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Sample records for applications inherent healing

  1. ECM-based materials in cardiovascular applications: Inherent healing potential and augmentation of native regenerative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterina, Anna V; Cloonan, Aidan J; Meaney, Claire L; Davis, Laura M; Callanan, Anthony; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M

    2009-10-01

    The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM) have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment. PMID:20057951

  2. ECM-Based Materials in Cardiovascular Applications: Inherent Healing Potential and Augmentation of Native Regenerative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Callanan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo healing process of vascular grafts involves the interaction of many contributing factors. The ability of vascular grafts to provide an environment which allows successful accomplishment of this process is extremely difficult. Poor endothelisation, inflammation, infection, occlusion, thrombosis, hyperplasia and pseudoaneurysms are common issues with synthetic grafts in vivo. Advanced materials composed of decellularised extracellular matrices (ECM have been shown to promote the healing process via modulation of the host immune response, resistance to bacterial infections, allowing re-innervation and reestablishing homeostasis in the healing region. The physiological balance within the newly developed vascular tissue is maintained via the recreation of correct biorheology and mechanotransduction factors including host immune response, infection control, homing and the attraction of progenitor cells and infiltration by host tissue. Here, we review the progress in this tissue engineering approach, the enhancement potential of ECM materials and future prospects to reach the clinical environment.

  3. Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, William B

    2016-01-01

    My personal ethos of healing is an expression of the belief that I can and do act to heal patients while I attend to the traditional goals of medicine. The 7 supporting principles that inform my ethos are dignity, authenticity, integrity, transparency, solidarity, generosity, and resiliency. I invite others, including medical students, residents, and practicing physicians, to reflect and discover their own ethos of healing and the principles that guide their professional growth. A short digital documentary accompanies this essay for use as a reflective prompt to encourage personal and professional development. PMID:26755787

  4. Chitosan as a starting material for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrulea, V; Ostafe, V; Borchard, G; Jordan, O

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives have attracted great attention due to their properties beneficial for application to wound healing. The main focus of the present review is to summarize studies involving chitosan and its derivatives, especially N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) and O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (CMTMC), used to accelerate wound healing. Moreover, formulation strategies for chitosan and its derivatives, as well as their in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications in wound healing are described. PMID:26614560

  5. Chitosan as a starting material for wound healing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Patrulea, Viorica; Ostafe, V.; Borchard, Gerrit; Jordan, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives have attracted great attention due to their properties beneficial for application to wound healing. The main focus of the present review is to summarize studies involving chitosan and its derivatives, especially N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) and O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (CMTMC), used to accelerate wound healing. Moreover, formulation strategies for chitosan and its derivatives, as well as their in vitro, in vivo a...

  6. A compact, inherently safe liquid metal reactor plant concept for terrestrial defense power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact, inherently safe, liquid metal reactor concept based on the GE PRISM innovative LMR design has been developed for terrestrial defense power applications in the 2-50 MWe range. The concept uses a small, sodium-cooled, U-5%Zr metal fueled reactor contained within two redundant steel vessels. The core is designed to operate at a low power density and temperature (925 F) and can operate 30 years without refueling. One two primary coolant loops, depending upon the plant size, transport heat from the core to sodium-to-air, double-wall heat exchangers. Power is produced by a gas turbine operated in a closed ''bottoming'' cycle that employs intercoolers between the compressor stages and a recuperator. Inherent safety is provided by passive means only; operator action is not required to ensure plant safety even for events normally considered Beyond Design Basis Accidents. In addition to normal shutdown heat removal via the sodium-to-air heat exchangers, the design utilizes an inherently passive radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system similar to that designed for PRISM. The use of an air cycle gas turbine eliminates the cost and complexity of the sodium-water reactor pressure relief system required for a steam cycle sodium-cooled reactor

  7. Puncture Self-Healing Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Penner, Ronald K.; Bogert, Phil B.; Yost, W. T.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2011-01-01

    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10K per pound provide ample incentive to seek innovative, cost-effective ways to reduce structural mass without sacrificing safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems can provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show great promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to heal instantaneously following projectile penetration while retaining structural integrity. Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMMA), also known as Surlyn is an ionomer-based copolymer that undergoes puncture reversal (self-healing) following high impact puncture at high velocities. However EMMA is not a structural engineering polymer, and will not meet the demands of aerospace applications requiring self-healing engineering materials. Current efforts to identify candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are reported. Rheology, high speed thermography, and high speed video for self-healing semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers will be reported.

  8. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

  9. New Guar Biopolymer Silver Nanocomposites for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Ghosh Auddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is an innate physiological response that helps restore cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Selective biodegradable and biocompatible polymer materials have provided useful scaffolds for wound healing and assisted cellular messaging. In the present study, guar gum, a polymeric galactomannan, was intrinsically modified to a new cationic biopolymer guar gum alkylamine (GGAA for wound healing applications. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agnp were further impregnated in GGAA for extended evaluations in punch wound models in rodents. SEM studies showed silver nanoparticles well dispersed in the new guar matrix with a particle size of ~18 nm. In wound healing experiments, faster healing and improved cosmetic appearance were observed in the new nanobiomaterial treated group compared to commercially available silver alginate cream. The total protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline contents of the wound tissues were also significantly higher in the treated group as compared with the silver alginate cream (P<0.05. Silver nanoparticles exerted positive effects because of their antimicrobial properties. The nanobiomaterial was observed to promote wound closure by inducing proliferation and migration of the keratinocytes at the wound site. The derivatized guar gum matrix additionally provided a hydrated surface necessary for cell proliferation.

  10. Scientific production on the applicability of phenytoin in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Firmino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant that has been used in wound healing. The objectives of this study were to describe how the scientific production presents the use ofphenytoinas a healing agent and to discuss its applicability in wounds. A literature review and hierarchy analysis of evidence-based practices was performed. Eighteen articles were analyzed that tested the intervention in wounds such as leprosy ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, trophic ulcers, war wounds, burns, preparation of recipient graft area, radiodermatitis and post-extraction of melanocytic nevi. Systemic use ofphenytoinin the treatment of fistulas and the hypothesis of topical use in the treatment of vitiligo were found. In conclusion, topical use ofphenytoinis scientifically evidenced. However robust research is needed that supports a protocol for the use ofphenytoinas another option of a healing agent in clinical practice.

  11. Continuum Damage-healing Mechanics with Application to Self-healing Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero, Ever J; Greco, Fabrizio; Lonetti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The general behavior of self-healing materials is modeled including both irreversible and healing processes. A constitutive model, based on a continuum thermodynamic framework, is proposed to predict the general response of self-healing materials. The self-healing materials? response produces a reduction in size of microcracks and voids, opposite to damage. The constitutive model, developed in the ...

  12. Conceptual design of a passive, inherently safe emergency shutdown rod for high-temperature reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a passive, inherently safe, and fail-safe design for an emergency control rod is presented. The functioning of the rod is based solely on inexorable physical laws. The operation of the rod in its emergency function does not require the intervention of a human operator, nor does it rely on any signal from a monitoring or safety system. Although the concept could be applicable to a variety of reactors (provided a normal temperature range is specified), in this paper, the concept is applied to the emergency shutdown of a pebble-bed reactor. The preliminary study presented here demonstrates that the proposed Electro-Magnetic Optimally Scramming Control Rod (EM-OSCR) naturally operates when needed. The rod is held out of the core region by the force of an electromagnet. The force is generated by a current carried by a conductor, a portion of which passes near or through the reactor core region. When the temperature in the conductor increases because of an increase in temperature in the reactor, the conductor resistivity increases. This, in turn, leads to a current decrease. When the current decreases below the level necessary to hold the rod up, the rod is released and it falls into the core under the effect of gravity. (author)

  13. How to Conduct Research on the Inherent Moral Significance of Teaching: A Phenomenological Elaboration of the Standard Repertory Grid Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kan, Carlos A.; Ponte, Petra; Verloop, Nico

    2010-01-01

    George Kelly's repertory grid application seems a promising method for researching the moral significance of teaching from a "life world" perspective. However, we encountered several challenges employing the repertory grid in its standard form for an inquiry into the inherent moral significance of teachers' everyday classroom interactions. In this…

  14. Local Application of Ibandronate/Gelatin Sponge Improves Osteotomy Healing in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zongyou; Chen, Wei; Xia, Zhidao; Liu, Yueju; Peggrem, Shaun; Geng, Tao; Yang, Zhaoxu; Li, Han; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Chi; Triffitt, James T.; Zhang, Yingze

    2015-01-01

    Delayed healing or non-union of skeletal fractures are common clinical complications. Ibandronate is a highly potent anti-catabolic reagent used for treatment of osteopenia and fracture prevention. We hypothesized that local application of ibandronate after fracture fixation may improve and sustain callus formation and therefore prevent delayed healing or non-union. This study tested the effect of local application of an ibandronate/gelatin sponge composite on osteotomy healing. A right-side ...

  15. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface. PMID:27379462

  16. Inherent change in MammoSite applicator three-dimensional geometry over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is commonly done with the MammoSite applicator, which requires symmetry to treat the patient. This paper describes three cases that were asymmetric when initially placed and became symmetric over time, without manipulation

  17. Clinical Application of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of non-healing wounds (e.g. pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted a nonline search of Medline and Pub Medical and crit...

  18. Self-healing interconnects for flexible electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the results of a study of self-healing flexible interconnect structures which utilize silver metallization on thin solid electrolyte films. Silver/electrolyte (Ag-Ge-Se) bilayers were fabricated on polyimide substrates and subsequently damaged by small radius bending. A small bias was used to stimulate Ag electrodeposition in the stress-induced cracks, thereby repairing the electrical discontinuity and returning the interconnect to a resistance close to its initial (unbroken) value. The healed structures were shown to be stable for small signal DC and AC conditions but were unable to withstand long periods of increased DC voltage stress due to interconnect erosion by ion migration.

  19. Self-healing polymer systems: Properties, synthesis and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.J.; Fischer, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, nature has developed materials and systems based on the concept of damage management (healing) in order to extend survival possibilities. In the last 20 years, the dream of implementing this concept to engineering systems to extend service lifetime has become a

  20. Biomimetic, Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    This final report contains a summary of significant findings, and bibliographies of publications and patents resulting from the research. The findings are grouped as follows: A) Lustrin-Mimetic Self-Healing Polymer Networks; B) Nanostructure-Directing Catalysis of Synthesis of Electronically and Optoelectronically Active Metallo-oxanes and Organometallics; C) New Discovery that Molecular Stencils Control Directional Growth to Form Light-Weight Mineral Foams.

  1. Application of laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniou, Christina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical non-invasive methods have become more and more important for the characterization of skin lesions and for therapy control. In vivo laser scanning microscopy is a promising method which can be used for the analysis of cellular structures in the skin up to a depth of 250 µm. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy (LSM is well-suited for the characterization of wound healing processes. In contrast to measurements of the transepidermal waterloss (TEWL the laser scanning microscopy allows the analysis of the healing process on a cellular level. The course of wound healing determined by laser scanning microscopy was correlated with numerical values, which correspond to those used for measurements of TEWL, allowing the numerical characterization of the wound healing process. Laser scanning microscopy showed that wound healing starts not only from the wound edges but also from "islands" inside the wound area. In contrast to TEWL measurements the LSM analysis is not influenced by disturbing factors such as temperature, humidity and topically applied substances. Therefore, the laser scanning microscopy is well-suited for the characterization of different types of wound healing therapies including the topical application of creams and lotions.

  2. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda

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    Hema Sharma Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01, higher collagen content (P < .05 and better skin breaking strength (P < .01 as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.

  3. Wound healing activity of topical application forms based on ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, Shankar Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Indian medicine-Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P skin breaking strength (P < .01) as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations. PMID:19252191

  4. Self-Healing Glassy Thin Coating for High-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanié, Sandra; Carlier, Thibault; Méar, François O; Saitzek, Sébastien; Blach, Jean-François; Podor, Renaud; Montagne, Lionel

    2016-02-17

    Glass thin films (with nanometer to micrometer thicknesses) are promising in numerous applications, both as passive coatings and as active components. Self-healing is a feature of many current technological developments as a means of increasing the lifetime of materials. In the context of these developments, we report on the elaboration of the first self-healing glassy thin-film coating developed specifically for high-temperature applications. This coating is obtained by pulsed laser deposition of alternating layers of vanadium boride (VB) and a multicomponent oxide glass. Self-healing is obtained through the oxidation of VB at the operating temperature. The investigation of the effect of elaboration parameters on the coating composition and morphology made it possible to obtain up to seven-layer coatings, with good homogeneity and perfect interfaces, and with a total thickness of less than 1 μm. The autonomic self-healing capacity of the coating has been demonstrated by an in situ experiment, which shows that a crack of nanometric dimension can be healed within a few minutes at 700 °C. PMID:26808059

  5. A bacteria-based bead for possible self-healing marine concrete applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, D.; Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a bacteria-based bead for potential self-healing concrete applications in low-temperature marine environments. The bead consisting of calcium alginate encapsulated bacterial spores and mineral precursor compounds was assessed for: oxygen consumption, swelling, and its ability to form a biocomposite in a simulative marine concrete crack solution (SMCCS) at 8 °C. After six days immersion in the SMCCS the bacteria-based beads formed a calcite crust on their surface and calcite inclusions in their network, resulting in a calcite–alginate biocomposite. Beads swelled by 300% to a maximum diameter of 3 mm, while theoretical calculations estimate that 0.112 g of the beads were able to produce ∼1 mm3 of calcite after 14 days immersion; providing the bead with considerable crack healing potential. The bacteria-based bead shows great potential for the development of self-healing concrete in low-temperature marine environments, while the formation of a biocomposite healing material represents an exciting avenue for self-healing concrete research.

  6. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications. PMID:27287150

  7. Topical Application of Sadat-Habdan Mesenchymal Stimulating Peptide (SHMSP Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen H. Al-Elq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Diminished wound healing is a common problem in diabetic patients due to diminished angiogenesis. SHMSP was found to promote angiogenesis. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of this peptide in healing of wounds in diabetic rabbits. Materials and Methods. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Diabetes mellitus was induced and the rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups: control group and peptide group. A-full thickness punch biopsy was made to create a wound of about 10 mm on the right ears of all rabbits. Every day, the wound was cleaned with saline in control groups. In the peptide group, 15 mg of SHMSP was applied after cleaning. On day 15th, all animals were sacrificed, and the wounds were excised with a rim of 5 mm of normal surrounding tissue. Histo-pathological assessment of wound healing, inflammatory cell infiltration, blood vessel proliferation, and collagen deposition was performed. Results. There were no deaths among the groups. There was significant increase in wound healing, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition, and significant decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration in the peptide group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Topical application of SHMSP improves wound healing in diabetic rabbits.

  8. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Lae Kim; Dae-Eun Kim

    2016-01-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used ...

  9. The inherence heuristic is inherent in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, J A

    2014-01-01

    [Open Peer Commentary] The inherence heuristic is too broad as a theoretical notion. The authors are at risk of applying their own heuristic in supporting itself. Nonetheless the article provides useful insight into the ways in which people overestimate the coherence and completeness of their understanding of the world.

  10. Therapeutic ultrasound - The healing sound and its applications in oral diseases: The review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothirmai Koneru; Ravikiran Alaparthi; Samatha Yalamanchali; R Sudhakara Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The application of medical ultrasound was mainly centered on the soft tissue diagnostic imaging until now. Recently, its use has been widened and adopted for various therapeutic purposes. It has been reported to facilitate the healing of bone fractures, wounds, apthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. In addition, ultrasound has also been shown to facilitate delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors, promote gene therapy to targeted tissues, and deliver thrombolytic drugs into blo...

  11. Fabrication of Hyaluronan-Poly(vinylphosphonic acid)-Chitosan Hydrogel for Wound Healing Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Hoang Phuc; Nguyen Thi Hiep; Do Ngoc Phuc Chau; Nguyen Thi Thu Hoai; Huynh Chan Khon; Vo Van Toi; Nguyen Dai Hai; Bui Chi Bao

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrogel made of hyaluronan, poly(vinylphosphonic acid), and chitosan (HA/PVPA/CS hydrogel) was fabricated and characterized to be used for skin wound healing application. Firstly, the component ratio of hydrogel was studied to optimize the reaction effectiveness. Next, its microstructure was observed by light microscope. The chemical interaction in hydrogel was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Then, a study on its degrada...

  12. A high efficacy antimicrobial acrylate based hydrogels with incorporated copper for wound healing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuković, Jovana S.; Babić, Marija M.; Antić, Katarina M.; Miljković, Miona G.; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A.; Filipović, Jovanka M.; Tomić, Simonida Lj., E-mail: simonida@tmf.bg.ac.rs

    2015-08-15

    In this study, three series of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and itaconic acid, unloaded, with incorporated copper(II) ions and reduced copper, were successfully prepared, characterized and evaluated as novel wound healing materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the expected structure of obtained hydrogels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed porous morphology of unloaded hydrogels, and the morphological modifications in case of loaded hydrogels. Thermal characteristics were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the glass transition temperatures were observed in range of 12–50 °C. Swelling study was conducted in wide range of pHs at 37 °C, confirming pH sensitive behaviour for all three series of hydrogels. The in vitro copper release was investigated and the experimental data were analysed using several models in order to elucidate the transport mechanism. The antimicrobial assay revealed excellent antimicrobial activity, over 99% against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, as well as good correlation with the copper release experiments. In accordance with potential application, water vapour transmission rate, oxygen penetration, dispersion characteristics, fluid retention were observed and the suitability of the hydrogels for wound healing application was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Design and evaluation of novel pH responsive hydrogel series. • Structural, morphological, thermal characterization and controlled copper release. • Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over 99%. • Antifungal activity against Candida albicans over 99%. • In vitro evaluation studies revealed great potential for wound healing application.

  13. A high efficacy antimicrobial acrylate based hydrogels with incorporated copper for wound healing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, three series of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and itaconic acid, unloaded, with incorporated copper(II) ions and reduced copper, were successfully prepared, characterized and evaluated as novel wound healing materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the expected structure of obtained hydrogels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed porous morphology of unloaded hydrogels, and the morphological modifications in case of loaded hydrogels. Thermal characteristics were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the glass transition temperatures were observed in range of 12–50 °C. Swelling study was conducted in wide range of pHs at 37 °C, confirming pH sensitive behaviour for all three series of hydrogels. The in vitro copper release was investigated and the experimental data were analysed using several models in order to elucidate the transport mechanism. The antimicrobial assay revealed excellent antimicrobial activity, over 99% against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, as well as good correlation with the copper release experiments. In accordance with potential application, water vapour transmission rate, oxygen penetration, dispersion characteristics, fluid retention were observed and the suitability of the hydrogels for wound healing application was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Design and evaluation of novel pH responsive hydrogel series. • Structural, morphological, thermal characterization and controlled copper release. • Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over 99%. • Antifungal activity against Candida albicans over 99%. • In vitro evaluation studies revealed great potential for wound healing application

  14. Intravenous Application of CD271-selected Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Tina; Watson, John Tracy; DVM, Walter Akers; Molligan, Jeremy; Achilefu, Samuel; Schon, Lew C.; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in fracture healing and can be used to enhance fracture healing. This study investigated how CD271-selected MSCs travel in circulation and when it is the optimal time to apply MSCs intravenously during fracture healing. Methods Based on the expression of CD271, MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow and labeled with cypate, a near infrared fluorochrome. A unilateral closed fracture was created at the femur in immunodeficient mice. The cypate-labeled MSCs were injected into the tail vein of the mice at days 1 and 3 after fracture, and were tracked by near infrared imaging. The mice were euthanized at 3 weeks after fracture. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect human MSCs at the fracture sites. Migration of CD271-selected MSCs, under the influence of stem cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), was assessed in vitro. Results Intravenously injected at day1, but not day 3, after fracture, CD271-selected MSCs accumulated at the fracture sites significantly and that lasted for at least 7 days. All fractures, with or without MSC injections, healed in 3 weeks. Human cells were localized at the fracture sites in mice by immunohistochemistry. CD271-selected MSCs migrated toward the medium contained SDF-1 in vitro. Conclusions After intravenous injection, CD271-selected MSCs were recruited to fracture sites. The stages of fracture healing influenced the homing of culture-expanded MSCs. In mice, an optimal window of intravenous injection of MSCs was around 24 hours after fracture. Clinical Relevance Intravenous application of MSCs may serve as a practical route to deliver stem cells for the treatment of fracture non-union and delayed union. Levels of evidence Level I PMID:24378433

  15. Local application of ibandronate/gelatin sponge improves osteotomy healing in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyou Yang

    Full Text Available Delayed healing or non-union of skeletal fractures are common clinical complications. Ibandronate is a highly potent anti-catabolic reagent used for treatment of osteopenia and fracture prevention. We hypothesized that local application of ibandronate after fracture fixation may improve and sustain callus formation and therefore prevent delayed healing or non-union. This study tested the effect of local application of an ibandronate/gelatin sponge composite on osteotomy healing. A right-side distal-femoral osteotomy was created surgically, with fixation using a k-wire, in forty adult male rabbits. The animals were divided into four groups of ten animals and treated by: (i intravenous injection of normal saline (Control; (ii local implantation of absorbable gelatin sponge (GS; (iii local implantation of absorbable GS containing ibandronate (IB+GS, and (iv intravenous injection of ibandronate (IB i.v.. At two and four weeks the affected femora were harvested for X-ray photography, computed tomography (CT, biomechanical testing and histopathology. At both time-points the results showed that the calluses in both the ibandronate-treated groups, but especially in the IB+GS group, were significantly larger than in the control and GS groups. At four weeks the cross sectional area (CSA and mechanical test results of ultimate load and energy in the IB+GS group were significantly higher than in other groups. Histological procedures showed a significant reduction in osteoclast numbers in the IB+GS and IB i.v. groups at day 14. The results indicate that local application of an ibandronate/gelatin sponge biomaterial improved early osteotomy healing after surgical fixation and suggest that such treatment may be a valuable local therapy to enhance fracture repair and potentially prevent delayed or non-union.

  16. Stem Cells in Skin Regeneration, Wound Healing, and Their Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Pastar, Irena; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Stojadinovic, Olivera

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and has an array of functions. Skin compartments, epidermis, and hair follicles house stem cells that are indispensable for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also contribute to wound repair, resulting in restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unsuccessful wound healing processes often lead to non-healing wounds. Chronic wounds are caused by depletion of stem cells and a variety of other cellular and molecular mechanisms, many of which are still poorly understood. Current chronic wound therapies are limited, so the search to develop better therapeutic strategies is ongoing. Adult stem cells are gaining recognition as potential candidates for numerous skin pathologies. In this review, we will discuss epidermal and other stem cells present in the skin, and highlight some of the therapeutic applications of epidermal stem cells and other adult stem cells as tools for cell/scaffold-based therapies for non-healing wounds and other skin disorders. We will also discuss emerging concepts and offer some perspectives on how skin tissue-engineered products can be optimized to provide efficacious therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration. PMID:26512657

  17. Stem Cells in Skin Regeneration, Wound Healing, and Their Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkemcho Ojeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the body and has an array of functions. Skin compartments, epidermis, and hair follicles house stem cells that are indispensable for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also contribute to wound repair, resulting in restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unsuccessful wound healing processes often lead to non-healing wounds. Chronic wounds are caused by depletion of stem cells and a variety of other cellular and molecular mechanisms, many of which are still poorly understood. Current chronic wound therapies are limited, so the search to develop better therapeutic strategies is ongoing. Adult stem cells are gaining recognition as potential candidates for numerous skin pathologies. In this review, we will discuss epidermal and other stem cells present in the skin, and highlight some of the therapeutic applications of epidermal stem cells and other adult stem cells as tools for cell/scaffold-based therapies for non-healing wounds and other skin disorders. We will also discuss emerging concepts and offer some perspectives on how skin tissue-engineered products can be optimized to provide efficacious therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  18. Therapeutic ultrasound - The healing sound and its applications in oral diseases: The review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothirmai Koneru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of medical ultrasound was mainly centered on the soft tissue diagnostic imaging until now. Recently, its use has been widened and adopted for various therapeutic purposes. It has been reported to facilitate the healing of bone fractures, wounds, apthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. In addition, ultrasound has also been shown to facilitate delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors, promote gene therapy to targeted tissues, and deliver thrombolytic drugs into blood clots. This article reviews the principles and current status of ultrasound-based treatments.

  19. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Cho-Hee; Eom, Na-Young; Jang, Hyo-Mi; Jung, Hae-Won; Choi, Eul-Soo; Won, Jin-Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Jeong, Dong Wook; Jung, Dong-In

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and efficacy of intralesional injection as a method of application to acute cutaneous wounds in dogs. Healthy adult beagles (n = 3) were used in this study. Autologous PRP was separated from anticoagulant treated whole blood in three dogs. Cutaneous wounds were created and then treated by intralesional injection of PRP in the experimental group, while they were treated with saline in the control group on days 0, 2 and 4. The healing process was evaluated by gross examination throughout the experimental period and histologic examination on day 7, 14 and 21. In PRP treated wounds, the mean diameter was smaller and the wound closure rate was higher than in the control. Histological study revealed that PRP treated wounds showed more granulation formation and angiogenesis on day 7, and faster epithelialization, more granulation formation and collagen deposition were observed on day 14 than in control wounds. On day 21, collagen deposition and epithelialization were enhanced in PRP treated groups. Overall, PRP application showed beneficial effects in wound healing, and intralesional injection was useful for application of PRP and could be a good therapeutic option for wound management in dogs. PMID:27051343

  20. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Abud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the results of topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in resistant venous ulcers. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of patients with treatment-resistant venous ulceration who were treated with amelogenin extracellular matrix protein between June 2011 and December 2012.. Results: 26 patients (21 male and 5 female with a total number of 28 ulcers (24 patients with 1 ulcer, 2 patients with two ulcers were evaluated. The patients were treated with topically applied amelogenin extracellular matrix protein and regional four bandage compression. Bandages were changed weekly. Each cure continued for six weeks. In fourteen patients (15 ulcers, we observed a complete healing by the end of the first cure. In another twelve cases (13 ulcers, the same period resulted with a reduction in wound diameter. We continued to the second cure for these patients. By the end of the second cure, complete healing was achieved in five cases (6 ulcers. Conclusion: Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein may be considered as an effective therapeutic choice for refractory venous ulcers.

  1. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  2. Triflate-functionalized calix[6]arenes as versatile building-blocks: application to the synthesis of an inherently chiral Zn(ii) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahim, Sara; Lavendomme, Roy; Reinaud, Olivia; Luhmer, Michel; Evano, Gwilherm; Jabin, Ivan

    2016-02-14

    Cavity-based metal complexes can find many applications notably in the fields of catalysis and biomimicry. In this context, it was shown that metal complexes of calix[6]arenes bearing three aza-coordinating arms at the small rim provide excellent structural models of the poly-imidazole sites found in the active site of many metallo-enzymes. All these N-donor ligands were synthesized from the 1,3,5-tris-methoxy-p-tBu-calix[6]arene platform, which presents some limitations in terms of functionalization. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new calix[6]arene-based building-blocks selectively protected at the small rim. Herein we describe the regioselective one step synthesis of two calix[6]arenes decorated with triflate groups, i.e. X6H4Tf2 and X6H3Tf3, from the parent calix[6]arene X6H6. It is shown that the triflate groups can either act as protecting or deactivating groups, allowing the elaboration of sophisticated calixarene-based systems selectively functionalized at the large and/or at the small rim. In addition, X6H3Tf3 is functionalized on the A, B, and D rings and thus gives access to inherently chiral compounds, as demonstrated by the synthesis of a rare example of inherently chiral cavity-based metal complex. PMID:26751614

  3. Review of animal models used to study effects of bee products on wound healing: findings and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananeh Wael M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-healing wounds are associated with high morbidity and might greatly impact a patient’s well-being and economic status. For many years, scientific research has focused on developing and testing several natural and synthetic materials that enhance the rate of wound healing or eliminate healing complications. Honey has been used for thousands of years as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, honey has reemerged as a promising wound care product especially for infected wounds and for wounds in diabetic patients. In addition to its proposed potent broad-spectrum antibacterial properties, honey has been claimed to promote wound healing by reducing wound hyperaemia, oedema, and exudate, and by stimulating angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation and epithelialisation. Several animal models, including large animals, dogs and cats, and different species of laboratory animals have been used to investigate the efficacy and safety of various natural and synthetic agents for wound healing enhancement. Interpreting the results obtained by these studies is, however, rather difficult and usually hampered by many limiting factors including great variation in types and origins of honey, the type of animal species used as models, the type of wounds, the number of animals, the number and type of controls, and variation in treatment protocols. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the most recent findings and applications of published experimental and clinical trials using honey as an agent for wound healing enhancement in different animal models.

  4. Platelet Lysate-Modified Porous Silicon Microparticles for Enhanced Cell Proliferation in Wound Healing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Flavia; Mori, Michela; Riva, Federica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Liu, Dongfei; Salonen, Jarno; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-01-13

    The new frontier in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds is the use of micro- and nanoparticles to deliver drugs or growth factors into the wound. Here, we used platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative of platelets, consisting of a multifactorial cocktail of growth factors, to modify porous silicon (PSi) microparticles and assessed both in vitro and ex vivo the properties of the developed microsystem. PL-modified PSi was assessed for its potential to induce proliferation of fibroblasts. The wound closure-promoting properties of the microsystem were then assessed in an in vitro wound healing assay. Finally, the PL-modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment over human skin. It was shown that PL-modified PSi microparticles were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell proliferation in different experimental settings. In addition, this microsystem promoted the closure of the gap between the fibroblast cells in the wound healing assay, in periods of time comparable with the positive control, and induced a proliferation and regeneration process onto the human skin in an ex vivo experiment. Overall, our results show that PL-modified PSi microparticles are suitable microsystems for further development toward applications in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds. PMID:26652045

  5. Application of mental disorders predictive scale in evaluating pathogenic factors and healing efficacy of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yi ZHANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the application of Mental Disorders Predictive Scale(MDPS in evaluating the pathogenic factors and healing efficacy of depression.Methods MDPS was adopted for detection in 58 depressive outpatients and 63 normal controls.The outcomes of the measurement and evaluation were compared and analyzed after a re-examination of depressive patients after 6 weeks.Results After a six-week treatment,the clinical symptoms of the depressive patients improved.The depression factor score(2.07±2.87 was significantly lower than the score(8.90±2.05 prior to treatment,(P < 0.01.However,the depression factor score was still significantly higher than the control group score(1.77±2.13,(P < 0.05.The correlation analysis of MDPS risk and depression factors showed that introversion,stressor,unhealthy defense mechanism,and lower social support had a significant correlation with the depression factor r=0.442-0.642,P < 0.05 or P < 0.01.If α=0.10,the order for entering the regression equation was as follows: unhealthy defense mechanism and lower social support.The standard regression coefficients were 0.489 and 0.371.Conclusion MDPS can be used as an index for evaluating the pathogenic factors and healing efficacy of depression.

  6. Stimulatory effects of topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poor educated people in some parts of Iran use burned mantles as a wound healing powder to prevent the bleeding and infections caused by injuries. Over the past 3 years we have studied the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on rats' neck wounds. In this paper the overall bio-stimulatory effects of burned radioactive lantern mantles on wound healing are presented. To perform surface area measurement, twenty rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. After inducing general anesthesia, full thickness excision wound was made on the dorsal neck in all animals. The 1st group received topical burned radioactive lantern mantle powder at 1st-3rd day after making excision wounds. The 2nd group received non-radioactive lantern mantle powder at the same days. Accurate blind surface measurement of the wounds by transparency tracing was used for assessment of the wound healing at 1st, 3rd, 7th, 10th and 15th days after making wounds. For histological study, 36 male rats randomly divided into two groups of 18 animals each. Full thickness excision wound (314±31.4 mm2) was made on the dorsal neck in all animals after inducing general anesthesia. For the first 3 days, cases received topical application of the radioactive lantern mantle powder while controls received non-radioactive lantern mantle powder. Three, seven and fourteen days after wounding, 6 rats were chosen by random in each group for wound sampling. Finally, to measure the tensile strength, an incision was made on the dorsal neck of the rats. Samples were obtained at 14th, 21st and 31th days after making incisions. Surface area measurement of the wounds showed a progressive surface reduction in both groups. However, for thorium treated group, the rate of recovery was significantly enhanced compared to that of the control group. Although the wound area in the thorium group was not significantly different from that of the control group at

  7. Application-Aware Optimization of Redundant Resources for the Reconfigurable Self-Healing eDNA Hardware Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in the mapping of embedded applications on a dynamically reconfigurable self-healing hardware architecture known as the eDNA (electronic DNA) architecture. The architecture consists of an array of cells interconnected through a 2D-mesh topology. Each cell consists ...

  8. Topical application of Katupila (Securinega leucopyrus) in Dushta Vrana (chronic wound) showing excellent healing effect: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ajmeer, Ahamed Shahan; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva

    2014-01-01

    Securinega leucopyrus (Willd.) Muell. is known as Humari in India, Katupila in Sri Lanka and Spinous fluggea in English. It is a desert climatic plant used topically in paste form for healing of chronic and non-healing wounds. Application of Katupila Kalka (paste) is used commonly in the management of acute as well as chronic wounds in Sri Lanka as a folklore medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of herbal paste of Katupila in the treatment of Dushta Vrana (chronic wound). I...

  9. ETS (Efficient, Transparent, and Secured Self-healing Service for Pervasive Computing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameem Ahmed

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available To ensure smooth functioning of numerous handheld devices anywhere anytime, the importance of self-healing mechanism cannot be overlooked. Incorporation of efficient fault detection and recovery in device itself is the quest for long but there is no existing self-healing scheme for devices running in pervasive computing environments that can be claimed as the ultimate solution. Moreover, the highest degree of transparency, security and privacy attainability should also be maintained. ETS Self-healing service, an integral part of our developing middleware named MARKS (Middleware Adaptability for Resource discovery, Knowledge usability, and Self-healing, holds promise for offering all of those functionalities.

  10. Antibiotic eluting clay mineral (Laponite®) for wound healing application: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, M; Chrzanowski, W; Rohanizadeh, R

    2014-11-01

    Different materials in form of sponge, hydrogel and film have been developed and formulated for treating and dressing burn wounds. In this study, the potential of Laponite, a gel forming clay, in combination with an antimicrobial agent (mafenide), as a wound dressing material was tested in vitro. Laponite/mafenide (Lap/Maf) hydrogel was formulated in three different ratios of Lap/Maf 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. Laponite/mafenide/alginate (Lap/Maf/Alg) film was also formulated by combining Lap/Maf gel (1:1) with alginate. Intercalation rate of mafenide into the layers of Laponite nanoparticles and physico-chemical properties, including wound dressing characteristics of materials were studied using various analytical methods. Furthermore, the degradation of materials and the release profile of mafenide were investigated in simulated wound exudates fluid and antibacterial effectiveness of the eluted mafenide was tested on a range of bacterial species. The cytotoxicity of materials was also evaluated in skin fibroblast culture. The results showed that mafenide molecules were intercalated between the nano-sized layers of Laponite. The eluted mafenide showed active antibacterial effects against all three tested bacteria. All intercalated mafenide released from Lap/Maf 1:1 and 1:2 gel formulations and nearly 80% release from 1:3 formulation during test period. No significant difference was observed in release profile of mafenide between Lap/Maf/Alg film and Lap/Maf formulations. Wound dressing tests on Lap/Maf/Alg film showed it is a breathable dressing and has capacity to absorb wound exudates. The study showed that prepared Lap/Maf composite has the potential to be used as an antibiotic eluting gel or film for wound healing application. Additionally, Laponite has shown benefits in wound healing processes by releasing Mg(2+) ions and thereby reducing the cytotoxic effect of mafenide on fibroblast cells. PMID:25027303

  11. Is human fracture hematoma inherently angiogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J

    2012-02-03

    This study attempts to explain the cellular events characterizing the changes seen in the medullary callus adjacent to the interfragmentary hematoma during the early stages of fracture healing. It also shows that human fracture hematoma contains the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor and has the inherent capability to induce angiogenesis and thus promote revascularization during bone repair. Patients undergoing emergency surgery for isolated bony injury were studied. Raised circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were seen in all injured patients, whereas the fracture hematoma contained significantly higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor than did plasma from these injured patients. However, incubation of endothelial cells in fracture hematoma supernatant significantly inhibited the in vitro angiogenic parameters of endothelial cell proliferation and microtubule formation. These phenomena are dependent on a local biochemical milieu that does not support cytokinesis. The hematoma potassium concentration is cytotoxic to endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Subcutaneous transplantation of the fracture hematoma into a murine wound model resulted in new blood vessel formation after hematoma resorption. This angiogenic effect is mediated by the significant concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor found in the hematoma. This study identifies an angiogenic cytokine involved in human fracture healing and shows that fracture hematoma is inherently angiogenic. The differences between the in vitro and in vivo findings may explain the phenomenon of interfragmentary hematoma organization and resorption that precedes fracture revascularization.

  12. Periodontal healing following guided tissue regeneration with citric acid and fibronectin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffesse, R G; Nasjleti, C E; Anderson, G B; Lopatin, D E; Smith, B A; Morrison, E C

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) with and without citric acid conditioning and autologous fibronectin application. The study subjects were four female beagle dogs with spontaneous periodontitis. The dogs were given thorough root debridement and 4 weeks later, mucoperiosteal flaps were raised on both sides of the mandible involving the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th premolar and 1st molar teeth. After debridement, notches were placed on the roots at the level of supporting bone. Citric acid (pH 1) was topically applied for 3 minutes on the exposed root surfaces of one side (experimental). The roots were irrigated with normal saline solution. Both the root surfaces and the inner surface of the flap were then bathed in autologous fibronectin in saline. Following this, Gore-Tex periodontal material was adapted to the roots of each tooth and sutured. The contralateral side, serving as control, was treated by surgery and application of Gore-Tex periodontal material only. All membranes were removed 1 month after surgery, and the dogs sacrificed at 3 months. Both mesio-distal and bucco-lingual microscopic histological sections were evaluated by descriptive histology, and linear measurements and surface area determination of the furcal tissues were made. Periodontal healing following the use of GTR procedure resulted in an increase in connective tissue and alveolar bone regeneration. Adjunctive critic acid plus autologous fibronectin produced slightly better results, but these differences were not statistically significant for this sample. PMID:2002428

  13. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  14. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A., E-mail: kazimmer@vt.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  15. Review of recent research on biomedical applications of electrospun polymer nanofibers for improved wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiba, Alaa J; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Webster, Thomas J; Luyt, Adriaan S; Abdullah, Aboubakr M; Elzatahry, Ahmed A

    2016-03-01

    Wound dressings play an important role in a patient's recovery from health problems, as unattended wounds could lead to serious complications such as infections or, ultimately, even death. Therefore, wound dressings since ancient times have been continuously developed, starting from simple dressings from natural materials for covering wounds to modern dressings with functionalized materials to aid in the wound healing process and enhance tissue repair. However, understanding the nature of a wound and the subsequent healing process is vital information upon which dressings can be tailored to ensure a patient's recovery. To date, much progress has been made through the use of nanomedicine in wound healing due to the ability of such materials to mimic the natural dimensions of tissue. This review provides an overview of recent studies on the physiology of wound healing and various wound dressing materials made of nanofibers fabricated using the electrospinning technique. PMID:26744905

  16. Stem Cells in Skin Regeneration, Wound Healing, and Their Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nkemcho Ojeh; Irena Pastar; Marjana Tomic-Canic; Olivera Stojadinovic

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and has an array of functions. Skin compartments, epidermis, and hair follicles house stem cells that are indispensable for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also contribute to wound repair, resulting in restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unsuccessful wound healing processes often lead to non-healing wounds. Chronic wounds are caused by depletion of stem cells and a variety of other cellular and molecular...

  17. Modeling particulate self-healing materials and application to uni-axial compression

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Olaf; Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Using an advanced history dependent contact model for DEM simulations, including elasto-plasticity, viscosity, adhesion, and friction, pressure-sintered tablets are formed from primary particles. These tablets are subjected to unconfined uni-axial compression until and beyond failure. For fast and slow deformation we observe ductile-like and brittle softening, respectively. We propose a model for local self-healing that allows damage to heal during loading such that the material strength of t...

  18. Topical Application of Sadat-Habdan Mesenchymal Stimulating Peptide (SHMSP) Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmohsen H Al-Elq; Mir Sadat-Ali; Mohamed Elsharawy; Ibrahim Al-Habdan; Fatin Othman Al-Aqeel; Naim, Magda M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Diminished wound healing is a common problem in diabetic patients due to diminished angiogenesis. SHMSP was found to promote angiogenesis. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of this peptide in healing of wounds in diabetic rabbits. Materials and Methods. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Diabetes mellitus was induced and the rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups: control group and peptide group. A-full thickness punch biopsy...

  19. Application of laser scan microscopy in vivo for wound healing characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the advancing age of the population, wound healing disturbances are becoming increasingly important in clinical routine. The development of wound healing creams and lotions as well as therapy control require an objective evaluation of the wound healing process, which represents the destruction of the barrier. Therefore, transepidermal water loss measurements are often carried out. These measurements have the disadvantage that they are disturbed by the interstitial fluid, which is located on the surface of chronic wounds and also by water components of the creams and lotions. Additionally, the TEWL measurements are very sensitive to temperature changes and to the anxiety of the volunteers. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the reepithelialization and barrier recovery of standardized wounds produced by the suction blister technique. It was demonstrated that this non-invasive, on-line spectroscopic method allows the evaluation of the wound healing process, without any disturbances. It was found that the wound healing starts not only from the edges of the wound, but also out of the hair follicles. The in vivo laser scanning microscopy is well suited to evaluate the efficacy of wound healing creams and for therapy control

  20. Effects of Using Different Healing Agents on Healing Efficiency in Solid State Self-Healing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-healing polymers possess the ability to heal in response to damage using resources inherently available to the system. The solid-state self-healing system was obtained by blending thermoplastic polymers into epoxy resin matrix. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polymer healing efficiency by using different thermoplastic polymers as healing agents which were poly (bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin) (PDGEBA), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). The bonding formed in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Healing was achieved by heating the fractured specimen to a specific temperature, above their glass transition temperature (Tg) to mobilize the polymeric chains of the healing agent. The Tg for each specimen was obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). From the Izod impact test it was found that healable resin with PDGEBA has the highest healing efficiency followed by PP and PE, with 63 %, 31 % and 24 % of average percentage healing efficiencies, respectively. These results were due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. The morphological properties and the fracture-healing process of the resins were then observed using optical microscope. (author)

  1. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-03-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  2. Nuclear deterrence: Inherent escalation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite 40 years of peace between the super powers, there is increasing clamor to the effect that nuclear war between the super powers is imminent; or could occur through escalation from a minor conflict; or could result from harsh rhetoric (but only on the part of the U.S.) in the super power dialogue. The factor that is ignored is that a massive nuclear attack would be rational ONLY if that attack could inflict such damage that the other super power could not launch a significant retaliatory nuclear attack. ONLY in this circumstance would there be any profit in launching an initial Strategic Nuclear Attack. This First Strike capability is not now possessed nor projected to be developed by either super power. As long as ANY possible Strategic Nuclear Attack against the national territory of one super power would be insufficient to prevent an equally destructive retaliatory attack, then a Strategic Nuclear Attack would inevitably result in the destruction of both and would be profitless, hence, pointless. This situation describes Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), the governing conflict paradigm applicable to both super powers. The only convential attack that would even remotely rival the national-destruction potential of a Strategic Nuclear Attack and could cause the attacked power to consider launching a retaliatory Strategic Nuclear Attack would be a massive land-air invasion/occupation of one super power by the other. Since neither super power can successfully execute such a conventional invasion/occupation, this situation is moot. The geo-political environments of the two super powers are so asymmetrical and their military positions so symmetrical that the probability of ANY forseeable situation resulting in their resorting to a Strategic Nuclear Exchange is vanishingly small. It is possible escape the Chicken-Little syndrome and, instead, devote energy to ensuring the maintenance of this favorable, but fragile, world system

  3. Self-healing supramolecular bioelastomers with shape memory property as a multifunctional platform for biomedical applications via modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Xin; Hou, Sen; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-10-01

    Mimicking native functional dynamics for traditional biomaterials such as thermoset elastomers is limited due to their lack of responsiveness to biological stimuli and difficulties to incorporate biofunctionalities. Furthermore, the mechanical fracture of traditional thermoset elastomers caused by irreversible covalent bond rupture would lead to their permanent loss of properties. To overcome these challenges, degradable self-healed supramolecular bioelastomers are designed by an elastic poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) backbone and multiple hydrogen-bonding ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) grafts. These supramolecular elastic polymers exhibit efficient self-healing, rapid shape-memory abilities and highly tunable mechanical properties due to the dynamic supramolecular interactions, and perform a good biocompatibility in vitro and a mild host response in vivo. By combining modular approaches, these supramolecular bioelastomers have been further assembled into a multifunctional platform to expand their applications in different biomedical fields. These include a complex 3D scaffold with shape-memory capacity and anisotropic mechanical properties, a controllable drug delivery model via a layer-by-layer technique, a surface antibacterial composite by physical modification, and a spatial oriented cell co-culture system via incorporating different cell-laden self-healing films, demonstrating their potential as building blocks in a wide range of biomedical applications where dynamic properties and biological functions are desired. PMID:27424213

  4. In Vitro Wound Healing Improvement by Low-Level Laser Therapy Application in Cultured Gingival Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. Basso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine adequate energy doses using specific parameters of LLLT to produce biostimulatory effects on human gingival fibroblast culture. Cells (3×104 cells/cm2 were seeded on 24-well acrylic plates using plain DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 48-hour incubation with 5% CO2 at 37°C, cells were irradiated with a InGaAsP diode laser prototype (LASERTable; 780±3 nm; 40 mW with energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J/cm2. Cells were irradiated every 24 h totalizing 3 applications. Twenty-four hours after the last irradiation, cell metabolism was evaluated by the MTT assay and the two most effective doses (0.5 and 3 J/cm2 were selected to evaluate the cell number (trypan blue assay and the cell migration capacity (wound healing assay; transwell migration assay. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests with statistical significance of 5%. Irradiation of the fibroblasts with 0.5 and 3 J/cm2 resulted in significant increase in cell metabolism compared with the nonrradiated group (P<0.05. Both energy doses promoted significant increase in the cell number as well as in cell migration (P<0.05. These results demonstrate that, under the tested conditions, LLLT promoted biostimulation of fibroblasts in vitro.

  5. Kinetic and Reaction Pathway Analysis in the Application of Botulinum Toxin A for Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Lebeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new approach in the treatment of specific wounds in animal models and in patients with type A botulinum toxin is the focus of this paper. The indications or conditions include traumatic wounds (experimental and clinical, surgical (incision wounds, and wounds such as fissures and ulcers that are signs/symptoms of disease or other processes. An objective was to conduct systematic literature searches and take note of the reactions involved in the healing process and identify corresponding pharmacokinetic data. From several case reports, we developed a qualitative model of how botulinum toxin disrupts the vicious cycle of muscle spasm, pain, inflammation, decreased blood flow, and ischemia. We transformed this model into a minimal kinetic scheme for healing chronic wounds. The model helped us to estimate the rate of decline of this toxin's therapeutic effect by calculating the rate of recurrence of clinical symptoms after a wound-healing treatment with this neurotoxin.

  6. 基因治疗在创伤愈合中的应用%Gene therapy in wound healing applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹大勇; 陈斌; 付晋凤

    2011-01-01

    创伤修复是一个复杂的生物学过程,各种生长因子、炎症介质等在创面愈合过程中扮演着重要角色.基因治疗是现代生物治疗的一项重要技术,在创伤修复,尤其是难愈性创面的治疗中具有广阔的应用前景.基因治疗分为病毒载体导入系统(逆转录病毒、慢病毒、腺病毒、单纯疱疹病毒和腺病毒相关病毒等)和非病毒载体导入系统的基因感染(直接注射、显微注射、基因枪、电穿孔、脂质体和脂质体复合物、阳离子多聚物等).本文对创伤修复及基因治疗在该领域的应用进行文献综述.%Wound healing is a complex biological process, during which various growth factors, inflammatory mediators, and so on, play an important role. Gene therapy is an important technology in modern biological treatment. In the future, gene therapy wiu have a widely application prospects in the treatment of wound healing, especially non-healing wounds. Gene therapy could be realized via viral vector transfer system ( Retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus and adeno-associated virus, etc ), or non-viral vector transfer system ( direct injection, microinjection, gene gun, electroporation, liposomes and liposome complexes, cationic polymers, etc ). In this paper, the applications of gene therapy in wound healing will be reviewed.

  7. Field application of self-healing concrete with natural fibres as linings for irrigation canals in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Mors, R.M.; Mera-Ortiz, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the first field application of self-healing concrete with alkaliphilic spore-forming bacteria and reinforced with natural fibres. The application took place in the highlands in Ecuador in July 2014. The concrete was cast as linings for an irrigation canal that transports water from glaciers in the Andean mountains to agricultural fields. This canal has been used for over a century by the local farmers. Until not long ago the walls and bottom of the canals were simply made...

  8. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Sponge for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.

  9. Inherently safe light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's large nuclear power reactors of world-wise use have been designed based on the philosophy. It seems that recent less electricity demand rates, higher capital cost and the TMI accident let us acknowledge relative small and simplified nuclear plants with safer features, and that Chernobyl accident in 1983 underlines the needs of intrinsic and passive safety characteristics. In such background, several inherently safe reactor concepts have been presented abroad and domestically. First describing 'Can inherently safe reactors be designed,' then I introduce representative reactor concepts of inherently safe LWRs advocated abroad so far. All of these innovative reactors employ intrinsic and passive features in their design, as follows: (1) PIUS, an acronym for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety, or an integral PWR with passive heat sink and passive shutdown mechanism, advocated by ASEA-ATOM of Sweden. (2) MAP(Minimum Attention Plant), or a self-pressurized, natural circulation integral PWR, promoted by CE Inc. of the U.S. (3) TPS(TRIGA Power System), or a compact PWR with passive heat sink and inherent fuel characteristics of large prompt temperature coefficient, prompted by GA Technologies Inc. of the U.S. (4) PIUS-BWR, or an inherently safe BWR employing passively actuated fluid valves, in competition with PIUS, prompted by ORNL of the U.S. Then, I will describe the domestic trends in Japan and the innovative inherently safe LWRs presented domestically so far. (author)

  10. Endoscopic application of EGF-chitosan hydrogel for precipitated healing of GI peptic ulcers and mucosectomy-induced ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Bang, Byoung Wook; Lee, Eunhye; Kim, Jungju; Kim, Hyung Gil; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2014-02-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has become a standard diagnostic tool for GI ulcers and cancer. In this study we studied endoscopic application of epidermal growth factor-containing chitosan hydrogel (EGF-CS gel) for treatment of GI ulcer. We hypothesized that directional ulcer-coating using EGF-CS gel via endoscope would precipitate ulcer-healing. EGF-CS gel was directly introduced to the ulcer-region after ulceration in acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced gastric ulcer (MRU) rabbit and pig models. The ulcer dimensions and mucosal thicknesses were estimated and compared with those in the control group. Healing efficacy was more closely evaluated by microscopic observation of the ulcer after histological assays. In the AAU model, the normalized ulcer size of the gel-treated group was 2.3 times smaller than that in the non-treated control group on day 3 after ulceration (P MRU model, the normalized ulcer size of the gel-treated group was 5.4 times smaller compared to that in the non-treated control group on day 1 after ulceration (P < 0.05). Histological analysis supported the ability of EGF-CS gel to heal ulcers. The present study suggests that EGF-CS gel is a promising candidate for treating gastric bleeding and ulcers. PMID:24338378

  11. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Deraemaeker, A.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2015-07-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods.

  12. Development and application of bacteria-based self-healing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006 a research program was launched at Delft University of Technology aiming for the development of a new class of materials, i.e. materials with an inbuilt healing mechanism. The idea is that these novel materials can self repair damage resulting in substantially decreased maintenance and repai

  13. Developing Flexible, High Performance Polymers with Self-Healing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Scott T.; Williams, Martha K.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Caraccio, Anne J.

    2011-01-01

    Flexible, high performance polymers such as polyimides are often employed in aerospace applications. They typically find uses in areas where improved physical characteristics such as fire resistance, long term thermal stability, and solvent resistance are required. It is anticipated that such polymers could find uses in future long duration exploration missions as well. Their use would be even more advantageous if self-healing capability or mechanisms could be incorporated into these polymers. Such innovative approaches are currently being studied at the NASA Kennedy Space Center for use in high performance wiring systems or inflatable and habitation structures. Self-healing or self-sealing capability would significantly reduce maintenance requirements, and increase the safety and reliability performance of the systems into which these polymers would be incorporated. Many unique challenges need to be overcome in order to incorporate a self-healing mechanism into flexible, high performance polymers. Significant research into the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into structural composites has been carried out over the past decade by a number of groups, notable among them being the University of I1linois [I]. Various mechanisms for the introduction of self-healing have been investigated. Examples of these are: 1) Microcapsule-based healant delivery. 2) Vascular network delivery. 3) Damage induced triggering of latent substrate properties. Successful self-healing has been demonstrated in structural epoxy systems with almost complete reestablishment of composite strength being achieved through the use of microcapsulation technology. However, the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into a system in which the material is flexible, or a thin film, is much more challenging. In the case of using microencapsulation, healant core content must be small enough to reside in films less than 0.1 millimeters thick, and must overcome significant capillary and surface

  14. Effect of Topical Application of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Excision Wound Healing in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Ghannadian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  15. Application of laser scanning microscopy for the characterization of wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Christina; Sterry, Wolfram; Patzelt, Alexa; Kramer, Axel; Meyer, Lars; Lademann, Jürgen; Alborova, Alena

    2007-01-01

    Optical non-invasive methods have become more and more important for the characterization of skin lesions and for therapy control. In vivo laser scanning microscopy is a promising method which can be used for the analysis of cellular structures in the skin up to a depth of 250 µm. Therefore, laser scanning microscopy (LSM) is well-suited for the characterization of wound healing processes. In contrast to measurements of the transepidermal waterloss (TEWL) the laser scanning microscopy allows ...

  16. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications

    OpenAIRE

    E: GIGLIO; Bonifacio, M.A.; Cometa, S.; Vona, D.; Mattioli-Belmonte, M.; Dicarlo, M.; Ceci, E.; Fino, V.; Cicco, S.R.; Farinola, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to our recently published research paper “Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015) 600–611) [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT). Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP) interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT...

  17. Preparation and optimization of bio-based and light weight aggregate-based healing agent for application in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tziviloglou, E.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The innovative technology of self-healing concrete allows the material to repair the open micro-cracks that can endanger the structure’s durability, due to ingress of aggressive liquids. Various concepts of self-healing concrete use encapsulation techniques, in order to immobilize and protect the healing agent during mixing and setting. In this paper the bio-based healing agent, consisting of alkaliphilic bacterial spores and organic mineral compounds (feed), is encapsulated into light weight...

  18. Ruthenium Grubbs’ catalyst nanostructures grown by UV-excimer-laser ablation for self-healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Successful preparation of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene (5E2N) monomer reacted with Ruthenium Grubbs’ Catalyst (RGC) composite. ► The kinetics of the 5E2N ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is effective in a large temperature range (−20 to 45 °C). ► The kinetics of the 5E2N ROMP is occurring at very short time scales (−4 Vol.%, occurring at very short time reaction. This approach opens new prospects for using healing agent nanocomposite materials for self-repair functionality, thereby obtaining a higher catalytic efficiency per unit mass.

  19. Bacterial cellulose–kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure–property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin–bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin–cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials. (paper)

  20. Bacterial cellulose-kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanna, Dwi; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M.; Alam, Parvez

    2013-12-01

    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure-property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin-bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin-cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials.

  1. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hyd...

  2. Symbiosis theory-directed green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application in infected wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lu Wen,1 Pei Zeng,1 Liping Zhang,1 Wenli Huang,1 Hui Wang,2 Gang Chen1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized for the first time using an antibacterial endophytic fungus of Chinese medicinal herb Orchidantha chinensis, which has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The AgNPs were analyzed by various characterization techniques to reveal their morphology, chemical composition, and stability. Also, the relationship between Chinese medicinal herbs, endophytic fungi, and the property of AgNPs was investigated for the first time. Interestingly, an experiment performed in this study revealed the proteins produced by the endophytic fungus to be capped on the nanoparticles, which led to an increase in the stability of spherical and polydispersed AgNPs with low aggregation for over 6 months. More importantly, further study demonstrated that the AgNPs possessed superior antibacterial activity and effectively promoted wound healing. Altogether, the biosynthesis of active AgNPs using the endophytic fungus from Chinese medicinal herb based on the symbiosis theory is simple, eco-friendly, and promising. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Orchidantha chinensis, endophytic fungi, symbiosis theory, wound healing

  3. Healing singing

    OpenAIRE

    Gretsch, Renate

    2013-01-01

    This study confirms the hypothesis that healing singing leads to positive emotional experiences in relation to other people through social resonance and a strong shared bond. People who have had negative interpersonal relationship experiences that have led to depression and fear respond favourably to healing singing, because it makes a positive encounter possible. Even if their resonance ability is limited by their illness, they can be reached through music, which allows them to slowly start ...

  4. Self Healing Coating/Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Burton; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mullenix, Pamela; Calle, Luz; Williams, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been developing self healing materials and technologies. This project seeks to further develop self healing functionality in thin films for applications such as corrosion protective coatings, inflatable structures, space suit materials, and electrical wire insulation.

  5. Self healing in polymers and polymer composites. Concepts, realization and outlook: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of microcracks is a critical problem in polymers and polymer composites during their service in structural applications. Development and coalescence of microcracks would bring about catastrophic failure of the materials and then reduce their lifetimes. Therefore, early sensing, diagnosis and repair of microcracks become necessary for removing the latent perils. In this context, the materials possessing self-healing function are ideal for long-term operation. Self-repairing polymers and polymer composites have attracted increasing research interests. Attempts have been made to develop solutions in this field. The present article reviews state-of-art of the achievements on the topic. According to the ways of healing, the smart materials are classified into two categories: (i intrinsic self-healing ones that are able to heal cracks by the polymers themselves, and (ii extrinsic in which healing agent has to be pre-embedded. The advances in this field show that selection and optimization of proper repair mechanisms are prerequisites for high healing efficiency. It is a challenging job to either invent new polymers with inherent crack repair capability or integrate existing materials with novel healing system.

  6. Robust synthesis of epoxy resin-filled microcapsules for application to self-healing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, Patryk A; Bond, Ian P; Wass, Duncan F

    2016-02-28

    Mechanically and thermally robust microcapsules containing diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-based epoxy resin and a high-boiling-point organic solvent were synthesized in high yield using in situ polymerization of urea and formaldehyde in an oil-in-water emulsion. Microcapsules were characterized in terms of their size and size distribution, shell surface morphology and thermal resistance to the curing cycles of commercially used epoxy polymers. The size distribution of the capsules and characteristics such as shell thickness can be controlled by the specific parameters of microencapsulation, including concentrations of reagents, stirrer speed and sonication. Selected microcapsules, and separated core and shell materials, were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It is demonstrated that capsules lose minimal 2.5 wt% at temperatures no higher than 120°C. These microcapsules can be applied to self-healing carbon fibre composite structural materials, with preliminary results showing promising performance. PMID:26755765

  7. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, E; Bonifacio, M A; Cometa, S; Vona, D; Mattioli-Belmonte, M; Dicarlo, M; Ceci, E; Fino, V; Cicco, S R; Farinola, G M

    2016-06-01

    This data article is related to our recently published research paper "Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015) 600-611) [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT). Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP) interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) acquired in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) mode and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was reported. Moreover, CIP release experiments on CIP-PGT patches were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) at different pH values. PMID:27158646

  8. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Giglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published research paper “Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015 600–611 [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT. Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR acquired in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR mode and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was reported. Moreover, CIP release experiments on CIP-PGT patches were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC at different pH values.

  9. High Temperature Lightweight Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2014-01-01

    The present research effort was undertaken to develop a new generation of SiC fiber- reinforced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) with sufficient high temperature plasticity to reduce crack propagation and self-healing capabilities to fill surface-connected cracks to prevent the oxygen ingress to the fibers. A matrix engineered with these capabilities is expected to increase the load bearing capabilities of SiCSiC CMCs at high temperatures. Several matrix compositions were designed to match the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the SiC fibers using a rule of mixture (ROM) approach. The CTE values of these matrices were determined and it was demonstrated that they were generally in good agreement with that of monolithic SiC between room temperature and 1525 K. The parameters to hot press the powders were optimized, and specimens were fabricated for determining bend strength, CTE, oxidation and microstructural characteristics of the engineered matrices. The oxidation tests revealed that some of the matrices exhibited catastrophic oxidation, and therefore, these were eliminated from further consideration. Two promising compositions were down selected based on these results for further development. Four-point bend tests were conducted on these two promising matrices between room temperature and 1698 K. Although theses matrices were brittle and failed at low stresses at room temperature, they exhibited high temperature ductility and higher stresses at the higher temperatures. The effects of different additives on the self-healing capabilities of these matrices were investigated. The results of preliminary studies conducted to slurry and melt infiltration trials with CrSi2 are described.

  10. Review of animal models used to study effects of bee products on wound healing: findings and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hananeh Wael M.; Ismail Zuhair Bani; Alshehabat Musa A.; Ali Ja’afar

    2015-01-01

    Non-healing wounds are associated with high morbidity and might greatly impact a patient’s well-being and economic status. For many years, scientific research has focused on developing and testing several natural and synthetic materials that enhance the rate of wound healing or eliminate healing complications. Honey has been used for thousands of years as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, honey has reemerged as a promising wound care product especially for infected wounds and ...

  11. Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne; Bob, Adrienne; Terhorst, Dorothea; Ulrich, Martina; Fluhr, Joachim; Mendez, Gil; Roewert-Huber, Hans-Joachim; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    There is a high demand for noninvasive imaging techniques for wound assessment. In vivo reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents an innovative optical technique for noninvasive evaluation of normal and diseased skin in vivo at near cellular resolution. This study was designed to test the feasibility of CLSM for noninvasive analysis of cutaneous wound healing in 15 patients (7 male/8 female), including acute and chronic, superficial and deep dermal skin wounds. A commercially available CLSM system was used for the assessment of wound bed and wound margins in order to obtain descriptive cellular and morphological parameters of cutaneous wound repair noninvasively and over time. CLSM was able to visualize features of cutaneous wound repair in epidermal and superficial dermal wounds, including aspects of inflammation, neovascularisation, and tissue remodelling in vivo. Limitations include the lack of mechanic fixation of the optical system on moist surfaces restricting the analysis of chronic skin wounds to the wound margins, as well as a limited optical resolution in areas of significant slough formation. By describing CLSM features of cutaneous inflammation, vascularisation, and epithelialisation, the findings of this study support the role of CLSM in modern wound research and management.

  12. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna

    2013-01-01

    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  13. Polyurethanes as self-healing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Szmechtyk; Natalia Sienkiewicz; Joanna Woźniak; Krzysztof Strzelec

    2015-01-01

    The current development of polyurethane self-healing materials has been evaluated and reviewed. Three main ways of self-healing – microcontainers, microvascular networks and reversible polymers - are described, and recent most prominent examples of self-healing materials applications presented.

  14. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.

  15. Inherent failure modes of passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    appears also in simulated examples of inherent failures presented in this paper. Those examples were about consequences of foreign material inside the system and functioning of an emergency injection with disturbance in the internal thermodynamic state. The foreign material cases presented show that the cleanliness and maintenance of passive safety systems and their environment is essential and should be cared of during the whole life time of the power plant. Note also that a 'passive system failure' may be more difficult to define than in case of active systems. Inherent failures may result in degraded performance of a passive system instead of a complete failure. Adequacy of degraded performance needs to be evaluated carefully for actual applications. (authors)

  16. Preparation and optimization of bio-based and light weight aggregate-based healing agent for application in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tziviloglou, E.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The innovative technology of self-healing concrete allows the material to repair the open micro-cracks that can endanger the structure’s durability, due to ingress of aggressive liquids. Various concepts of self-healing concrete use encapsulation techniques, in order to immobilize and protect the he

  17. The Effect of Control-released Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Wound Healing: Histological Analyses and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Matsumoto, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that control-released bFGF using gelatin sheet is effective for promoting wound healing. Such therapeutic strategy was considered to offer several clinical advantages including rapid healing and reduction of the dressing change with less patient discomfort.

  18. Synthetic Self-Healing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Given enough time, pressure, temperature fluctuation, and stress any material will fail. Currently, synthesized materials make up a large part of our everyday lives, and are used in a number of important applications such as; space travel, under water devices, precise instrumentation, transportation, and infrastructure. Structural failure of these material scan lead to expensive and dangerous consequences. In an attempt to prolong the life spans of specific materials and reduce efforts put into repairing them, biologically inspired, self-healing systems have been extensively investigated. The current review explores recent advances in three methods of synthesized self-healing: capsule based, vascular, and intrinsic. Ideally, self-healing materials require no human intervention to promote healing, are capable of surviving all the steps of polymer processing, and heal the same location repeatedly. Only the vascular method holds up to all of these idealities.

  19. Static and fatigue tensile properties of cross-ply laminates containing vascules for self-healing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbacher, R.; Trask, R. S.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of including hollow channels (vascules) within cross-ply laminates on static tensile properties and fatigue performance is investigated. No change in mechanical properties or damage formation is observed when a single vascule is included in the 0/90 interface, representing 0.5% of the cross sectional area within the specimen. During tensile loading, matrix cracks develop in the 90° layers leading to a reduction of stiffness and strength (defined as the loss of linearity) and a healing agent is injected through the vascules in order to heal them and mitigate the caused degradation. Two different healing agents, a commercial low viscosity epoxy resin (RT151, Resintech) and a toughened epoxy blend (bespoke, in-house formulation) have been used to successfully recover stiffness under static loading conditions. The RT151 system recovered 75% of the initial failure strength, whereas the toughened epoxy blend achieved a recovery of 67%. Under fatigue conditions, post healing, a rapid decay of stiffness was observed as the healed damage re-opened within the first 2500 cycles. This was caused by the high fatigue loading intensity, which was near the static failure strength of the healing resin. However, the potential for ameliorating (via self-healing or autonomous repair) more diffuse transverse matrix damage via a vascular network has been shown.

  20. Inherent Optical Properties of Natural Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Sathyendranath

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent optical properties of pure seawater and of optically active substances generally present in seawater are briefly reviewed. Interrelationship between inherent properties and some of the important apparent properties are also presented, so that apparent properties can be calculated quite simply, if the inherent properties are known, or vice versa.

  1. Monitoring the restoration of interfacial contact for self healing thermal interface materials for LED and microelectronic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lafont, U.L.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Van Der Zwaag, S.

    2013-01-01

    While conventional self healing materials focus on the restoration of mechanical properties, newer generations of self healing materials focus on the restoration of other functional (i.e. non-mechanical) properties. Thermal conductivity is an example of an important functional property of a Thermal Interface Material (TIM) for LED’s and microelectronics devices. Current TIMs are optimized to provide thermal conductivity for as long a time as possible, yet these materials have no self healin p...

  2. A strong and stretchable self-healing film with self-activated pressure sensitivity for potential artificial skin applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Chengyi; Huang, Tao; Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-01-01

    Artificial skin, which mimics the functions of natural skin, will be very important in the future for robots used by humans in daily life. However, combining skin's pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing properties in a man-made material remains a challenging task. Here, we show that graphene and polymers can be integrated into a thin film which mimics both the mechanical self-healing and pressure sensitivity behavior of natural skin without any external power supply. Its ultimate s...

  3. ANTISEPTIC AND HEALING EFFECTS OF TURMERIC OINTMENT ON LOCAL APPLICATION IN SUPERFICIAL BURN

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An ethanol extract of turmeric in Vaseline base after proper sterilization was applied topically along with Vaseline gauze (Jelonet) in 228 patients of superficial burns over small area and compared against the control group with applications of Vaseline gauze (Jalonet) alone on another area/patch of the same patients. On 3rd day itself the superficial burn wound were found chemically clean and healthy without any apparent infection in significantly greater number of cases (52%) in test group...

  4. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Burçin Abud; Kemal Karaarslan; Işıl Kılınç Karaarslan; Süreyya Talay; Soysal Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the prese...

  5. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, Cho-Hee; Eom, Na-Young; Jang, Hyo-Mi; Jung, Hae-Won; Choi, Eul-Soo; Won, Jin-Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Jeong, Dong Wook; Jung, Dong-In

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and efficacy of intralesional injection as a method of application to acute cutaneous wounds in dogs. Healthy adult beagles (n = 3) were used in this study. Autologous PRP was separated from anticoagulant treated whole blood in three dogs. Cutaneous wounds were created and then treated by intralesional injection of PRP in the experimental group, while they were treated with saline in the control group on days...

  6. Self-healing epoxy composites: preparation, characterization and healing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Reaz A. Chowdhury; Mahesh V. Hosur; Md. Nuruddin; Alfred Tcherbi-Narteh; Ashok Kumar; Veera Boddu; Shaik Jeelani

    2015-01-01

    Low velocity impact damage is common in fiber reinforced composites, which leads to micro-crack and interfacial debonding, where damage is microscopic and invisible. The concept of self-healing composites can be a way of overcoming this limitation and extending the life expectancy while expanding their usage in structural applications. In the current study, extrinsic self-healing concept was adopted using urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing room temperature curing epoxy resin system (S...

  7. Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Composite cryotanks, or composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to weight savings. Future NASA missions are expected to use COPVs in spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. However, reliability, reparability, and reusability of the COPVs are still being addressed, especially in cryogenic temperature applications; this has limited the adoption of COPVs in reusable vehicle designs. The major problem with composites is the inherent brittleness of the epoxy matrix, which is prone to microcrack formation, either from exposure to cryogenic conditions or from impact from different sources. If not prevented, the microcracks increase gas permeation and leakage. Accordingly, materials innovations are needed to mitigate microcrack damage, and prevent damage in the first place, in composite cryotanks. The self-healing technology being developed is capable of healing the microcracks through the use of a novel engineered nanocomposite, where a uniquely designed nanoparticle additive is incorporated into the epoxy matrix. In particular, this results in an enhancement in the burst pressure after cryogenic cycling of the nanocomposite COPVs, relative to the control COPVs. Incorporating a novel, self-healing, epoxy-based resin into the manufacture of COPVs allows repeatable self-healing of microcracks to be performed through the simple application of a low-temperature heat source. This permits COPVs to be reparable and reusable with a high degree of reliability, as microcracks will be remediated. The unique phase-separated morphology that was imparted during COPV manufacture allows for multiple self-healing cycles. Unlike single-target approaches where one material property is often improved at the expense of another, robustness has been introduced to a COPV by a combination of a modified resin and

  8. Application of Antrodia camphorata Promotes Rat’s Wound Healing In Vivo and Facilitates Fibroblast Cell Proliferation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra A. Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata is a parasitic fungus from Taiwan, it has been documented to possess a variety of pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Antrodia camphorata ethanol extract to accelerate the rate of wound healing closure and histology of wound area in experimental rats. The safety of Antrodia camphorata was determined in vivo by the acute toxicity test and in vitro by fibroblast cell proliferation assay. The scratch assay was used to evaluate the in vitro wound healing in fibroblast cells and the excision model of wound healing was tested in vivo using four groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Our results showed that wound treated with Antrodia camphorata extract and intrasite gel significantly accelerates the rate of wound healing closure than those treated with the vehicle. Wounds dressed with Antrodia camphorata extract showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure and granulation tissue contained less inflammatory cell and more fibroblast compared to wounds treated with the vehicle. Masson’s trichrom stain showed granulation tissue containing more collagen and less inflammatory cell in Antrodia camphorata treated wounds. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata extract significantly enhanced the rate of the wound enclosure in rats and promotes the in vitro healing through fibroblast cell proliferation.

  9. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND HARD-TO-HEAL SKIN WOUNDS. A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of various tissues. PRP is used in regenerative medicine, because it provides two of three components (growth factors and scaffolds necessary for complete tissue regeneration. The particular reason for the appearance of lesions is important in order to select an appropriate treatment method and technical application. PRP may be used for treatment of various chronic and hard-to-heal cutaneous wounds, especially when standard conventional therapy is not good enough and surgical treatment is not possible. It reduces the duration, cost of treatment and the hospital stay. There is reduction of wound pain after starting the treatment, reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission, wound healing is restored, and local immunity is activated.

  10. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique

  11. The inherent politics of quality in public park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelius; Fors, Hanna; Sullivan, Sidney

    In this paper, we highlight and illustrate the inherent politics embedded in “quality” as a concept for managing public parks. Reflecting more generic quality concepts, contemporary quality models in park management include concepts for both operational, strategic and stakeholder management as well...... managing the park organisation itself. However, quality concepts and their application through various management models include as well as exclude the access, values and worldviews of particular interests. In this way, any particular quality concept and model embeds its own politics by inherent...... can be called upon that offer alternative politics for managing public parks....

  12. SELF-HEALING POLYMERIC MATERIALS TOWARDS STRENGTH RECOVERY FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS%结构用自修复型高分子材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明秋; 容敏智

    2012-01-01

    Living organisms possess the ability of self-healing for nonfatal harm, like regeneration of the cut skin and broken bone, guided by instinct. As a result, their injury tolerance is substantially enhanced, which ensures healthy growth and breeding from generation to generation. Inspired by the functionality of naturally occurring species, self-healing polymers have been prepared as a member of intelligent materials family. They are coupled with built-in capability of rehabilitating tiny damages produced during manufacturing and/or usage. In recent years, the authors' lab systematically studied strength recovery of self-healing polymeric materials for structural application. By using knowledge of polymer chemistry, polymer physics, materials mechanics,etc. ,a series of extrinsic and intrinsic self-healing polymers and polymer composites were developed and characterized. The proposed strategies turn out to be feasible for typical thermosetting and thermoplastics polymers. Accordingly, topics including synthesis techniques,formulation optimization, processing, structure and properties relationship, healing mechanisms, stability and durability were carefully investigated. The present article briefly reviews the works carried out by the authors' team. Innovative routes that correlate materials chemistry to full capacity restoration are discussed for further development from bioinspired toward biomimetic repair.%自修复型高分子材料属于智能材料的一类,仿照生物体损伤自愈合的功能,通过材料内部的自诊断和自响应机制,及时修复材料在成型加工或使用过程产生的微小裂纹,避免其进一步扩展.近年来本课题组针对结构用自修复型高分子材料的强度恢复问题,综合利用高分子化学、高分子物理、材料力学等学科的理论和方法,设计、合成了一系列外植型和本征型自修复高分子材料,提出的自修复策略适用于典型热固性和热塑性高分子材料.此外,

  13. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals. (paper)

  14. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Application of Anorganic Bovine Bone and β-tricalcium Phosphate in Rabbit Calvaria

    OpenAIRE

    AR. Rokn; Moslemi, N.; B. Eslami; H. Khandagh Abadi; M. Paknejad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both anorganic bovine bone (ABB) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are used in clinical practice as bone substitute materials, but there is limited data comparing these two materials in standardized defects. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of ABB and β-TCP in the healing of experimentally induced bone defects. Materials and Methods: Eighteen bone defects were created on the calvaria of six rabbits. In each animal, one defect was left untreate...

  15. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu,O.; Fraaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique significantly improved the quality of the interfacial transition zone in mortars subjected to carbonation shrinkage. Consequently the frost salt scaling durability of blast furnace slag mortars wa...

  16. Micromechanical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube reinforced ethylidene norbornene nanocomposites for self-healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the fabrication of self-healing nanocomposite materials, consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) reinforced 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (5E2N) healing agent—reacted with ruthenium Grubbs catalyst—by means of ultrasonication, followed by a three-roll mixing mill process. The kinetics of the 5E2N ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) was studied as a function of the reaction temperature and the SWCNT loads. Our results demonstrated that the ROMP reaction was still effective in a large temperature domain ( − 15–45 °C), occurring at very short time scales (less than 1 min at 40 °C). On the other hand, the micro-indentation analysis performed on the SWCNT/5E2N nanocomposite material after its ROMP polymerization showed a clear increase in both the hardness and the Young modulus—up to nine times higher than that of the virgin polymer—when SWCNT loads range only from 0.1 to 2 wt%. The approach demonstrated here opens new prospects for using carbon nanotube and healing agent nanocomposite materials for self-repair functionality, especially in a space environment. (paper)

  17. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds.

  18. Impact of single-dose application of TGF-β, copper peptide, stanozolol and ascorbic acid in hydrogel on midline laparatomy wound healing in a diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerding, Moritz A; Ziebart, Thomas; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Wellmann, Axel; Ackermann, Maximilian

    2012-08-01

    Despite numerous advances and improvements in surgical techniques the incidence of incisional hernias after laparotomy remains high. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of single application of ascorbic acid, stanozolol, a synthetic anabolic steroid, copper peptide and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on laparotomy wound healing in an incisional wound model in diabetic mice. After diabetes induction with streptozotozin in Balb-c mice, midline laparatomies were carried out. Closure of the linea alba was followed by single-dose application of the agents dissolved in a hydrogel before skin closure. The functional outcome was assessed in terms of maximum tensile strength. In addition, vessel densities, collagen contents and proliferation, were measured. The breaking strength of the skin 14 days after surgery was significantly higher in ascorbic acid (ΑΑ)-treated incisional wounds, whereas the other agents did not show a significantly better functional outcome. No significant differences were seen in vessel densities. Collagen type III contents was higher in the ΑΑ-treated animals, whereas the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was lower compared to the other groups. These data underline the positive effect of topically applied ascorbic acid in wound healing. PMID:22614259

  19. Inherent safety and design certification of PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Electric Company has introduced an innovative technological approach to reactor design that, when combined with change in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) practice, will lead to safe and economically competitive fast breeder reactor electric power plants. The key elements in this approach are characteristics in the reactor that will cause it to passively control reactivity and shutdown and passively cool itself without action by the human operators or active devices that require energy supplies external to the reactor module. These characteristics have been called the inherent features or the inherency of the design. They are inherent because they depend on only the material and geometric properties of the reactor module design. Thermal expansion and deflections as well as temperature dependent nuclear properties, such as the Doppler effect, are examples of inherent behavior. Natural convection due to density differences in fluid coolant paths is another example. These characteristics do not depend on active devices that require external energy supplies. PRISM uses natural circulation cooling for safety grade decay heat removal. Negative reactivity feedback with increasing temperature will balance the power generated with the heat removed. The PRISM also incorporates a factory fabricated containment barrier that encloses the reactor and primary coolant. The reactor module design is being developed so that the inherent characteristics of the reactor module can be tested in a full scale prototype. Results from this testing along with other safety and design information will be used to obtain NRC Design Certification

  20. Self healing of defected graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For electronics applications, defects in graphene are usually undesirable because of their ability to scatter charge carriers, thereby reduce the carrier mobility. It would be extremely useful if the damage can be repaired. In this work, we employ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements to study defects in graphene introduced by argon plasma bombardment. We have found that majority of these defects can be cured by a simple thermal annealing process. The self-healing is attributed to recombination of mobile carbon adatoms with vacancies. With increasing level of plasma induced damage, the self-healing becomes less effective.

  1. Implications of inherent safe nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of present day nuclear power reactors and research reactors depends on a combination of design features of passive and active systems, and the alert judgement of their operators. A few inherently safe designs of nuclear reactors for power plants are currently under development. In these designs, the passive systems are emphasized, and the active systems are minimized. Also efforts are made to eliminate the potential for human failures that initiate the series of accidents. If a major system fails in these designs, the core is flooded automatically with coolants that flow by gravity, not by mechanical pumps or electromagnetic actuators. Depending on the choice of the coolants--water, liquid metal and helium gas--there are three principal types of inherently safe reactors. In this paper, these inherently safe reactor designs are reviewed and their implications are discussed. Further, future perspectives of their acceptance by nuclear industries are discussed. (author)

  2. Stress and Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Lisa M.; Graham, Jennifer E.; Padgett, David A.; Glaser, Ronald; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become clear that stress can significantly slow wound healing: stressors ranging in magnitude and duration impair healing in humans and animals. For example, in humans, the chronic stress of caregiving as well as the relatively brief stress of academic examinations impedes healing. Similarly, restraint stress slows healing in mice. The interactive effects of glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol and corticosterone) and proinflammatory cytokines [e.g. interleukin-1β (IL-1β...

  3. Measurement of welding residual stresses of reactor vessel by inherent strain method. Diagnosis of inherent strain distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental objective of this study is to ensure safety of nuclear reactor. A few accidents of leak from welded zones at pipe penetration part of reactor vessel or at coolant pipe are reported at home or abroad. One of the main causes is welding residual stress. Therefore, it is very important to know the welding residual stress in order to maintain high safety of the plant, estimate plant life cycle and design effective maintenance plan. Welded joints of nuclear reactor vessel have complex shapes, and the welding residual stresses also have three-dimensional complex distributions. In this study, inherent strain-based theory and method are applied to measure the welding residual stresses. The inherent strain method is one of analytical method as inverse problem, using least squares method, based on finite element method. So the method gives most probable value and deviation of residual stress. Reliability of estimated result can be discussed. In this method, inherent strains are unknowns. When residual stresses are distributed complexly in 3-dimensional stress-state, the number of unknowns becomes very large. So, inherent strain distribution is expressed with appropriate function to decrease largely the number. A mock-up is idealized for a welded joint at pipe penetration part of actual reactor vessel. The inherent strain method is applied to measure residual stress of the joint. In this paper, applicability of inherent strain distribution function is diagnosed. 10 kinds of functions are applied to estimate the residual stress, and accuracy and reliability of analyzed results are judged from 3 points of view, that is, residuals, unbiased estimate of variance of errors and welding mechanics. Most suitable function is selected, which brings most reliable result. (author)

  4. The inherent politics of quality in public park management

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelius; Fors, Hanna; Sullivan, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight and illustrate the inherent politics embedded in “quality” as a concept for managing public parks. Reflecting more generic quality concepts, contemporary quality models in park management include concepts for both operational, strategic and stakeholder management as well managing the park organisation itself. However, quality concepts and their application through various management models include as well as exclude the access, values and worldviews of particular i...

  5. Inherent safety aspects of metal fuelled FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Inherent safety of metal fuelled FBR is studied by static and dynamic methodology of reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics. ► It is discovered that FBR with metal fuel is inherently safe against ULOFA. ► Sensitive parameters are core radial expansion feedback, sodium void effect and flow halving time. ► Sensitivity analyses are carried out with 20% uncertainty. ► Inherent safety of 1000 MWe with the extended flow coast down is recommended to avoid cliff edge effects. -- Abstract: Static and dynamic studies of metal fuelled fast breeder reactors (MFBR) are carried out to verify the passive shutdown capability and its inherent safety parameters. Static calculations are carried out to determine the vested reactivity feedback parameters from the fuel and coolant temperature rise separately. Power reactivity decrement of metal fuel reactor is found to be small as compared to oxide fuel reactor of same size. ULOF analysis of metal (U–Pu–6% Zr) 1000 MWe pool type MFBR is studied with a flow halving time of 8 s. The study is also made with considering uncertainties on the sensitive feedback parameters such as core radial expansion feedback and sodium void reactivity effect. Inference of the study is, nominal transient behaviour of 1000 MWe core is benign under unprotected loss of flow accident (ULOFA) and the transient power reduces to natural circulation based Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS) capacity before the initiation of boiling. From the study, it is concluded that if the sodium void reactivity is limited (4.6$) then the inherent safety of 1000 MWe design is assured, even with 20% uncertainty on the sensitive parameters and also it is found out higher primary pump flow halving time (15 s instead of 8 s) can avoid cliff edge effects in 1000 MWe MFBR transient behaviour

  6. Healing efficiency and dynamic mechanical properties of self-healing epoxy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several systems to develop self-repairing epoxy resins have recently been formulated. In this paper the effect of matrix nature and curing cycle on the healing efficiency and dynamic mechanical properties of self-healing epoxy resins were investigated. We discuss several aspects by transferring self-healing systems from the laboratory scale to real applications in the aeronautic field, such as the possibility to choose systems with increased glass transition temperature, high storage modulus and high values in the healing functionality under real working conditions. (paper)

  7. Healing pathways through energy work in the perianesthesia care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C E

    2000-11-01

    Energy-medicine therapy such as healing touch is a powerful way to promote relaxation and enhance the healing process. Healing touch is a sacred healing art and a way of caring in which practitioners use their hands as channels to assess and balance the energy field that encircles the body in order to promote the innate ability to heal. A collection of energy-based treatment modalities are used to assess and treat the human energy system. The energy system that is life is influenced by healing touch, which is used extensively in the nursing profession. This energy-medicine therapy is used in all areas of nursing. This article discusses the concepts of healing touch, the human energy field, and applications of healing touch in professional practice in the perianesthesia setting. PMID:11866025

  8. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  9. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... inherently decoupled when integrated on the same handset, while also other parameters such as frequency duplex distance and interaction with the users body influence the mutual coupling....

  10. The inherent ethics and integrity of education

    OpenAIRE

    Godon, Rafal; Hogan, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    The paper begins with some introductory remarks that explain why understanding education as a coherent human practice is necessary for a proper account of ethics in the field of education. The authors take three steps: presenting education as a practice in its own right, discussing the concept of thinking in the context of educational practice and finally revealing some practical consequences of the inherent ethics of education. The paper invites readers to further investigatio...

  11. “Sugar-coating wound repair: A review of FGF-10 and dermatan sulfate in wound healing and their potential application in burn wounds”

    OpenAIRE

    Plichta, Jennifer K.; Katherine A Radek

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of patients suffer from burn injuries each year, yet few therapies have been developed to accelerate the wound healing process. Most fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been extensively evaluated, but only a few have been found to participate in wound healing. In particular, FGF-10 is robustly increased in the wound microenvironment following injury and has demonstrated some ability to promote wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear carbohydrates t...

  12. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of 'substitution' and 'moderation', since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed

  13. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-11-30

    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of "substitution" and "moderation", since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed. PMID:18395975

  14. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S; DiPietro, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  15. Self-healing epoxy composites: preparation, characterization and healing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaz A. Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low velocity impact damage is common in fiber reinforced composites, which leads to micro-crack and interfacial debonding, where damage is microscopic and invisible. The concept of self-healing composites can be a way of overcoming this limitation and extending the life expectancy while expanding their usage in structural applications. In the current study, extrinsic self-healing concept was adopted using urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing room temperature curing epoxy resin system (SC-15 as the healing agent prepared by in situ polymerization. Microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for structural analysis. Size and shape of microcapsules were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Size of the microcapsules was between 30 and 100 μm. Thermal characterization was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis. Microcapsules were thermally stable till 210 °C without any significant decomposition. Fiber reinforced composite fabrication was carried out in three different steps. In the first step, epoxy resin was encapsulated in urea-formaldehyde shell material, which was confirmed by FTIR analysis. In the next step, encapsulation of amine hardener was achieved by vacuum infiltration method. These two different microcapsules were added with epoxy at 10:3 ratio and composite fabrication was done with hand layup method. Finally, healing performance was measured in terms of low velocity impact test and thermoscopy analysis. Low velocity impact test with 30 J and 45 J impact loads confirmed the delamination and micro-crack in composite materials and subsequent healing recovery observed in terms of damaged area reduction and restoration of mechanical properties.

  16. Histologic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Application of Anorganic Bovine Bone and β-tricalcium Phosphate in Rabbit Calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both anorganic bovine bone (ABB and β-tricalcium phosphate (β- TCP are used in clinical practice as bone substitute materials, but there is limited data comparing these two materials in standardized defects.The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the effectiveness of ABB and β-TCP in the healing of experimentally induced bone defects.Materials and Methods: Eighteen bone defects were created on the calvaria of six rabbits. In each animal, one defect was left untreated and the other two werefilled with ABB and β-TCP. After one month, histological sections were prepared.Type and vitality of newly formed bone, percentage of new bone formation and residual material, thickness of trabeculae, inflammation and foreign body reaction were assessed.Results: The newly formed osseous tissue was vital in all defects and consisted of woven and lamellar bone. Mean percentages of new bone formation were 30.83±14.29%, 16.83±11.07% and 14.00±8.17% in β-TCP, ABB and control groups, respectively and the mean percentages of residual biomaterial were 24.17±14.01% and 36.50±8.43% in β-TCP and ABB groups, respectively. However,the differences were not statistically significant (all ps>0.05. Inflammatoryinfiltration was statistically higher in β-TCP compared to the control group (p=0.025, but the difference was not significant between β-TCP and ABB groups (p=0.083. Trabeculation thickness and foreign body reaction were not statistically different between β-TCP and ABB groups.Conclusion: β-TCP and ABB were not different with regard to the quantity and quality of newly formed osseous tissue. However, inflammatory infiltration washigher in sites filled with β-TCP.

  17. Inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 235, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China); Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); E-mail: ygzhg@163.com; Wang Changjiang [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); Zhou Zhong [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)

    2006-04-01

    The inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. The symbolic sequences bear three characteristics. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. By using transfer probability of Markov chain (MC), we obtain analytic expressions of generating functions in four probabilities stochastic wander model, which can be applied to all 4-symbolic systems. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to study some properties of DNA sequences.

  18. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  19. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  20. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A

    2016-01-01

    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing. PMID:26762498

  1. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept. PMID:24979876

  2. Sensors and actuators inherent in biological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Minoru; Stahlberg, Rainer; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Ying Joyce

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses examples of sensing and active mechanisms inherent in some biological species where both plants and animals cases are discussed: mechanosensors and actuators in Venus Fly Trap and cucumber tendrils, chemosensors in insects, two cases of interactions between different kingdoms, (i) cotton plant smart defense system and (ii) bird-of-paradise flower and hamming bird interaction. All these cases lead us to recognize how energy-efficient and flexible the biological sensors and actuators are. This review reveals the importance of integration of sensing and actuation functions into an autonomous system if we make biomimetic design of a set of new autonomous systems which can sense and actuate under a number of different stimuli and threats.

  3. A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, Naeema; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2014-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves the mediation of many initiators effective during the healing process such as cytokines, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, the defence mechanism of the body undergoes a step-by-step but continuous process known as the wound healing cascade to ensure optimal healing. Thus, when designing a wound healing system or dressing, it is pivotal that key factors such as optimal gaseous exchange, a moist wound environment, prevention of microbial activity and absorption of exudates are considered. A variety of wound dressings are available, however, not all meet the specific requirements of an ideal wound healing system to consider every aspect within the wound healing cascade. Recent research has focussed on the development of smart polymeric materials. Combining biopolymers that are crucial for wound healing may provide opportunities to synthesise matrices that are inductive to cells and that stimulate and trigger target cell responses crucial to the wound healing process. This review therefore outlines the processes involved in skin regeneration, optimal management and care required for wound treatment. It also assimilates, explores and discusses wound healing drug-delivery systems and nanotechnologies utilised for enhanced wound healing applications. PMID:24985412

  4. Self-healing networks: redundancy and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Quattrociocchi

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. We then analyze the effect of the level of redundancy on the resilience to multiple failures; in particular, we measure the fraction of nodes still served for increasing levels of network damages. Finally, we study the effects of redundancy under different connectivity patterns-from planar grids, to small-world, up to scale-free networks-on healing performances. Small-world topologies show that introducing some long-range connections in planar grids greatly enhances the resilience to multiple failures with performances comparable to the case of the most resilient (and least realistic scale-free structures. Obvious applications of self-healing are in the important field of infrastructural networks like gas, power, water, oil distribution systems.

  5. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. P. van Gestel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis.

  6. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth C Klein; Somes Chandra Guha

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care. [1] It is a snapshot of a patient′s total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors. [2...

  7. [Translation medicine in wound healing: successful cases and personal deliberation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-02-01

    Local wound care is the key step in wound management, and it is affected by many factors. The innovation and translation application of some new theories and skills may help accelerate local wound healing velocity and improve wound healing quality. In this paper, the translation medicine in wound healing, such as debridement, dressings, and tissue engineering products, are reviewed. In the meantime, personal consideration concerning their successful and future development is given. PMID:24684981

  8. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others

    1999-03-01

    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  9. How wounds heal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010: chap. 7. Richardson M. Acute wounds: an overview of the physiological healing process. Nursing Times . 2004; 100(4): 50. Von Der Heyde RL, Evans RB. Wound classification ...

  10. Healing Childhood Trauma Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, Caelan

    2012-01-01

    Millions of the world's children are exposed to traumatic events and relationships every day. Whatever the cause, this overwhelming stress produces a host of unsettling symptoms and reactions. The author highlights six practical principles that undergird healing interventions.

  11. Diabetes and wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Rikke; Irakunda, Gloire; Knudsen List, Karoline Cecilie; Sønderstup-Jensen, Marie; Hölmich Rosca, Mette Maria

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease where the glucose level in the blood is high, due to either insulin resistance, impaired insulin sensitivity or no insulin production. The high glucose level causes several complications, one of them being an impaired wound healing process, which might lead to chronic wounds, ulcers. Several factors play a role in the development of ulcers, and recent research indicates that microRNA might play a significant role in skin development and wound healing. The purpose of this...

  12. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  13. 面向容忍入侵的自治愈应用服务器设计与实现%Design and implementation of intrusion-tolerant oriented self-healing application server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周睿鹏; 郭渊博; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    针对现有容忍入侵应用服务器在自治愈方面的不足,提出了一种面向容忍入侵的自治愈应用服务器的构建方法.在容忍入侵应用服务器的基础上,设计了自治愈功能组件,包括检测部件、管理部件和执行部件,将自治愈功能透明地加入到容忍入侵应用服务器中,解决了容忍入侵应用服务器中存在的隐性入侵、软件老化以及容侵前提条件易遭破坏的问题,进一步提高了容忍入侵应用服务器的可靠性和生存性.最后在项目组研发的容忍入侵应用服务器平台--JANTM中实现了对自治愈功能的支持.%Aiming at the current intrusion-tolerant application server' s limitation for self-healing, a method to design an intrusiontolerant oriented self-healing application server is proposed.By the way of establishing a self-healing functional components, including the detection components, management components and implementation components, we add self-healing capabilities into the intrusiontolerant application server.It solves some problems in the intrusion-tolerant application servers, for example the hidden intrusion,software aging, and the vulnerable prerequisite of intrusion tolerance, and further enhances the reliability and survivability of the intrusiontolerant application server.Finally, an intrusion-tolerant oriented self-healing application server is realized, JANTM is built (J2EE based adaptive intrusion tolerant middleware) which is developed by our project team.

  14. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.;

    1998-01-01

    values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human......The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  15. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).

  16. Wound healing properties of Hylocereus undatus on diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez G, R M; Vargas S, R; Ortiz H, Y D

    2005-08-01

    Aqueous extracts of leaves, rind, fruit pulp and flowers of Hylocereus undatus were studied for their wound healing properties. Wound healing effects were studied on incision (skin breaking strength), excision (percent wound contraction) and the nature of wound granulation tissues, which were removed on day 7 and the collagen, hexosamine, total proteins and DNA contents were determined, in addition to the rates of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization. In streptozotocin diabetic rats, where healing is delayed, topical applications of H. undatus produced increases in hydroxyproline, tensile strength, total proteins, DNA collagen content and better epithelization thereby facilitating healing. H. undatus had no hypoglycemic activity. PMID:16177967

  17. The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Garcia; Adams, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing.

  18. Self-healing networks: redundancy and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Scala, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks. Obvious applications range from infrastructural to technological networks. By exploiting the presence of redundant links in recovering the connectivity of the system, we introduce self-healing capabilities through the application of distributed communication protocols granting the "smartness" of the system. We analyze the interplay between redundancies and smart reconfiguration protocols in improving the resilience of networked infrastructures to multiple failures; in particular, we measure the fraction of nodes still served for increasing levels of network damages. We study the effects of different connectivity patterns (planar square-grids, small-world, scale-free networks) on the healing performances. The study of small-world topologies shows us that the introduction of some long-range connections in the planar grids greatly enhances the resilience to multiple failures giving results comparable to the most resilient (but less realis...

  19. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Working, Dennis C.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Smith, Janice Y.; Topping, Crystal C.; Britton, Sean M.; Bagby, Paul R.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this work is to develop self-healing polymeric materials to enable damage tolerant systems, and to tailor puncture healing for use temperatures and applications. This will be a benefit in environments and conditions where access for manual repair is limited or impossible, or where damage may not be detected.

  20. The Inherently Three-Dimensional Nature of Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, Gregory G

    2013-01-01

    It is often asserted or implicitly assumed, without justification, that the results of two-dimensional investigations of plasma turbulence are applicable to the three-dimensional plasma environments of interest. A projection method is applied to derive two scalar equations that govern the nonlinear evolution of the Alfvenic and pseudo-Alfvenic components of ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma turbulence. The mathematical form of these equations makes clear the inherently three-dimensional nature of plasma turbulence, enabling an analysis of the nonlinear properties of two-dimensional limits often used to study plasma turbulence. In the anisotropic limit k_perp >>k_parallel that naturally arises in magnetized plasma systems, the perpendicular 2D limit retains the dominant nonlinearities that are mediated only by the Alfvenic fluctuations but lacks the wave physics associated with the linear term that is necessary to capture the anisotropic cascade of turbulent energy. In the in-plane 2D limit...

  1. Microwave Assisted Healing of Thermally Mendable Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Sosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer matrix composites offer high specific strength; however, their potential weight savings have been limited by the concern of damage tolerance. If microcracking and similar incurred damage could be autonomously sealed, composite structures could be built thinner and lighter while still addressing damage tolerance, thus achieving the weight savings they promise. Various self-healing mechanisms have been proposed to this end. Herein, a method of thermally reversible polymerization is investigated. To date, thermally activated repair of composites have been accomplished typically through resistive heating, which has certain inherent complexities. An alternate heating method, via microwave exposure of carbon nanotubes incorporated throughout a thermal reversible polymer matrix, is demonstrated. Carbon nanotube-doped composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption over an undoped control sample. Furthermore, it is shown that these composites can be heated locally by a focused microwave source. The particular composite formulation and layup studied could be uniformly heated to the targeted healing temperature of 100°C in as little as 20 seconds, followed by a healing time on the scale of minutes with total time depending upon the extent of damage.

  2. Healing relationships and the existential philosophy of Martin Buber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Kurt C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dominant unspoken philosophical basis of medical care in the United States is a form of Cartesian reductionism that views the body as a machine and medical professionals as technicians whose job is to repair that machine. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for an alternative philosophy of medicine based on the concept of healing relationships between clinicians and patients. This is accomplished first by exploring the ethical and philosophical work of Pellegrino and Thomasma and then by connecting Martin Buber's philosophical work on the nature of relationships to an empirically derived model of the medical healing relationship. The Healing Relationship Model was developed by the authors through qualitative analysis of interviews of physicians and patients. Clinician-patient healing relationships are a special form of what Buber calls I-Thou relationships, characterized by dialog and mutuality, but a mutuality limited by the inherent asymmetry of the clinician-patient relationship. The Healing Relationship Model identifies three processes necessary for such relationships to develop and be sustained: Valuing, Appreciating Power and Abiding. We explore in detail how these processes, as well as other components of the model resonate with Buber's concepts of I-Thou and I-It relationships. The resulting combined conceptual model illuminates the wholeness underlying the dual roles of clinicians as healers and providers of technical biomedicine. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that health care should be focused on healing, with I-Thou relationships at its core.

  3. Healing the nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Dortzbach

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article gives the motivations, methodology and some results of a study done in Christian healing interventions in African contexts of� stress and violence. Healing in community has been viewed through the prism of �shalom�. Shalom occurs when people who are in a� right� relationship with God� and� each other enjoy and share together the resources of the earth� in ways� that� show Christ� is Lord of all creation. Charts are given showing� the various kinds of community needs, ways to intervene, and some indications of ways to evaluate the interventions.

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Bhutani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is the use of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. Today several approved applications and indications exist for HBOT. HBOT has been successfully used as adjunctive therapy for wound healing. Non-healing wounds such as diabetic and vascular insufficiency ulcers have been one major area of study for hyperbaric physicians where use of HBOT as an adjunct has been approved for use by way of various studies and trials. HBOT is also indicated for infected wounds like clostridial myonecrosis, necrotising soft tissue infections, Fournier′s gangrene, as also for traumatic wounds, crush injury, compartment syndrome, compromised skin grafts and flaps and thermal burns. Another major area of application of HBOT is radiation-induced wounds, specifically osteoradionecrosis of mandible, radiation cystitis and radiation proctitis. With the increase in availability of chambers across the country, and with increasing number of studies proving the benefits of adjunctive use for various kinds of wounds and other indications, HBOT should be considered in these situations as an essential part of the overall management strategy for the treating surgeon.

  5. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels for vocal fold wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston, Joel; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    The unique vibrational properties inherent to the human vocal fold have a significant detrimental impact on wound healing and scar formation. Hydrogels have taken prominence as a tissue engineered strategy to restore normal vocal structure and function as cellularity is low. The frequent vibrational and shear forces applied to, and present in this connective tissue make mechanical properties of such hydrogels a priority in this active area of research. Hyaluronic acid has been chemically modi...

  6. Music and Healing During Post-Election Violence in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    David Otieno Akombo

    2009-01-01

    The significance of music as a healing agent permeates across the cultural spectrum. Hitherto, we find people of many cultures incorporating music to transform those unhealthy individuals into healthy ones. This paper extrapolates from the events that led to Kenya's post-election violence of 2007 and enumerates how a Kenyan community musician embraced the therapeutic qualities inherent in the cultural music of the Kenyan people to help the violence victims who developed post-traumatic stress ...

  7. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thakral

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method: We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results: Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion: Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction.

  8. Curcumin as a wound healing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbik, Dania; Ghadiri, Maliheh; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2014-10-22

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant and anti-infective effects. Curcumin has also been shown to have significant wound healing properties. It acts on various stages of the natural wound healing process to hasten healing. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the effects of curcumin on skin wound healing. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to reduce the body's natural response to cutaneous wounds such as inflammation and oxidation. The recent literature on the wound healing properties of curcumin also provides evidence for its ability to enhance granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling and wound contraction. It has become evident that optimizing the topical application of curcumin through altering its formulation is essential to ensure the maximum therapeutical effects of curcumin on skin wounds. PMID:25200875

  9. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice. PMID:24647509

  10. Self-healing of pores in PLGAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Mazzara, J M; Schwendeman, S P; Thouless, M D

    2015-05-28

    Self-healing of pores in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)s (PLGA) plays an important role in the encapsulation and controlled release of drugs from PLGA microparticles. Despite the importance of this phenomenon, neither the mechanics of the deformation nor the material properties that control it have been fully studied. In this study, the material properties of PLGA have been characterized using mechanical tests, and a finite-element model has been developed to predict how pores heal. This model assumes that the healing process occurs by viscous flow resulting from the deviatoric stress field induced by the interaction between the surface curvature and the surface tension of the PLGA. The simulations, which incorporate measured material properties, show good agreement with experimental observations. However, annealing processes that occur over prolonged times increase the viscosity and slow the healing times of PLGA films at intermediate temperatures above the glass-transition temperature. These findings may be reasonably applied towards the prediction of healing processes in PLGA and in related biomaterials for important biomedical applications such as drug delivery. PMID:25701611

  11. Self-healing supramolecular nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to execute a bottom-up design of the intrinsically self-healing nanocomposites. We briefly introduced the self-healing materials in chapter 1, covering classification and basic self-healing mechanism. In chapter 2, we have synthesized polyborosiloxane (PBS) according to the last century recipe as the self-healing supramolecular matrix. Additionally, we provided the long existing recipe with exclusive supplementary details, such as reaction kinetics, structural refine...

  12. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  13. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  14. Resistive heating for self-healing materials based on ionomeric polymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing materials have received considerable development in the last decade. Recent results have demonstrated healing in polymeric materials via a chemical reaction using a healing agent or response to thermal treatment. The goal of this research is to develop a new composite material, for application in wire insulation, that can detect damage and heal itself using resistance heating. The composite material is composed of a conductive network embedded in a polymer matrix. ...

  15. Phytochemicals in Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Sharad, Shashwat; Radha K. Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Traditional therapies, including the use of dietary components for wound healing and skin regeneration, are very common in Asian countries such as China and India. The increasing evidence of health-protective benefits of phytochemicals, components derived from plants is generating a lot of interest, warranting further scientific evaluation and mechanistic studies.

  16. The arts as healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivnick, H Q; Erikson, J M

    1983-10-01

    The relationship between artistic involvement and individual mental health is considered, and the concept of "healing" is differentiated from that of "therapy." Seven properties of art experience are identified which, when developed, have contributed to patients' recovery from mental illness. Implications of these properties for clinical programs, and the related value of art experience for non-patients, are discussed. PMID:6638153

  17. Polyurethane thermoplastic elastomers with inherent radiopacity for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; James, Nirmala R; Jayakrishnan, A; Joseph, Roy

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis and characterization of three different radiopaque thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers are reported. Radiopacity was introduced to the polyurethanes by incorporating an iodinated chain extender, namely, 4,4'-isopropylidinedi-(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBPA), into the polymer chain during polyurethane synthesis. Radiopaque polyurethanes (RPUs) were synthesized by reacting 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), IBPA, and three different diols. The polyols used for the synthesis were polypropylene glycol, polycaprolactone diol, and poly(hexamethylene carbonate) diol. RPUs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, thermogravimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-radiography. X-ray images showed that all RPUs prepared using IBPA as the chain extender are highly radiopaque compared with an Aluminum wedge of equivalent thickness. Elemental analysis revealed that the polyurethanes contained 18-19% iodine in the polymer matrix. The RPUs developed have radiopacity equivalent to that of a polymer filled with 20 wt % barium sulfate. Results revealed that RPUs of wide range of properties may be produced by incorporating different diols as the soft chain segment. Cell culture cytotoxicity studies conducted using L929 cells by direct contact test and MTT assay proved that these RPUs are noncytotoxic in nature. PMID:22815186

  18. Active healing of delaminated composite structure using piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Kim, Heung Soo

    2014-03-01

    Recently, light weight structure becomes an object of attention because increase of energy efficiency becomes the most important global hot issue. Then, composite structures, which have inherent high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, are in the limelight for light weight structures. However, complex failure modes of composite structure are still remains unsolved problem and become main obstacle of wide application of composite structures. Delamination is one of frequent damage phenomenon of laminated composite structure. Delamination can cause reduction of structural stiffness and decrement of natural frequencies. This might induce increase of structural vibration and resonant phenomenon of operating structures. Then, delamination should be detected and complemented. In this work, active control scheme and piezoelectric actuators are used to reduce the delamination effect of damaged composite structure. At first, finite element model for delaminated composite structure is constructed based on improved layerwise theory and then state space control model is established. After design and implementation of active controller, dynamic characteristics and structural performances of damaged composite structure are investigated and effectiveness of active healing is evaluated.

  19. BOUNDED MINIMUM INHERENT AVAILABILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish bounded minimum inherent availability requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) System Description Documents (SDDs). The purpose of the bounded minimum inherent availability is to provide a lower bound on availability which will allow design to meet throughput requirements while not affecting the ability of the items to perform their intended safety function

  20. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  1. The inherence heuristic as a source of essentialist thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Erika; Cimpian, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    Humans are essentialists: They believe hidden "essences" underlie membership in natural and social kinds. Although essentialism has well-established implications for important societal issues (e.g., discrimination), little is known about its origins. According to a recent proposal, essentialism emerges from a broader inherence heuristic-an intuitive tendency to explain patterns in terms of the inherent properties of their constituents (e.g., we have orange juice for breakfast [pattern] because citrus aromas [inherent feature] wake us up). We tested two predictions of this proposal-that reliance on the inherence heuristic predicts endorsement of essentialist beliefs, even when adjusting for potentially confounding variables (Studies 1 and 2), and that reducing reliance on the inherence heuristic produces a downstream reduction in essentialist thought (Studies 3 and 4). The results were consistent with these predictions and thus provided evidence for a new theoretical perspective on the cognitive underpinnings of psychological essentialism. PMID:25037751

  2. Monitoring Network and Interfacial Healing Processes by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Natural Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Grande, A M; van der Zwaag, S; García, S J

    2016-04-27

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is introduced as a new and powerful technique to monitor network and macroscale damage healing in an elastomer. For the proof of concept, a partially cured sulfur-cured natural rubber (NR) containing reversible disulfides as the healing moiety was employed. The forms of damage healed and monitored were an invisible damage in the rubber network due to multiple straining and an imposed macroscopic crack. The relaxation times of pristine, damaged, and healed samples were determined and fitted to the Havriliak-Negami equation to obtain the characteristic polymer parameters. It is shown that seemingly full mechanical healing occurred regardless the type of damage, while BDS demonstrates that the polymer architecture in the healed material differs from that in the original one. These results represent a step forward in the understanding of damage and healing processes in intrinsic self-healing polymer systems with prospective applications such as coatings, tires, seals, and gaskets. PMID:27057588

  3. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jumaat Mohd. Yussof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth factors initiate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. Inflammation is followed by the proliferation of fibroblasts, which lay down the extracellular matrix. Simultaneously, various white cells and other connective tissue cells release both the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and the tissue inhibitors of these metalloproteinases (TIMPs. MMPs remove damaged structural proteins such as collagen, while the fibroblasts lay down fresh extracellular matrix proteins. Fluid collected from acute, healing wounds contains growth factors, and stimulates fibroblast proliferation, but fluid collected from chronic, nonhealing wounds does not. Fibroblasts from chronic wounds do not respond to chronic wound fluid, probably because the fibroblasts of these wounds have lost the receptors that respond to cytokines and growth factors. Nonhealing wounds contain high levels of IL1, IL6, and MMPs, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio. Clinical examination of wounds inconsistently predicts which wounds will heal when procedures like secondary closure are planned. Surgeons therefore hope that these chemicals can be used as biomarkers of wounds which have impaired ability to heal. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will help the healing of chronic, nonhealing wounds.

  4. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment.Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  5. Self-healing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A three dimensional structure fabricated from a self-healing polymeric material, comprising poly(ester amides) obtained from ethylene glycol, azelaic acid and 1,1-aminoundecanoic acid, wherein polymeric material has a melt index above 2.5 g/10 min. as determined by ASTM D1238 at 190.degree. C. and 2.16kg, impact resistance and ductility sufficient to resist cracking and brittle fracture upon impact by a 9 mm bullet fired at a temperature of about 29.degree. C. at subsonic speed in a range from about 800 feet/sec to about 1000 feet/sec. It has been determined that the important factors necessary for self-healing behavior of polymers include sufficient impact strength, control of the degree of crystallinity, low melting point and the ability to instantly melt at impacted area.

  6. Bone healing: little secrets

    OpenAIRE

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of new strategies to enhance the healing of fractures continues to evolve with the introduction of both locally and systemically delivered compounds. The recent refinement in the use of autologous bone marrow as a bone graft material has brought the field of stem cell biology into orthopaedic practice. New recombinant peptides such as platelet- derived growth factor and teriparatide show promise as local and systemic enhancers respectively. Finally, recent evidence that mutati...

  7. The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing.

  8. Inherent Difference in Saliency for Generators with Different PM Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Eriksson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent differences between salient and nonsalient electrical machines are evaluated for two permanent magnet generators with different configurations. The neodymium based (NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs in a generator are substituted with ferrite magnets and the characteristics of the NdFeB generator and the ferrite generator are compared through FEM simulations. The NdFeB generator is a nonsalient generator, whereas the ferrite machine is a salient-pole generator, with small saliency. The two generators have almost identical properties at rated load operation. However, at overload the behaviour differs between the two generators. The salient-pole, ferrite generator has lower maximum torque than the NdFeB generator and a larger voltage drop at high current. It is concluded that, for applications where overload capability is important, saliency must be considered and the generator design adapted according to the behaviour at overload operation. Furthermore, if the maximum torque is the design criteria, additional PM mass will be required for the salient-pole machine.

  9. Amine-functionalized polypyrrole: Inherently cell adhesive conducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Y; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) have been recognized as novel biomaterials that can electrically communicate with biological systems. For their tissue engineering applications, CPs have been modified to promote cell adhesion for improved interactions between biomaterials and cells/tissues. Conventional approaches to improve cell adhesion involve the surface modification of CPs with biomolecules, such as physical adsorption of cell adhesive proteins and polycationic polymers, or their chemical immobilization; however, these approaches require additional multiple modification steps with expensive biomolecules. In this study, as a simple and effective alternative to such additional biomolecule treatment, we synthesized amine-functionalized polypyrrole (APPy) that inherently presents cell adhesion-supporting positive charges under physiological conditions. The synthesized APPy provides electrical activity in a moderate range and a hydrophilic surface compared to regular polypyrrole (PPy) homopolymers. Under both serum and serum-free conditions, APPy exhibited superior attachment of human dermal fibroblasts and Schwann cells compared to PPy homopolymer controls. Moreover, Schwann cell adhesion onto the APPy copolymer was at least similar to that on poly-l-lysine treated PPy controls. Our results indicate that amine-functionalized CP substrates will be useful to achieve good cell adhesion and potentially electrically stimulate various cells. In addition, amine functionality present on CPs can further serve as a novel and flexible platform to chemically tether various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, antibodies, and chemical drugs. PMID:25294089

  10. Impurities in Silicon Nanocrystals: The intentional and the inherent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David J.

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) have become an important class of materials in the fields of photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, lighting, and medicine. Impurities within SiNCs dramatically alter the electrical and optical properties of the host material, whether the impurity is intentionally added in an attempt to manipulate properties, or is inherent to the material and its natural state. Despite such remarkable changes, impurity incorporation within SiNCs remains poorly understood, since concepts applied to understanding impurities in bulk materials may not completely translate to nanomaterials. Understanding the effect of SiNC impurities requires new technologies to produce materials suitable for study combined with new insights to expound the differences in the nanoscale physics. Nonthermal plasma-assisted gas-phase synthesis provides an excellent route to producing and investigating impurities within SiNCs due to the unique chemical reaction environment of the plasma. The robustness of such a technique allows for the production of very pure SiNCs or SiNCs with added impurities simply by adding different chemicals to the plasma. The chapters in this document focus on the effect that different impurities have on the properties of SiNCs. Chapter 2 focuses on heavily P-doped SiNCs exhibiting the first known observation of a unique electrical and optical property known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) within free-standing SiNCs. Chapter 3 explains the synthesis of B- and P-doped SiGeNC alloys and their deposition into thin films for thermoelectric applications. Chapter 4 highlights research which uses P-doped SiNCs to form emitter layers for pn-junction type solar cells, including device fabrication and optical characterization. Chapter 5 examines inherent impurities in the form of dangling bond defects which may be responsible for the quenching of SiNC photoluminescence, and their evolution during the process of air-ambient oxidation. Several appendices at

  11. Effect of cow urine on wound healing property in Wister Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Tikare.,Paniraj K.L and Swetha R

    Full Text Available The wound healing activity of cow urine was studied in Wistar albino rats. The efficacy of wound healing property was evaluated by excision wound model. The parameter studied was the rate of wound contraction. The studies on excision wound healing revealed that all the groups showed decreased wound area from day to day. On day 4th, the external application of urine showed significant increase in wound healing in male and female rats compared to all other groups. However, on 14th post wounding day, Group I and VIII animals showed 0 % and 0.40.4 % of healing was left, which may be due to normal immunity of the animals. Where as nitrofurazone treated animals showed 0 % and 0.50.3 % healing .The study revealed that the cow urine on external application to the wound, hastened the wound healing process. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 317-321

  12. Healing responses following cryothermic and hyperthermic tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Braden L.; Coad, James E.

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive, thermally ablative, interventional technologies have been changing the practice of medicine since before the turn of the 20th century. More recently, cryothermic and hyperthermic therapies have expanded in terms of their spectrum of thermal generators, modes for controlling and monitoring the treatment zone and both benign and malignant medical applications. The final tissue, and hence clinical outcome, of a thermal ablation is determined by the summation of direct primary (thermal) and secondary (apoptosis, ischemia, free radical, inflammation, wound healing, etc.) injury followed by possible cellular regeneration and scar formation. The initial thermal lesion can be broadly divided into two major zones of cellular death: 1) the complete ablation zone closer to the thermal source and 2) the peripheral transition zone with a decreasing gradient of cell death. While not applicable to cryotherapy, hyperthermic complete ablation zones are subdivided into two zones: 1) thermal or heat fixation and 2) coagulative necrosis. It is important to clearly differentiate these tissue zones because of their substantially different healing responses. Therefore, the development of clinically successful thermal therapies requires an understanding of tissue healing responses. The healing responses can be affected by a number of additional factors such as the tissue's anatomy, organ specific healing differences, blood supply, protein vs. lipid content, and other factors. Thus, effective biomedical instrument development requires both an understanding of thermal cell injury/death and the body's subsequent healing responses. This paper provides a general overview of the healing pathways that follow thermal tissue treatment.

  13. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  14. Plant inherent control testing in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A testing program is being conducted in EBR-II to demonstrate passive, inherent reactor protection and control. Data obtained from tests have indicated that the reactor power can be controlled over a large range by the primary coolant flow, secondary coolant flow, and the turbine/generator load. Reactor safety could then be based on inherent safe characteristics of the plant rather than the complicated reactor shutdown system. A Plant Inherent Control Testing (PICT) program is being developed in EBR-II to investigate inherent control concepts for LMR's. The reactor power will be controlled between 40 and 100% power with the primary coolant pumps, the secondary coolant pumps, and the turbine admission valve. The thermal-hydraulic-neutronic system analysis code NATDEMO was used for the pretest predictions of the EBR-II plant response. This paper presents the results of this analysis

  15. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work concerns the development of a prototype of a Volume Scattering Function (VSF) sensor for measurement of this inherent optical property(IOP) of seawater....

  16. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K. Singal

    2011-12-01

    We show that a partial coherence due to antenna mechanism can be inherently present in any compact synchrotron source, which resolves many long-standing problems in the spectra and variability of compact extragalactic radio sources.

  17. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light propagation in the sea and the consequent remote sensing signals seen by aircraft and spacecraft is fundamentally governed by the inherent optical properties...

  18. Self-healing biomaterials(3)

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Craig, Stephen L.; Reichert, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the biomaterials community to the emerging field of self-healing materials, and also to suggest how one could utilize and modify self-healing approaches to develop new classes of biomaterials. A brief discussion of the in vivo mechanical loading and resultant failures experienced by biomedical implants is followed by presentation of the self-healing methods for combating mechanical failure. If conventional composite materials that retard failure may be ...

  19. Cell Therapy for Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    In covering wounds, efforts should include utilization of the safest and least invasive methods with goals of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. The recent development of advanced wound healing technology has triggered the use of cells to improve wound healing conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide information on clinically available cell-based treatment options for healing of acute and chronic wounds. Compared with a variety of conventional methods, such as skin...

  20. WOUND HEALING IN DIABETIC ULCER

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Bagus Putra Pramana; Ketut Putu Yasa

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of wound healing is a complex mechanism and involves a variety of cells. Injury is defined as a disruption of normal structure and function. Various types of growth factors and cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta involved in the mechanism of wound healing. There are four phases of wound healing mechanisms : hemostasis, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. Diabetic ulcers is one major complication, occurring in 15% of patie...

  1. Inherent functionality:-a useful term for consumer information?

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    2006-01-01

    Functional foods are broadly defined as those that offer 'something extra' in terms of health benefits than the basic food item, e.g. probiotic-enriched yoghurt versus ordinary yoghurt. The term functional food, by its very nature, tends to suggest that other foods are not functional and have less health benefit relative to functional foods. This is far from fact as many animal and plant foods are highly beneficial for health 'as consumed' and possess inherent functionality. The term inherent...

  2. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J.; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting–dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension...

  3. Music Healing Rituals in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussakorn Binson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the music healing rituals from North, Northeast and Southern Thailand. In general, these healing rituals bring together supportive elements from the family, the community and spiritual entities with the shaman as a conductor. Shaman utilizes music in corporate the community as a whole including elicits the support from the spiritual entitles. Traditional music healing process played the role as enticement to recruit spirits, distract the patients from experiencing unpleasant in their body. Even in today’s modern society these healing rituals have persisted, as they are inseparable from these regions’ animistic beliefs system.

  4. Evaluation of Stress-Induced Microbial Siderophore from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain S1 as a Potential Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitor in Wound Healing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Sita Lakshmi; Kandhasamy, S; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli; Perumal, P T

    2016-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes capable of causing various inflammatory and various degenerative diseases if over-expressed. The active site of these enzymes is a zinc binding motif which binds to the specific site on the substrate and induce degradation. Hence an inhibitor is required to form a complex with zinc motif which hampers the binding ability of MMPs. To obtain novel MMPs inhibitor for wound healing, the chelating activity of siderophore from the microbial source was focused. During screening for siderophore production, strain S1 produced the highest amount of siderophore in the minimal salts medium. The isolate was confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain S1 based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The activity of the siderophore was assayed using chrome azurol sulphonate and purified by the chromatographic techniques. The structural evidence through Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the isolated siderophore is a catecholate type with the distinctive characters. The positive results of calcein and fluozin-3 assays indicate that siderophore could bind to divalent metal ions, namely Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). As the siderophore compound focused on wound healing property, the in vitro studies revealed the viability of NH3T3 fibroblast cells and its efficiency in matrix modulating was confirmed through gelatin zymogram. PMID:26804794

  5. [Healing "booster" dressings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Téot, Luc; Meaume, Sylvie

    2011-09-01

    The relationship between the dressing and the wound is vital to clinical effectiveness. The more-or-less standard wound-surface coverings have been replaced with initial dressings, referred to as modern dressings, which contain an oily and sticky compound. They provide a moist medium by applying the basic mechanistic principles (liquid absorption and release). Other types of products and techniques modify the behaviour of wound cells by acting directly through irritation, biochemical stimulation or genetic modification of the cells, which accelerates the healing process. PMID:22003786

  6. Achilles tendon healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on symptomatic Achilles tendon abnormalities (rupture, tendinitis) evaluated with MR imaging during the healing phase after either surgical or conservative treatment. A total of 21 patients were studied. Fifteen of 21 underwent surgery (13 tendon ruptures) and six were managed conservatively (one rupture). MR studies were obtained before treatment in 11, at 3 months in eight, at 6 months in seven, and at 12 months in 12. The 1.5-T spin-echo and gradient-echo images were correlated with clinical results, planter reflex response times, and calf force measurements. Sequential T2 times were obtained from representative levels in the tendons

  7. Self-Healing by Means of Runtime Execution Profiling

    CERN Document Server

    Fuad, Mohammad Muztaba; Baek, Jinsuk

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing application brings itself into a stable state after a failure put the software into an unstable state. For such self-healing software application, finding fix for a previously unseen fault is a grand challenge. Asking the user to provide fixes for every fault is bad for productivity, especially when the users are non-savvy in technical aspect of computing. If failure scenarios come into existence, the user wants the runtime environment to handle those situations autonomically. This paper presents a new technique of finding self-healing actions by matching a fault scenario to already established fault models. By profiling and capturing runtime parameters and execution pathWays, stable execution models are established and later are used to match with an unstable execution scenario. Experimentation and results are presented that showed that even with additional overheads; this technique can prove beneficial for autonomically healing faults and reliving system administrators from mundane troublesho...

  8. Cyto- and genotoxicological assessment and functional characterization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid-based copolymeric hydrogels with potential for future use in wound healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirf, Dominik; Devery, Sinead M [Department of Life and Physical Science, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Higginbotham, Clement L [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Rowan, Neil J, E-mail: sdevery@ait.i, E-mail: dkirf@ait.i, E-mail: chigginbotham@ait.i, E-mail: nrowan@ait.i [Department of Nursing and Health Science, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid copolymer hydrogels crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. There is a pressing need to establish the toxicity status of these new copolymers because they may find applications in future wound healing processes. Investigations revealed that the capacity of these hydrogels for swelling permitted the retention of high amounts of water yet still maintaining structural integrity. Reverse phase HPLC analysis suggested that unreacted monomeric base material was efficiently removed post-polymerization by applying an additional purification process. Subsequently, in vitro toxicity testing was performed utilizing direct and indirect contact exposure of the polymers to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. No indication of significant cell death was observed using the established MTT, neutral red (NR) and fluorescence-based toxicity endpoint indicators. In addition, the alkaline Comet assay showed no genotoxic effects following cell exposure to hydrogel extracts. Investigations at the nucleotide level using the Ames mutagenicity assay demonstrated no evidence of mutagenic activity associated with the polymers. Findings from this study demonstrated that these hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and further work can be carried out to investigate their potential as a wound-healing device that will impact positively on patient health and well-being.

  9. Cyto- and genotoxicological assessment and functional characterization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid-based copolymeric hydrogels with potential for future use in wound healing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the toxicity of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid copolymer hydrogels crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. There is a pressing need to establish the toxicity status of these new copolymers because they may find applications in future wound healing processes. Investigations revealed that the capacity of these hydrogels for swelling permitted the retention of high amounts of water yet still maintaining structural integrity. Reverse phase HPLC analysis suggested that unreacted monomeric base material was efficiently removed post-polymerization by applying an additional purification process. Subsequently, in vitro toxicity testing was performed utilizing direct and indirect contact exposure of the polymers to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. No indication of significant cell death was observed using the established MTT, neutral red (NR) and fluorescence-based toxicity endpoint indicators. In addition, the alkaline Comet assay showed no genotoxic effects following cell exposure to hydrogel extracts. Investigations at the nucleotide level using the Ames mutagenicity assay demonstrated no evidence of mutagenic activity associated with the polymers. Findings from this study demonstrated that these hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and further work can be carried out to investigate their potential as a wound-healing device that will impact positively on patient health and well-being.

  10. A new self-healing epoxy with tungsten (VI) chloride catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphaus, Jason M; Rule, Joseph D; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    Using self-healing materials in commercial applications requires healing chemistry that is cost-effective, widely available and tolerant of moderate temperature excursions. We investigate the use of tungsten (VI) chloride as a catalyst precursor for the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of exo-dicyclopentadiene (exo-DCPD) in self-healing applications as a means to achieve these goals. The environmental stability of WCl6 using three different delivery methods was evaluated and the associa...

  11. Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogels Based on Reversible Physical Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Strandman; Zhu, X.X

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic and reversible polymer networks capable of self-healing, i.e., restoring their mechanical properties after deformation and failure, are gaining increasing research interest, as there is a continuous need towards extending the lifetime and improving the safety and performance of materials particularly in biomedical applications. Hydrogels are versatile materials that may allow self-healing through a variety of covalent and non-covalent bonding strategies. The structural recovery of phy...

  12. Self healing of damage in Fe-based alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S.

    2015-01-01

    Steel components can exhibit premature and low-ductility creep fracture, when exposed to high temperatures for long times. The failure arises from the formation, growth and coalescence of ultra-fine cracks and cavities. Self healing of damage is a promising new approach to enhance the lifetime of the steel components, in particular for applications at high temperatures. This thesis aims to realize the self-healing of damage in Fe-based alloys and unravel the mechanism responsible for efficien...

  13. Words that heal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  14. Natural convection in inherently safe passive emergency systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santoli, L.; Moncada Lo Giudice, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Tecnica

    2000-07-01

    Since long time passive systems have been adopted in architecture due to their importance for energy saving, utilisation of environmentally friendly component, low costs. The applications of passive techniques to building depend on the availability of design tools and methods for the characterisation of the performance of components. Therefore, in order to develop simplified design tool and increase confidence in numerical simulation through experimental validation, the aim of the paper is to study a passive system able to work in emergency conditions without any conventional energy source, minimising their environmental impact without any decrease of reliability, modularity and economy. The paper deals with the preliminary study of the natural convection in a water heat exchanger during the transient phase of start up. The feasibility study is focused on a simple heat transfer loop based on a single closed vertical circuit, heated in the lower section and cooled in the upper one, on the base of the first important experimental results pointed out in recent years (Department of Fisica Teorica of Genua University). The introduction of simplified design correlations will also lead to simplified calculation guidelines for thermosyphon installations. The evaluation of unsteady behaviour has been carried out characterising a pulsed thermal source at variable frequencies and different heat flow rates, and for the evaluation of the transient duration and the study of instability, fluid velocity and temperature profiles for different circuit sections have been analysed. A simulation of thermal-circulation with a pulsed natural convection has been carried out by means of a numerical CFD code. The comparison of the numerical simulation results with the equations governing the physical phenomena involved may lead to definition of a design correlation for an innovative and inherently safe emergency cooling system able to remove intensive thermal loads rising in a space during

  15. Large Eddy Simulation for an inherent boron dilution transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Large Eddy Simulation is performed for a transient boron dilution scenario in the scaled experimental facility of ROCOM. • Fully conformal polyhedral grid of 14 million is created to capture all details of the domain. • Systematic multi-step validation methodology is followed to assess the accuracy of LES model. • For the presently simulated BDT scenario, the LES results lend support to its reliability in consistently predicting the slug transport in the RPV. -- Abstract: The present paper focuses on the validation and applicability of large eddy simulation (LES) to analyze the transport and mixing in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during an inherent boron dilution transient (BDT) scenario. Extensive validation data comes from relevant integral tests performed in the scaled ROCOM experimental facility. The modeling of sub-grid-scales is based on the WALE model. A fully conformal polyhedral grid of about 15 million cells is constructed to capture all details in the domain, including the complex structures of the lower-plenum. Detailed qualitative and quantitative validations are performed by following a systematic multi-step validation methodology. Qualitative comparisons to the experimental data in the cold legs, downcomer and the core inlet showed good predictions by the LES model. Minor deviations seen in the quantitative comparisons are rigorously quantified. A key parameter which is affecting the core neutron kinetics response is the value of highest deborated slug concentration that occurs at the core inlet during the transient. Detailed analyses are made at the core inlet to evaluate not only the value of the maximum slug concentration, but also the location and the time at which it occurs during the transient. The relative differences between the ensemble averaged experimental data and CFD predictions were within the range of relative differences seen within 10 different experimental realizations. For the studied scenario, the

  16. 局部应用PTD-SOD对机械性创伤愈合的影响%Efficacy of topical application of PTD-SOD on wound healing in mice with mechanical injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元刚; 程欲; 张晨; 刘树滔; 饶平凡

    2011-01-01

    protein PTD-SOD with different concentrations(1 000 U,3 000 U,6 000 U and 10 000 U)were used to deal with the wounds continuously for 13 days.The mice were divided into different concentration SOD treatment group and PTD-SOD treatment group,model control group,physiological saline treatment group and compound iodine solution control group.The wound healing situation and healing percentage of the fight and left skin wounds of each mouse in every group was recorded every day.At day 14 after wound,the wound healing skin of each group was removed and some were used to make 10%tissues homogenate for detecting the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)and contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydroxyproline(Hyp);in the meantime,the other removed skin were fixed in 10% formalin for observing the histopathological changes of the tissues. Results Compared with the model control group,the physiological saline treatment group and the compound iodine solution control group,the skin wound healing percentage was significantly(P<0.05 or P<0.01)improved,with increase of the activities of SOD,CAT,GSH-Px and contents of Hyp (P<0.05 or P<0.01)and decrease of MDA(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the SOD groups or PTD-SOD groups (except for 10 000 U PTD-SOD group).When compared with the physiological saline treatment group or the compound iodine solution treatment group,the effect was similar to the model control group.In comparison to the SOD groups,under the same dosage and environment condition,the PTD-SOD groups were much better than SOD groups with regard to promoting skin wound healing percentage,increasing activities of antioxidases and contents of Hyp,decreasing contents of MDA.Among the PTD-SOD groups,the effect of high dosage 10 000 U on promoting skin wound healing was declined. Conclusions The oxidative stress may playan important role in the development of wound healing.Proper application of treatment with antioxidants is a alternative strategy in

  17. WOUND HEALING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Subramanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Healing chronic lower extremity wound is a problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim of the present study is to document the traditional knowledge base / medicinal plants pertinent to healing wound popular among Malayali’s in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Malayali’s in this area use a large number of plants extracts/ decoctions/ pastes to heal wound/ cut. Further, many of the plants used by Malayali’s have not been validated for their wound healing potential. The investigation resulted in the identification of 82 medicinal plants across 39 families to heal wound/cut. Maximum remedies were obtained from herbs (40% followed by trees (31% > shrubs (18% > climbers (10% and straggler (1%. Most of the healing aliments use leaves (30% followed by whole plant (16% > root (15% > seed (11% > fruit (10% > stem (14% > flower (4%. Further, external application of herbal formulations outnumbered oral consumption to promote wound healing.

  18. The Healing Power of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Anthos, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    This teacher believes that art has the power to heal, or at least aid in the healing process. After the terrorist attacks on 9/11, her students needed some way to express the injustice they felt. They discussed the attacks, and had some free drawing to release it from their system. They even did some patriotic-themed projects to boost their…

  19. Our Pathway toward Healing Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honour, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Robert Honour, Training and Staff Development Manager, at the Fairfax, Virginia, Department of Family Services (DFS), reports on the outcome of "Healing Racism" training at his organization. Participants in "Healing Racism Institutes" are transforming relationships and creating an organizational culture that…

  20. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    . With the introduction of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors for the treatment of UC, it has become increasingly evident that the disease course is influenced by whether or not the patient achieves mucosal healing. Thus, patients with mucosal healing have fewer flare-ups, a decreased risk of...

  1. Self-healing composites: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjing Wang; Duc Truong Pham; Chunqian Ji

    2015-01-01

    Self-healing composites are composite materials capable of automatic recovery when damaged. They are inspired by biological systems such as the human skin which are naturally able to heal themselves. This paper reviews work on self-healing composites with a focus on capsule-based and vascular healing systems. Complementing previous survey articles, the paper provides an updated overview of the various self-healing concepts proposed over the past 15 years, and a comparative analysis of healing...

  2. Management of impaired fracture healing: Historical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdobranski Đorđe; Micić Ivan; Mitković Milorad B.; Mladenović Desimir; Milankov Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Establishing continuity of long bones in cases of impaired bone healing and pseudo-arthrosis is one of the most complex problems in orthopedics. Impaired bone healing The problem of impaired fracture healing is not new. As in other areas of human life, the roots of modern treatment of impaired bone healing lie in ancient medicine. A relatively high percentage of impaired bone healing, as well as unsatisfactory results of standard therapies of impaired bone healing and pseudoarthr...

  3. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    %. The number is lower than anticipated and needs to be confirmed. Finally, a 3-D model, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, has been developed for prediction of healing efficiency of a microcapsule-based anticorrosive coating. Two kinds of cracks were considered: cracks accommodated within the bulk coating......Self-healing anticorrosive coatings are multi-component so-called smart materials, which have been proposed as a way to long-lasting corrosion protection of steel structures. The presently most promising technology route is based on microcapsules, filled with active healing agents, and has been...... to capillary forces. The healing agents then start to react, form a polymer network, and =glue‘ the crack. The approach has been applied to development of an epoxy-based self-healing anticorrosive coating for above water heavy duty corrosion protection. Emphasis has been on investigation of practical issues...

  4. Folk Medicine, Folk Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SEVER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk medicine and folk healing may be defined codified, regulated, taught openly and practised widely, and benefit from thousands of years of experience. On the other hand, it may be highly secretive, mystical and extremely localized, with knowledge of its practices passed on orally. Folk medicine and traditional medical practices emerged as a result of the reactions of primitive men against natural events and their ways of comparing and exchanging the medical practices of relevant communities with their own practices. Magic played an important role in shaping the practices. Folk medicine is the solutions developed by societies against material and moral disorders starting from the mythic period until today. Folk healer, on the other hand, is the wisest and the most respectable person in the society, in terms of materiality and morale. This person has the power of identifying and curing the diseases, disorders, consequently the origin of these diseases and disorders, and the skill of using various drugs for the treatment of the diseases and disorders or applying the practices with the help of information and practices acquired from the tradition. The Turks having rich and deep rooted culture. The Turkısh folk medicine and folk healing that contain rich cultural structure in themselves survive until today by being fed by different sources. Before Islam, the Turks used to believe that there were white and black possessors, ancestors’ spirits (arvaks and their healthy and peaceful life depended on getting on with these spirits. They also believed that diseases were caused when they could no more keep in with possessors and spirits, or when they offended and annoyed them. In such an environment of belief, the visible diseases caused by material reasons were generally cured with products obtained from plants, mines and animals in the region or drugs that were made out of their combinations. On the other hand, in invisible diseases associated with

  5. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  6. Cost-competitive, inherently safe LMFBR pool plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.S.; Brunings, J.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Hren, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Cost-Competitive, Inherently Safe LMFBR Pool Plant design was prepared in GFY 1983 as a joint effort by Rockwell International and the Argonne National Laboratory with major contributions from the Bechtel Group, Inc.; Combustion Engineering, Inc.; the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company; and the General Electric Company. Using current LMFBR technology, many innovative features were developed and incorporated into the design to meet the ultimate objectives of the Breeder Program, i.e., energy costs competitive with LWRs and inherent safety features to maintain the plant in a safe condition following assumed accidents without requiring operator action. This paper provides a description of the principal features that were incorporated into the design to achieve low cost and inherent safety.

  7. Inherent limits on optimization and discovery in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topological mapping of a large physical system on a graph, and its decomposition using universal measures are proposed. We find inherent limits to the potential for optimization of a given system and its approximate representations by motifs, and the ability to reconstruct the full system given approximate representations. The approximate representation of the system most suited for optimization may be different from that which most accurately describes the full system. - Highlights: • Graph-based approach to analyze full and partial representations of physical systems. • Direct link between a change in the physical system and complexity of the graph. • Inherent limits to the potential for optimization of a general system. • Inherent limits to the reconstruction of full system from partial representations

  8. Radiotherapy and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devalia, Haresh L; Mansfield, Lucy

    2008-03-01

    This review article discusses basic radiation physics and effects of radiation on wounds. It examines various postulated hypothesis on the role of circulatory decrease and radiation-induced direct cellular damage. The new concept related to the radiation pathogenesis proposes that there is a cascade of cytokines initiated immediately after the radiation. Sustained activation of myofibroblasts in the wound accounts for its chronicity. Recent advances highlight that transforming growth factor beta1 is the master switch in pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis. This articles overviews its role and summarises the available evidences related to radiation damage. The goal of this article was to provide its modern understanding, as future research will concentrate on antagonising the effects of cytokines to promote wound healing. PMID:18081782

  9. On Four Ways against Cooperative Principle& Inherent Conversational Implicatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪松

    2015-01-01

    By using methods of theoretical review,and example analysis,this paper aims at further analyzing Grice’s 4 ways of against the Cooperative Principle and inherent conversational implicatures in order to prove that once the Cooperative Principle is violated,the conversational implicatures arise.This will benefit the communicational practice.This paper finds out that any way against CP must cause conversational implicatures.There are limitations in this paper.It just covers the four ways of Grice introduced by Jiang Wangqi(2000),and inherent conversational implicatures found by the author.It might have other ways and implicatures as well.

  10. Conceptual design of REMISE. Inherently safe modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept of a modular nuclear reactor is presented. The neutronic-thermohydraulic calculations for the steady state design of an inherently safe reactor (RE.M.I.SE., REactor Modular Inherentemente SEguro, in Spanish) are shown here. Primary system is subdivided in several modules with individual steam generator and fuel element. Enhanced safety is attained by means of passive safety systems and inherent safety features. The total power proposed (200 Mwe) is divided in a large number of units of reduced power (2 MWth). The main parameters established from conceptual design are shown here, and also lines proposed for future steps in the design. (author)

  11. Contracting for Independent Evaluation: Approaches to an Inherent Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Jacob Alex

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been discussion of whether independent contract evaluation is possible. This article acknowledges the inherent tension in contract evaluation and in response suggests a range of constructive approaches to improving the independence of contract evaluation. In particular, a clear separation between the official evaluation report…

  12. Tactical supply chain planning models with inherent flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeilikia, Masoud; Fahimnia, Behnam; Sarkis, Joeseph;

    2016-01-01

    Supply chains (SCs) can be managed at many levels. The use of tactical SC planning models with multiple flexibility options can help manage the usual operations efficiently and effectively, whilst improve the SC resiliency in response to inherent environmental uncertainties. This paper defines...

  13. Attenuated Realities: Pynchon's Trajectory from V. to Inherent Vice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hume

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Part of what established Pynchon as postmodern was his piling up of multiple realities. Hence, the surprise that 'Inherent Vice' retains only the most attenuated forms of such worlds alternative to our own. In earlier fiction, we find a world served by the Tristero postal system, a world inhabited by angels, by thanatoids and other forms of the dead, by Japanese film monsters, by giant vegetables. In Pynchon’s fictive realities, an airship can sail beneath desert sand or through the center of the globe via Symmes’s Hole, and the photograph of a corpse can be run backward in time to show its murderer. Up through 'Against the Day', Pynchon showered us with alternate realities that reached beyond the material world that most of us accept as 'alles, was der Fall ist'. 'Inherent Vice' departs from this vision. Has Pynchon simply grown up? Or grown old? Or is something else operating here? I will provide a brief taxonomy of Pynchon’s multiple worlds as characterized by paranoia, mysticism, religion, and humor and then analyze what remains of these in 'Inherent Vice'. Among the causes for his changed technique may be his choice of genre. The detective story is epistemological rather than ontological in its questions, so Pynchon concerns himself far more with what Doc Sportello can know than with making him navigate through multiple realities. I argue, however, that 'Inherent Vice' is surprisingly a worst-case scenario for Pynchon.

  14. Music and Healing During Post-Election Violence in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otieno Akombo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of music as a healing agent permeates across the cultural spectrum. Hitherto, we find people of many cultures incorporating music to transform those unhealthy individuals into healthy ones. This paper extrapolates from the events that led to Kenya's post-election violence of 2007 and enumerates how a Kenyan community musician embraced the therapeutic qualities inherent in the cultural music of the Kenyan people to help the violence victims who developed post-traumatic stress disorder following the disputed elections. The story adds nuance to our understanding of how community musicians are still an invaluable therapeutic resource albeit their lack of professional training.

  15. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  16. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind

    2005-07-01

    ONiAl do not rule out CLC as a viable alternative for CO2 capture, but long term durability studies along with realistic testing of the carrier in a continuous rig is needed to firmly conclude. For comparative purposes a perovskite was synthesized and tested in CLC, under similar conditions as NiONiAl. The results indicate that in a moving bed CLC application, perovskites have inherent disadvantages as compared to simpler compounds, by virtue of low relative oxygen content. (Author)

  17. Healing agent for self-healing cementious material

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkers, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the production of a cementious material. The process comprises mixing cement starting materials and a particulate healing agent to provide the cementious material. The healing agent comprises coated particles, wherein the coated particles comprise bacterial material and additive. The bacterial material is selected from the group consisting of a bacterium, a lyophilized bacterium and a bacterial spore of a bacterium. The present invention solves these probl...

  18. Self-Healing Materials Systems: Overview of Major Approaches and Recent Developed Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Aïssa, B.; D. Therriault; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.

    2012-01-01

    The development of self-healing materials is now being considered for real engineering applications. Over the past few decades, there has been a huge interest in materials that can self-heal, as this property can increase materials lifetime, reduce replacement costs, and improve product safety. Self-healing systems can be made from a variety of polymers and metallic materials. This paper reviews the main technologies currently being developed, particularly on the thermosetting composite poly...

  19. Evaluation of wound healing potential of Pterocarpus marsupium heart wood extract in normal and diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar Singhal; Manish Gupta; Sheeja Edwin; Rupesh Soni

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the cutaneous wound healing potential of Pterocarpus marsupium in normal and diabetic rats and make inference for the cutaneous wound healing potential by possible "mode of action" P. marsupium extract. Materials and Methods: The effect of heart wood extract of P. marsupium on wound healing has been studied in diabetic and normal animals. The effect has also been compared with standard (mupirocin ointment) application. In the absenc...

  20. Polyurethane microcapsule with glycerol as the polyol component for encapsulated self healing agent

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Triwulandari; Ahmad Randy; Athanasia Amanda Septevani; Dewi Sondari,

    2010-01-01

    Self healing property is the ability of a material to be able to heal damages automatically and autonomously. It has wide range of application from paint coating, anti-corrosion coating, space-shuttle material, construction (concrete), automotive, etc. Microcapsules containing reactive compound for use in self healing polymers are successfully fabricated via interfacial polymerization of polyurethane (PU). The possibility of glycerol as polyol monomer for polyurethane microcapsule shell in th...

  1. Non-destructive testing techniques for the observation of healing effects in cementitious materials: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    GROSSE, CU; Van Tittelboom, Kim; De Belie, Nele

    2013-01-01

    To develop an appropriate method of self-healing for cementitious materials including the right composition and amount of suitable healing agents it is required to investigate the healing efficiency for certain material mixtures. While some researchers evaluate the regain in compressive strength by means of destructive load tests, this method is obviously second best in particular for field applications. In a large EU project the best candidates among the non-destructive testing methods are i...

  2. Healing defective CVD-graphene through vapor phase treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lam, Do; Kim, Sang-Min; Cho, Youngji; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-05-01

    Structural defects present on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-graphene have usually originated from the growth stage and transfer process. They limit the electronic transport properties of graphene and degrade performance of related devices. Here we report that these inherent atomic defects could be selectively healed by a simple vapor phase treatment performed in equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). The unique chemistry of Al2O3 ALD facilitated selective depositions of AlxOy compounds on the defects, which could be readily probed and visualized using AFM imaging. The healing agent, AlxOy, was observed to bind tightly to the defects and lead to doping of the CVD-graphene, which was reflected in the noticeable improvement in electrical sheet resistance. In contrast with the chemically doped graphene, the ALD-treated graphenes revealed notable long-term stability under environmental conditions. Our approach promises selective healing of defects present in most materials and possibly ensures considerable improvement in electrical and mechanical properties. ALD with a broad spectrum of material selection could be a versatile tool for upgrading properties of materials.Structural defects present on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-graphene have usually originated from the growth stage and transfer process. They limit the electronic transport properties of graphene and degrade performance of related devices. Here we report that these inherent atomic defects could be selectively healed by a simple vapor phase treatment performed in equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). The unique chemistry of Al2O3 ALD facilitated selective depositions of AlxOy compounds on the defects, which could be readily probed and visualized using AFM imaging. The healing agent, AlxOy, was observed to bind tightly to the defects and lead to doping of the CVD-graphene, which was reflected in the noticeable improvement in electrical sheet resistance

  3. Methyl methacrylate as a healing agent for self-healing cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of healing agents have already been tested on their efficiency for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Generally, commercial healing agents are used while their properties are adjusted for manual crack repair and not for autonomous crack healing. Consequently, the amount of regain in properties due to self-healing of cracks is limited. In this research, a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based healing agent was developed specifically for use in self-healing cementitious materials. Various parameters were optimized including the viscosity, curing time, strength, etc. After the desired properties were obtained, the healing agent was encapsulated and screened for its self-healing efficiency. The decrease in water permeability due to autonomous crack healing using MMA as a healing agent was similar to the results obtained for manually healed cracks. First results seem promising: however, further research needs to be undertaken in order to obtain an optimal healing agent ready for use in practice

  4. Self-Healing and Optimizing Adhoc Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Taneja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networking is an emerging field with its potential applications in extremely unpredictable and dynamic environments. Individuals and industries choose wireless because it allows flexibility of location, whether that means mobility, portability, or just ease of installation at a fixed point. Wireless networks that fix their own broken communication links may speed up their widespread acceptance. The challenge for wireless communication is optimized handling of unpredictable environment through which commu¬nications travels. Despite early problems in overcoming this pitfall, the newest develop¬ments in self-healing wireless networks are solving the problem. The changes made to the network architectures are resulting in new methods of applica¬tion design for this medium. This paper presents an overview of self healing networks and a new scheme has been proposed that tries to heal the routing when a link failure occurs. The scheme can be incorporated into any adhoc on-demand unicast routing protocol. In this research work, the proposed scheme has been incorporated to AODV and observation is that the performance has been improved. The simulations have been carried over NS2 simulator with existing schemes and proposed scheme. Simulation results indicated that the proposed technique provides robustness.

  5. Self-Healing Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured, reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  6. THE BIOLOGY OF FRACTURE HEALING

    OpenAIRE

    Marsell, Richard; Einhorn, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The biology of fracture healing is a complex biological process that follows specific regenerative patterns and involves changes in the expression of several thousand genes. Although there is still much to be learned to fully comprehend the pathways of bone regeneration, the over-all pathways of both the anatomical and biochemical events have been thoroughly investigated. These efforts have provided a general understanding of how fracture healing occurs. Following the initial trauma, bone hea...

  7. Congenital Self-Healing Reticulohistiocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young H.; Talekar, Mala K.; Chung, Catherine G.; Bell, Moshe D.; Zaenglein, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis, also known as congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis or Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by skin lesions in the newborn period in an otherwise healthy infant that show a Langerhans cell infiltrate in the skin on histological analysis. These findings subsequently spontaneously involute. This report describes two newborns who presented at birth with differing presentations of congeni...

  8. Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act is concerned with regulating the registration, installation, operation, inspection and safety of X-ray machines. The Act provides for the establishment of the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Commission which is responsible for reporting on all the above matters to the Ontario Minister of Health. In addition the board is responsible for the continuing development of an X-ray safety code and for the submission of an annual report of their activities to the minister

  9. Coordinated sensing and active repair for self-healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-repairing structural systems have the potential for improved performance ranges and lifetimes over conventional systems. Self-healing materials are not a new phenomenon and have been used in automotive and aeronautical applications for over a century. The bulk of these systems operate by using damage to directly initiate a repair response without any supervisory coordination. Integrating sensing and supervisory control technologies with self-healing may improve the safety and reliability of critical components and structures. This project illustrates the benefit of an integrated sensing, control, and self-healing system using laboratory scale test beds. A thermoplastic polymer embedded with resistive heating wires acts as the self-healing material. Damage is detected using an electro-optical sensing scheme based on photoresistors and a PC handling control duties. As damage occurs it is detected, located, and characterized. The key to this project is the integration of sensor feedback to control healing so that repairs are executed, monitored, and completed on the basis of continuous sensor data. This proof-of-concept prototype can likely be expanded and improved with alternative sensor options, self-healing materials, and system architecture

  10. Coordinated sensing and active repair for self-healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, D. A.; Huston, D. R.

    2011-02-01

    Self-repairing structural systems have the potential for improved performance ranges and lifetimes over conventional systems. Self-healing materials are not a new phenomenon and have been used in automotive and aeronautical applications for over a century. The bulk of these systems operate by using damage to directly initiate a repair response without any supervisory coordination. Integrating sensing and supervisory control technologies with self-healing may improve the safety and reliability of critical components and structures. This project illustrates the benefit of an integrated sensing, control, and self-healing system using laboratory scale test beds. A thermoplastic polymer embedded with resistive heating wires acts as the self-healing material. Damage is detected using an electro-optical sensing scheme based on photoresistors and a PC handling control duties. As damage occurs it is detected, located, and characterized. The key to this project is the integration of sensor feedback to control healing so that repairs are executed, monitored, and completed on the basis of continuous sensor data. This proof-of-concept prototype can likely be expanded and improved with alternative sensor options, self-healing materials, and system architecture.

  11. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  12. Investigation of photon-magnetic therapy efficacy in prevention and treatment of experimental local radiation skin lesions. Communication 1. The peculiarities of the course of radiation dermatitis in rats at spontaneous healing and at application of photon-magnetic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local x-ray exposure of the rats at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of radiation dermatitis with imperfect skin healing with scars and incomplete restoration of the fleece as a consequence. Administration of photon-magnetic therapy positively influenced healing of skin radiation lesions in locally irradiated animals

  13. Inherent Shear-Dilatation Coexistence in Metallic Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Min-Qiang; JIANG Si-Yue; DAI Lan-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Shear deformation can induce normal stress or hydrostatic stress in metallic glasses [Nature Mater. 2 (2003) 449, Intermetallics 14 (2006) 1033]. We perform the bulk deformation of three-dimensional Cu46Zr54 metallic glass (MG) and Cu single crystal model systems using molecular dynamics simulation. The results indicate that hydrostatic stress can incur shear stress in MG, but not in crystal. The resultant pronounced asymmetry between tension and compression originates from this inherent shear-dilatation coexistence in MG.

  14. Legal problems and powers inherent in ecosystem management

    OpenAIRE

    Coggins, George Cameron

    1995-01-01

    The idea of ecosystem management is elusive, but it is not nearly as novel as many have assumed. There are difficulties inherent both in the lack of semantic precision and the multiple ownerships faced by ecosystem management. There are precedents for regulatory systems that transcend sovereign and ownership boundaries. At the federal level, Congress has adequate constitutional power to ordain ecosystem management. Exercise of that power will rarely if ever constitute a taking. Congress impli...

  15. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Y Gbedema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae. Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor-time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC ranging between 64 and 512 μg/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC 50 value of 103.2 μg/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm 2 (control to 25.2 mm 2 . Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana.

  16. Versatile use of vacuum-assisted healing in fifty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Fadhli Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wound management can often be a challenging experience, especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus, vascular or immunological compromise. While no single technique can be considered by itself to be ideal, vacuum-assisted healing, which is a recent innovation, is fast becoming a necessary addition as adjuvant therapy to hasten wound healing. Aims: To determine the efficacy of vacuum-assisted healing. Settings and Design: Plastic surgery centre. Ministry of Health Hospital, Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Patients from Kuwait in a wide variety of clinical situations were chosen for study: Patients (n=50 were classified by diagnosis: Group 1: pressure sore- sacral (n= 3, trochanteric (n=6, ischial (n= 2; Group 2: ulcers (n= 11; Group 3: traumatic soft tissue wounds (n =15; Group 4: extensive tissue loss from the abdominal wall perineum, thigh and axilla (n =5; Group 5: sternal dehiscence wounds (n =4 and Group 6: wounds from flap necrosis (n =4. All wounds were subjected to vacuum by wall unit or portable unit, using pressure of 100-125 mm - continuous or intermittent. Closure of wounds, significant reduction in size and refusal by patient for continuation of vacuum-assisted closure therapy were end points of vacuum application. Results: Sixteen per cent of patients showed complete healing of the wound. Seventy per cent of patients showed 20-78% reduction in wound size. In 14% of patients treatment had to be discontinued. All patients showed improvement in granulation tissue and reduction in bacterial isolates and tissue oedema. Conclusions: The application of subatmospheric pressure or negative pressure promotes healing in a wide range of clinical settings and is an advanced wound healing therapy that can optimize patient care, promote rapid wound healing and help manage costs. It may be used in most instances in both hospital and community settings.

  17. Self-healing polymers and composites based on thermal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Bolanos, Ed; Wudl, Fred; Hahn, Thomas; Kwok, Nathan

    2007-04-01

    Structural polymer composites are susceptible to premature failure in the form of microcracks in the matrix. Although benign initially when they form, these matrix cracks tend to coalesce and lead in service to critical damage modes such as ply delamination. The matrix cracks are difficult to detect and almost impossible to repair because they form inside the composite laminate. Therefore, polymers with self-healing capability would provide a promising potential to minimize maintenance costs while extending the service lifetime of composite structures. In this paper we report on a group of polymers and their composites which exhibit mendable property upon heating. The failure and healing mechanisms of the polymers involve Diels-Alder (DA) and retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) reactions on the polymer back-bone chain, which are thermally reversible reactions requiring no catalyst. The polymers exhibited good healing property in bulk form. Composite panels were prepared by sandwiching the monomers between carbon fiber fabric layers and cured in autoclave. Microcracks were induced on the resin-rich surface of composite with Instron machine at room temperature by holding at 1% strain for 1 min. The healing ability of the composite was also demonstrated by the disappearance of microcracks after heating. In addition to the self-healing ability, the polymers and composites also exhibited shape memory property. These unique properties may provide the material multi-functional applications. Resistance heating of traditional composites and its applicability in self-healing composites is also studied to lay groundwork for a fully integrated self-healing composite.

  18. A self-healing hydrogel formation strategy via exploiting endothermic interactions between polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ying; Lou, Ruyun; Liu, Xiaocen; Gao, Meng; Zheng, Huizhen; Yang, Ting; Xie, Hongguo; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    We report a strategy to synthesize self-healing hydrogels via exploiting endothermic interactions between polyelectrolytes. Natural polysaccharides and their derivatives were used to form reversible polyelectrolyte complexes by selecting appropriately charged chemical groups and counterions. This simple and effective method to fabricate self-healing hydrogels will find applications in diverse fields such as surface coating and 3D printing. PMID:27078585

  19. A FAULT TOLERANT FPGA BASED IMAGE ENHANCEMENT FILTER USING SELF HEALING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SRI RAMA KRISHNA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An original approach to automatic design of image filters is presented in this paper. The proposed solution employs Field Programmable Gate Array reconfigurable hardware at simplified functional level and produces high quality image when image features are corrupted by different types of noise. In addition, parallel architectures can be used to ease the enormous computational load due to different operations conducted on image data sets. Self healing circuit is the one which can compete against traditional designs in terms of quality and implementation cost in Xilinx’s chips. During the first phase, schemes for testing the configured processing elements of a reconfigurable circuit evolved for image enhancement application is presented. In the second phase, the internal Processing Elements in evolved circuit found faulty, they are restructured such that the sparse processing elements replace the faulty processing elements both functionally and structurally. Simulation results show that the evolved circuit is inherently testable and can restructure itself by avoiding the faulty ProcessingElements and make use of sparse ones. In third phase implantation of FPGA based image enhancement filter using Virtex-IV application board.

  20. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  1. Healing defective CVD-graphene through vapor phase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lam, Do; Kim, Sang-Min; Cho, Youngji; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-06-01

    Structural defects present on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-graphene have usually originated from the growth stage and transfer process. They limit the electronic transport properties of graphene and degrade performance of related devices. Here we report that these inherent atomic defects could be selectively healed by a simple vapor phase treatment performed in equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). The unique chemistry of Al2O3 ALD facilitated selective depositions of AlxOy compounds on the defects, which could be readily probed and visualized using AFM imaging. The healing agent, AlxOy, was observed to bind tightly to the defects and lead to doping of the CVD-graphene, which was reflected in the noticeable improvement in electrical sheet resistance. In contrast with the chemically doped graphene, the ALD-treated graphenes revealed notable long-term stability under environmental conditions. Our approach promises selective healing of defects present in most materials and possibly ensures considerable improvement in electrical and mechanical properties. ALD with a broad spectrum of material selection could be a versatile tool for upgrading properties of materials. PMID:24756318

  2. Self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials state-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tittelboom, Kim; Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Self-healing materials are man-made materials which have the built-in capability to repair damage. Failure in materials is often caused by the occurrence of small microcracks throughout the material. In self-healing materials phenomena are triggered to counteract these microcracks. These processes are ideally triggered by the occurrence of damage itself. Thus far, the self-healing capacity of cement-based materials has been considered as something "extra". This could be called passive self-healing, since it was not a designed feature of the material, but an inherent property of it. Centuries-old buildings have been said to have survived these centuries because of the inherent self-healing capacity of the binders used for cementing building blocks together. In this State-of-the-Art Report a closer look is taken at self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials. It is shown what options are available to design for this effect rather than have it occur as a "coincidental extra".

  3. Inherently safe nuclear-driven internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of nuclear driven engines is described in which nuclear energy released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a prompt critical assembly is used to heat a working gas. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled from 100 MW on up. 7 refs., 3 figs

  4. An Inherent Probabilistic Aspect of the Hough Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhanyi; YANG Changjiang; YANG Yi; MA Songde

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a new property of the Hough transform is discovered, namely an inherent probabilistic aspect which is independent of the input image and embedded in the transformation process from the image space to the parameter space. It is shown that such a probabilistic aspect has a wide range of implications concerning the specification of implementation schemes and the performance of Hough transform. In particular, it is shown that in order to make the Hough transform really meaningful, anappropriate curve (surface) density function must be, either explicitlyor implicitly, supplied during its implementation process, and that the widely used approach to uniformly discretizing parameter space in the literature is generally inadequate.

  5. Construction of IMEX methods with inherent Runge-Kutta stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braś, Michał; Izzo, Giuseppe; Jackiewicz, Zdzislaw

    2016-06-01

    We describe construction of implicit-explicit (IMEX) general linear methods (GLMs) with inherent Runge-Kutta stability (IRKS) for differential systems with non-stiff and stiff processes. We will use the extrapolation approach to remove implicitness in the non-stiff terms to compute unknown stage values in terms of stage derivatives at the previous step and those already computed in the current step. Highly stable IMEX GLMs of stage order equal to the order were derived up to the order four. These methods do not suffer from order reduction phenomenon which is confirmed by numerical experiments.

  6. An inherent boron dilution mechanism in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of boric acid during natural circulation together with Small Break LOCA experimental data shows that in present-day pressurized water reactors (PWR) there exists an inherent mechanism which can accumulate boron- free condensate in the cold leg loop seals. During reflux/boiler condensation, the accumulation rate is typically about 1.6 m3/min for a 1300 MWe UTSG plant. This observation, combined with the results of analyses of externally caused boron dilution transients, suggests that SB LOCA could become a reactivity induced accident (RIA) initiator. The severity of the reactivity accident potential is yet to be quantified. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs

  7. Chemokines and diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Oscar; Torres, Francis M; Shireman, Paula K

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines are critical for white blood cell recruitment to injured tissues and play an important role in normal wound healing processes. In contrast, impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is accompanied by decreased early inflammatory cell infiltration but persistence of neutrophils and macrophages in the chronic, nonhealing wounds. These changes in inflammatory cell recruitment occur in conjunction with alterations in chemokine and growth factor expression. In addition to leukocyte trafficking, many different cell types, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes, produce and respond to chemokines, and these interactions are altered in diabetic wounds. Thus, the chemokine system may have both direct and inflammatory-mediated effects on many different aspects of diabetic wound healing. The potential roles of chemokines and inflammatory or immune cells in nonhealing diabetic wounds, including impairments in growth factor expression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix formation, and reepithelialization, are examined. PMID:18053419

  8. Modeling self-healing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Balazs

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe recent computational studies to design such systems as ‘artificial leukocytes’ that facilitate the healing of damaged substrates, polymer nanocomposites where nanoparticles are driven to fill cracks in fractured surfaces, and polymer gels that effectively act as a ‘skin’ by signaling mechanical impact. Computational research into self-healing materials is still in its infancy. However, progress in this field can ultimately facilitate the fabrication of the next generation of adaptive materials that both monitor their structural integrity and mend themselves before any catastrophic failure can occur.

  9. Toward a theology of healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, J N

    1982-12-01

    A sense of magic has always permeated our theology of healing. Consider the following theses: 1. By the very nature of material creation, however mysteriously it was initiated and is sustained, the power of God to influence material creation is restricted to the immanent (from within) and indirect; 2. God does not arbitrarily, in the case of two persons who have "identical" illnesses, decide the recovery of one and the death of the other. Rather, his love bears equally on all. This study will defend these theses and show that they are foundational and integral, to a theology of primarily physical healing. PMID:24310077

  10. Estimation of inherent optical properties from CZMIL lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Feygels, Viktor; Kopilevich, Yuri; Park, Joong Yong

    2014-11-01

    Bathymetric lidar has been widely used for ocean floor mapping. By identifying two distinctive return peaks, one from the water surface and the other from the bottom, the water depth can be estimated. In addition to bathymetry, it is also possible to estimate the optical properties of the water by analyzing the lidar return waveform. Only the few systems (e.g. Optech's SHOALS and CZMIL systems) that have good radiometric calibration demonstrate the capability to product the water's inherent optical properties and bottom reflectance. As the laser pulse propagates through the water, it is scattered by the water constituents. The directional distribution of scattered radiant power is determined by the volume scattering function. Only the backscattering within a very narrow solid angle around the 180° scattering angle travels back to the detector. During the two-way travel it experiences the same optical interaction (absorption and scattering) with the water constituents. Thus, the lidar return waveform between the surface and bottom peak contains information about the vertical distribution of the water attenuation coefficient and the backscattering coefficient in the form of the rate of change of the return power. One challenge is how to estimate the inherent attenuation from the apparent attenuation. In this research we propose a technique to estimate the true water attenuation coefficient from the total system attenuation. We use a lidar waveform simulator that solves the irradiance distribution on the beam cross-section using an analytical Fourier transform of the radiance based on a single-scattering approximation.

  11. The inherent inefficiency of simultaneously feasible financial transmission rights auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empirical evidence from the New York ISO shows that the clearing prices for point-to-point congestion revenue rights, also known as financial transmission rights (FTRs), resulting from centralized auctions conducted by Independent System Operators differ significantly and systematically from the realized congestion revenues that determine the accrued payoffs of these rights. The question addressed by this paper is whether such deviations are due to price discovery errors which will eventually vanish or due to inherent inefficiencies in the auction structure. We show that even with perfect foresight of average congestion rents the clearing prices for the FTRs depend on the bid quantity and therefore may not be priced correctly in the financial transmission right (FTR) auction. In particular, we prove that quantity limits on the FTR bids may cause the auction clearing prices to differ from the bid prices. This phenomenon which is inherent in the theoretical properties of the optimization algorithm used to clear the auction, is further illustrated through numerical simulations with test systems. We conclude that price discovery alone would not remedy the discrepancy between the auction prices and the realized values of the FTRs. Secondary markets or frequent reconfiguration auctions are necessary in order to achieve such convergence. (author)

  12. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall ... HEAL is seeking ways to reduce the nation's childhood asthma challenge. Even before Hurricane Katrina swept through ...

  13. The Role of Iron in the Skin & Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JosephineAnneWright

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review article we discuss current knowledge about iron in the skin and the cutaneous wound healing process. Iron plays a key role in both oxidative stress and photo-induced skin damage. The main causes of oxidative stress in the skin include reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in the skin by ultraviolet (UVA 320-400 nm portion of the ultraviolet spectrum and biologically available iron. We also discuss the relationships between iron deficiency, anaemia and cutaneous wound healing. Studies looking at this fall into two distinct groups. Early studies investigated the effect of anaemia on wound healing using a variety of experimental methodology to establish anaemia or iron deficiency and focused on wound-strength rather than effect on macroscopic healing or re-epithelialisation. More recent animal studies have investigated novel treatments aimed at correcting the effects of systemic iron deficiency and localised iron overload. Iron overload is associated with local cutaneous iron deposition, which has numerous deleterious effects in chronic venous disease and hereditary haemochromatosis. Iron plays a key role in chronic ulceration and conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and Lupus Erythematosus are associated with both anaemia of chronic disease and dysregulation of local cutaneous iron haemostasis. Iron is a potential therapeutic target in the skin by application of topical iron chelators and novel pharmacological agents, and in delayed cutaneous wound healing by treatment of iron deficiency or underlying systemic inflammation.

  14. Magnetic Field Triggered Multicycle Damage Sensing and Self Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anansa S.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-09-01

    Multifunctional materials inspired by biological structures have attracted great interest, e.g. for wearable/ flexible “skin” and smart coatings. A current challenge in this area is to develop an artificial material which mimics biological skin by simultaneously displaying color change on damage as well as self healing of the damaged region. Here we report, for the first time, the development of a damage sensing and self healing magnet-polymer composite (Magpol), which actively responds to an external magnetic field. We incorporated reversible sensing using mechanochromic molecules in a shape memory thermoplastic matrix. Exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggers shape recovery and facilitates damage repair. Magpol exhibited a linear strain response upto 150% strain and complete recovery after healing. We have demonstrated the use of this concept in a reusable biomedical device i.e., coated guidewires. Our findings offer a new synergistic method to bestow multifunctionality for applications ranging from medical device coatings to adaptive wing structures.

  15. Chemokine Regulation of Angiogenesis During Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Angiogenesis plays a critical role in wound healing. A defect in the formation of a neovasculature induces ulcer formation. One of the challenges faced by the clinician when devising strategies to promote healing of chronic wounds is the initiation of angiogenesis and the formation of a stable vasculature to support tissue regeneration. Understanding the molecular factors regulating angiogenesis during wound healing will lead to better therapies for healing chronic wounds.

  16. The Inherent Politics of Managing the Quality of Urban Green Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Sullivan, Sidney George; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.;

    2015-01-01

    Although the term ‘quality’ has a universal positive connotation and typically is framed by a focus on improvements, its application includes as well as excludes the access, values and world views of particular actors and interests. In this article, we highlight the relevance and implications...... of such ‘inherent politics’ through a case study of a widespread approach to operationalizing quality in urban green space management. We conclude that adoption of any quality model has both limiting and enabling implications for public participation and decision-making and that a critical stance is needed within...

  17. Making the Most of Tweet-Inherent Features for Social Spam Detection on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Zubiaga, Arkaitz; Liakata, Maria; Procter, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Social spam produces a great amount of noise on social media services such as Twitter, which reduces the signal-to-noise ratio that both end users and data mining applications observe. Existing techniques on social spam detection have focused primarily on the identification of spam accounts by using extensive historical and network-based data. In this paper we focus on the detection of spam tweets, which optimises the amount of data that needs to be gathered by relying only on tweet-inherent ...

  18. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-04-19

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that were shown to directly affect skin wound healing. To date, TiRe contains 397 entries for four organisms: Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus domesticus, and Homo sapiens. Analysis of the TiRe dataset of skin wound healing-associated genes showed that skin wound healing genes are (i) over-conserved among vertebrates, but are under-conserved in invertebrates; (ii) enriched in extracellular and immuno-inflammatory genes; and display (iii) high interconnectivity and connectivity to other proteins. The latter may provide potential therapeutic targets. In addition, a slower or faster skin wound healing is indicative of an aging or longevity phenotype only when assessed in advanced ages, but not in the young. In the long run, we aim for TiRe to be a one-station resource that provides researchers and clinicians with the essential data needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing, designing new experiments, and the development of new therapeutic strategies. TiRe is freely available online at http://www.tiredb.org. PMID:27049721

  19. Wound Healing Devices Brief Vignettes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Caesar A.; Hare, Marc A.; Perdrizet, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The demand for wound care therapies is increasing. New wound care products and devices are marketed at a dizzying rate. Practitioners must make informed decisions about the use of medical devices for wound healing therapy. This paper provides updated evidence and recommendations based on a review of recent publications.

  20. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial in the...

  1. Materials chemical compatibility for the fabrication of small inherently safe nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous nuclear fuels offer a unique set of characteristics for homogeneous reactor nuclear applications. Their advantages include high nuclear stability and inherent safety, high power density, high burn-up, simple preparation and reprocessing, easy fuel handling, high neutron economy, and simple control system leading to simple mechanical designs. The major disadvantages are corrosion, limited uranium concentration, and radiation decomposition of water. Likewise, organic coolants offer certain properties that are conducive for small reactor applications. These include reduced corrosion and activation, and low vapour pressures with good heat-transfer capabilities. Their major disadvantages are decomposition, fouling and flammability. A particular organic coolant, HB-40, has been extensively studied in Canada and was used for nineteen years in the 60-MWt organic-cooled WR-1 reactor at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Proper attention to design and coolant chemistry in the nineteen years of operation in the WR-1 reactor kept the coolant aspects related to decomposition, fouling and flammability to acceptable levels. For small reactor applications, organic coolants are potentially superior to heavy water in terms of overall cost. The purpose of this thesis work was, through a literature review, to select the most suitable aqueous fuel and materials of construction for two proposed small inherently safe reactors, the QH-1 reactor and the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor under design at the Royal Military College of Canada.

  2. A simple graphical method for measuring inherent safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, J P; Edwards, David W

    2003-11-14

    Inherently safer design (ISD) concepts have been with us for over two decades since their elaboration by Kletz [Chem. Ind. 9 (1978) 124]. Interest has really taken off globally since the early nineties after several major mishaps occurred during the eighties (Bhopal, Mexico city, Piper-alfa, Philips Petroleum, to name a few). Academic and industrial research personnel have been actively involved into devising inherently safer ways of production. The regulatory bodies have also shown deep interest since ISD makes the production safer and hence their tasks easier. Research funding has also been forthcoming for new developments as well as for demonstration projects.A natural question that arises is as to how to measure ISD characteristics of a process? Several researchers have worked on this [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Protect. B 71 (4) (1993) 252; Inherent safety in process plant design, Ph.D. Thesis, VTT Publication Number 384, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, 1999; Proceedings of the Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center Symposium, 2001, p. 509]. Many of the proposed methods are very elegant, yet too involved for easy adoption by the industry which is scared of yet another safety analysis regime. In a recent survey [Trans. IChemE, Process Safety Environ. Prog. B 80 (2002) 115], companies desired a rather simple method to measure ISD. Simplification is also an important characteristic of ISD. It is therefore desirable to have a simple ISD measurement procedure. The ISD measurement procedure proposed in this paper can be used to differentiate between two or more processes for the same end product. The salient steps are: Consider each of the important parameters affecting the safety (e.g., temperature, pressure, toxicity, flammability, etc.) and the range of possible values these parameters can have for all the process routes under consideration for an end product. Plot these values for each step in each process route and compare. No

  3. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, G.; Capone, A.; Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Avanzini, C.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Rosa, G.; de Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    2007-02-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Čerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60 100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 m-1 (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it does not show seasonal variation.

  4. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobene, G; Ambriola, M; Ameli, F; Amore, I; Anghinolfi, M; Anzalone, A; Avanzini, C; Barbarino, G C; Barbarito, E; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Beverini, N; Bonori, M; Bouhadef, B; Brescia, M; Cacopardo, G; Cafagna, F; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Castorina, E; Ceres, A; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Cocimano, R; Coniglione, R; Cordelli, M; Costa, M; Cuneo, S; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Marzo, C; De Rosa, G; De Vita, R; Distefano, C; Falchini, E; Fiorello, C; Flaminio, V; Fratini, K; Gabrielli, A; Galeotti, S; Gandolfi, E; Grimaldi, A; Habel, R; Leonora, E; Lo Presti, D; Lonardo, A; Longo, G; Lucarelli, F; Maccioni, E; Margiotta, A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Megna, R; Migneco, E; Mongelli, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Musumeci, M; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Osipenko, M; Osteria, G; Papaleo, R; Pappalardo, V; Petta, C; Piattelli, P; Raffaelli, F; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rovelli, A; Ruppi, M; Russo, G V; Russo, S; Sapienza, P; Schuller, J P; Sedita, M; Shirokov, E; Simeone, F; Sipala, V; Spurio, M; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Trasatti, L; Urso, S; Valente, V; Vicini, P

    2006-01-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Cerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60-100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 1/m (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it doe not show seasonal variation.

  5. Design strategy for control of inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor power plant safety is assured through a combination of engineered barriers to radiation release (e.g., reactor containment) in combination with active reactor safety systems to shut the reactor down and remove decay heat. While not specifically identified as safety systems, the control systems responsible for continuous operation of plant subsystems are the first line of defense for mitigating radiation releases and for plant protection. ''''Inherently safe'' reactors take advantage of passive system features for decay-heat removal and reactor shutdown functions normally ascribed to active reactor safety systems. The advent of these reactors may permit restructuring of the present control system design strategy. This restructuring is based on the fact that authority for protection against unlikely accidents is, as much as practical, placed upon the passive features of the system instead of the traditional placement upon the PPS. Consequently, reactor control may be simplified, allowing the reliability of control systems to be improved and more easily defended

  6. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on testing of the kinetic mechanism reported in the previous semiannual report, and the interpretation of data (both ours and literature). This model yields good qualitative agreement with the data and indicates that mercury oxidation occurs during the thermal quench of the combustion gases. The model also suggests that atomic chlorine is the key oxidizing species. The oxidation is limited to a temperature window between 700-400 C that is defined by the overlap of (1) a region of significant superequilibrium Cl concentration, and (2) a region where oxidized mercury is favored by equilibrium. Above 700 C reverse reactions effectively limit oxidized mercury concentrations. Below 400 C, atomic chlorine concentrations are too low to support further oxidation. The implication of these results are that homogeneous oxidation is governed primarily by (1) HCl concentration, (2) quench rate, and (3) background gas composition. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of one journal paper that was accepted for publication during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1999).

  7. A rationale for fusion economics based on inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the direct capital costs of recent light-water-reactor fission plants and recent magnetic fusion designs indicates that cost reductions by innovation in both the fusion reactor and the fusion balance of the plant (nonreactor part) will be required for fusion direct costs to become competitive. Both future fusion and future fission designs would benefit from modularity, standardization, and inherent safety (passive afterheat removal without damage in loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accidents) to improve their utility and public acceptance and to reduce nonreactor balance-of-plant costs, indirect costs, and time-related costs. If this can be achieved, inherently safe fusion and fission designs should have comparable reactor enclosure power densities, of the order of 1 MW /SUB th/ /m3. With a reduction by a factor of about 2 in the fusion magnet and heating-system cost per watt, such fusion and fission designs should also have comparable direct and total capital costs per watt, provided the fusion plants can be modularly built in somewhat larger units (300 to 600 MW /SUB e/ ) than some of the modular fission units (100 MW /SUB e/ ). With the eventual fusion capital cost per watt thus attaining parity with fission some decades later than the development and deployment of second-generation fission plants, the economic incentive for switching growth to new fusion electric plants would derive from lower fuel-cycle costs (fuel startup, operating, processing, and waste-disposal costs). At the same time, there would also be strong economic incentives to build hybrid fusion plants to supply fissile fuel for the established fission plants

  8. Comparison of removal torques of SLActive® implant and blasted, laser-treated titanium implant in rabbit tibia bone healed with concentrated growth factor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hun; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the removal torques of a chemically modified SLActive implant and a blasted, laser-treated (BLT) implant, which were soaked in saline for 2 weeks after their surface modifications. The removal torques of the two implants were measured 4 weeks after their implantation into the bone defect area in rabbit tibias with concentrated growth factor (CGF) application. MATERIALS AND METHODS To make artificial bone defects in the cortical layers of both tibias, an 8-mm diameter trephine bur was used. Then, prepared CGF was applied to the bony defect of the left tibia, and the bony defect of the right tibia was left unfilled. Four weeks later, the surgical sites of 16 rabbits were re-exposed. For 8 rabbits, the SLActive implants (Straumann, Switzerland) were inserted in the left tibia, and the BLT implants (CSM implant, Daegu, Korea) were inserted in the right tibia. For other rabbits, the BLT implants were inserted in the left tibia, and the SLActive implants were inserted in the right. Four weeks afger the insertion, torque removal was measured from 4 rabbits exterminated via CO2 inhalation. RESULTS No significant difference was observed between removal torques of the BLT implant and the SLActive implant (P>.05). CONCLUSION It was found that BLT surface modification exhibited excellent osseointegration. In addition, CGF application did not affect the insertion and removal torque of the implants. PMID:27141254

  9. Helping, healing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are used in the scan diagnosis and therapy of the thyroid. At the top of the using there is the scintiscanning. With the aid of this method the diagnosis of neoplasmas is possible. There are many other fields of applications in the medicine for radioisotopes: the renography gives information about normal and pathology criterias; bone scanning permits the early diagnosis of osseous change; heart, lung and cardiovascular system offer an additionally range of application. The scintiscanning of the heart muscle (myocardium) indicates the change in the structure of the coronaries (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris). Lung scanning is a method for diagnose of embolies. Nuclear medicine gets a steadly increasing importance in the field of diagnosis. 2 figs. (eva)

  10. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  11. Come and play with HEAL in Microcosm!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    A new interactive game in Microcosm informs about hadron therapy – come and test it!   HEAL is a new interactive game currently under evaluation at Microcosm to inform visitors about hadron therapy, one aspect of the CERN-related contributions to the medical field. Microcosm is continuously evolving and new content is installed regularly. One of the most recent exhibits is called HEAL - an interactive game with the aim of informing visitors about the hadron therapy to treat cancer. It has been developed by Jenny Rompa, a PhD student at CERN, within the activities of MediaLab.  The application is controlled through body movements and the player is asked to set the right energy and the right angle of the hadron beam to make the (brain) cancer disappear. As part of her doctoral thesis, Jenny also built a questionnaire to hand out to visitors in order to examine their user experience. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using inter...

  12. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joseph C; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E

    2016-06-01

    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  13. Application of joint debridement and wet healing theory in acute leukemia patients with skin infections%湿性愈合理论联合清创在急性白血病患者皮肤感染中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾淑凝; 叶玉蝶; 钟思嫦; 邹丽梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨一种有效治疗白血病患者皮肤感染的方法.方法:采取联合清创并应用湿性愈合原理,对白血病患者的皮肤感染进行治疗.结果:本组6例11处皮肤感染切口,应用联合清创并湿性愈合疗法,全部愈合.结论:联合清创并湿性愈合理论对白血病患者皮肤感染切口护理效果满意,值得临床推广.%Objective:To explore an effective treatment of leukemia patients with skin infection method. Methods;By using the joint debridement and wet healing principle, the treatment of cutaneous infection of leukemia patients. Results: 11 skin infection of incision in these 6 cases, joint debridement and application of wet heding therapies, all healing. Conclusion; Moist healing theories of joint debridement and effects on wound care skin infections in leukemia patients skin infection of incision nursing satisfaction,it is worthy of clinical application.

  14. Chitosan-based dressings loaded with neurotensin—an efficient strategy to improve early diabetic wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Liane I. F.; Dias, Ana M. A.; Ermelindo C. Leal; Carvalho, Lina; Sousa, Hermínio C. de; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    One important complication of diabetes mellitus is chronic, non-healing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This study aims to develop and use dressings based on chitosan derivatives for the sustained delivery of neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide that acts as an inflammatory modulator in wound healing. Three different derivatives, namely N-carboxymethyl chitosan, 5-methyl pyrrolidinone chitosan (MPC) and N-succinyl chitosan, are presented as potential biomaterials for wound healing applications. Our ...

  15. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Klein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care. [1] It is a snapshot of a patient′s total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors. [2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT, as used at our institution (CAMC, and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society may vary widely from country to country and payment system. [3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons. [1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise.

  16. Gastronomy healing after transgastric peritoneoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Andersen, Luise; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reliable closure and infection prevention are the main barriers for implementation of pure transgastric peritoneoscopy. The primary aim of this study was to assess healing of over the scope clip (OTSC) closed gastrotomies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pure transgastric peritoneoscopy was...... were allowed 14 POD of follow-up, and 4 pigs were allowed 28 POD of follow-up. Survival was achieved in 6 of the 7 animals; 1 pig was euthanized due to diffuse peritonitis. Based on our definition, full-thickness healing had only been achieved in a single pig allowed 28 POD. With respect to clinical...... adhering to the per protocol definition. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided access was difficult. It lacks reproducibility and needs refinement. Despite a combined decontamination regimen, infectious complications still occurred....

  17. Vasculogenic Cytokines in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds represent a growing healthcare burden that particularly afflicts aged, diabetic, vasculopathic, and obese patients. Studies have shown that nonhealing wounds are characterized by dysregulated cytokine networks that impair blood vessel formation. Two distinct forms of neovascularization have been described: vasculogenesis (driven by bone-marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenesis (local endothelial cell sprouting from existing vasculature. Researchers have traditionally focused on angiogenesis but defects in vasculogenesis are increasingly recognized to impact diseases including wound healing. A more comprehensive understanding of vasculogenic cytokine networks may facilitate the development of novel strategies to treat recalcitrant wounds. Further, the clinical success of endothelial progenitor cell-based therapies will depend not only on the delivery of the cells themselves but also on the appropriate cytokine milieu to promote tissue regeneration. This paper will highlight major cytokines involved in vasculogenesis within the context of cutaneous wound healing.

  18. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  19. Inherently flushing piston rod for a reciprocating pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besic, D.; Smith, W.C.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes an inherently flushing piston rod for use in a reciprocating pump. It comprises: a piston portion having an axial bore formed therethrough, the axial bore having a first end and a second end, the first end of the axial bore lying in fluid contact with the external environment of the piston portion; a flexible diaphragm disposed within the axial bore through the piston portion whereby the flexible diaphragm and the piston portion define a reserve flushing zone; a pair of annular wiper elements extending radially from the piston portion, the annular wiper elements and the piston portion defining an annular flushing space therebetween; the piston portion having a radially-extending channel formed therethrough, the radially-extending channel fluidly connecting the axial bore through the piston portion and the annular flushing space; and a means for providing flushing fluid to the second end of the axial bore through the piston portion; a means for preventing flow from the axial bore through the piston portion to the means for supplying flushing fluid.

  20. Inherently analog quantity representations in olive baboons (Papio anubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JessicaFrancineCantlon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1 a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2 an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment -naive olive baboons (Papio anubis to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4, large (>4, or span (small vs. large numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  1. External noise control in inherently stochastic biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Likun; Chen, Meng; Nie, Qing

    2012-11-01

    Biological systems are often subject to external noise from signal stimuli and environmental perturbations, as well as noises in the intracellular signal transduction pathway. Can different stochastic fluctuations interact to give rise to new emerging behaviors? How can a system reduce noise effects while still being capable of detecting changes in the input signal? Here, we study analytically and computationally the role of nonlinear feedback systems in controlling external noise with the presence of large internal noise. In addition to noise attenuation, we analyze derivatives of Fano factor to study systems' capability of differentiating signal inputs. We find effects of internal noise and external noise may be separated in one slow positive feedback loop system; in particular, the slow loop can decrease external noise and increase robustness of signaling with respect to fluctuations in rate constants, while maintaining the signal output specific to the input. For two feedback loops, we demonstrate that the influence of external noise mainly depends on how the fast loop responds to fluctuations in the input and the slow loop plays a limited role in determining the signal precision. Furthermore, in a dual loop system of one positive feedback and one negative feedback, a slower positive feedback always leads to better noise attenuation; in contrast, a slower negative feedback may not be more beneficial. Our results reveal interesting stochastic effects for systems containing both extrinsic and intrinsic noises, suggesting novel noise filtering strategies in inherently stochastic systems. PMID:23213267

  2. Making appropriation 'stick': stabilizing politics in an 'inherently feminist' tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Katie Ann

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how feminist politics are made to 'stick' to appropriated technologies in the context of a contemporary feminist women's health clinic in the US. Feminist clinics such as 'FemHealth', founded as part of 1970s women's health movements, put medical tools and knowledge into lay women's hands, making the appropriation of medical technologies a centerpiece of their political project. In the process, they rejected the authority of physicians and gave new politicized meanings to the tools they claimed as their own. As lay healthworkers at FemHealth continued the project of appropriation, they also continued to negotiate their dependence on physicians to perform tasks that required a medical license. Drawing on participant observation and interviews with healthworkers, I argue that struggles over the role and authority of physicians in this clinic play out through debates over two similar and competing tools used in the abortion procedure: the single-tooth tenaculum and the cervical stabilizer. Many healthworkers invested in the stabilizer as 'inherently feminist' in hopes that it would maintain its politics even when passed into physicians' hands. While appropriation depends on the ability of users to alter a technology's meanings, actors may feel invested in the new politics taken on by appropriated tools and work towards making those meanings persist, or 'stick'. PMID:23189608

  3. Energy storage inherent in large tidal turbine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennell, Ross; Adcock, Thomas A A

    2014-06-01

    While wind farms have no inherent storage to supply power in calm conditions, this paper demonstrates that large tidal turbine farms in channels have short-term energy storage. This storage lies in the inertia of the oscillating flow and can be used to exceed the previously published upper limit for power production by currents in a tidal channel, while simultaneously maintaining stronger currents. Inertial storage exploits the ability of large farms to manipulate the phase of the oscillating currents by varying the farm's drag coefficient. This work shows that by optimizing how a large farm's drag coefficient varies during the tidal cycle it is possible to have some flexibility about when power is produced. This flexibility can be used in many ways, e.g. producing more power, or to better meet short predictable peaks in demand. This flexibility also allows trading total power production off against meeting peak demand, or mitigating the flow speed reduction owing to power extraction. The effectiveness of inertial storage is governed by the frictional time scale relative to either the duration of a half tidal cycle or the duration of a peak in power demand, thus has greater benefits in larger channels. PMID:24910516

  4. Inherent safety features in balance-of-plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear units must be more economical to construct and operate, and, at the same time, clearly incorporate advances in safety over the current generation of light water reactors. To achieve these goals, the root causes of safety issues must be addressed. In this way, global, cost-effective solutions can be implemented. With simple, direct design approaches, the licensing risk is minimized and configuration control is enhanced. With proper planning in the early stages of plant design, postulated accidents and events can often be mitigated by passive features inherent in the basic structure and layout, eliminating expensive added protective structures and components often found in current designs. Korea Electric Power Corporation's Yonggwang (YGN) Units 3 and 4, shown in an artist's rendering in Figure 1, are now under construction in Korea. Engineering is more than 85% complete, and Unit 3 construction is more than 50% complete. Significant steps toward design simplification and safety enhancement have been made by addressing safety concerns very early in the design effort. The tools used to achieve this were improved symmetry and separation, isolation of potential hazards, and an improved design process

  5. Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences Using Inherent Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety challenges associated with sodium-cooled fast reactors have been recognized since the beginning of nuclear power and include the high power density in the core, the need for a reactor coolant and heat transfer system with high heat removal capability, the variation of power across the core requiring the use of ducted assemblies, and the condition that the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation such that relocation can result in positive reactivity excursions, even possibly exceeding prompt critical conditions and energetic events. The potential for accidents with such severe consequences has been a negative factor with respect to the use of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. With the development of inherent safety principles, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, it is possible to greatly increase the level of safety, to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not possible, for accidents to result in releases of hghly radioactive materials to the containment or the surrounding environment. (author)

  6. Dualheap Selection Algorithm: Efficient, Inherently Parallel and Somewhat Mysterious

    CERN Document Server

    Sepesi, Greg

    2007-01-01

    An inherently parallel algorithm is proposed that efficiently performs selection: finding the K-th largest member of a set of N members. Selection is a common component of many more complex algorithms and therefore is a widely studied problem. Not much is new in the proposed dualheap selection algorithm: the heap data structure is from J.W.J.Williams, the bottom-up heap construction is from R.W. Floyd, and the concept of a two heap data structure is from J.W.J. Williams and D.E. Knuth. The algorithm's novelty is limited to a few relatively minor implementation twists: 1) the two heaps are oriented with their roots at the partition values rather than at the minimum and maximum values, 2)the coding of one of the heaps (the heap of smaller values) employs negative indexing, and 3) the exchange phase of the algorithm is similar to a bottom-up heap construction, but navigates the heap with a post-order tree traversal. When run on a single processor, the dualheap selection algorithm's performance is competitive wit...

  7. Self-healing fuse development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N. D.; Kinsinger, R. E.; Harris, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    The mercury-filled self-healing fuses developed for this program afford very good protection from circuit faults with rapid reclosure. Fuse performance and design parameters have been characterized. Life tests indicate a capability of 500 fuse operations. Fuse ratings are 150 v at 5, 15, 25 and 50 circuit A. A series of sample fuses using alumina and beryllia insulation have been furnished to NASA for circuit evaluation.

  8. Karanga Traditional Medicine and Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Shoko, Tabona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the Karanga traditional system of therapy of illness and disease manifest in the treatments administered by the medical practitioners. In order to establish the traditional system of therapy of illness and disease, numerous interviews were carried out with healers, herbalists and elders in the field area. This enabled a systematic compilation of cases. There was also the pressing need to be present at rituals and instances where healing was effected and to observe the...

  9. Novel advancements in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza Ghaderi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining skin integrity is vital in humans and animals to protect the organisms against dehydration, bleeding, and ingress of microorganisms. In order to do this, in Man and other evolved animals a sophisticated mechanism of wound healing occurs. At first the gap is quickly filled with a thin layer of fibrinous exudate, re-epithelialized, and rapidly replaced by new matrix. It is obvious that the speed of wound healing depends upon many factors such as the size of the wound, blood supply to the area, presence or absence of foreign bodies and microorganisms, age, health and nutritional status of the patient of the patient. Acute and chronic wounds care has extremely changed in recent years. Recenly, some traditional medications honey and other herbal medications( and new procedures are available that can be used to accelerate the healing of skin wounds.In the present article the most novel advances made in wound care and management in recent years were reviewed.

  10. Effect of topical application of fibronectin in duodenal wound healing in rats Efeito da aplicação tópica da fibronectina em feridas duodenais de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Neuma de Souza Brito; Luiz Reginaldo Menezes da Rocha; Carlos André Nunes Jatobá; Maurício Pereira Sales; Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

    2003-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a large family of plasma and extracellular matrix glycoproteins, plays an important role in wound healing. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fibronectin on the healing of sutured duodenal wounds, correlating with the serum and tissue level of the substance. METHODS: An experimental study was done in 30 adult Wistar rats divided into two group. In the control group (n=15) a duodenal suture was treated with saline solution 0,9% and in the test group the duodenal wounds were t...

  11. Platelet gel for healing cutaneous chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetti, Giovanni; Martinelli, Giovanna; Issi, Marwan; Barone, Marilde; Guizzardi, Marco; Campanati, Barbara; Moroni, Marco; Carabelli, Angelo

    2004-04-01

    Wound healing is a specific host immune response for restoration of tissue integrity. Experimental studies demonstrated an alteration of growth factors activity due to their reduced synthesis, increased degradation and inactivation. In wound healing platelets play an essential role since they are rich of alpha-granules growth factors (platelet derived growth factor--PDGF; transforming growth factor-beta--TGF-beta; vascular endothelial growth factor--VEGF). Topical use of platelet gel (PG), hemocomponent obtained from mix of activated platelets and cryoprecipitate, gives the exogenous and in situ adding of growth factors (GF). The hemocomponents are of autologous or homologous origin. We performed a technique based on: multicomponent apheretic procedure to obtain plasma rich platelet and cryoprecipitate; manual processing in an open system, in sterile environment, for gel activation. Every step of the gel synthesis was checked by a quality control programme. The therapeutic protocol consists of the once-weekly application of PG. Progressive reduction of the wound size, granulation tissue forming, wound bed detersion, regression and absence of infective processes were considered for evaluating clinical response to hemotherapy. 24 patients were enrolled. They had single or multiple cutaneous ulcers with different ethiopathogenesis. Only 3 patients could perform autologous withdrawal; in the others homologous hemocomponent were used, always considering suitability and traceability criteria for transfusional use of blood. Complete response was observed in 9 patients, 2 were subjected to cutaneous graft, 4 stopped treatment, 9 had partial response and are still receiving the treatment. In each case granulation tissue forming increased following to the first PG applications, while complete re-epithelization was obtained later. Pain was reduced in every treated patient. Topical haemotherapy with PG may be considered as an adjuvant treatment of a multidisciplinary process

  12. An inherently parallel method for solving discretized diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo approach to solving linear systems of equations is being investigated in the context of the solution of discretized diffusion equations. While the technique was originally devised decades ago, changes in computer architectures (namely, massively parallel machines) have driven the authors to revisit this technique. There are a number of potential advantages to this approach: (1) Analog Monte Carlo techniques are inherently parallel; this is not necessarily true to today's more advanced linear equation solvers (multigrid, conjugate gradient, etc.); (2) Some forms of this technique are adaptive in that they allow the user to specify locations in the problem where resolution is of particular importance and to concentrate the work at those locations; and (3) These techniques permit the solution of very large systems of equations in that matrix elements need not be stored. The user could trade calculational speed for storage if elements of the matrix are calculated on the fly. The goal of this study is to compare the parallel performance of Monte Carlo linear solvers to that of a more traditional parallelized linear solver. The authors observe the linear speedup that they expect from the Monte Carlo algorithm, given that there is no domain decomposition to cause significant communication overhead. Overall, PETSc outperforms the Monte Carlo solver for the test problem. The PETSc parallel performance improves with larger numbers of unknowns for a given number of processors. Parallel performance of the Monte Carlo technique is independent of the size of the matrix and the number of processes. They are investigating modifications to the scheme to accommodate matrix problems with positive off-diagonal elements. They are also currently coding an on-the-fly version of the algorithm to investigate the solution of very large linear systems

  13. Distribution of Inherent Strains and Residual Stresses in Medium Thickness Plate Weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental theory for the analysis of residual weldingstresses and deformation based on the inherent strain distribution along the welded joint is introduced. Distribution of inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses in medium thickness plate weldment is calculated and analyzed.A new method of calculating inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses is proposed.

  14. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals rat colovesical fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Tihomir; Grgic, Dora; Drmic, Domagoj; Sever, Anita Zenko; Petrovic, Igor; Sucic, Mario; Kokot, Antonio; Klicek, Robert; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-06-01

    To establish the effects of BPC 157 on the healing of rat colovesical fistulas, Wistar Albino male rats were randomly assigned to different groups. BPC 157, a stable gastric pentadecapeptide, has been used in clinical applications-specifically, in ulcerative colitis-and was successful in treating both external and internal fistulas. BPC 157 was provided daily, perorally, in drinking water (10µg/kg, 12ml/rat/day) until sacrifice or, alternatively, 10µg/kg or 10ng/kg intraperitoneally, with the first application at 30min after surgery and the last at 24h before sacrifice. Controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5.0ml/kg ip) or water only (12ml/rat/day). Assessment (i.e., colon and vesical defects, fistula leaking, fecaluria and defecation through the fistula, adhesions and intestinal obstruction as healing processes) took place on days 7, 14 and 28. Control colovesical fistulas regularly exhibited poor healing, with both of the defects persisting; continuous fistula leakage; fecaluria and defecation through the fistula; advanced adhesion formation; and intestinal obstruction. By contrast, BPC 157 given perorally or intraperitoneally and in µg- and ng-regimens rapidly improved the whole presentation, with both colon and vesical defects simultaneously ameliorated and eventually healed. The maximal instilled volume was continuously raised until it reached the values of healthy rats, there were no signs of fecaluria and no defecation through the fistula, there was counteraction of advanced adhesion formation or there was an intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects appear to be suited to inducing full healing of colocutaneous fistulas in rats. PMID:26875638

  15. Registration of optical imagery and LiDAR data using an inherent geometrical constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Mei; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Li, Linyuan; Qi, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Jinghui; Chu, Qing

    2015-03-23

    A novel method for registering imagery with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is proposed. It is based on the phenomenon that the back-projection of LiDAR point cloud of an object should be located within the object boundary in the image. Using this inherent geometrical constraint, the registration parameters computation of both data sets only requires LiDAR point clouds of several objects and their corresponding boundaries in the image. The proposed registration method comprises of four steps: point clouds extraction, boundary extraction, back-projection computation and registration parameters computation. There are not any limitations on the geometrical and spectral properties of the object. So it is suitable not only for structured scenes with man-made objects but also for natural scenes. Moreover, the proposed method based on the inherent geometrical constraint can register two data sets derived from different parts of an object. It can be used to co-register TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) LiDAR point cloud and UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) image, which are obtaining more attention in the forest survey application. Using initial registration parameters comparable to POS (position and orientation system) accuracy, the performed experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed registration method. PMID:25837107

  16. Moving to different streams of healing praxis: A reformed missionary approach of healing in the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2016-01-01

    There are different streams of healing praxis in Africa today, namely African traditional healing, biomedical healing and spiritual healing (which includes the more recent �touch your TV screen� healing method) among others. These streams offer contemporary African people diverse alternatives with regard to healing. As much as the hegemony of Western biomedicine, as endorsed by missionaries in the past, can no longer serve as a norm in the area of healing, we can also not use the African trad...

  17. Regenerative Medicine: Charting a New Course in Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Chapman, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds are a prevalent and costly problem in the United States. Improved treatments are needed to heal these wounds and prevent serious complications such as infection and amputation. Recent Advances: In wound healing, as in other areas of medicine, technologies that have the potential to regenerate as opposed to repair tissue are gaining ground. These include customizable nanofiber matrices incorporating novel materials; a variety of autologous and allogeneic cell types at various stages of differentiation (e.g., pluripotent, terminally differentiated); peptides; proteins; small molecules; RNA inhibitors; and gene therapies. Critical Issues: Wound healing is a logical target for regenerative medicine due to the accessibility and structure of skin, the regenerative nature of healing, the lack of good limb salvage treatments, and the current use of cell therapies. However, more extensive knowledge of pathophysiologic targets is needed to inform regenerative strategies, and new technologies must demonstrate value in terms of outcomes and related health economic measures to achieve successful market access and penetration. Future Directions: Due to similarities in cell pathways and developmental mechanisms, regenerative technologies developed in one therapeutic area may be applicable to others. Approaches that proceed from human genomic or other big data sources to models are becoming increasingly common and will likely suggest novel therapeutic avenues. To fully capitalize on the advances in regenerative medicine, studies must demonstrate the value of new therapies in identified patient populations, and sponsors must work with regulatory agencies to develop appropriate dossiers supporting timely approval. PMID:27366592

  18. The influence of the anabolic agent flavichromin on osteotomy healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it was attempted to attain a quicker consolidation of bone fragments in rabbits after they had undergone a lower jaw osteotomy and fragment fixation and had been treated with the usual osteosynthetic medications as well as doses of the anabolic agent flavichromin to stimulate bone healing. The healing progress of the first four post-operative weeks was clinically, radiologically, and also histologically assessed and it was also attempted to test the value of densitometrically studying the X-ray pictures as a quantitative measurement of the re-mineralisation of the fracture line. Although animal-specific studies do not allow themselves to be directly applied to humans, because the osteogenesis rates differ too greatly from humans and though further studies on dogs should be undertaken, in order to make a more conclusive statement, flavichromin because of its easy applicability should be considered for future use on humans, especially in cases with healing complications. In the healing of bone defects, flavichromin should be considered. (TRV)

  19. What is New in Wound Healing?

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Senthil; WONG, Peng Foo; LEAPER, David John

    2004-01-01

    Wound biology is complex. Wounds which were until recently seen only as defects in tissues are now increasingly interpreted in cellular and molecular terms. Growth factors, cytokines, proteases and adhesion molecules which participate in wound healing are discussed in this article. From a clinical perspective, conceptual shifts of importance, including moist wound healing, wound bed preparation and wound assessment, are presented. The frontiers of therapeutics employed in wound healing contin...

  20. Wound Healing Activity of Carallia brachiata Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, B; Neeharika, V; Venkatesh, S; Padmavathy, R; Reddy, B Madhava

    2009-09-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats. PMID:20502583

  1. Wound Healing Activity of Carallia brachiata Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, B.; V Neeharika; Venkatesh, S; R Padmavathy; Reddy, B. Madhava

    2009-01-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  2. Wound healing activity of Carallia brachiata bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaveni B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  3. Healing Rituals for Survivors of Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Colleen Galambos

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic rituals focus on clinical healing within different contexts and client populations. This article explores the use of therapeutic ritual at individual and collective levels to help survivors of rape to heal. This technique is applied to both levels through a discussion of two rituals developed for rape survivors. Results of a study that examined participant comments about a collective ritual for healing are discussed. Findings indicate that participants attend the ritual to be supp...

  4. The history of methods of healing

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Biljana; Kostik, Vesna; Cekovska, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Different methods of healing that have been developed over time have increased the ability of medicinal professionals to meet the challenges that arise with expansion of their professional roles. The methods of healing of cave people were undeveloped. The methods of Chinese medicine were focused on balancing the internal and external energies. Holistic and sophisticated system of healing represents Ayurveda. Egyptian medicinal texts show a close relationship betw...

  5. Bioelectrical Impedance Assessment of Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Lukaski, Henry C.; Moore, Micheal

    2012-01-01

    Objective assessment of wound healing is fundamental to evaluate therapeutic and nutritional interventions and to identify complications. Despite availability of many techniques to monitor wounds, there is a need for a safe, practical, accurate, and effective method. A new method is localized bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that noninvasively provides information describing cellular changes that occur during healing and signal complications to wound healing. This article describes the ...

  6. Investigations of Self-Healing Property of Chitosan-Reinforced Epoxy Dye Composite Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hüsnügül Yılmaz Atay; Leyla Eral Doğan; Erdal Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan has a very wide application range in different parts of life such as in biomedical and antimicrobial areas. In recent years the self-healing property of chitosan becomes more of an issue. In the study chitosan was used to obtain a self-healing composite material. An epoxy dye was converted to a self-healing coating. Different types of samples were prepared by coating the glass substrates with a polymer matrix reinforced with various amounts of chitosan. The samples were characterized...

  7. A constitutive model for representing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a constitutive model for representing inelastic flow due to coupled creep, damage, and healing in rock salt is present in this paper. This model, referred to as Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, has been formulated by considering individual mechanisms that include dislocation creep, shear damage, tensile damage, and damage healing. Applications of the model to representing the inelastic flow and fracture behavior of WIPP salt subjected to creep, quasi-static loading, and damage healing conditions are illustrated with comparisons of model calculations against experimental creep curves, stress-strain curves, strain recovery curves, time-to-rupture data, and fracture mechanism maps

  8. Rheo-PIV Investigation of Fracture and Self-Healing in a Triblock Copolymer Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrecht, Benjamin A; Thornell, Travis L; Erk, Kendra A

    2014-01-01

    Physically associating polymer gels have shown the ability to heal after failure, making them promising candidates for various medical applications or consumer products. However, the processes by which these materials self-heal is not well-understood. This study seeks to explain the self-healing behavior of the triblock copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate), or PMMA-PnBA-PMMA, by probing the material’s post-fracture behavior with rheometry and pa...

  9. Evaluating Self Healing Capability of Bituminous Mastics

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J.; Ven, M. van de; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Molenaar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The self-healing capability of bituminous materials has been known for many years. Researches were mostly focused on the self healing behaviour during load repetitions. The tests are either time consuming and/or complex. In this paper, a simple self healing test procedure is presented combining the fracture-healing-re-fracture test (FHR) with morphological observations. A fast displacement speed loading was applied first to produce a flat open crack with a crack width of 100–200 μm. Then the ...

  10. Advances in Wound Healing: A Review of Current Wound Healing Products

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Patrick S.; Gregory R.D. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Successful wound care involves optimizing patient local and systemic conditions in conjunction with an ideal wound healing environment. Many different products have been developed to influence this wound environment to provide a pathogen-free, protected, and moist area for healing to occur. Newer products are currently being used to replace or augment various substrates in the wound healing cascade. This review of the current state of the art in wound-healing products looks at the latest appl...

  11. Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogels Based on Reversible Physical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Strandman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and reversible polymer networks capable of self-healing, i.e., restoring their mechanical properties after deformation and failure, are gaining increasing research interest, as there is a continuous need towards extending the lifetime and improving the safety and performance of materials particularly in biomedical applications. Hydrogels are versatile materials that may allow self-healing through a variety of covalent and non-covalent bonding strategies. The structural recovery of physical gels has long been a topic of interest in soft materials physics and various supramolecular interactions can induce this kind of recovery. This review highlights the non-covalent strategies of building self-repairing hydrogels and the characterization of their mechanical properties. Potential applications and future prospects of these materials are also discussed.

  12. Effect of pH Buffer on Self-Healing Hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autonomous healing of damage is a common phenomenon in living organisms but is hardly ever encountered in synthetic materials. Disulfide chemistry is used to introduce a self-healing ability in a covalently cross-linked hydrogel. This result is achieved by introducing disulfide groups in the network that are able to exchange, leading to renewal of cross-links across the damaged surfaces. ATR results showed that C=C had disappeared once the gel was formed and the percentage of gel fraction is 86 %. The gel being cut shows highest healing efficiency in borax-sodium hydroxide buffer (pH 10) which is 95 %. The combination of this unique self-healing properties and applicability for a large variety of polymers makes this approach ideal for biomedical applications. (author)

  13. Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing ...

  14. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Su-May Sheih; Pi-Fen Chang Chien

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropr...

  15. Understanding the Spatiotemporal Variability of Inherent Water Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Sven; Jung, Martin; Carvalhais, Nuno; Reichstein, Markus

    2015-04-01

    The global carbon and water cycles are coupled via plant physiology. However, the resulting spatial and temporal covariability of both fluxes on a global scale lacks sufficient understanding. This is required to estimate the impact of atmospheric drought on photosynthesis in water-limited ecosystems. Water use efficiency (WUE) is an essential ecosystem diagnostic defined as the ratio between gross primary productivity (GPP) and transpiration (T). WUE is known to vary with vapour-pressure deficit (VPD) and therefore also in time. The inherent water use efficiency (iWUE) accounts for the VPD effect on WUE and aims at representing a largely time-invariant ecosystem property. However, different ways of describing the functional response of iWUE to VPD are found in the literature. One established iWUE definition was proposed by Beer et al. (2009) and takes the form of iWUE = GPP--VPD- . T (1) A similar definition can be derived from stomatal conductance theories such as Katul et al. (2010) and takes the form of √ -- GPP---VPD- iWUE = T . (2) Here, we use eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET database to evaluate both approaches for a globally representative set of biomes including tropical, temperate and semi-arid ecosystems. Testing both definitions in a model-data fusion setup indicated that (2) is more consistent with FLUXNET observations than (1). However, there still remains considerable temporal variability of iWUE which is linked to seasonal changes in VPD. To explore up to which extent the temporal variability of iWUE may be related to the prescribed functional responses to VPD, we treated the exponent of VPD as a global parameter, here termed γ. When γ = 1 the functional response is equivalent to (1), while when γ = 0.5 it corresponds to formulation of model (2)). The global estimate was found to be significantly lower than 0.5, which would have been expected from stomatal conductance theory at leaf level. We assessed whether adding γ as site

  16. Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Microcapsule-Based Self-Healing Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Liberata Guadagno; Marialuigia Raimondo; Umberto Vietri; Carlo Naddeo; Anja Stojanovic; Andrea Sorrentino; Binder, Wolfgang H.

    2016-01-01

    Self-healing materials are beginning to be considered for applications in the field of structural materials. For this reason, in addition to self-healing efficiency, also mechanical properties such as tensile and compressive properties are beginning to become more and more important for this kind of materials. In this paper, three different systems based on epoxy-resins/ethylidene-norbornene (ENB)/Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st-generation (HG1) catalyst are investigated in terms of mechanical properties ...

  17. Healing process of infarcted myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healing process of infarcts and morphology of left ventricular aneurysms were examined with ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 41 patients with myocardial infarction. According to the time of MRI, the patients fell into Group I - within one month after the onset of myocardial infarction, Group II - between 2 and 3 months, Group III - between 4 and 12 months, and Group IV - more than one year. In Groups I and II, T2 relaxation time for infarcts was significantly prolonged when compared with non-infarcts. It gradually decreased in the following order: Groups I>II>III>IV. Groups IV had the lowest ratio of infarcts to non-infarcts (I/N ratio), followed by Groups II and III, and then Group I. MR imaging had a sensitivity of 70% in morphologically evaluating left ventricular aneurysms. Left ventricular aneurysms tended to be detected when the I/N ratio was 0.6 or less. Acute infarcts had increased signal intensities and a prolonged T2 relaxation time, probably resulting from protons increased by edemas. These appearances returned to normal 2 to 3 months after the onset; and simultaneously, the infarcted wall was becoming thin. These MRI findings seem representative of healing process of infarcts. In cases of associated left ventricular aneurysms, the infarcted wall was remarkably thinned, which was likely affected by an excessive expansion due to an increased tension of the infarcted wall. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Total Particulate Matter and Wound Healing: An in vivo Study with Histological Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SOHAIL EJAZ; MUHAMMAD ASHRAF; MUHAMMAD NAWAZ; CHAE WOONG LIM

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Wound healing in the skin is a multifarious orchestration of cellular processes and cigarette smoking may be a cause for delayed wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the plausible association between exposures of cigarette total particulate matter (TPM) and wound healing. Methods An in vivo wound healing model of mice was established for determination of assorted events of wound healing, dermal matrix regeneration, re-epithelialization, and neovascularization. A total of 72 adult mice, separated in eight groups, were exposed to TPM for 12 days. Results A highly considerable diminution in wound closure (P<0.001) was pragmatic among all TPM-treated mice from day 6 to day 8 post-wounding. Histological investigations unveiled a noteworthy impede in the outcome of re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration and maturation of collagen bundles among all TPM-exposed wounds. Delayed commencement of neovascularization was pragmatic among all TPM-treated mice, on day 12 post wounding. Abbot curve, angular spectrum, and other different parameters of 3D surface behavior of wounds revealed a very highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in angiogenesis on days 6 and 8 post-wounding, which points that application of TPM instigates extensive delay in trigging the progression of angiogenesis, resulting in delayed onset of wound healing. Conclusion Our annotations validate the damaging effects of TPM on wound healing and excessive use of TPM may lead to the production of chronic wounds and oral ulcers.

  19. "Healing is a Done Deal": Temporality and Metabolic Healing Among Evangelical Christians in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in independent Samoa, in this article, I analyze the temporal dimensions of evangelical Christian healing of metabolic disorders. I explore how those suffering with metabolic disorders draw from multiple time-based notions of healing, drawing attention to the limits of biomedicine in contrast with the effectiveness of Divine healing. By simultaneously engaging evangelical and biomedical temporalities, I argue that evangelical Christians create wellness despite sickness and, in turn, re-signify chronic suffering as a long-term process of Christian healing. Positioning biomedical temporality and evangelical temporality as parallel yet distinctive ways of practicing healing, therefore, influences health care choices. PMID:26436693

  20. Proposal of a method to evaluate the growth of inherent filtration originated by metallizing in a glass ampoule of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam condensation of metal anode on the walls of a glass ampule producing X-rays form a metallic layer, which is an inherent filtration mode. This process is referred to as metallizing. The thickness of the metal grows with the intensity of use of X-ray machine. in General, routine applications, this growth is despised and is only considered when its value has reached such proportions that undermine the purpose of irradiation. There are situations, however, where it is not correct to ignore this growth inherent filtration. For example, when it comes to machine used for calibration of instruments in beams of x-rays, the knowledge of the value of inherent filtration is desirable. This paper proposes a method for evaluating the increased inherent filtration due to metallization using X-ray spectra laid down in international standards

  1. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  2. Wound healing and infection in surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2012-01-01

    : The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved.......: The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved....

  3. Holistic nurses' stories of personal healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marlaine C; Zahourek, Rothlyn; Hines, Mary Enzman; Engebretson, Joan; Wardell, Diane Wind

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the nature, experiences, and meaning of personal healing for holistic nurses through their narrative accounts. The study employed a qualitative descriptive design with methods of narrative and story inquiry. Participants were nurse attendees at an American Holistic Nurses' Association conference who volunteered for the study. They were invited to share a story about healing self or another. Twenty-five stories were collected; seven were about personal healing, and these are the focus of this analysis. Data were analyzed using a hybrid approach from narrative and story inquiry methods. Eleven themes were clustered under three story segments. The themes within the Call to the Healing Encounter are the following: recognition of the need to resolve a personal or health crisis, knowledge of or engagement in self-care practices, and reliance on intuitive knowing. Themes under the Experience of Healing are the following: connections; profound sensations, perceptions, and events; awareness of the reciprocal nature of healing; inner resolution: forgiveness, awakening, and acceptance; use of multiple holistic approaches; and witnessing manifestations of healing. The themes for Insights are the following: gratitude and appreciation and ongoing journey. A metastory synthesizing the themes is presented, and findings are related to existing literature on healing. PMID:23463813

  4. Towards an understanding of thermally activated self-healing of an ionomer system during ballistic penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-healing phenomenon exhibited by the ionomer known as Surlyn 8940 (DuPont), a partially neutralized poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) random co-polymer, during high-energy impact has been investigated here according to three separate strategies. The first consisted of a post-mortem scanning electron microscopy examination of impact surfaces of actual ballistic impacts for a range of bullets with different shapes, sizes and velocities. A complex range of competing and/or complementary processes based upon elastic and viscous responses was observed. The elastic response to impact provides for a polymer rebound or shape memory effect, while the viscous response provides for the final sealing of the cavity and is dependent upon the level of thermal frictional forces transferred during impact. The balance of these influences determines healing, and is shown to be altered by the size and shape of the bullet or indeed by the polymer morphology itself. The second strategy investigated the healing mechanism using a method that mimics the elastic response to impact in a controlled environment. This work highlighted the importance of the ionic clusters present in the ionomer and the gradient of viscoelastic properties formed at varying distances from the impact zone particularly when compared to non-ionic polymers. The repeatability of elastic healing was demonstrated, and reinforced the notion that healing arose from the inherent polymer structure of the ionomer. The third strategy investigated the role of the viscous response during impact and found that increased molecular mobility in the melt was critical to achieving optimal healing, although again the ionic clusters were found to be critical to maintaining sufficient structural integrity and preventing excess viscous flow

  5. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2016-10-01

    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs. PMID:26391242

  6. Electrical Stimulation and Cutaneous Wound Healing: A Review of Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ud-Din

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation (ES has been shown to have beneficial effects in wound healing. It is important to assess the effects of ES on cutaneous wound healing in order to ensure optimization for clinical practice. Several different applications as well as modalities of ES have been described, including direct current (DC, alternating current (AC, high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC, low-intensity direct current (LIDC and electrobiofeedback ES. However, no one method has been advocated as the most optimal for the treatment of cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, this review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE for the application of different types of ES to enhance cutaneous wound healing in the skin. An extensive search was conducted to identify relevant clinical studies utilising ES for cutaneous wound healing since 1980 using PubMed, Medline and EMBASE. A total of 48 studies were evaluated and assigned LOE. All types of ES demonstrated positive effects on cutaneous wound healing in the majority of studies. However, the reported studies demonstrate contrasting differences in the parameters and types of ES application, leading to an inability to generate sufficient evidence to support any one standard therapeutic approach. Despite variations in the type of current, duration, and dosing of ES, the majority of studies showed a significant improvement in wound area reduction or accelerated wound healing compared to the standard of care or sham therapy as well as improved local perfusion. The limited number of LOE-1 trials for investigating the effects of ES in wound healing make critical evaluation and assessment somewhat difficult. Further, better-designed clinical trials are needed to improve our understanding of the optimal dosing, timing and type of ES to be used.

  7. Current management of wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F; Karlsmark, T

    2009-01-01

    While the understanding of wound pathophysiology has progressed considerably over the past decades the improvements in clinical treatment has occurred to a minor degree. During the last years, however, new trends and initiatives have been launched, and we will continue to attain new information in...... the next decade. It is the hope that increasing parts of the new knowledge from basic wound healing research will be implemented in daily clinical practice. The development of new treatment products will also continue, and especially new technologies with combined types of dressing materials or...... dressing containing active substances will be accentuated. Further developments in the management structure and education will also continue and consensus of treatment guidelines, recommendations and organization models will hopefully be achieved....

  8. Effects of the application of Aloe vera (L. and microcurrent on the healing of wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats Efeitos da aplicação de Aloe vera (L. e microcorrente no reparo de lesões cirúrgicas induzidas em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cruz Franchini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel combined or not with microcurrent application on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, animals topically treated with Aloe vera, animals treated with a microcurrent, and animals receiving topical application of Aloe vera combined with microcurrent application. RESULTS: The results indicated differences in wound healing between the various treatments when compared to the control group. Tissue hyperplasia was lower in the control group compared to the other treated groups. Accelerated wound healing was observed in the group treated with Aloe vera compared to control. Animals submitted to microcurrent application only and the group treated with microcurrent plus Aloe vera presented an earlier onset of the proliferative phase compared to the control group and animals treated with Aloe vera gel alone. Morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous application of Aloe vera gel and microcurrent is an excellent choice for the treatment of open wounds thus indicating a synergistic action of these two applications.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da aplicação tópica do gel de Aloe vera, combinada ou não com a aplicação de microcorrente no reparo de lesões cutâneas induzidas cirurgicamente em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em: grupo controle, tratado topicamente com gel in natura de Aloe vera, tratado com microcorrente e tratado com aplicação tópica de Aloe vera associada à microcorrente. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do presente trabalho indicaram que o reparo tecidual ocorreu de forma diferenciada nos vários tratamentos empregados quando comparados ao grupo controle. A hiperplasia tecidual no grupo controle foi menor que a observada nos demais grupos tratados. No grupo tratado com aplica

  9. Electron beam-assisted healing of nanopores in magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, He; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Wu, Shujing; Jia, Shuangfeng; Cao, Ajing; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Nanopore-based sensing has emerged as a promising candidate for affordable and powerful DNA sequencing technologies. Herein, we demonstrate that nanopores can be successfully fabricated in Mg alloys via focused electron beam (e-beam) technology. Employing in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques, we obtained unambiguous evidence that layer-by-layer growth of atomic planes at the nanopore periphery occurs when the e-beam is spread out, leading to the shrinkage and eventual disappearance of nanopores. The proposed healing process was attributed to the e-beam-induced anisotropic diffusion of Mg atoms in the vicinity of nanopore edges. A plausible diffusion mechanism that describes the observed phenomena is discussed. Our results constitute the first experimental investigation of nanopores in Mg alloys. Direct evidence of the healing process has advanced our fundamental understanding of surface science, which is of great practical importance for many technological applications, including thin film deposition and surface nanopatterning. PMID:23719630

  10. Application of the Loading Inherent Subspace Scaling Method on the Whipping Responses Test of a Surface Ship to Underwater Explosions%载荷内部子空间缩比方法在水面舰船水下爆炸鞭状响应试验上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建湖; 吴有生; 王海坤; 潘建强

    2013-01-01

      水下爆炸载荷作用下舰船结构的鞭状运动不仅受冲击波载荷的影响,而且与气泡脉动载荷密切相关。理想条件下,水面舰船鞭状响应的缩比模型试验预测必须在离心机或增压水池内进行,这样才能保证冲击与气泡载荷在整个力学空间上的一致性,这对于通常采用的大尺度模型鞭状试验来说,显然不切实际。之前,作者提出一个专门的称为载荷内部子空间的缩比模型方法(LIS Scaling Method),能够在与原型载荷条件紧密相连的特定子空间内模拟水下爆炸载荷与鞭状响应。文中将该方法用于水面舰船,通过精心设计的“原型”和“子模型”水下爆炸鞭状响应模型对比试验研究进行验证,结果表明,原型与子模型的鞭状响应通过LIS方法换算后,有非常好的一致性。此外,发现阻尼随模型鞭状响应的幅值而变化。%The whipping response of a ship structure to underwater explosion is relevant not only to the shock wave load but also to the bubble load. So the ideal subscale underwater explosion test for whipping responses of a surface ship must be executed on a centrifuge machine or in an air pressure modifiable pond that can insure the consistency of shock wave and bubble load in the whole me-chanical space, and it is not practical for big model that is usually used for whipping responses test. Previously, a special scaling method called Loading Inherent Subspace (LIS) scaling method was pro-posed by authors, which can simulate the underwater explosion loadings and the whipping responses in a specific subspace that is concerned with load condition of prototype. In this paper, the LIS scal-ing method was applied to a surface ship, and two experiments including one prototype and one sub-scale model of whipping responses to underwater explosion were carried out and the responses were compared with each other. The results show that the responses are

  11. Inherent structures of phase-separating binary mixtures: nucleation, spinodal decomposition, and pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    An energy landscape view of phase separation and nonideality in binary mixtures is developed by exploring their potential energy landscape (PEL) as functions of temperature and composition. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study a model that promotes structure breaking in the solute-solvent parent binary liquid, at low temperatures. The PEL of the system captures the potential energy distribution of the inherent structures (IS) of the system and is obtained by removing the kinetic energy (including that of intermolecular vibrations). The broader distribution of the inherent structure energy for structure breaking liquid than that of the structure making liquid demonstrates the larger role of entropy in stabilizing the parent liquid of the structure breaking type of binary mixtures. At high temperature, although the parent structure of the structure breaking binary mixture is homogenous, the corresponding inherent structure is found to be always phase separated, with a density pattern that exhibits marked correlation with the energy of its inherent structure. Over a broad range of intermediate inherent structure energy, bicontinuous phase separation prevails with interpenetrating stripes as signatures of spinodal decomposition. At low inherent structure energy, the structure is largely phase separated with one interface where as at high inherent structure energy we find nucleation type growth. Interestingly, at low temperature, the average inherent structure energy () exhibits a drop with temperature which signals the onset of crystallization in one of the phases while the other remains in the liquid state. The nonideal composition dependence of viscosity is anticorrelated with average inherent structure energy. PMID:21517506

  12. Inherent structures of phase-separating binary mixtures: Nucleation, spinodal decomposition, and pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sarmistha; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    An energy landscape view of phase separation and nonideality in binary mixtures is developed by exploring their potential energy landscape (PEL) as functions of temperature and composition. We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study a model that promotes structure breaking in the solute-solvent parent binary liquid, at low temperatures. The PEL of the system captures the potential energy distribution of the inherent structures (IS) of the system and is obtained by removing the kinetic energy (including that of intermolecular vibrations). The broader distribution of the inherent structure energy for structure breaking liquid than that of the structure making liquid demonstrates the larger role of entropy in stabilizing the parent liquid of the structure breaking type of binary mixtures. At high temperature, although the parent structure of the structure breaking binary mixture is homogenous, the corresponding inherent structure is found to be always phase separated, with a density pattern that exhibits marked correlation with the energy of its inherent structure. Over a broad range of intermediate inherent structure energy, bicontinuous phase separation prevails with interpenetrating stripes as signatures of spinodal decomposition. At low inherent structure energy, the structure is largely phase separated with one interface where as at high inherent structure energy we find nucleation type growth. Interestingly, at low temperature, the average inherent structure energy () exhibits a drop with temperature which signals the onset of crystallization in one of the phases while the other remains in the liquid state. The nonideal composition dependence of viscosity is anticorrelated with average inherent structure energy.

  13. Simultaneous, inherently temperature and strain insensitive bio-sensors based on dual-resonance long-period gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Bock, Wojtek J; Mikulic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the temperature and strain induced cross-talks simultaneously, we propose an inherently strain and temperature insensitive fiber-optic bio-sensor. The insensitivity has been achieved by properly adjusting the dopants and their concentrations in the optical fiber core region, and by optimizing the grating period and the strength of concatenated dual-resonance long-period-gratings. The simulations have been carried out using the same fiber parameters as used in our earlier experimental studies, which matched excellently with the experimental results. The proposed sensor has a theoretical refractive-index sensitivity of 4607 nm/RIU, which can be used to detect changes as small as 2.2 x10^-7 in ambient refractive indices using a detection system with spectral resolution of 1 pm. Our work finds application in developing precision biosensors with inherent insensitivity towards temperature and axial strain fluctuations. The sensor is currently under fabrication at our lab.

  14. Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy with Multivariate Spectral Analyses Potentially Facilitates the Classification of Inherent Structures of Feed-Type of Sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inherent structural-chemical features of Chinese feed-type sorghum seed using synchrotron-radiation Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM) with two multivariate molecular spectral analysis techniques: Agglomerative Hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component analyses (PCA). The results show that by application of these two multivariate techniques with the infrared spectroscopy of the SRFTIRM, it makes possible to discriminate and classify the inherent molecular structural features among the different layers of sorghum with a great efficiency. With the SRFTIRM, images of the molecular chemistry of sorghum could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of nutrient matrix and nutrient make-up and interactions could be revealed.

  15. Mast Cells Regulate Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Ana; Leal, Ermelindo C; Kafanas, Antonios; Auster, Michael E; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Ostrovsky, Yana; Tecilazich, Francesco; Baltzis, Dimitrios; Zheng, Yongjun; Carvalho, Eugénia; Zabolotny, Janice M; Weng, Zuyi; Petra, Anastasia; Patel, Arti; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Veves, Aristidis

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes that lacks effective treatment. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to wound healing, but their role in diabetes skin complications is poorly understood. Here we show that the number of degranulated MCs is increased in unwounded forearm and foot skin of patients with diabetes and in unwounded dorsal skin of diabetic mice (P diabetic mice. Pretreatment with the MC degranulation inhibitor disodium cromoglycate rescues diabetes-associated wound-healing impairment in mice and shifts macrophages to the regenerative M2 phenotype (P diabetic mice deficient in MCs have delayed wound healing compared with their wild-type (WT) controls, implying that some MC mediator is needed for proper healing. MCs are a major source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse skin, but the level of VEGF is reduced in diabetic mouse skin, and its release from human MCs is reduced in hyperglycemic conditions. Topical treatment with the MC trigger substance P does not affect wound healing in MC-deficient mice, but improves it in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of nondegranulated MCs in unwounded skin is required for proper wound healing, and therapies inhibiting MC degranulation could improve wound healing in diabetes. PMID:27207516

  16. Synthesis and characterization of iodinated polyurethane with inherent radiopacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S; James, Nirmala R; Joseph, Roy; Jayakrishnan, A

    2009-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of polyurethane (PU) with excellent radiopacity for medical and allied applications are reported. Bisphenol-A (BPA) was iodinated to obtain 4,4'-isopropylidinedi-(2,6-diiodophenol) (IBPA) which was used as a chain extender for the preparation of a radiopaque PU. The PU was prepared by reacting 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG) and IBPA in 2.2:1.2:1 molecular ratio and is characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetry (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and X-radiography. X-ray images showed that the PU prepared using IBPA as the chain extender is highly radiopaque. An in vitro cytotoxicity test using L929 mouse fibroblast cells shows that the PU is non-cytotoxic. The outlined synthesis of a PU with radiocontrast properties opens up the possibility of synthesizing many different kinds of radiopaque PUs with desirable range of physical properties exploiting the versatility in their chemical synthesis. PMID:19596151

  17. The concept of passive cooling systems for inherently safe BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and its consequences have led to extensive rethinking about the safety technologies used in boiling water reactors (BWRs). As one of the options of the safety technologies, we have been developing passive cooling systems consisting of a water-cooling system and an infinite-time air-cooling system. These systems achieve core cooling without electricity and are intended to cope with a long-term station blackout (SBO). Both these cooling systems remove relatively high decay heat for the initial 10 days after an accident, and then the infinite-time air-cooling system continues to remove attenuated decay heat after this period. To obtain heat transfer data for the design of the water-cooling system, we conducted heat transfer tests using a full-scale U-shaped single tube. The data were obtained at a system pressure of 0.2 to 3.0 MPa (absolute) and inlet steam velocity of 5 to 56 m/s. To enhance heat transfer of the air-cooling system, we successfully implemented some air-cooling enhancing technologies. The performance was evaluated by heat transfer data obtained from the element heat transfer tests. The heat transfer performance increased at least 100% with the enhancement technologies compared with a bare tube. From these test results, we confirmed good feasibility for application of the cooling systems. (author)

  18. Profiling wound healing with wound effluent: Raman spectroscopic indicators of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The care of modern traumatic war wounds remains a significant challenge for clinicians. Many of the extremity wounds inflicted during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom are colonized or infected with multi-drug resistant organisms, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii. Biofilm formation and resistance to current treatments can significantly confound the wound healing process. Accurate strain identification and targeted drug administration for the treatment of wound bioburden has become a priority for combat casualty care. In this study, we use vibrational spectroscopy to examine wound exudates for bacterial load. Inherent chemical differences in different bacterial species and strains make possible the high specificity of vibrational spectroscopy.

  19. Impression Testing of Self-Healing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Huber, Amy

    2005-01-01

    As part of the BIOSANT program (biologically-inspired smart nanotechnology), scientists at NASA-Langley have identified a "self-healing" plastic that spontaneously closes the hole left by the passage of a bullet. To understand and generalize the phenomenon in question, the mechanical properties responsible for this ability are being explored. Low-rate impression testing was chosen to characterize post-yield material properties, and it turned out that materials that heal following ballistic puncture also show up to 80% healing of the low-rate impression. Preliminary results on the effects of temperature and rate of puncture are presented.

  20. Toward Self-Healing Multitier Services

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Brian; Babu, Shivnath; Candea, George; Duan, Songyun

    2007-01-01

    Are self-healing database-centric multitier services utopia or just a hard puzzle? We argue for the latter and aim to identify the missing pieces of this puzzle. We advocate robust and scalable learning-based approaches to self-healing that we expect to work well for a large class of multitier services. We identify performance-availability problems (PAPs) as the most relevant target for self-healing, and argue that PAPs are best addressed macroscopically, outside the realm of individual tiers...

  1. Spirit, Mind and Body in Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of the spirit and mind in health and well-being among Chumash people. Prayer was the first step in healing since prayer invites the participation of God. Initiation practices are discussed that encouraged young people to develop the maturity and spiritual strength to become productive members of society. Pictographs were used in healing usually not only as a relaxation therapy, but also as a mode of education. A supportive environment was an important factor in Chumash health care, since the support of friends helps, comforts and relieves anxiety that is detrimental to healing.

  2. Healing Rituals for Survivors of Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Galambos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic rituals focus on clinical healing within different contexts and client populations. This article explores the use of therapeutic ritual at individual and collective levels to help survivors of rape to heal. This technique is applied to both levels through a discussion of two rituals developed for rape survivors. Results of a study that examined participant comments about a collective ritual for healing are discussed. Findings indicate that participants attend the ritual to be supportive of others and to be supported themselves. Family members attend to obtain information about rape. This article explores practice implications from a service planning and implementation perspective.

  3. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  4. Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Clare

    2013-04-01

    Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with

  5. 40 CFR 88.313-93 - Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.313-93 Section 88.313-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-93 Incentives for the purchase of Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Administration. (1) The...—Fleet Credit Table Based on Reduction in NMOG+NOX. Vehicle Equivalents for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  6. Strategische keuzen in verkeersveiligheidsbeleid en onderzoek : naar een inherent veiliger wegverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszbach, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the Multiyear plan for traffic safety the terms "inherent safe" and "systematic management" were used. This report explains why these terms can be used and shows their correlation in the traffic safety theories. Some elements which can be a part of an inherent safe traffic and transport system ar

  7. Inherent reward & risk (Part I): Towards a universal paradigm for investment analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zou

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new paradigm is developed for analyzinginvestment strategies and pricing financial assets. This paradigmassumes that any investment strategy has its own "inherent reward"and "inherent risk" that can be judged with common sense. Ijustify axiomatically the existence and uniqueness (ra

  8. Repeated crack healing in MAX-phase ceramics revealed by 4D in situ synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloof, Willem G; Pei, Ruizhi; McDonald, Samuel A; Fife, Julie L; Shen, Lu; Boatemaa, Linda; Farle, Ann-Sophie; Yan, Kun; Zhang, Xun; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Lee, Peter D; Withers, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    MAX phase materials are emerging as attractive engineering materials in applications where the material is exposed to severe thermal and mechanical conditions in an oxidative environment. The Ti2AlC MAX phase possesses attractive thermomechanical properties even beyond a temperature of 1000 K. An attractive feature of this material is its capacity for the autonomous healing of cracks when operating at high temperatures. Coupling a specialized thermomechanical setup to a synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy endstation at the TOMCAT beamline, we captured the temporal evolution of local crack opening and healing during multiple cracking and autonomous repair cycles at a temperature of 1500 K. For the first time, the rate and position dependence of crack repair in pristine Ti2AlC material and in previously healed cracks has been quantified. Our results demonstrate that healed cracks can have sufficient mechanical integrity to make subsequent cracks form elsewhere upon reloading after healing. PMID:26972608

  9. Repeated crack healing in MAX-phase ceramics revealed by 4D in situ synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloof, Willem G.; Pei, Ruizhi; McDonald, Samuel A.; Fife, Julie L.; Shen, Lu; Boatemaa, Linda; Farle, Ann-Sophie; Yan, Kun; Zhang, Xun; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Lee, Peter D.; Withers, Philip J.

    2016-03-01

    MAX phase materials are emerging as attractive engineering materials in applications where the material is exposed to severe thermal and mechanical conditions in an oxidative environment. The Ti2AlC MAX phase possesses attractive thermomechanical properties even beyond a temperature of 1000 K. An attractive feature of this material is its capacity for the autonomous healing of cracks when operating at high temperatures. Coupling a specialized thermomechanical setup to a synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy endstation at the TOMCAT beamline, we captured the temporal evolution of local crack opening and healing during multiple cracking and autonomous repair cycles at a temperature of 1500 K. For the first time, the rate and position dependence of crack repair in pristine Ti2AlC material and in previously healed cracks has been quantified. Our results demonstrate that healed cracks can have sufficient mechanical integrity to make subsequent cracks form elsewhere upon reloading after healing.

  10. 120 Years of Accelerators that Heal

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of X rays was made possible by the intelligent use of the best accelerator of the time. Since then, the development of particle accelerators has been at the root of both fundamental discoveries in physics and unforeseeable medical applications. The lecture will describe the major steps in this 120-year history of diagnostics and tumour therapy.   The first attempts to heal tumours with X rays were made only one month after Röntgen’s discovery, but the understanding of the mechanisms by which the radiation kills the cells and the introduction of dose fractionation took much longer. The use of X rays in diagnostics developed much faster and its benefits were very visible during the First World War. Today no tumour could be treated and no patient could be operated without a CT scan, which employs an X ray tube that is not very different from the one introduced by William Coolidge in 1912.   On the particle therapy frontier, more sophisticated and larger pa...

  11. Self-Healing Elastin-Bioglass Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiongyu; Desai, Malav S; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Lee, Ju Hun; Chang, Jiang; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2016-08-01

    Tailorable hydrogels that are mechanically robust, injectable, and self-healable, are useful for many biomedical applications including tissue repair and drug delivery. Here we use biological and chemical engineering approaches to develop a novel in situ forming organic/inorganic composite hydrogel with dynamic aldimine cross-links using elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) and bioglass (BG). The resulting ELP/BG biocomposites exhibit tunable gelling behavior and mechanical characteristics in a composition and concentration dependent manner. We also demonstrate self-healing in the ELP/BG hydrogels by successfully reattaching severed pieces as well as through rheology. In addition, we show the strength of genetic engineering to easily customize ELP by fusing cell-stimulating "RGD" peptide motifs. We showed that the resulting composite materials are cytocompatible as they support the cellular growth and attachment. Our robust in situ forming ELP/BG composite hydrogels will be useful as injectable scaffolds for delivering cell and drug molecules to promote soft tissue regeneration in the future. PMID:27380227

  12. Self-healing metallopolymers: Detailed investigation of the self-healing properties by scratch testing

    OpenAIRE

    de Bode, S; Bose, R.K.; Sandmann, B.; Hager, M.D.; Garcia Espallargas, S.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several intrinsic self-healing materials have been developed in which the healing mechanism was mainly based on the reversibility of a certain structural element. For this purpose, reversible covalent bonds, e.g., based on the Diels-Alder reaction or weaker non-covalent interactions, e.g., hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions or π-π interactions, have been successfully utilized. In contrast, only few examples describe the self-healing of polymeric materials based on reversi...

  13. Foxo1 Inhibits Diabetic Mucosal Wound Healing but Enhances Healing of Normoglycemic Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fanxing; Othman, Badr; Lim, Jason; Batres, Angelika; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Zhang, Chenying; Yi, Leah; Liu, Jian; Tian, Chen; Hameedaldeen, Alhassan; Alsadun, Sarah; Tarapore, Rohinton; Graves, Dana T.

    2014-01-01

    Re-epithelialization is an important part in mucosal wound healing. Surprisingly little is known about the impact of diabetes on the molecular events of mucosal healing. We examined the role of the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) in oral wounds of diabetic and normoglycemic mice with keratinocyte-specific Foxo1 deletion. Diabetic mucosal wounds had significantly delayed healing with reduced cell migration and proliferation. Foxo1 deletion rescued the negative impact of diabetes o...

  14. Diabetic foot disease: impact of ulcer location on ulcer healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickwell, KM; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kars, M;

    2013-01-01

    Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing.......Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing....

  15. Inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films were investigated, and the optimal mole ratio of MnO4−/Cl− was also obtained. The inhibiting process and healing mechanism were studied by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the introduction of potassium permanganate to electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process and the optimal inhibiting mole ratio of MnO4−/Cl− is 2 × 10−1 with a protective efficiency about 99.24%. According to its high protective efficiency and the nice results of long-term immersion test, potassium permanganate as an inhibitor could prolong the lifetime of silane films and expand its scope of application. - Highlights: • Healing sol–gel film was obtained by adding KMnO4 into electrolyte. • An optimal inhibitor mole ratio of MnO4−/Cl− for Si sol–gel was 2 × 10−1. • The best protective efficiency was approximately 99.24%. • The inhibiting effect may be due to production of insoluble manganese hydroxide/oxide

  16. Laser therapy in wound healing associated with diabetes mellitus - Review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Raquel Gomes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of a literature review on the application of low intensity laser therapy on the healing of wounds associated diabetes mellitus in the last 10 years. Objective To determine the most effective parameter in healing wounds related to diabetes mellitus, as well as the most widely used type of laser. Methodology consisted of bibliographic searching the databases Bireme, SciELO, PubMed/Medline and Lilacs by using the keywords related to the topic. Were selected from these keywords, papers discussing the use of laser on wounds associated with diabetes, published in the period 2005-2014, in Portuguese or English. Results After analyzing the research, 12 studies consistent with the theme were selected. Conclusion Based on this review, the studies that showed more satisfactory results in healing diabetic wounds were those who applied energy densities in the range of 3-5 J/cm2, power densities equal to or below 0.2 W/cm2 and continuous emission. The He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm was used more often. PMID:27579745

  17. Monitoring of bone healing by piezoelectric-EMI method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlina, M. H.; Sarpinah, Bibi; Tawie, Rudy; Daho, Claira Dalislone; Annuar, Ishak

    2016-02-01

    Smart Piezoelectric devices which have excellent piezoelectric properties have been employed for various sensor and actuators applications. The work presented here is an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of bone healing monitoring by using piezoelectric-electromechanical impedance (EMI) method that have several advantages such as low cost, portable, light weight and simplicity in measurement. A Piezoelectric sensor (PZT) has been widely used in damage detection of various structures including concrete, pipes and bones due to their unique sensing and actuating properties. The EMI technique has emerged as a universal Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) tool suitable for almost all engineering materials and structures. The method used for this proposed study consists of put healing agent in the host structure in particular cracks bone to be monitored by PZT-needle sensor which is embedded to the host structure. The measurements were taken in the frequency range between 0.04 to 100 kHz at 1 kHz interval using AD5933 evaluation board. The signals retrieved from the AD5933 evaluation board, were quantify and analyse to obtain Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) percentage value. Measurements were taken every hour for 12 hours. The result from the study shows the feasibility of the piezoelectric-EMI method to effectively detect changes during bone-cracks healing process until the cracks bone is fully recovered.

  18. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Drobnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or β-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  19. Regenerative Medicine: Novel Approach in Burn Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Context Burn wounds of the skin require a long period to healing, which very often is incomplete, with functional and esthetic consequences for the patients. Stem cells in the traumatized tissue represent the promoters of the healing process and are a primary focus for regenerative medicine, which aims to find and use the triggers for the activation of stem cells of sin tissue. Evidence Acquisition At present, tissue engineering, composite epithelial autografts, multipotent stem cells and combined gene delivery with stem cell therapy are the approaches used in regenerative medicine. Alongside, the development of 3D scaffolds or matrices is a promising adjunct, as studies investigate the multiple uses of these supports for wound repair. Results Application of cells to the burn wound could be performed, either by the bedside, as a non-invasive procedure, or in the operating room, with the use of a matrix, scaffold or dermal substitute. Cell spraying, although under use in clinical setting, is not yet supported by conclusive data. Magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging and positron emission tomography are currently used to assess the viability and location of stem cells, after transplantation. Conclusions Stem cell therapies in wound care may lessen the morbidities associated with wound healing. An ideal method for the effective administration of stem cells for burn patients has not yet been elucidated. Further comparison of the local and systemic effects in burn patients, associated with each route of stem cell delivery, needs to be performed.

  20. Inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@yeah.net; Wang, Shaoyin; Luo, Fei; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin

    2013-07-31

    In this study, the inhibiting and healing effects of potassium permanganate for silane films were investigated, and the optimal mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} was also obtained. The inhibiting process and healing mechanism were studied by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microcopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that the introduction of potassium permanganate to electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process and the optimal inhibiting mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} is 2 × 10{sup −1} with a protective efficiency about 99.24%. According to its high protective efficiency and the nice results of long-term immersion test, potassium permanganate as an inhibitor could prolong the lifetime of silane films and expand its scope of application. - Highlights: • Healing sol–gel film was obtained by adding KMnO{sub 4} into electrolyte. • An optimal inhibitor mole ratio of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}/Cl{sup −} for Si sol–gel was 2 × 10{sup −1}. • The best protective efficiency was approximately 99.24%. • The inhibiting effect may be due to production of insoluble manganese hydroxide/oxide.

  1. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  2. Self healing nature of bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debroy, Sanghamitra; Pavan Kumar Miriyala, V.; Vijaya Sekhar, K.; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Acharyya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenon of self healing of cracks in bilayer graphene sheet has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The bilayer graphene sheet was subjected to uniaxial tensile load resulting in initiation and propagation of cracks on exceeding the ultimate tensile strength. Subsequently, all forces acting on the sheet were removed and sheet was relaxed. The cracks formed in the graphene sheet healed without any external aid within 0.4 ps The phenomenon of self healing of the cracks in graphene sheet was found to be independent of the length of the crack, but occurred for critical crack opening distance less than 5 Å for AA stacked sheet and 13 Å for AB stacked bilayer graphene sheet. Self healing was observed for both AB (mixed stacking of armchair and zigzag graphene sheet) and AA (both sheets of similar orientation i.e. either armchair-armchair or zigzag-zigzag) stacking of bilayer graphene sheet.

  3. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  4. Stem cells and chronic wound healing: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavitt T

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tripp Leavitt, Michael S Hu, Clement D Marshall, Leandra A Barnes, Michael T Longaker, H Peter Lorenz Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Currently available treatments for chronic wounds are inadequate. A clearly effective therapy does not exist, and treatment is often supportive. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes underlying failure of wound repair are still poorly understood. With an increase in comorbidities, such as diabetes and vascular disease, as well as an aging population, the incidence of these intractable wounds is expected to rise. As such, chronic wounds, which are already costly, are rapidly growing as a tremendous burden to the health-care system. Stem cells have garnered much interest as a therapy for chronic wounds due to their inherent ability to differentiate into multiple lineages and promote regeneration. Herein, we discuss the types of stem cells used for chronic wound therapy, as well as the proposed means by which they do so. In particular, we highlight mesenchymal stem cells (including adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. We include the results of recent in vitro and in vivo studies in both animal models and human clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the current studies to improve stem cell therapies and the limitations of stem cell-based therapeutics. Stem cells promise improved therapies for healing chronic wounds, but further studies that are well-designed with standardized protocols are necessary for fruition. Keywords: stem cells, chronic wounds, cell therapy, wound healing

  5. Healing times and prediction of wound healing in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, S; Pfohl, M

    2005-02-01

    Time line of wound healing and prediction of healing times in diabetic foot ulcers is an important issue. Usually, the percentage of wounds healed within a defined period is used for characterization of wound healing. R=sqrtA/pi (R, radius; A, planimetric wound area; pi, constant 3.14), and the wound radius reduction was 0.39 mm/week which was previously established. The initial average wound area was 96.9+/-13.1 mm2 (mean+/-SEM), and 3.61+/-1.6 mm 2 after ten weeks with an average healing time of 75.9 (95 %-CI 71-81) days. Using the equation mentioned above and the calculated weekly wound radius reduction, the predicted healing time in the test group was 86.9 (95 %-CI 73-101) days. The predicted and the observed healing times were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.55, p=0.0002). Providing standard care, the time needed for wound healing can reliably be predicted in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. This may be a useful tool in daily clinical practice to predict wound healing and recognize ulcers who do not respond adequately to the treatment. PMID:15772900

  6. Self-Healing Behavior of Ethylene-Based Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalista, Stephen J., Jr.; Ward, Thomas C.; Oyetunji, Zainab

    2004-01-01

    The self-healing behavior of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA)-based ionomers holds tremendous potential for use in a wide variety of unique applications. However, to effectively utilize this self-healing behavior and to design novel materials which possess this ability, the mechanism by which they heal must first be understood ionomers are a class of polymers that can be described as copolymers containing less than 15 mol% ionic content whereby the bulk properties are governed by ionic interactions within the polymer. These ionic groups aggregate into discrete regions known as multiplets which overlap forming clusters that act as physical cross-links profoundly influencing the bulk physical properties. These clusters possess an order-disorder transition (T(sub i)) where the clustered regions may rearrange themselves given time and stimuli. Recognizing the strong influence of these ionic regions on other well understood ionomer properties, their role in self-heating behavior will be assessed. The self-healing behavior is observed following projectile puncture. It has been suggested that during impact energy is passed to the ionomer material, heating it to the melt state. After penetration, it is proposed that the ionic regions maintain their attractions and flow together patching the hole. Thus, the importance of this ionic character and is unique interaction must be established. This will be accomplished through examination of materials with varying ionic content and through the analysis of the T(sub i). The specific ionomer systems examined include a number of ethylene-based materials. Materials of varying ionic content, including the non-ionic base copolymers, will be examined by peel tests, projectile impact and DSC analysis. The information will also be compared with some basic data on LDPE material.

  7. Topical 5-azacytidine accelerates skin wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabiana S; de-Souza, Gabriela F; Nascimento, Lucas F; Arantes, Eva L; Pedro, Rafael M; Vitorino, Daniele C; Nunez, Carla E; Melo Lima, Maria H; Velloso, Lício A; Araújo, Eliana P

    2014-01-01

    The development of new methods to improve skin wound healing may affect the outcomes of a number of medical conditions. Here, we evaluate the molecular and clinical effects of topical 5-azacytidine on wound healing in rats. 5-Azacytidine decreases the expression of follistatin-1, which negatively regulates activins. Activins, in turn, promote cell growth in different tissues, including the skin. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were submitted to 8.0-mm punch-wounding in the dorsal region. After 3 days, rats were randomly assigned to receive either a control treatment or the topical application of a solution containing 5-azacytidine (10 mM) once per day. Photo documentation and sample collection were performed on days 5, 9, and 15. Overall, 5-azacytidine promoted a significant acceleration of complete wound healing (99.7% ± 0.7.0 vs. 71.2% ± 2.8 on day 15; n = 10; p < 0.01), accompanied by up to threefold reduction in follistatin expression. Histological examination of the skin revealed efficient reepithelization and cell proliferation, as evaluated by the BrdU incorporation method. 5-Azacytidine treatment also resulted in increased gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta and the keratinocyte markers involucrin and cytokeratin, as well as decreased expression of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10. Lastly, when recombinant follistatin was applied to the skin in parallel with topical 5-azacytidine, most of the beneficial effects of the drug were lost. Thus, 5-azacytidine acts, at least in part through the follistatin/activin pathway, to improve skin wound healing in rodents. PMID:25039304

  8. EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Ashoka M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study is about the wound healing activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of H.indicum leaves in wistar rats. Three wound models viz incision, excision and dead space wound were used in this study. The biophysical parameters studied were breaking strength in case of incision wounds and granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wound model. In excision wound model, rate of contraction and number of days for epithelialization and also the granulation tissue formed on day 4, 8 and 12 were used to estimate some biochemical parameters like protein, DNA, collagen and lipid peroxides. For tropical application, 2% w/w sodium alginate ointment was prepared with 5% of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves. For oral administration 1% gum tragacanth suspension with 500mg/ml of extract was used. In excision and incision wound models, the control groups of animals were left untreated and in dead space wound model the animals were treated with 1 ml of 1% gum tragacanth per Kg, body weight orally.Aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts induced significant wound-healing activity against all the wound models studied. High rate of wound contraction, decrease in the period for epithelialisation, high skin breaking strength and granulation strength, increase in dry granulation tissue weight were observed in treated animals when compared to the control group of animals. There was significant increase in hydroxyproline, protein, collagen contents and decrease in lipid peroxide level in treated animals. Results of the study confirmed the prominent wound healing activity of the test extracts. Ethanol extract of H.indicum possesses better wound healing property compared to the aqueous extract.

  9. Ultraviolet light and hyperpigmentation in healing wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of permanent hyperpigmentation in wounds following ultraviolet light exposure during the postoperative period has found a place in plastic surgical literature but has not been documented. This study evaluates the effect of ultraviolet light on healing wounds in paraplegics. It failed to confirm permanent alteration in pigmentation response to ultraviolet exposure and suggests that other factors are of greater importance in the development of hyperpigmentation in the healing wound

  10. Molecular Imaging of Healing After Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh, Nivedita K; Ben-Mordechai, Tamar; Leor, Jonathan; Epstein, Frederick H

    2011-01-01

    The progression from acute myocardial infarction (MI) to heart failure continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Potential new therapies for improved infarct healing such as stem cells, gene therapy, and tissue engineering are being investigated. Noninvasive imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of MI and infarct healing, both clinically and in preclinical research. Traditionally, imaging has been used to assess cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and viability. H...

  11. Wound healing following radiation therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy may interrupt normal wound healing mechanisms. Changes in vasculature, effects on fibroblasts, and varying levels of regulatory growth factors result in the potential for altered wound healing whether radiation is given before or after surgery. Surgical factors, such as incision size, as well as radiation parameters, including dose and fractionation, are important considerations in developing overall treatment plans. Experience suggests that certain practical measures may diminish the risk of morbidity, and investigations are ongoing

  12. Effect of osteoporosis medications on fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, V; Jo, J E; Andreopoulou, P; Lane, J M

    2016-03-01

    Antiosteoporotic medications are often used to concurrently treat a patient's fragility fractures and underlying osteoporosis. This review evaluates the existing literature from animal and clinical models to determine these drugs' effects on fracture healing. The data suggest that these medications may enhance bone healing, yet more thorough prospective studies are warranted. Pharmacologic agents that influence bone remodeling are an essential component of osteoporosis management. Because many patients are first diagnosed with osteoporosis when presenting with a fragility fracture, it is critical to understand how osteoporotic medications influence fracture healing. Vitamin D and its analogs are essential for the mineralization of the callus and may also play a role in callus formation and remodeling that enhances biomechanical strength. In animal models, antiresorptive medications, including bisphosphonates, denosumab, calcitonin, estrogen, and raloxifene, do not impede endochondral fracture healing but may delay repair due to impaired remodeling. Although bisphosphonates and denosumab delay callus remodeling, they increase callus volume and result in unaltered biomechanical properties. Calcitonin increases cartilage formation and callus maturation, resulting in improved biomechanical properties. Parathyroid hormone, an anabolic agent, has demonstrated promise in animal models, resulting in accelerated healing with increased callus volume and density, more rapid remodeling to mature bone, and improved biomechanical properties. Clinical data with parathyroid hormone have demonstrated enhanced healing in distal radius and pelvic fractures as well as postoperatively following spine surgery. Strontium ranelate, which may have both antiresorptive and anabolic properties, affects fracture healing differently in normal and osteoporotic bone. While there is no effect in normal bone, in osteoporotic bone, strontium ranelate increases callus bone formation, maturity, and

  13. The effect of smoking on bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, R. A.; Wilson, R. F.; Patel, P A; Palmer, R M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the systemic impact of smoking on bone healing as evidenced within the orthopaedic literature. Methods A protocol was established and studies were sourced from five electronic databases. Screening, data abstraction and quality assessment was conducted by two review authors. Prospective and retrospective clinical studies were included. The primary outcome measures were based on clinical and/or radiological indicators of bone healing. This review specifically focused on non...

  14. Mechanism of wound healing in annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Grdisa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All animals possess some type of tissue repair mechanism. In some species, the capacity to repair tissues is limited to the healing of wounds, but others posses a striking repair capability to replace the entire organs. It has been reported that some mechanisms, namely extracellular matrix remodeling, appear to occur in most repair processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent the process of wound healing is similar to organ regeneration.

  15. The effect of zoledronate during bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Marcos Almeida; Tannuri, Uenis; Guarniero, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates have become the treatment of choice for a variety of bone diseases in which excessive osteoclastic activity is an important pathologic feature. However, inhibition of osteoclastic activity could lead to inhibition of remodeling during bone healing or repair. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of zoledronate (the most potent bisphosphonate) in the biological process of bone healing. Methods Thirty immature male rabbits were divided into two grou...

  16. Roles of Antioxidative Enzymes in Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiro Kurahashi; Junichi Fujii

    2015-01-01

    Since skin is the first barrier separating the body from the external environment, impaired wound healing can be life threatening to living organisms. Delayed healing processes are observed in animals under certain circumstances, such as advanced age, diabetes, and immunosuppression, but the underlying mechanisms of the abnormality remain elusive. Redox homeostasis is defined as the balance between the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in which antioxidative enzymes pla...

  17. Towards electrically conductive, self-healing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kyle A.; Boydston, Andrew J.; Bielawski, Christopher W.

    2007-01-01

    A novel class of organometallic polymers comprising N-heterocyclic carbenes and transition metals was shown to have potential as an electrically conductive, self-healing material. These polymers were found to exhibit conductivities of the order of 10−3 S cm−1 and showed structurally dynamic characteristics in the solid-state. Thin films of these materials were cast onto silicon wafers, then scored and imaged using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scored films were subsequently healed...

  18. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mathuna, Donal; Ashford, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic Touch (TT) is an alternative therapy that has gained popularity over the past two decades for helping wounds to heal. Practitioners enter ameditative state and pass their hands above the patient’s body to find and correct any imbalances in the patient’s ’life energy’ or chi. Scientific instruments have been unable to detect this energy. The effect of TT on wound healing has been expounded in anecdotal publications. Objectives To identify and review all relevant...

  19. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Jumaat Mohd Yussof; Effat Omar; Pai, Dinker R.; Suneet Sood

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs) and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth f...

  20. New trends in healing chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    KREJSKOVÁ, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Basic theoretical bases As a chronic wound is called a secondarily healing wound which despite adequate therapy does not tend to heal for a period of 6-9 weeks. The cause of the chronic wound occurrence and its transformation into an acute wound can be infection, influence of associated diseases, skin top layer microtraumatization or skin necrosis cavity. Among the most frequent types of chronic wounds there are aligned venous ulcerations, arterial rodent ulcers, decubitus ulcers and neuropat...

  1. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Giles T. S. Kirby; Stuart J. Mills; Cowin, Allison J.; Smith, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase...

  2. Delayed Corneal Epithelial Healing after Intravitreal Bevacizumab: A Clinical and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Colombres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report corneal epithelial defects (CEDs and delayed epithelial healing after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection and to describe delayed corneal epithelial healing with topical administration of bevacizumab in an experimental rabbit model. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 850 eyes of 850 patients with neovascular eye disease and diabetic macular edema who had received 1.25 to 2.5 mg IVB. In the experimental arm of the study, photorefractive keratectomy was used to create a 3 mm CED in the right eyes of 18 New Zealand rabbits which were then randomized to three equal groups. All rabbits received topical antibiotics, additionally those in group A received topical bevacizumab and animals in group B were treated with topical corticosteroids. The rate of epithelial healing was assessed at different time points using slitlamp photography. Results: In the clinical study, seven eyes of seven subjects developed CEDs the day after IVB injection. All of these eyes had preexisting corneal edema. The healing period ranged from 3 to 38 days (average 11 days despite appropriate medical management. In the experimental study, topical bevacizumab and corticosteroids both significantly hindered corneal epithelial healing at 12 and 24 hours. Conclusion: Bevacizumab was demonstrated to cause CEDs in clinical settings. Moreover, corneal epithelial healing was delayed by topical application of bevacizumab, in the experimental model. These short-term results suggest that corneal edema may be considered as a risk factor for epithelial defects after IVB.

  3. Drug loaded composite oxidized pectin and gelatin networks for accelerated wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-05-30

    Biocomposite interactive wound dressings have been designed and fabricated using oxidized pectin (OP), gelatin and nonwoven cotton fabric. Due to their inherent virtues of antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility, these composite structures are capable of redirecting the healing cascade and influencing cell attachment and proliferation. A novel in situ reduction process has been followed to synthesize oxidized pectin-gelatin-nanosilver (OP-Gel-NS) flower like nanohydrocolloids. This encapsulation technology controls the diffusion and permeation of nanosilver into the surrounding biological tissues. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride has also been incorporated into the OP-Gel matrix to produce OP-Gel-Cipro dressings. While OP-Gel-NS dressings exhibited 100% antimicrobial activity at extremely low loadings of 3.75μg/cm(2), OP-Gel-Cipro dressings were highly antimicrobial at 1% drug loading. While NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts proliferated remarkably well when cultured with OP-Gel and OP-Gel-Cipro dressings, OP-Gel-NS hindered cell growth and Bactigras(®) induced complete lysis. Full thickness excisional wounds were created on C57BL/6J mice and the wound healing potential of the OP-Gel-NS dressings led to accelerated healing within 12days, while OP-Gel-Cipro dressings healed wounds at a rate similar to that of Bactigras(®). Histological examination revealed that OP-Gel-NS and OP-Gel-Cipro treatment led to organized collagen deposition, neovascularization and nuclei migration, unlike Bactigras(®). Therefore, the OP-Gel-NS and OP-Gel-Cipro biocomposite dressings exhibiting good hydrophilicity, sustained antimicrobial nature, promote cell growth and proliferation, and lead to rapid healing, can be considered viable candidates for effective management. PMID:27063849

  4. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  5. Ritual healing and mental health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, William

    2014-12-01

    Ritual healing is very widespread in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and is by far the most common option for those with serious behavioral disturbances. Although ritual healing thus accounts for a very large part of the actual health care system, the state and its regulatory agencies have, for the most part, been structurally blind to its existence. A decade of research on in this region, along with a number of shorter research trips to healing shrines and specialists elsewhere in the subcontinent, and a thorough study of the literature, suggest that such techniques are often therapeutically effective. However, several considerations suggest that ritual healing may not be usefully combined with mainstream "Western" psychiatry: (a) psychiatry is deeply influenced by the ideology of individualism, which is incompatible with South Asian understandings of the person; (b) social asymmetries between religious healers and health professionals are too great to allow a truly respectful relationship between them; and (c) neither the science of psychiatry nor the regulatory apparatus of the state can or will acknowledge the validity of "ritual therapy"--and even if they did so, regulation would most likely destroy what is most valuable about ritual healing. This suggests that it is best if the state maintain its structural blindness to ritual healing. PMID:24572292

  6. Mechanistic Studies of Solid State Self-Healing Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of diffusion and healing efficiency of healable resins at different healing times or with different concentrations of healing agent (HA) were studied. The reduction in healing efficiency at concentrations of HA greater than 8.0 weight total percentage was demonstrated to be caused by phase separation. Thus, the HA need to be soluble in the epoxy resin network for optimum healing efficiency. (author)

  7. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K. L.; Working, D. C.; Wise, K. E.; Bogert, P. B.; Britton, S. M.; Topping, C.C.; Smith, J. Y.; Siochi, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing materials provide a route for enhanced damage tolerance in materials for aerospace applications. In particular, puncture-healing upon impact has the potential to mitigate significant damage caused by high velocity micrometeoroid impacts. This type of material also has the potential to improve damage tolerance in load bearing structures to enhance vehicle health and aircraft durability. The materials being studied are those capable of instantaneous puncture healing, providing a mechanism for mechanical property retention in lightweight structures. These systems have demonstrated healing capability following penetration of fast moving projectiles -- velocities that range from 9 mm bullets shot from a gun (approx.330 m/sec) to close to micrometeoroid debris velocities of 4800 m/sec. In this presentation, we report on a suite of polymeric materials possessing this characteristic. Figure 1 illustrates the puncture healing concept. Puncture healing in these materials is dependent upon how the combination of a polymer's viscoelastic properties responds to the energy input resulting from the puncture event. Projectile penetration increases the temperature in the vicinity of the impact. Self-healing behavior occurs following puncture, whereby energy must be transferred to the material during impact both elastically and inelastically, thus establishing two requirements for puncture healing to occur: a.) The need for the puncture event to produce a local melt state in the polymer material and b.) The molten material has to have sufficient melt elasticity to snap back and close the hole. 1,2 Previous ballistic testing studies revealed that Surlyn materials warmed up to a temperature approx.98 C during projectile puncture (3 C higher than it s melting temperature). 1,2 The temperature increase produces a localized flow state and the melt elasticity to snap back thus sealing the hole. Table 1 lists the commercially polymers studied here, together with their physical

  8. Improved Accuracy of the Inherent Shrinkage Method for Fast and More Reliable Welding Distortion Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, A.; González-Díaz, J. B.; San Sebastián, M.; Echeverría, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a simple strategy adopted for the inherent shrinkage method (ISM) to predict welding-induced distortion. This strategy not only makes it possible for the ISM to reach accuracy levels similar to the detailed transient analysis method (considered the most reliable technique for calculating welding distortion) but also significantly reduces the time required for these types of calculations. This strategy is based on the sequential activation of welding blocks to account for welding direction and transient movement of the heat source. As a result, a significant improvement in distortion prediction is achieved. This is demonstrated by experimentally measuring and numerically analyzing distortions in two case studies: a vane segment subassembly of an aero-engine, represented with 3D-solid elements, and a car body component, represented with 3D-shell elements. The proposed strategy proves to be a good alternative for quickly estimating the correct behaviors of large welded components and may have important practical applications in the manufacturing industry.

  9. Computability, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and an inherent limit on the predictability of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Troy

    2012-04-01

    The process of evolutionary diversification unfolds in a vast genotypic space of potential outcomes. During the past century, there have been remarkable advances in the development of theory for this diversification, and the theory's success rests, in part, on the scope of its applicability. A great deal of this theory focuses on a relatively small subset of the space of potential genotypes, chosen largely based on historical or contemporary patterns, and then predicts the evolutionary dynamics within this pre-defined set. To what extent can such an approach be pushed to a broader perspective that accounts for the potential open-endedness of evolutionary diversification? There have been a number of significant theoretical developments along these lines but the question of how far such theory can be pushed has not been addressed. Here a theorem is proven demonstrating that, because of the digital nature of inheritance, there are inherent limits on the kinds of questions that can be answered using such an approach. In particular, even in extremely simple evolutionary systems, a complete theory accounting for the potential open-endedness of evolution is unattainable unless evolution is progressive. The theorem is closely related to Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and to the halting problem from computability theory. PMID:21849390

  10. Chinese Food and Cancer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, apart from studying the effectiveness of chemo or radiotherapy in killing cancer cells, studies should examine ways of reducing drug side effects on patients and ways of enhancing the bodies’ immune system at the same time. Our defence system not only includes immune response, there are also detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant mechanisms, the ability for DNA damage repair and regulation of the hormone metabolism. Harmful environmental oestrogens that enter the human body can cause an increase of 16-α-hydroxyestrone as a harmful estradiol metabolite, the ratio between 16-α-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestrone relates to the risk of breast cancer. It is suggested that choosing nutritional products (that decrease the amount of 16-α-hydroxyestrone to regulate the hormone metabolism can help with prevention of breast cancer. Increasing the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (Ω-3 benefits health. Unsaturated fatty acid omega-6 (Ω-6 appears to be easily oxidised which can lead to DNA damage and increase the occurrence of cancer. The most important aspect to this approach is to reduce the ratio between saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid Ω-6, which is harmful to health. Olive oil has a high content of Ω-3 that benefits health. Ω-3 fatty acid can also be obtained from some fish, green vegetables and nuts. Linoleic acid is the most important source of Ω-6 fatty acid. Linolenic acid is the most important source of Ω-3 fatty acid. Natural foods e.g., purslane, is rich in Ω-3; the mustard family vegetables can increase the activity of detoxifying enzymes. Chinese Kiwi fruit drink reduces the side effects of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide, which is also a DNA damaging agent. Soybean, job’s tears, garlic, mushroom varieties and tea have anti-cancer effects. Properly used nutritional products may assist treatment and recovery. Good balanced nutrition is essential for cancer healing.

  11. The role of passive and inherent safety properties in Siemens/KWU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Siemens/KWU Nuclear Power Plants the applied safety concept consist of a well balanced combination of active, passive use well is inherent safety measures. In principle it is not possible to realise a safety concept exclusively with inherent and/or passive safety properties. The respective measures and arguments will be explained in detail in the presentation. In addition the Siemens/KWU safety concept with examples of the role of inherent and passive safety measures will be illustrated. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  12. Comparing the inherent safety of the modular LMRs and HTGRs and the PIUS concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced design concepts, including a liquid-metal cooled reactor (LMR), a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), and a light water reactor (LWR) are discussed and compared. Each provides inherent and/or passive safety to improve system safety. The focus is on two primary objectives: reactor shutdown and shutdown heat removal. The LMR an HTGR concepts rely upon inherent reactivity feedbacks to provide an inherent reactor response, whereas passive borated water injection shuts down the LWR (PIUS). For shutdown heat removal, the LMR and HTGR designs rely upon air cooling of the vessel, and the LWR relies upon a large tank of water for several days of cooling

  13. Long range stress correlations in the inherent structures of liquids at rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sadrul; Abraham, Sneha; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Simulation studies of the atomic shear stress in the local potential energy minima (inherent structures) are reported for binary liquid mixtures in 2D and 3D. These inherent structure stresses are fundamental to slow stress relaxation and high viscosity in supercooled liquids. We find that the atomic shear stress in the inherent structures (IS's) of both liquids at rest exhibits slowly decaying anisotropic correlations. We show that the stress correlations contribute significantly to the variance of the total shear stress of the IS configurations and consider the origins of the anisotropy and spatial extent of the stress correlations.

  14. Split thickness skin grafts for the treatment of non-healing foot and leg ulcers in patients with diabetes: a retrospective review

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Anderson; Wallin, Kelly J.; Spencer, Loren

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 107 diabetic patients who received a split thickness skin graft (STSG) for treatment of a non-healing diabetic foot or leg ulcer to describe healing times based on patient characteristics, comorbidities or complications. The minimum follow-up was 6 months from the time of STSG application. The mean time to healing among all patients was 5.1 weeks (3 to 16 weeks). The mean healing time for patients with complications was 12.0 weeks (10 to 16 weeks) while the mean he...

  15. The effect of three hemostatic agents on early bone healing in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dry Sarah M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resorbable bone hemostasis materials, oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC and microfibrillar collagen (MFC, remain at the site of application for up to 8 weeks and may impair osteogenesis. Our experimental study compared the effect of a water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymer (AOC to ORC and MFC versus no hemostatic material on early bone healing. Methods Two circular 2.7 mm non-critical defects were made in each tibia of 12 rabbits. Sufficient AOC, ORC or MFC was applied to achieve hemostasis, and effectiveness recorded. An autologous blood clot was applied to control defects. Rabbits were sacrificed at 17 days, tibiae excised and fixed. Bone healing was quantitatively measured by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT expressed as fractional bone volume, and qualitatively assessed by histological examination of decalcified sections. Results Hemostasis was immediate after application of MFC and AOC, after 1-2 minutes with ORC, and >5 minutes for control. At 17 days post-surgery, micro-CT analysis showed near-complete healing in control and AOC groups, partial healing in the ORC group and minimal healing in the MFC group. Fractional bone volume was 8 fold greater in the control and AOC groups than in the MFC group (0.42 ± 0.06, 0.40 ± 0.03 vs 0.05 ± 0.01, P P Conclusions Early healing appeared to be impaired by the presence of MFC and impeded by the presence of ORC. In contrast, AOC did not inhibit bone healing and suggest that AOC may be a better bone hemostatic material for procedures where bony fusion is critical and immediate hemostasis required.

  16. Effect of Different Healing Temperature on Solid State Self-Healing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using various healing temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 degree Celsius with temperature interval of 10 degree Celsius on self-healing resin system containing diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA), the hardener nadic methyl anhydride (NMA), the catalyst benzylmethylamine (BDMA) and poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin) (PDGEBA) as healing agent. The effects of different healing temperatures on the resin systems were investigated by means of Fourier-transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), and izod test. Optical image of the sample morphology was observed using optical microscope. Healing efficiencies (HE) were evaluated using izod test and the optimum healing temperature of 160 degree Celsius was obtained within the third healing cycles with HE 37 %. The results indicate that the healing temperature affected the physical aging and the chemical reaction between the secondary hydroxyl group and carboxyl group occurred at high temperature of ≥180 degree Celsius.(author)

  17. Lap shear strength and healing capability of self-healing adhesive containing epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Habibah; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ming-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a self-healing polymeric adhesive formulation with epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules. Epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules were dispersed into a commercialize two-part epoxy adhesive for developing self-healing epoxy adhesive. The influence of different content of microcapsules on the shear strength and healing capability of epoxy adhesive were investigated using single-lap-joints with average thickness of adhesive layer of about 180 µm. This self-healing adhesive was used in bonding of 5000 series aluminum alloys adherents after mechanical and alkaline cleaning surface treatment. The adhesion strength was measured and presented as function of microcapsules loading. The results indicated that the virgin lap shear strength was increased by about 26% with addition of 3 wt% of self-healing microcapsules. 12% to 28% recovery of the shear strength is achieved after self-healing depending on the microcapsules content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study fracture surface of the joints. The self-healing adhesives exhibit recovery of both cohesion and adhesion properties with room temperature healing.

  18. Self-healing metallopolymers: Detailed investigation of the self-healing properties by scratch testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, S.; Bose, R.K.; Sandmann, B.; Hager, M.D.; Garcia Espallargas, S.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several intrinsic self-healing materials have been developed in which the healing mechanism was mainly based on the reversibility of a certain structural element. For this purpose, reversible covalent bonds, e.g., based on the Diels-Alder reaction or weaker non-covalent interactio

  19. Solid State Self-Healing System: Effects of Using Immiscible Healing Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employs a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using immiscible healing agents, which are polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol, on solid state self-healing system. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature; above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in order for thermal expansion to occur. The thermal properties and bonding formed in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was performed in preliminary work. Further work then has been done using compact tension test to demonstrate details self-healing capability of the different specimens. Under compact tension test, it was found that healable resin with PVC has highest healing efficiency followed PVA with 7.4 % and 3 % of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/ network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies using microscope optic prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins. (author)

  20. General concept of wound healing, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O.H. Prasetyono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a transition of processes which is also recognized as one of the most complex processes in human physiology. Complex series of reactions and interactions among cells and mediators take place in the healing process of wound involving cellular and molecular events. The inflammatory phase is naturally intended to remove devitalized tissue and prevent invasive infection. The proliferative phase is characterized by the formation of granulation tissue within the wound bed, composed of new capillary network, fibroblast, and macrophages in a loose arrangement of supporting structure. This second phase lasts from day 8 to 21 after the injury is also the phase for epithelialisation. The natural period of proliferative phase is a reflection for us in treating wound to reach the goal which ultimately defines as closed wound. The final maturation phase is also characterized by the balancing between deposition of collagen and its degradation. There are at least three prerequisites which are ideal local conditions for the nature of wound to go on a normal process of healing i.e. 1 all tissue involved in the wound and surrounding should be vital, 2 no foreign bodies in the wound, and 3 free from excessive contamination/infection. The author formulated a step ladder of thinking in regards of healing intentions covering all acute and chronic wounds. Regarding the “hierarchy” of healing intention, the fi rst and ideal choice to heal wounds is by primary intention followed by tertiary intention and lastly the secondary intention. (Med J Indones 2009;18:206-14Key words: inflammatory mediator, epithelialisation, growth factor, wound healing

  1. Nanoparticles for Tendon Healing and Regeneration: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchi, Paolo D; Vittorio, Orazio; Andreani, Lorenzo; Battistini, Pietro; Piolanti, Nicola; Marchetti, Stefano; Poggetti, Andrea; Lisanti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Tendon injuries are commonly met in the emergency department. Unfortunately, tendon tissue has limited regeneration potential and usually the consequent formation of scar tissue causes inferior mechanical properties. Nanoparticles could be used in different way to improve tendon healing and regeneration, ranging from scaffolds manufacturing (increasing the strength and endurance or anti-adhesions, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory properties) to gene therapy. This paper aims to summarize the most relevant studies showing the potential application of nanoparticles for tendon tissue regeneration. PMID:27597828

  2. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  3. 77 FR 7609 - Policy Letter 11-01, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-12/pdf/2011-23165.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mathew... ``Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions'' (76 FR 56227-56242, September 12, 2011)...

  4. Have US Legislatures Fully Considered Causal Factors in Assigning Liability for Inherent Risk Accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J. Centner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The public’s dissatisfaction with American tort rules has led US state legislatures to enact more than 120 statutes for assigning liability for accident losses. Many of these statutes address the liability of accidents involving inherent risks of activities where neither the activity provider nor injured participant was negligent. Due to business complaints about high insurance costs, legislatures decided that participants ought to bear the costs arising from inherent risk accidents. Yet, causal factors associated with sport activities may support an alternative liability rule to maximize social welfare. Because inherent risk statutes lead to increased activity levels, they are accompanied by increased accident costs. Factors causing incorrect liability results may be compared to offer a recommendation for a liability regime for inherent risk accidents.

  5. Phenomenological models for reactivity feedback calculations of LMR inherent safety transient type tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor technology improvements have made the development of a liquid-metal reactor (LMR) with inherent safety capability possible. Various designers are using this technology to develop innovative reactor concepts. The purpose of this paper is to suggest mechanistic reactivity feedback models that can be used in computer code predictions of experiments that could potentially be performed in FFTF to validate LMR inherently safe response characteristics. A discussion is provided of the various considerations for performing inherent safety type predictions on a phenomenological basis. To do this, the evaluation is divided into the three time phases of initial, transition and long term periods. The initial period is emphasized since it is during this phase that the hypothetical core disrupture accidents took place in LMR designs not optimized for inherent safety. A description is provided for the relative importance of the various nuclear feedbacks and thermal-hydraulic phenomena

  6. ATC Taskload Inherent to the Geometry of Stochastic 4-D Trajectory Flows with Flight Technical Errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method to quantify the probabilistic controller taskload inherent to maintaining aircraft adherence to 4-D trajectories within flow corridors is presented. An...

  7. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-27

    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation. PMID:26731614

  8. Craniofacial Wound Healing with Photobiomodulation Therapy: New Insights and Current Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arany, P R

    2016-08-01

    The fundamental pathophysiologic response for the survival of all organisms is the process of wound healing. Inadequate or lack of healing constitutes the etiopathologic basis of many oral and systemic diseases. Among the numerous efforts to promote wound healing, biophotonics therapies have shown much promise. Advances in photonic technologies and a better understanding of light-tissue interactions, from parallel biophotonics fields such as in vivo optical imaging and optogenetics, are spearheading their popularity in biology and medicine. Use of high-dose lasers and light devices in dermatology, ophthalmology, oncology, and dentistry are now popular for specific clinical applications, such as surgery, skin rejuvenation, ocular and soft tissue recontouring, and antitumor and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. However, a less well-known clinical application is the therapeutic use of low-dose biophotonics termed photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, which is aimed at alleviating pain and inflammation, modulating immune responses, and promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration. Despite significant volumes of scientific literature from clinical and laboratory studies noting the phenomenological evidence for this innovative therapy, limited mechanistic insights have prevented rigorous and reproducible PBM clinical protocols. This article briefly reviews current evidence and focuses on gaps in knowledge to identify potential paths forward for clinical translation with PBM therapy with an emphasis on craniofacial wound healing. PBM offers a novel opportunity to examine fundamental nonvisual photobiological processes as well as develop innovative clinical therapies, thereby presenting an opportunity for a paradigm shift from conventional restorative/prosthetic approaches to regenerative modalities in clinical dentistry. PMID:27161014

  9. Acceleration of skin wound healing with tragacanth (Astragalus preparation: an experimental pilot study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Fayazzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum tragacanth is a natural complex mixture of polysaccharides and alkaline minerals extracted from species of Astragalus plant, which is found widely in arid regions of the Middle East. In a pilot experimental study we examined the effects of its topical application on wound healing in ten albino adult male rats. Two similar parasagittal elliptical full-thickness wounds (control vs. test samples were created on the dorsum of each animal. Test group samples were fully covered by a thin layer of gum tragacanth daily. The extent of wound healing was evaluated by planimetric analysis on multiple occasions during the 10-day study period. On the 7th day of the study, the percent of wound closure was significantly higher in gum tragacanth-treated specimens compared to the control samples (87%±2% vs. 70%±4%, P<0.001. The majority of wounds in the test group were completely closed by the 10th day of the study. The difference in wound healing index measured by histological examination on day 10 of the study was also statistically meaningful between the two groups (0.624±0.097 vs. 0.255±0.063, P<0.05. The results of this study clearly showed the useful effects of topical application of gum tragacanth in acceleration of skin wound contraction and healing. More studies are encouraged to identify the implicating agents and precisely understand the mechanism by which they exert their wound healing effects.

  10. Reduction of System Inherent Pressure Losses at Pressure Compensators of Hydraulic Load Sensing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Jan; Geimer, Marcus [Hrsg.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their high technical maturity, load sensing systems (LS) have system-inherent energy losses that are largely due to the operation of parallel actuators with different loads at the same pressure level. Hereby, the pressure compensators of the system are crucial. So far, excessive hydraulic energy has been throttled at these compensators and been discharged as heat via the oil. The research project “Reduction of System Inherent Pressure Losses at Pressure Compensators of Hydraulic L...

  11. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing.......We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  12. Brain Activation Patterns at Exhaustion in Rats That Differ in Inherent Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Teresa E.; Leah R Brooks; Gilligan, Lori J.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Monika Fleshner

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a mark...

  13. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles T. S. Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials.

  14. The effects of smoking on fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, A; Hussain, I; Maqsood, M; Eremin, O; El-Sheemy, M

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most avoidable cause of premature death worldwide. In fracture healing, it has been found to be a contributory factor to delayed union, and smokers are significantly disadvantaged, as healing times are often prolonged. The orthopaedic surgeon is likely to be knowledgeable about the detrimental effects of smoking on healing bones, as the problem has been known for some time. Smoking adversely affects bone mineral density, lumbar disc degeneration, the incidences of hip fractures and the dynamics of bone and wound healing. Clinical trials and demographic studies have been more widespread than biochemical analyses, and have reported poor prognosis for fracture patients who smoke. Scientific research has elucidated some of the negative impacts of tobacco use and investigations involving several animal models in cellular and humoral analyses have shown damage caused by various toxicological processes. Cessation of the habit perioperatively, therefore, is routinely advised to improve outcomes for patients. The current review describes some of the consequences of tobacco smoking in fracture healing. PMID:20303894

  15. Nutrient support of the healing wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N A; Muller, M J; Herndon, D N

    1994-05-01

    Wound healing is a series of complex physicochemical interactions that require various micronutrients at every step. In the critically ill or severely injured patient, wound healing is impaired by the protein-catabolic, hypermetabolic response to stress. The hypothalamus responds to cytokine stimulation by increasing the thermoregulatory set-point and by augmenting elaboration of stress hormones (catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon). In turn, the stress hormones induce thermogenic futile substrate cycling, lipolysis, and proteolysis. Increased glucose production results at the expense of skeletal muscle degradation, producing amino acid substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nutritional support of the hypermetabolic state is an essential part of ensuring efficient wound healing in these patients. Protein catabolism cannot be reversed by increased amino acid availability alone, due partly to a defect in amino acid transport. This defect can be reversed by anabolic agents, such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Growth hormone treatment dramatically improves wound healing in severely burned children. Supplementation with protein and vitamins, specifically arginine and vitamins A, B, and C, provides optimum nutrient support of the healing wound. PMID:7922445

  16. Non-healing wounds: the geriatric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2009-01-01

    The most common types of non-healing wounds are four types: pressure ulcers, diabetic ulcers, ischemic ulcers and venous ulcers. Many of those wounds develop among the elderly, becoming non-healing to the extent that the patient may live with them all of his life, or even die because of them. Not enough attention is paid to the underlying contributing problems specific to the elderly patient. Those factors are physiologic (aging skin, immune state and atherosclerosis) and pathologic situation (diabetic disease, ischemia of leg). Therefore, the geriatric approach to a non-healing wound is comprehensive and multidisciplinary. Those including: patient's co-morbidities, functional state as measured by the activities of daily living (ADL) scale, nutritional status, social support, ethical beliefs and quality of life and not only the wound itself. Each discipline (the nursing staff, physician, dietitian, occupational, physical therapists and social worker) has its own task in preventing and treating such wounds. The ultimate goal therefore has been altered from healing of the wounds to symptom control, prevention of complications and to contribute to the patient's overall wellbeing. This review discusses all those items in a geriatric point of view, and how to deal with the non-healing wounds as a geriatric syndrome. PMID:18838182

  17. Physics of Wound Healing I: Energy Considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Apell, S Peter; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S; Pizziconi, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process with many components and interrelated processes on a microscopic level. This paper addresses a macroscopic view on wound healing based on an energy conservation argument coupled with a general scaling of the metabolic rate with body mass M as M^{\\gamma} where 0 <{\\gamma}<1. Our three main findings are 1) the wound healing rate peaks at a value determined by {\\gamma} alone, suggesting a concept of wound acceleration to monitor the status of a wound. 2) We find that the time-scale for wound healing is a factor 1/(1 -{\\gamma}) longer than the average internal timescale for producing new material filling the wound cavity in corresondence with that it usually takes weeks rather than days to heal a wound. 3) The model gives a prediction for the maximum wound mass which can be generated in terms of measurable quantities related to wound status. We compare our model predictions to experimental results for a range of different wound conditions (healthy, lean, diabetic and obses...

  18. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosińczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study.

  19. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Konno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events; restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs, regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.

  20. A real-life example of choosing an inherently safer process option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While choosing an inherently safer alternative may seem straightforward, sometimes what seems to be the most obvious alternative may not provide the best risk reduction. The process designer must maintain a broad perspective to be able to recognize all potential hazards when evaluating design options. All aspects of operation such as start-up, shut-down, utility failure, as well as normal operation should be considered. Choosing the inherently safer option is best accomplished early in the option selection phase of a project; however, recycle back to the option selection phase may be needed if an option is not thoroughly evaluated early in the process. In this paper, a project to supply ammonia to a catalytic reactor will be reviewed. During the course of the project, an 'inherently safer' alternative was selected and later discarded due to issues uncovered during the detail design phase. The final option chosen will be compared to (1) the original design and (2) the initial 'inherently safer' alternative. The final option was inherently safer than both the original design and the initial 'inherently safer' alternative even though the design team initially believed that it would not be

  1. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. PMID:25266273

  2. Skeletal ligament healing using the recombinant human amelogenin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhan, Salem; Ejzenberg, Ayala; Goren, Koby; Saba, Faris; Suki, Yarden; Sharon, Shay; Shilo, Dekel; Waxman, Jacob; Spitzer, Elad; Shahar, Ron; Atkins, Ayelet; Liebergall, Meir; Blumenfeld, Anat; Deutsch, Dan; Haze, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Injuries to ligaments are common, painful and debilitating, causing joint instability and impaired protective proprioception sensation around the joint. Healing of torn ligaments usually fails to take place, and surgical replacement or reconstruction is required. Previously, we showed that in vivo application of the recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+) ) resulted in enhanced healing of the tooth-supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether amelogenin might also enhance repair of skeletal ligaments. The rat knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) was chosen to prove the concept. Full thickness tear was created and various concentrations of rHAM(+) , dissolved in propylene glycol alginate (PGA) carrier, were applied to the transected MCL. 12 weeks after transection, the mechanical properties, structure and composition of transected ligaments treated with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) were similar to the normal un-transected ligaments, and were much stronger, stiffer and organized than control ligaments, treated with PGA only. Furthermore, the proprioceptive free nerve endings, in the 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) treated group, were parallel to the collagen fibres similar to their arrangement in normal ligament, while in the control ligaments the free nerve endings were entrapped in the scar tissue at different directions, not parallel to the axis of the force. Four days after transection, treatment with 0.5 μg/μl rHAM(+) increased the amount of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers at the injured site. In conclusion application of rHAM(+) dose dependently induced mechanical, structural and sensory healing of torn skeletal ligament. Initially the process involved recruitment and proliferation of cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell markers. PMID:26917487

  3. Initial endosseous healing response to lactide/glycolide copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César ZIELAK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The search for less invasive treatments, with fast and effective bone regeneration, has lead to the development of synthetic bioresorbable alternatives for bone graft. The commercial product FisiograftTM gel (Ghimas Spa, Italy, based on lactide-glycolide copolymer, is used as an injectable biocompatible and bioresorbable material for filling bone defects in dental surgery applications. These polymers are also used in the production of suture threads, pins and plates for bone fixation, and barriers for guided tissue regeneration. Objective: The main objective of this pilot study was to observe the initial bone healing response after the application of polylactide-glycolide graft material in adult animals. Material and methods: Bone defects were prepared in right and left femora of 12 month-old male Wistar rats. The defects in one leg received the synthetic graft material and the contra-lateral defects did not receive any treatment. After four days, the animals were subjected to euthanasia, the femora were removed, and tissue blocks were prepared for histological analysis. Results: Blood clot remained in the centre of control defects with initial connective tissue organization on the edges. The graft material was observed in the centre of the treated defects, restricted to the area where it was applied, with neovascularization next to the graft material. The pattern of bone healing did not differ between groups, starting from the margins of the defects and from bone fragments, with neovascularization followed by deposition of non-mineralized bone matrix towards the centre. Conclusion: The results indicate that the lactide-glycolide copolymer gel was effective as a filling and osteoconductive material, allowing tissue healing during its resorption process. Additional studies are necessary to verify its capacity to promote bone regeneration.

  4. 830 nm light-emitting diode low level light therapy (LED-LLLT) enhances wound healing: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Pok Kee; Goo, Boncheol Leo

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The application of light-emitting diodes in a number of clinical fields is expanding rapidly since the development in the late 1990s of the NASA LED. Wound healing is one field where low level light therapy with LEDs (LED-LLLT) has attracted attention for both accelerating wound healing and controlling sequelae. The present study evaluated LED-LLLT in 5 wounds of various etiologies.

  5. Relationships between inherent optical properties in the Baltic Sea for application to the underwater imaging problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.

  6. Energy Healing for Cancer: A Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agdal, Rita; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Johannessen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Background: This article explores the evidence base of efficacy and effectiveness of ‘energy healing’ for cancer patients. The term ‘energy healing’ refers to a wide variety of therapies which are based on the premise that the healer transfers energy to the patient. Among the most researched forms...... of energy healing are reiki, therapeutic touch and healing touch. Material and Methods: PubMed, AMED, JStor, Social Science Citation Index and PsycInfo databases were searched, and articles were rated according to the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) quality scale. Six quantitative...... and two qualitative studies on the efficacy and effectiveness of energy healing for cancer patients met the inclusion criteria. Results: None of the studies are of a size or quality that allows to draw reliable conclusions. The results of the studies are, however, interesting and should be considered...

  7. Bone healing following irradiation during tourniquet ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bone harvest chamber (BHC) methodology, a titanium implant for quantitative evaluations of bone healing, was used in order to investigate the radioprotective function of anoxia, in healing bone tissue. After incorporation of one BHC in each proximal tibial metaphysis of a rabbit it was possible to collect newly formed bone specimens in 3-week-periods without animal sacrifice. The amount of bone was determined by microradiography and densitometry. Ten animals divided into 2 groups were used. One group receiving a single dose of 25 Gy during tourniquet ischaemia was compared with another receiving the same dose during normal blood perfusion. A significantly improved bone healing response was seen in the ischaemic group, with a tendency to further improvement with increasing time after irradiation. (orig.)

  8. Corneal wound healing after laser vision correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadea, Leopoldo; Giammaria, Daniele; Trabucco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Any trauma can trigger a cascade of responses in tissues, with the purpose of safeguarding the integrity of the organ affected by the trauma and of preventing possible damage to nearby organs. Subsequently, the body tries to restore the function of the organ affected. The introduction of the excimer laser for keratorefractive surgery has changed the treatment landscape for correcting refractive errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. In recent years, with the increased understanding of the basic science of refractive errors, higher-order aberrations, biomechanics, and the biology of corneal wound healing, a reduction in the surgical complications of keratorefractive surgery has been achieved. The understanding of the cascade of events involved in the corneal wound healing process and the examination of how corneal wound healing influences corneal biomechanics and optics are crucial to improving the efficacy and safety of laser vision correction. PMID:26405102

  9. Effect of Carapa guianensis Aublet (Andiroba) and Orbignya phalerata (Babassu) in colonic healing in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cícero Evandro Soares Silva; Orlando Jose dos Santos; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho; Fernando Issamu Tabushi; Marcio Hiroaki Kume; Leandro Bressianini Jukonis; Igor Furlan Cella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the healing effect of the babassu aqueous extract and andiroba oil on open wounds in the cecum of rats. Methods: fifty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 18: 1) babassu group with application of aqueous extract of babassu; 2) andiroba group with application of the oil; and 3) control group, with application of saline solution. All procedures were done by gavage. Each group was divided into three subgroups of six animals according to the observation per...

  10. Biafine topical emulsion accelerates excisional and burn wound healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausz, Aimee E; Adler, Brandon L; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie M; Musaev, Tagai; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages play a fundamental role in wound healing; therefore, employing a strategy that enhances macrophage recruitment would be ideal. It was previously suggested that the mechanism by which Biafine topical emulsion improves wound healing is via enhanced macrophage infiltration into the wound bed. The purpose of this study was to confirm this observation through gross and histologic assessments of wound healing using murine full-thickness excisional and burn wound models, and compare to common standards, Vaseline and silver sulfadiazine (SSD). Full-thickness excisional and burn wounds were created on two groups of 60 mice. In the excisional arm, mice were divided into untreated control, Biafine, and Vaseline groups. In the burn arm, mice were divided into untreated control, Biafine, and SSD groups. Daily treatments were administered and healing was measured over time. Wound tissue was excised and stained to appropriately visualize morphology, collagen, macrophages, and neutrophils. Collagen deposition was measured and cell counts were performed. Biafine enhanced wound healing in murine full-thickness excisional and burn wounds compared to control, and surpassed Vaseline and SSD in respective wound types. Biafine treatment accelerated wound closure clinically, with greater epidermal/dermal maturity, granulation tissue formation, and collagen quality and arrangement compared to other groups histologically. Biafine application was associated with greater macrophage and lower neutrophil infiltration at earlier stages of healing when compared to other study groups. In conclusion, Biafine can be considered an alternative topical therapy for full-thickness excisional and burn wounds, owing to its advantageous biologically based wound healing properties. PMID:25794496

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves colorectal anastomotic healing

    OpenAIRE

    Boersema, G. S. A.; Wu, Z.; Kroese, L. F.; Vennix, S.; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; van Neck, J. W.; Lam, K.H.; Kleinrensink, G. J.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been found to improve the healing of poorly oxygenated tissues. This study aimed to investigate the influence of HBOT on the healing in ischemic colorectal anastomosis. Methods Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a treatment group that received HBOT for 10 consecutive days (7 days before and 3 days after surgery), or in a control group, which did not receive the therapy. Colectomy with an ischemic anastomosis was performed in all rats. I...

  12. Working with Children to Heal Interpersonal Trauma: The Power of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eliana, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Featuring in-depth case presentations from master clinicians, this volume highlights the remarkable capacity of traumatized children to guide their own healing process. The book describes what posttraumatic play looks like and how it can foster resilience and coping. Demonstrated are applications of play, art, and other expressive therapies with…

  13. Enhancement of the self-healing ability in oxidation induced self-healing ceramic by modifying the healing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available temperature range of the self-healing induced by high temperature oxidation of SiC can be controlled by the particle size of the contained SiC particles. In this study, three types of alumina–SiC composites were prepared. The SiC particle sizes of the composites were 270, ∼30 nm, and less than 10 nm. The self-healing abilities were estimated by the strength recovery behavior at several temperatures. The use of nanometer-sized dispersed SiC particles as healing agent decreases the activation energy of the SiC oxidation obtained from the differential thermal analysis with several heating rates. This implies that smaller SiC particles can give rise to the oxidation at lower temperature. Moreover, the lowest temperature at which the cracked strength was completely recovered for 10 h was strongly affected by the SiC particle size. As the SiC particle size varied from 270 to ∼30 nm, the lowest temperature varied from 1300 to 950 °C. However, alumina composite containing SiC particles whose particle size is less than 10 nm cannot recover completely the cracked strength under every condition, because the space between crack walls cannot be filled with the formed oxide due to the small volume of SiC on the crack walls. Therefore, it was found that there is an optimal SiC particle size for endowing self-healing ability. (paper)

  14. Self-Healing of Thermoplastic Poly(Ethylene-co-Methacrylic Acid) Copolymers Following Projectile Puncture

    OpenAIRE

    Kalista, Jr., Stephen James

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) ionomer polymers carry great potential for use in a wide variety of unique applications due to their property of "self-healing" following projectile impact. Following puncture, certain films based on these materials are observed to "heal", with the penetration opening recovering to an air-tight condition. Specifically, four polymers of this class were examined, including DuPont⠢ Surlyn® 8920, Surlyn® 8940, Nucrel® 925, and Nucrel® 960. Though ...

  15. Development of electrically insulating self-healing coatings in vanadium alloys for lithium fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems on electrically insulating self-healing coatings (SHC) on vanadium alloys for lithium fusion reactor systems are considered. In particular, the SHC stability and radiation resistance in lithium and effect of magnetic field on the efficiency of the TNR lithium systems are studied. New technological methods for application of self-healing coatings and study on their properties are developed. The vanadium-lithium materials testing in pile loops for solution of the above problems under conditions of the lithium TNR is described

  16. Self-healing of damage in fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, S.A; Zhang, W; Branthwaite, M; Jones, F R

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing resin systems have been discussed for over a decade and four different technologies had been proposed. However, little work on their application as composite matrices has been published although this was one of the stated aims of the earliest work in the field. This paper reports on the optimization of a solid-state self-healing resin system and its subsequent use as a matrix for high volume fraction glass fibre-reinforced composites. The resin system was optimized using Charpy i...

  17. Recent Development of Durable and Self-Healing Surfaces with Special Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunlin; Wu, Yi; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2016-03-01

    Artificial special wetting surfaces have drawn much interest due to their important applications in many fields. Nevertheless, tremendous challenges still remain for the fabrication of wetting surfaces with durable and self-healing properties. Here, recent progress of durable, self-healing wetting surfaces is highlighted by discussing the fabrications of several typical wetting surfaces including superhydrophobic surfaces, superamphiphobic surfaces, underwater superoleophobic surfaces, and high hydrophilic antifouling surfaces based on expertise and related research experience. To conclude, some perspectives on the future research and development of these special wetting surfaces are presented. PMID:26833559

  18. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  19. HEALing Higher Education: An Innovative Approach to Preparing HSI Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is a case study of the Higher Education Administration and Leadership (HEAL) program at Adams State University. HEAL focuses on preparing the next generation of leaders at the nation's Hispanic-serving institutions.

  20. Moving to different streams of healing praxis: A reformed missionary approach of healing in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are different streams of healing praxis in Africa today, namely African traditional healing, biomedical healing and spiritual healing (which includes the more recent �touch your TV screen� healing method among others. These streams offer contemporary African people diverse alternatives with regard to healing. As much as the hegemony of Western biomedicine, as endorsed by missionaries in the past, can no longer serve as a norm in the area of healing, we can also not use the African traditional healing methods and or any other alternative presented to Africa without discernment. This suggests therefore that Reformed mission ecclesiology and missionary practitioners should critically engage the African context, worldview and culture on the matter of healing. It should also engage other forms of spiritual healing methods on offer in the African soil.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The use of an indigenous knowledge system when coming to healing in the African context, alongside Western biomedicine and other forms of spiritual healing practices, provides African people with diverse alternatives. It also poses a missiological question regarding the acceptability of such a practice within the framework of the Reformed Missionary Paradigm.Keywords: healing; praxis; Reformed; Missionary; Africa

  1. Is the inherent potential of maize roots efficient for soil phosphorus acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture requires improved phosphorus (P management to reduce the overreliance on P fertilization. Despite intensive research of root adaptive mechanisms for improving P acquisition, the inherent potential of roots for efficient P acquisition remains unfulfilled, especially in intensive agriculture, while current P management generally focuses on agronomic and environmental concerns. Here, we investigated how levels of soil P affect the inherent potential of maize (Zea mays L. roots to obtain P from soil. Responses of root morphology, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and phosphate transporters were characterized and related to agronomic traits in pot and field experiments with soil P supply from deficiency to excess. Critical soil Olsen-P level for maize growth approximated 3.2 mg kg(-1, and the threshold indicating a significant environmental risk was about 15 mg kg(-1, which represented the lower and upper levels of soil P recommended in current P management. However, most root adaptations involved with P acquisition were triggered when soil Olsen-P was below 10 mg kg(-1, indicating a threshold for maximum root inherent potential. Therefore, to maintain efficient inherent potential of roots for P acquisition, we suggest that the target upper level of soil P in intensive agriculture should be reduced from the environmental risk threshold to the point maximizing the inherent potential of roots.

  2. Is the Inherent Potential of Maize Roots Efficient for Soil Phosphorus Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Chen, Keru; Teng, Wan; Zhan, Ai; Tong, Yiping; Feng, Gu; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture requires improved phosphorus (P) management to reduce the overreliance on P fertilization. Despite intensive research of root adaptive mechanisms for improving P acquisition, the inherent potential of roots for efficient P acquisition remains unfulfilled, especially in intensive agriculture, while current P management generally focuses on agronomic and environmental concerns. Here, we investigated how levels of soil P affect the inherent potential of maize (Zea mays L.) roots to obtain P from soil. Responses of root morphology, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and phosphate transporters were characterized and related to agronomic traits in pot and field experiments with soil P supply from deficiency to excess. Critical soil Olsen-P level for maize growth approximated 3.2 mg kg−1, and the threshold indicating a significant environmental risk was about 15 mg kg−1, which represented the lower and upper levels of soil P recommended in current P management. However, most root adaptations involved with P acquisition were triggered when soil Olsen-P was below 10 mg kg−1, indicating a threshold for maximum root inherent potential. Therefore, to maintain efficient inherent potential of roots for P acquisition, we suggest that the target upper level of soil P in intensive agriculture should be reduced from the environmental risk threshold to the point maximizing the inherent potential of roots. PMID:24594677

  3. Acute cutaneous wounds treated with human decellularised dermis show enhanced angiogenesis during healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Greaves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of skin substitutes upon angiogenesis during wound healing is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare the angiogenic response in acute cutaneous human wounds treated with autogenic, allogenic and xenogenic skin substitutes to those left to heal by secondary intention. METHODS: On day 0, four 5mm full-thickness punch biopsies were harvested from fifty healthy volunteers (sites 1-4. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention (control, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG, cadaveric decellularised dermis (DCD was applied to site 3, whilst excised tissue was re-inserted into site 4 (autograft. Depending on study group allocation, healing tissue from sites 1-4 was excised on day 7, 14, 21 or 28. All specimens were bisected, with half used in histological and immunohistochemical evaluation whilst extracted RNA from the remainder enabled whole genome microarrays and qRT-PCR of highlighted angiogenesis-related genes. All wounds were serially imaged over 6 weeks using laser-doppler imaging and spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis. RESULTS: Inherent structural differences between skin substitutes influenced the distribution and organisation of capillary networks within regenerating dermis. Haemoglobin flux (p = 0.0035, oxyhaemoglobin concentration (p = 0.0005, and vessel number derived from CD31-based immunohistochemistry (p = 0.046 were significantly greater in DCD wounds at later time points. This correlated with time-matched increases in mRNA expression of membrane-type 6 matrix metalloproteinase (MT6-MMP (p = 0.021 and prokineticin 2 (PROK2 (p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Corroborating evidence from invasive and non-invasive modalities demonstrated that treatment with DCD resulted in increased angiogenesis after wounding. Significantly elevated mRNA expression of pro-angiogenic PROK2 and extracellular matrix protease MT6-MMP seen only in the DCD group may contribute to observed responses.

  4. Hierarchical system for autonomous sensing-healing of delamination in large-scale composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study combines our hierarchical fiber-optic-based delamination detection system with a microvascular self-healing material to develop the first autonomous sensing-healing system applicable to large-scale composite structures. In this combined system, embedded vascular modules are connected through check valves to a surface-mounted supply tube of a pressurized healing agent while fiber-optic-based sensors monitor the internal pressure of these vascular modules. When delamination occurs, the healing agent flows into the vascular modules breached by the delamination and infiltrates the damage for healing. At the same time, the pressure sensors identify the damaged modules by detecting internal pressure changes. This paper begins by describing the basic concept of the combined system and by discussing the advantages that arise from its hierarchical nature. The feasibility of the system is then confirmed through delamination infiltration tests. Finally, the hierarchical system is validated in a plate specimen by focusing on the detection and infiltration of the damage. Its self-diagnostic function is also demonstrated. (paper)

  5. Effects of the Four-Herb Compound ANBP on Wound Healing Promotion in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qian; He, Wen-Jun; Chen, Li; Hao, Hao-Jie; Liu, Jie-Jie; Dong, Liang; Tong, Chuan; Li, Mei-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-12-01

    Wound healing is a troublesome problem in diabetic patients. Besides, there is also an increased risk of postsurgical wound complications for diabetic patient. It has been revealed that traditional Chinese medicine may promote healing and inhibit scar formation, while the changes of morphology and physiology of wounds on such medicine treatment still remain elusive. In this study, we first used the ultralow temperature preparation method to produce mixed superfine powder from Agrimonia pilosa (A), Nelumbo nucifera (N), Boswellia carteri (B), and Pollen typhae (P), named as ANBP. Applying ANBP on 40 streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice (4-6 weeks, 20 ± 2 g), we observed that the wound healing process was accelerated and the wound healing time was shortened (14 days, P Sirius red staining showed that, at the early stage of trauma, the expressions of Col I and Col III, especially Col III, were increased in the ANBP group (P < .05). Studies in vitro demonstrated that tubular formation was significantly increased after ANBP treatment on human vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent way. Taken together, our studies revealed that ANBP treatment could accelerate wound healing, promote vascularization, and inhibit inflammation, suggesting the potential clinic application of ANBP for diabetes mellitus and refractory wounds. PMID:25795279

  6. Wound-healing activity of a proteolytic fraction from Carica candamarcensis on experimentally induced burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Flávia S L; Spínola, Cássia de V; Ribeiro, Henrique A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Cassali, Geovanni D; Salas, Carlos E

    2010-03-01

    Carica candamarcensis is a species from the Caricaceae family whose immature fruit contains latex with large amounts of cysteine proteinases. In prior studies, we isolated two of these enzymes displaying mitogenic activity when incubated with L929 fibroblastic cells. One of the fractions containing these enzymes (P1G10) was shown to enhance wound healing of skin and to accelerate healing of chemically induced gastric ulcer. In this study we evaluate the effect of P1G10 on heat-induced, third-degree burn using a rodent model. The results show that 0.1% P1G10 accelerates epithelisation while the effect of 1% or 0.01% P1G10 is not significantly different to 1% silver sulphadiazine, 2% papain or the hydrosoluble vehicle used as control. In a double-blind randomised experiment comparing the healing response of 0.1%, 1% and the vehicle alone, we confirmed the enhanced healing property of P1G10. Histological analysis of burn-tissue sections following treatment with P1G10 support these observations. These results extend the healing properties of these groups of enzymes to a different type of trauma and open the way to future clinical applications. PMID:19577373

  7. Clinical and morphological evaluation of snake venom derived fibrin glue on the tendon healing in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Ferraro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of snake venom derived fibrin glue on the healing of the deep digital flexor tendon, during three periods. The tendon of the 2nd digit of 30 thoracic limbs of dogs was partially sectioned for glue application. Biopsies were performed 7, 15, and 30 days post surgery for the clinical and morphological study of tendons. Analysis of the results showed that 73.3% of the tendons showed stump retraction and 16.6% moderate to excessive adherence, which affected sliding. There was a significant difference in the number of inflammatory cells among the three studied periods, being the highest on day 15. The morphological analysis revealed a typical tendon healing process with a lower level of inflammation in the acute phase, facilitating the cicatricial maturation phase. Snake venom derived fibrin glue promotes the healing in dog flexor tendon.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  9. Comparison of efifcacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods:Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results:The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions:The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  10. Turing Systems, Entropy, and Kinetic Models for Self-Healing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Kagan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the methods of description of friction-induced self-healing at the interface between two solid bodies. A macroscopic description of self-healing is based on a Turing system for the transfer of matter that leads to self-organization at the interface in the case of an unstable state. A microscopic description deals with a kinetic model of the process and entropy production during self-organization. The paper provides a brief overview of the Turing system approach and statistical kinetic models. The relation between these methods and the description of the self-healing surfaces is discussed, as well as results of their application. The analytical considerations are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  11. Self-Healing Materials from V- and H-Shaped Supramolecular Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senbin; Mahmood, Nasir; Beiner, Mario; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2015-08-24

    Integrating self-healing capability into supramolecular architectures is an interesting strategy, and can considerably enhance the performance and broaden the scope of applications for this important class of polymers. Herein we report the rational design of novel V-shaped barbiturate (Ba) functionalized soft-hard-soft triblock copolymers with a reversible supramolecular healing motif (Ba) in the central part of the hard block, which undergoes autonomic repair at 30 °C. The designed synthesis also offers a suitable macromolecular building block to further self-assemble with heterocomplementary α,ω-Hamilton wedge (HW) functionalized polyisoprene (PI; HW-PI-HW), resulting in an H-shaped supramolecular architecture with efficient self-healing capabilities that can recover up to around 95 % of the original mechanical performance at 30 °C within 24 h. PMID:26136423

  12. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolah Zadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic healing approaches. The employed approaches aim at extending the service life of the coating and the underlying substrate by multiple damage closure/sealing and metal surface protection through incorpor...

  13. Pressurized vascular systems for self-healing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, A R; Sottos, N. R.; White, S R

    2011-01-01

    An emerging strategy for creating self-healing materials relies on embedded vascular networks of microchannels to transport reactive fluids to regions of damage. Here we investigate the use of active pumping for the pressurized delivery of a two-part healing system, allowing a small vascular system to deliver large volumes of healing agent. Different pumping strategies are explored to improve the mixing and subsequent polymerization of healing agents in the damage zone. Significant improvemen...

  14. The science of ultrasound therapy for fracture healing

    OpenAIRE

    Della Rocca Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Fracture healing involves a complex interplay of cellular processes, culminating in bridging of a fracture gap with bone. Fracture healing can be compromised by numerous exogenous and endogenous patient factors, and intense research is currently going on to identify modalities that can increase the likelihood of successful healing. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been proposed as a modality that may have a benefit for increasing reliable fracture healing as well as perhaps increas...

  15. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and tendon healing: animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Drion, Pierre; Renouf, Julien; Pascon, Frédéric; Libertiaux, Vincent; Colige, Alain; Le Goff, Caroline; Lambert, Charles; Nusgens, Betty; Gothot, André; CESCOTTO, Serge; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The tendon is a tissue which does not heal easily. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on the healing process of tendons. A local injection of platelet–rich plasma (PRP), which releases in situ many growth factors, has the potentiality to enhance the tendon healing process. The aim of our experiment was to ascertain by an original mechanical measure whether the use of PRP was of interest for accelerating the healing process of rats’ Achi...

  16. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    OpenAIRE

    Abtahi, Amir M.; Granger, Erin K.; Tashjian, Robert Z.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair constru...

  17. Diabetes-induced fibrotic matrix inhibits intramembranous bone healing

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Trackman, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes diminishes bone healing and ossification. Reduced bone formation in intramembranous ossification is known, yet the mechanism(s) behind impaired intramembranous bone healing are unclear. Here we report the formation of a fibrotic matrix during healing of intramembranous calvarial bone defects that appears to exclude new bone growth. Our histological analyses of 7-day and 14-day calvaria bone healing tissue in chemically-induced diabetic mice and non-diabetic mice showed the accumulati...

  18. Non-invasive objective devices for monitoring the inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases of cutaneous wound healing and skin scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud-Din, Sara; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-08-01

    Objective evaluation of cutaneous wounds through the use of non-invasive devices is important for diagnosis, monitoring treatment response and can lead to the development of improved theranostic strategies. The need for objective monitoring of wound healing and scar formation is evident as this enables accurate diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis for clinicians and allows for the standardisation and validation of methodology for researchers. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the current application of non-invasive objective technologies for the assessment of wound healing through the different phases of repair. We propose that cutaneous healing parameters can be split into three core domains: anatomical, mechanical and physiological. These categories can be further subdivided with respect to specific phases of healing. There is no single instrument, which can measure all the parameters of healing simultaneously; thus, it is important to choose the correct device for the particular healing characteristics being monitored. However, multiprobe systems, which include a number of devices connected to one main unit, are useful as they enable multiple measurements of different parameters. Many of the devices have not been validated against histological examination. Additionally, some of the instruments have not been evaluated in all wound or scar types and may not be useful throughout all phases of cutaneous wound healing. In conclusion, non-invasive objective devices are useful in the assessment of cutaneous wound healing, as these tools can link the treatment and diagnosis by evaluating response to treatment and thus could aid as a marker for healing and scar maturation. PMID:27060469

  19. Self-Healing Systems: Foundations and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Dreo Rodosek, Gabi; Geihs, Kurt; Schmeck, Hartmut; Stiller Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of the Working Group 3 - ``Terminology'' - at the Dagstuhl Seminar 09201 ``Self-Healing and Self-Adaptive Systems'' (organized by A. Andrzejak, K. Geihs, O. Shehory and J. Wilkes). The seminar was held from May 10th 2009 to May 15th 2009 in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics.

  20. Diagnosis and distress in Navajo healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csordas, Thomas J; Storck, Michael J; Strauss, Milton

    2008-08-01

    In contemporary Navajo society, traditional Navajo ceremonies, Native American Church prayer meetings, and Navajo Christian faith healing are all highly sought-after resources in the everyday pursuit of health and well-being. What is the nature of affliction among patients who turn to such forms of religious healing? Are these patients typically afflicted with psychiatric disorder? In this article we discuss 84 Navajo patients who participated in the Navajo Healing Project during a period in which they consulted one of these forms of healing. We present diagnostic results obtained from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV (SCID) administered to these patients. We then present an ethnographically augmented analysis comparing the research diagnosis obtained via the SCID with a clinical diagnosis, with the diagnosis given by religious healers, and with the understanding of their own distress on the part of patients. These analyses demonstrate how a cultural approach contributes to the basic science and clinical understandings of affliction as well as to discussion of the advantages and limitations of DSM categories as descriptors of distress and disorder. PMID:18974670

  1. The Healing Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    facilities replacing the facilities designed and built in the sixties and seventies, this research is especially relevant currently. The research project 'Healing architecture' compiled and reviewed research that links the physical environment on hospitals with patient and staff outcomes. The project...

  2. The Ntu Approach to Health and Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory W. Henry; Harper, Kevin W.

    2001-01-01

    Ntu is a pluralistic approach to psychotherapy. Framed in an Afrocentric understanding of the world, Ntu is a multifaceted, continually evolving way of conceptualizing human behavior that treats families using ancient Eastern principles of healing, New Age conceptualizations of the mind-body relationship, an Afrocentric world view, and…

  3. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Julann

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included. PMID:26817369

  4. The Oneness of Humankind: Healing Racism Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    The guiding principle behind the healing of racism is the Oneness of Humankind. This is not an old concept warmed over. It is knowledge about our collective capacity to reach deep into the human spirit and solve the most complex challenges of our time. The compound problem of race and other issues such as poverty only can be resolved with the…

  5. Healing of experimentally created defects: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1995-01-01

    Within cranio-maxillofacial surgery and orthopedic surgery a bone graft or a bone substitute is required to recontour or assist bony healing in repair of osseous congenital deformities, or in repair of deformity due to trauma or to surgical excision after elimination of osseous disease processes ...

  6. Inherent safety of nuclear power plants: A lifesaver or a pacifier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on interviews with scientists, representatives of ministries, politicians, the press and environmentalists it has been investigated whether the development of inherent safe nuclear power plants contributes to an improved acceptation of nuclear energy or not. The most important controversies appear to be the organization and planning of the Dutch electric power supply, the role of nuclear energy in the electric power supply, the arguments pro nuclear energy, the definition and interpretation of the notion inherent safety, and the value attached to inherent safety. In appendix one the physical backgrounds of nuclear energy, several types of nuclear reactors, and the safety aspects of nuclear energy are discussed. In appendix two an overview is given of regulations for the use of nuclear energy. 4 appendices, 35 refs

  7. An Assessment of Self-Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Several reviews and books have been written concerning self-healing polymers over the last few years. These have focused primarily on the types of self-healing materials being studied, with minor emphasis given to composite properties. The purpose of this review is to assess the self-healing ability of these materials when utilized in fiber reinforced composites

  8. Self-healing flexible laminates for resealing of puncture damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible self-healing system capable of healing puncture damage has been manufactured. Our material consists of three layers: a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) composite, embedded with a self-healing microcapsule system, sandwiched between two layers of poly(urethane) coated nylon. The total structure thickness ranges between 0.84 and 1.5 mm. A protocol is established in which samples are damaged using a hypodermic needle or a razor blade, and a successful heal is defined as the ability to reseal the damage to withstand a pressure differential across the laminate of 103 kPa (∼1 atm). Trends in healing success are analyzed as a function of microcapsule size, self-healing layer thickness, and puncture diameter. Healing varied significantly with microcapsule size, with the maximum healing success rate (100% successfully healed) occurring in samples with 220 µm microcapsules and a puncture diameter of 0.49 mm. For this puncture size, an increase in microcapsule diameter corresponds to a decrease in healing efficiency. However, samples with larger microcapsules (up to 500 µm avg.) demonstrate more effective healing for larger puncture diameters, up to 1.61 mm. Additionally, healing increased with composite layer thickness, and decreased with increasing puncture hole size

  9. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdolah Zadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic heali

  10. 42 CFR 60.61 - Responsibilities of a HEAL school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of a HEAL school. 60.61 Section 60... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.61 Responsibilities of a HEAL school. (a) A HEAL school is... loan. The school must inform the loan recipient during the entrance interview of his or her rights...

  11. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  12. Bodyfaith and the Mind's Heart: Educational Healing for Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sally Naylor

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that reimagining God through metaphors that counter patriarchy can become a liberating and transformational pathway for a healing community. Proposes two metaphorical constructions, "bodyfaith" and "the mind's heart," to act as tools to imagine a healing agenda within education. Considers the role of educational healing within a…

  13. 42 CFR 60.38 - Assignment of a HEAL loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assigned except to another HEAL lender, the Student Loan Marketing Association (popularly known as “Sallie Mae”), or a public entity in the business of purchasing student loans, and except as provided in § 60... responsibility under the HEAL regulations. (d) Bankruptcy. If a lender or holder assigns a HEAL loan to a...

  14. Self-Healing Characteristics of Damaged Rock Salt under Different Healing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Li; Chunhe Yang; Deyi Jiang; Song Ren; Jie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Salt deposits are commonly regarded as ideal hosts for geologic energy reservoirs. Underground cavern construction-induced damage in salt is reduced by self-healing. Thus, studying the influencing factors on such healing processes is important. This research uses ultrasonic technology to monitor the longitudinal wave velocity variations of stress-damaged rock salts during self-recovery experiments under different recovery conditions. The influences of stress-induced initial damage, temperatur...

  15. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: bernard.lemire@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  16. 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  17. Arrayed SU-8 polymer thermal actuators with inherent real-time feedback for actively modifying MEMS’ substrate warpage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Xiao, Dingbang; Chen, Zhihua; Wu, Xuezhong

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a batch-fabricated micro-thermal actuators array with inherent real-time self-feedback, which can be used to actively modify micro-electro-mechanical systems’ (MEMS’) substrate warpage. Arrayed polymer thermal actuators utilize SU-8 polymer (a thick negative photoresist) as a functional material with integrated Ti/Al film-heaters as a microscale heat source. The electro-thermo-mechanical response of a micro-fabricated actuator was measured. The resistance of the Al/Ti film resistor varies obviously with ambient temperature, which can be used as inherent feedback for observing real-time displacement of activated SU-8 bumps (0.43 μm Ω‑1). Due to the high thermal expansion coefficient, SU-8 bumps tend to have relatively large deflection at low driving voltage and are very easily integrated with MEMS devices. Experimental results indicated that the proposed SU-8 polymer thermal actuators (array) are able to achieve accurate rectification of MEMS’ substrate warpage, which might find potential applications for solving stress-induced problems in MEMS.

  18. Electrospun N-Substituted Polyurethane Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Self-Cleaning and Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenyuan; Liu, Libin; Li, Ting; Dang, Zhao; Qiao, Congde; Xu, Jinku; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-01-18

    Membranes with special functionalities, such as self-cleaning, especially those for oil/water separation, have attracted much attention due to their wide applications. However, they are difficult to recycle and reuse after being damaged. Herein, we put forward a new N-substituted polyurethane membrane concept with self-healing ability to address this challenge. The membrane obtained by electrospinning has a self-cleaning surface with an excellent self-healing ability. Importantly, by tuning the membrane composition, the membrane exhibits different wettability for effective separation of oil/water mixtures and water-in-oil emulsions, whilst still displaying a self-healing ability and durability against damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a self-healing membrane for oil/water separation, which provides the fundamental research for the development of advanced oil/water separation materials. PMID:26603820

  19. Functional tissue engineering of ligament healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Shan-Ling

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ligaments and tendons are dense connective tissues that are important in transmitting forces and facilitate joint articulation in the musculoskeletal system. Their injury frequency is high especially for those that are functional important, like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and medial collateral ligament (MCL of the knee as well as the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder. Because the healing responses are different in these ligaments and tendons after injury, the consequences and treatments are tissue- and site-specific. In this review, we will elaborate on the injuries of the knee ligaments as well as using functional tissue engineering (FTE approaches to improve their healing. Specifically, the ACL of knee has limited capability to heal, and results of non-surgical management of its midsubstance rupture have been poor. Consequently, surgical reconstruction of the ACL is regularly performed to gain knee stability. However, the long-term results are not satisfactory besides the numerous complications accompanied with the surgeries. With the rapid development of FTE, there is a renewed interest in revisiting ACL healing. Approaches such as using growth factors, stem cells and scaffolds have been widely investigated. In this article, the biology of normal and healing ligaments is first reviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues related to the treatment of ACL injuries. Afterwards, current promising FTE methods are presented for the treatment of ligament injuries, including the use of growth factors, gene delivery, and cell therapy with a particular emphasis on the use of ECM bioscaffolds. The challenging areas are listed in the future direction that suggests where collection of energy could be placed in order to restore the injured ligaments and tendons structurally and functionally.

  20. Quasi-static reactivity balance interpretations of inherent safety response in fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-static reactivity balance provides a useful way to codify the inherent response of a reactor to unprotected accident initiators. This approach has been used to illuminate the underlying physics of passive reactivity shutdown in liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMRs) and has facilitated the design effort to configure LMR reactor cores for favorable inherent safety features. The purpose of this paper is to extend the quasi-static reactivity balance methodology to thermal reactor types - and in particular to the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) where, as in LMRs, passive reactivity shutdown is a design goal