for strategic metals through the implementation of improved manufacturing processes and recycling of strategic materials from scrap and waste; and identify and test substitute materials for current applications and develop new materials with reduced strategic material content for future applications.

  12. Preparation of iron diselenide/reduced graphene oxide comp osite and its application in dyesensitized solar cells%二硒化铁/还原氧化石墨烯的制备及其在染料敏化太阳能电池中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学文; 朱重阳; 董辉; 徐峰; 孙立涛

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention because of their easy fabrication, good flexibility low cost and relatively high efficiency. As a crucial component, the function of counter electrode (CE) is to collect the electrons from external circuits and transfer them to electrolyte by catalyzing the reduction of I−3 into I−. Platinum (Pt) is a conventional material of CE in DSSCs due to its high conductivity and outstanding catalytic activity towards the reduction of triiodide (I−3 ). However, the high cost and low abundance of Pt restrict the commercial application of DSSCs. Moreover, Pt could be dissolved slowly in the I−/I−3 redox electrolyte, which will deteriorate the long term stability of DSSCs. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel material with high conductivity, catalytic activity and stability to replace Pt. In this paper, with Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and graphene oxide (GO) serving as raw materials and deionized water as the solvent, we synthesize iron diselenide (FeSe2) nanorods (with diameters in a range of about 100–200 nm)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite through a facile hydrothermal method and use the composite as CE material of DSSCs for the first time. The structure and morphology of FeSe2/rGO are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD pattern shows that the FeSe2 is typically orthorhombic phase. The SEM images show that the FeSe2 has a structure of nanonods and can be attached to the surface of rGO closely The surface of FeSe2/rGO composite is rough and exhibits a porous structure. The TEM image shows that the FeSe2 has a high degree of crystallinity and orientation. To evaluate the catalytic activity and conductivity of FeSe2/rGO, we perform cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and obtain Tafel polarization curves for FeSe2

  13. OpenDBDDAS Toolkit: Secure MapReduce and Hadoop-like Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fabiano, Enrico

    2015-06-01

    The OpenDBDDAS Toolkit is a software framework to provide support for more easily creating and expanding dynamic big data-driven application systems (DBDDAS) that are common in environmental systems, many engineering applications, disaster management, traffic management, and manufacturing. In this paper, we describe key features needed to implement a secure MapReduce and Hadoop-like system for high performance clusters that guarantees a certain level of privacy of data from other concurrent users of the system. We also provide examples of a secure MapReduce prototype and compare it to another high performance MapReduce, MR-MPI.

  14. Chitosan-supported Borohydride Reducing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new chitosan-supported borohydride reducing reagent (CBER) was prepared by treatment of KBH4 with the resin of chitosan derivative, which was first synthesized fiom the reaction of cross-linked chitosan microsphere with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. CBER could reduce aromatic carbonyl compound to corresponding alcohol.

  15. Genus Reducing Knots in 3-Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Rieck, Yo’av

    2001-01-01

    A genus reducing knot is a knot that has infinitely many surgeries after which the Heegaard genus of the manifold reduces. We study certain aspects of this question, in particular solving it for totally orientable Seifert Fibered Spaces, where we find examples of manifolds of arbitrarily high genus containing no such knot.

  16. A small town reduces its energy expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissac, G.

    1993-12-31

    Langeac, a 4 300 inhabitants community in France, has relied on its resinous forest and on the local wood industry to save energy, reduce its energy expenses and protect environment. A wood-fired heat network exists, supplied by regional manufacturers. On top of that the charges are reduced in the field of energy. (TEC). 1 fig.

  17. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  18. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.

    1994-01-01

    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal c

  19. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  20. An intervention to reduce playground equipment hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Roseveare, C.; Brown, J.; McIntosh, J.; Chalmers, D

    1999-01-01

    Objectives—A community intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of two methods of reducing playground hazards in schools. The study hypotheses were: (1) a health promotion programme addressing barriers to implementing the New Zealand Playground Safety Standard will reduce playground hazards and (2) the intervention programme will be more successful than providing information alone.