Sample records for applications inherent healing

  1. Healing efficiency of epoxy-based materials for structural application (United States)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata


    This paper describes a self-healing composite exhibiting high levels of healing efficiency under working conditions typical of aeronautic applications. The self-healing material is composed of a thermosetting epoxy matrix in which a catalyst of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) and nanocapsules are dispersed. The nanocapsules contain a monomer able to polymerize via ROMP. The preliminary results demonstrate an efficient self-repair function which is also active at very low temperatures.

  2. Self-healing composites and applications thereof (United States)

    Tee, Chee Keong; Wang, Chao; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan


    A battery electrode includes an electrochemically active material and a binder covering the electrochemically active material. The binder includes a self-healing polymer and conductive additives dispersed in the self-healing polymer to provide an electrical pathway across at least a portion of the binder.

  3. Healing (United States)

    Ventres, William B.


    My personal ethos of healing is an expression of the belief that I can and do act to heal patients while I attend to the traditional goals of medicine. The 7 supporting principles that inform my ethos are dignity, authenticity, integrity, transparency, solidarity, generosity, and resiliency. I invite others, including medical students, residents, and practicing physicians, to reflect and discover their own ethos of healing and the principles that guide their professional growth. A short digital documentary accompanies this essay for use as a reflective prompt to encourage personal and professional development. PMID:26755787

  4. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description. (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio


    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  5. Novel self-healing materials chemistries for targeted applications (United States)

    Wilson, Gerald O.

    Self-healing materials of the type developed by White and co-workers [1] were designed to autonomically heal themselves when damaged, thereby extending the lifetime of various applications in which such material systems are employed. The system was based on urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and Grubbs' catalyst particles embedded together in an epoxy matrix. When a crack propagates through the material, it ruptures the microcapsules, releasing DCPD into the crack plane, where it comes in contact and reacts with the catalyst to initiate a ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), bonding the crack and restoring structural continuity. The present work builds on this concept in several ways. Firstly, it expands the scope and versatility of the ROMP self-healing chemistry by incorporation into epoxy vinyl ester matrices. Major technical challenges in this application include protection of the catalyst from deactivation by aggressive curing agents, and optimization of the concentration of healing agents in the matrix. Secondly, new ruthenium catalysts are evaluated for application in ROMP-based self-healing materials. The use of alternative derivatives of Grubbs' catalyst gave rise to self-healing systems with improved healing efficiencies and thermal properties. Evaluation of the stability of these new catalysts to primary amine curing agents used in the curing of common epoxy matrices also led to the discovery and characterization of new ruthenium catalysts which exhibited ROMP initiation kinetics superior to those of first and second generation Grubbs' catalysts. Finally, free radical polymerization was evaluated for application in the development of bio-compatible self-healing materials. [1] White, S. R.; Sottos, N. R.; Geubelle, P. R.; Moore, J. S.; Kessler, M. R.; Sriram, S. R.; Brown, E. N.; Viswanathan, S. Nature 2001, 409, 794.

  6. Chitosan as a starting material for wound healing applications


    Patrulea,Viorica; Ostafe, V.; Borchard, Gerrit; Jordan, Olivier


    Chitosan and its derivatives have attracted great attention due to their properties beneficial for application to wound healing. The main focus of the present review is to summarize studies involving chitosan and its derivatives, especially N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) and O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (CMTMC), used to accelerate wound healing. Moreover, formulation strategies for chitosan and its derivatives, as well as their in vitro, in vivo a...

  7. Puncture Self-Healing Polymers for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Penner, Ronald K.; Bogert, Phil B.; Yost, W. T.; Siochi, Emilie J.


    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10K per pound provide ample incentive to seek innovative, cost-effective ways to reduce structural mass without sacrificing safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems can provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show great promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to heal instantaneously following projectile penetration while retaining structural integrity. Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMMA), also known as Surlyn is an ionomer-based copolymer that undergoes puncture reversal (self-healing) following high impact puncture at high velocities. However EMMA is not a structural engineering polymer, and will not meet the demands of aerospace applications requiring self-healing engineering materials. Current efforts to identify candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are reported. Rheology, high speed thermography, and high speed video for self-healing semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers will be reported.

  8. New Guar Biopolymer Silver Nanocomposites for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Ghosh Auddy


    Full Text Available Wound healing is an innate physiological response that helps restore cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Selective biodegradable and biocompatible polymer materials have provided useful scaffolds for wound healing and assisted cellular messaging. In the present study, guar gum, a polymeric galactomannan, was intrinsically modified to a new cationic biopolymer guar gum alkylamine (GGAA for wound healing applications. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agnp were further impregnated in GGAA for extended evaluations in punch wound models in rodents. SEM studies showed silver nanoparticles well dispersed in the new guar matrix with a particle size of ~18 nm. In wound healing experiments, faster healing and improved cosmetic appearance were observed in the new nanobiomaterial treated group compared to commercially available silver alginate cream. The total protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline contents of the wound tissues were also significantly higher in the treated group as compared with the silver alginate cream (P<0.05. Silver nanoparticles exerted positive effects because of their antimicrobial properties. The nanobiomaterial was observed to promote wound closure by inducing proliferation and migration of the keratinocytes at the wound site. The derivatized guar gum matrix additionally provided a hydrated surface necessary for cell proliferation.

  9. Scientific production on the applicability of phenytoin in wound healing

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    Flávia Firmino


    Full Text Available Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant that has been used in wound healing. The objectives of this study were to describe how the scientific production presents the use ofphenytoinas a healing agent and to discuss its applicability in wounds. A literature review and hierarchy analysis of evidence-based practices was performed. Eighteen articles were analyzed that tested the intervention in wounds such as leprosy ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, trophic ulcers, war wounds, burns, preparation of recipient graft area, radiodermatitis and post-extraction of melanocytic nevi. Systemic use ofphenytoinin the treatment of fistulas and the hypothesis of topical use in the treatment of vitiligo were found. In conclusion, topical use ofphenytoinis scientifically evidenced. However robust research is needed that supports a protocol for the use ofphenytoinas another option of a healing agent in clinical practice.

  10. 42 CFR 60.31 - The application to be a HEAL lender or holder. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The application to be a HEAL lender or holder. 60... HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.31 The application to be a HEAL lender or holder. (a) In order to be a HEAL lender or holder, an eligible organization must submit...

  11. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications. (United States)

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart


    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface.

  12. On the inherent properties of Soluplus and its application in ibuprofen solid dispersions generated by microwave-quench cooling technology. (United States)

    Shi, Nian-Qiu; Lai, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Yong; Feng, Bo; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Qi, Xian-Rong


    Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, or Soluplus(®), is a relatively new copolymer and a promising carrier of amorphous solid dispersions. Knowledge on the inherent properties of Soluplus(®) (e.g. cloud points, critical micelle concentrations, and viscosity) in different conditions is relatively inadequate, and the application characteristics of Soluplus(®)-based solid dispersions made by microwave methods still need to be clarified. In the present investigation, the inherent properties of a Soluplus(®) carrier, including cloud points, critical micelle concentrations, and viscosity, were explored in different media and in altered conditions. Ibuprofen, a BCS class II non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was selected to develop Soluplus(®)-based amorphous solid dispersions using the microwave-quench cooling (MQC) method. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were adopted to analyze amorphous properties and molecular interactions in ibuprofen/Soluplus(®) amorphous solid dispersions generated by MQC. Dissolution, dissolution extension, phase solubility, equilibrium solubility, and supersaturated crystallization inhibiting experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of Soluplus(®) on ibuprofen in solid dispersions. This research provides valuable information on the inherent properties of Soluplus(®) and presents a basic understanding of Soluplus(®) as a carrier of amorphous solid dispersions.

  13. High efficiency isolated DC/DC converter inherently optimized for fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Press; Jensen, Lasse Crone; Larsen, Martin Norgaard


    The isolated full-bridge boost converter has been suggested as the best choice for fuel cell applications. Comparisons have been carried out in the literature using both stress factors and experimental verified designs to determine the optimal converter. Never the less, this paper suggests a diff...

  14. Topical formulations and wound healing applications of chitosan. (United States)

    Ueno, H; Mori, T; Fujinaga, T


    Chitosan is being used as a wound-healing accelerator in veterinary medicine. To our knowledge, chitosan enhances the functions of inflammatory cells such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) (phagocytosis, production of osteopontin and leukotriene B4), macrophages (phagocytosis, production of interleukin (IL)-1, transforming growth factor beta 1 and platelet derived growth factor), and fibroblasts (production of IL-8). As a result, chitosan promotes granulation and organization, therefore chitosan is beneficial for the large open wounds of animals. However, there are some reported complications of chitosan application. Firstly, chitosan causes lethal pneumonia in dogs which are given a high dose of chitosan. In spite of application of chitosan to various species, this finding is observed only in dogs. Secondly, intratumor injection of chitosan on mice bearing tumor increases the rate of metastasis and tumor growth. Therefore, it is important to consider these effects of chitosan, prior to drug delivery.

  15. Piezoelectric PU/PVDF electrospun scaffolds for wound healing applications. (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Feng; Li, Zhen-Sheng; Dong, Shi-Wu; Chen, Wei-Jun; Deng, Ling; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ying, Da-Jun


    Previous studies have shown that piezoelectric materials may be used to prepare bioactive electrically charged surfaces. In the current study, polyurethane/polyvinylidene fluoride (PU/PVDF) scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning. The mechanical property and piezoelectric property of the scaffolds were evaluated. The crystalline phase of PVDF in the scaffolds was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro cell culture was performed to investigate cytocompatibility of the scaffolds. Wound-healing assay, cell-adhesion assay, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed to investigate piezoelectric effect of the scaffolds on fibroblast activities. Further, the scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to investigate their biocompatibility and the piezoelectric effect on fibrosis in vivo. The results indicated that the electrospinning process had changed PVDF crystalline phase from the nonpiezoelectric α phase to the piezoelectric β phase. The fibroblasts cultured on the scaffolds showed normal morphology and proliferation. The fibroblasts cultured on the piezoelectric-excited scaffolds showed enhanced migration, adhesion and secretion. The scaffolds that were subcutaneously implanted in SD rats showed higher fibrosis level due to the piezoelectrical stimulation, which was caused by random animal movements followed by mechanical deformation of the scaffolds. The scaffolds are potential candidates for wound healing applications.

  16. From Waste to Healing Biopolymers: Biomedical Applications of Bio-Collagenic Materials Extracted from Industrial Leather Residues in Wound Healing

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    Rafael Luque


    Full Text Available The biomedical properties of a porous bio-collagenic polymer extracted from leather industrial waste residues have been investigated in wound healing and tissue regeneration in induced wounds in rats. Application of the pure undiluted bio-collagen to induced wounds in rats dramatically improved its healing after 7 days in terms of collagen production and wound filling as well as in the migration and differentiation of keratinocytes. The formulation tested was found to be three times more effective than the commercial reference product Catrix® (Heal Progress (HP: 8 ± 1.55 vs. 2.33 ± 0.52, p < 0.001; Formation of Collagen (FC: 7.5 ± 1.05 vs. 2.17 ± 0.75, p < 0.001; Regeneration of Epidermis (RE: 13.33 ± 5.11 vs. 5 ± 5.48, p < 0.05.

  17. Self-Healing Technologies for Wiring and Surfaces in Aerospace and Deep Space Exploration Applications (United States)

    Williams, Martha Kay; Gibson, Tracy L.; Jolley, Scott T.; Caraccio-Meier, Anne Joan


    Self-healing technologies have been identified as critical technology gaps for future exploration. NASA and KSC have been working in this area for multiple years with established intellectual property; however, there are many challenges that remain in this area of research. How do we mimic what the body does so naturally when we as NASA have unique requirements? We have been investigating several mechanisms for self-healing: microencapsulation with a healant core to fill in voids in the case of mechanical puncture and flowable (or sealable)systems that have inherent chemical properties that allow the materials to flow back together when cut or damaged. The microcapsules containing healant have to be durable and robust, must be able to take high temperatures to meet NASA unique requirements, provide good capillary flow of the healant, and be small in diameters to fill in damage voids in thin films or surfaces. Sealable systems have to flow in a range of temperatures and yet be lightweight and chemically resistant. The systems currently being developed are based on polyimide and polyurethane matrices and have been studied for use in high performance wiring systems, inflatable systems, and habitation structures. Self-healing or self-sealing capability would significantly reduce maintenance requirements and increase the safety and reliability performance of critical systems. Advances in these self-healing technologies and some of the unique challenges needed to be overcome in order to incorporate a self-healing mechanism into wiring or thin films systems will be addressed.

  18. Biomimetic, Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Morse, Daniel E.


    This final report contains a summary of significant findings, and bibliographies of publications and patents resulting from the research. The findings are grouped as follows: A) Lustrin-Mimetic Self-Healing Polymer Networks; B) Nanostructure-Directing Catalysis of Synthesis of Electronically and Optoelectronically Active Metallo-oxanes and Organometallics; C) New Discovery that Molecular Stencils Control Directional Growth to Form Light-Weight Mineral Foams.

  19. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda

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    Hema Sharma Datta


    Full Text Available The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary efficacy evaluation of the anti-aging activity we chose excision and incision wound healing animal models and studied the parameters including wound contraction, collagen content and skin breaking strength which in turn is indicative of the tissue cell regeneration capacity, collagenation capacity and mechanical strength of skin. The group treated with the formulations containing Yashada bhasma along with Shorea robusta resin and flax seed oil showed significantly better wound contraction (P < .01, higher collagen content (P < .05 and better skin breaking strength (P < .01 as compared to control group; thus proposing them to be effective prospective anti-aging formulations.

  20. Clinical application of growth factors and cytokines in wound healing. (United States)

    Barrientos, Stephan; Brem, Harold; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana


    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic biological process that involves the coordinated efforts of multiple cell types and is executed and regulated by numerous growth factors and cytokines. There has been a drive in the past two decades to study the therapeutic effects of various growth factors in the clinical management of nonhealing wounds (e.g., pressure ulcers, chronic venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers). For this review, we conducted an online search of Medline/PubMed and critically analyzed the literature regarding the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of these wounds. We focused on currently approved therapies, emerging therapies, and future research possibilities. In this review, we discuss four growth factors and cytokines currently being used on and off label for the healing of wounds. These include granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. While the clinical results of using growth factors and cytokines are encouraging, many studies involved a small sample size and are disparate in measured endpoints. Therefore, further research is required to provide definitive evidence of efficacy.

  1. In vivo toxicity of enoxaparin encapsulated in mucoadhesive nanoparticles: Topical application in a wound healing model (United States)

    Huber, S. C.; Marcato, P. D.; Barbosa, R. M.; Duran, N.; Annichino-Bizzacchi, J. M.


    Wound healing comprises four distinct phases and involves many cell events and biologic markers. The use of nanoparticles for topical application has gaining attention due to its deeper penetration in the skin and the retention capacity of the drug in the site of application. In this study the effect and toxicity of mucoadhesive polymeric nanoparticles loaded with enoxaparin was evaluated in in vivo model of skin ulcer. Our results showed an interesting formulation based on mucoadhesive nanoparticles with enoxaparin that improved wound healing without cytotoxicity in vitro in all endpoint evaluated. Then, this semi-solid formulation is a promising option for skin ulcer treatment.

  2. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu


    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  3. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

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    Toshiki Yoneda


    Full Text Available Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old (n = 27 received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group or control ointment (control group to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group. At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  4. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications. (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G


    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications.

  5. Topical Application of Sadat-Habdan Mesenchymal Stimulating Peptide (SHMSP Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetic Rabbits

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    Abdulmohsen H. Al-Elq


    Full Text Available Objective. Diminished wound healing is a common problem in diabetic patients due to diminished angiogenesis. SHMSP was found to promote angiogenesis. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of this peptide in healing of wounds in diabetic rabbits. Materials and Methods. Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Diabetes mellitus was induced and the rabbits were randomly divided into two equal groups: control group and peptide group. A-full thickness punch biopsy was made to create a wound of about 10 mm on the right ears of all rabbits. Every day, the wound was cleaned with saline in control groups. In the peptide group, 15 mg of SHMSP was applied after cleaning. On day 15th, all animals were sacrificed, and the wounds were excised with a rim of 5 mm of normal surrounding tissue. Histo-pathological assessment of wound healing, inflammatory cell infiltration, blood vessel proliferation, and collagen deposition was performed. Results. There were no deaths among the groups. There was significant increase in wound healing, blood vessel proliferation and collagen deposition, and significant decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration in the peptide group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Topical application of SHMSP improves wound healing in diabetic rabbits.

  6. A bacteria-based bead for possible self-healing marine concrete applications (United States)

    Palin, D.; Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H. M.


    This work presents a bacteria-based bead for potential self-healing concrete applications in low-temperature marine environments. The bead consisting of calcium alginate encapsulated bacterial spores and mineral precursor compounds was assessed for: oxygen consumption, swelling, and its ability to form a biocomposite in a simulative marine concrete crack solution (SMCCS) at 8 °C. After six days immersion in the SMCCS the bacteria-based beads formed a calcite crust on their surface and calcite inclusions in their network, resulting in a calcite-alginate biocomposite. Beads swelled by 300% to a maximum diameter of 3 mm, while theoretical calculations estimate that 0.112 g of the beads were able to produce ˜1 mm3 of calcite after 14 days immersion; providing the bead with considerable crack healing potential. The bacteria-based bead shows great potential for the development of self-healing concrete in low-temperature marine environments, while the formation of a biocomposite healing material represents an exciting avenue for self-healing concrete research.

  7. A circulating fluidized bed combustor system with inherent CO{sub 2} separation : application of chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.; Lyngfelt, A.; Mattisson, T.; Johnsson, F. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion


    This paper presents a method to achieve carbon dioxide-free combustion while still using fossil fuels as the energy source. The method is based on separation and disposal of carbon dioxide from combustion. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) uses metal oxide particles to transfer oxygen from air to a gaseous fuel. The gaseous fuel is combusted with inherent separation of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) from the flue gas. A bubbling bed below the downcomer in the circulating fluidized bed acts as a fuel reactor where oxygen is transferred from the metal oxide to the fuel. The riser acts as the air reactor where the oxygen from the air oxidizes the previously reduced metal oxide. The fuel and combustion air are not in direct contact. The conceptual design of the pressurized CLC system was examined in order to map suitable conditions for the riser and to achieve sufficient net solids flux between the reactors and the bed mass in the riser. A range of possible operating conditions were suggested. The operating conditions depend on the reaction properties of the oxygen carriers. 16 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  8. Effect of topical application of chlorogenic acid on excision wound healing in rats. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Cheng; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Liu, I-Min


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical chlorogenic acid on excision wounds in Wistar rats. A 1 % (w/w) chlorogenic acid or silver sulfadiazine ointment was applied topically once a day for 15 days on full-thickness excision wounds created on rats. The 1 % (w/w) chlorogenic acid ointment had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the wound contraction on the 15th post-surgery day, which was similar to that produced by 1 % (w/w) silver sulfadiazine ointment. Increased rates of epithelialization were observed in the treated rats. It also improved cellular proliferation, increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels during the inflammatory phase (12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-wounding) of wound healing, upregulated transforming growth factor-β1 and elevated collagen IV synthesis in the chlorogenic acid-treated group. The results also indicated that chlorogenic acid possesses potent antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione, and decreasing lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of chlorogenic acid can accelerate the process of excision wound healing by its ability to increase collagen synthesis through upregulation of key players such as tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 in different phases of wound healing as well as by its antioxidant potential.

  9. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter


    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  10. A high efficacy antimicrobial acrylate based hydrogels with incorporated copper for wound healing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuković, Jovana S.; Babić, Marija M.; Antić, Katarina M.; Miljković, Miona G.; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A.; Filipović, Jovanka M.; Tomić, Simonida Lj., E-mail:


    In this study, three series of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and itaconic acid, unloaded, with incorporated copper(II) ions and reduced copper, were successfully prepared, characterized and evaluated as novel wound healing materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the expected structure of obtained hydrogels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed porous morphology of unloaded hydrogels, and the morphological modifications in case of loaded hydrogels. Thermal characteristics were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the glass transition temperatures were observed in range of 12–50 °C. Swelling study was conducted in wide range of pHs at 37 °C, confirming pH sensitive behaviour for all three series of hydrogels. The in vitro copper release was investigated and the experimental data were analysed using several models in order to elucidate the transport mechanism. The antimicrobial assay revealed excellent antimicrobial activity, over 99% against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, as well as good correlation with the copper release experiments. In accordance with potential application, water vapour transmission rate, oxygen penetration, dispersion characteristics, fluid retention were observed and the suitability of the hydrogels for wound healing application was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Design and evaluation of novel pH responsive hydrogel series. • Structural, morphological, thermal characterization and controlled copper release. • Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over 99%. • Antifungal activity against Candida albicans over 99%. • In vitro evaluation studies revealed great potential for wound healing application.

  11. Nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes for dermal wound healing applications. (United States)

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Ercan, Batur; Denkbaş, Emir B; Webster, Thomas J


    As an effort to create the next generation of improved skin graft materials, in this study, we modified the surfaces of a previously investigated material, silk fibroin, using a NaOH alkaline treatment to obtain a biologically inspired nanofeatured surface morphology. Such surfaces were characterized for roughness, energy, and chemistry. In addition, keratinocyte (skin-forming cells) adhesion and proliferation on such nanofeatured silk fibroin wound dressings were studied in an initial attempt to determine the promotion of an epidermal cover on the wound bed to form a new epidermal barrier. Dermal fibroblast adhesion and proliferation were also studied to assess the ability of nanostructured silk fibroin to replace damaged dermal tissue in chronic wounds (i.e., for diabetic foot ulcers). Results demonstrated for the first time that keratinocyte and fibroblast cell density was greater on nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes compared with non-treated silk fibroin surfaces. The enhancement in cellular functions was correlated with an increase in silk surface nanotopography, wettability and change in chemistry after NaOH treatment. Due to the present promising results, the newly developed nanofeatured silk fibroin membranes are exciting alternative skin graft materials which should be further studied for various skin patch and wound dressing applications.

  12. Novel sodium fusidate-loaded film-forming hydrogel with easy application and excellent wound healing. (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Kyung Soo; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Beom-Jin; Park, Young Joon; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Jin, Sung Giu; Choi, Han-Gon


    To develop a novel sodium fusidate-loaded film-forming hydrogel (FFH) for easy application and excellent wound healing, various FFH formulations and corresponding FFH dried films were prepared with drug, polyvinylalcohol (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), propylene glycol, ethanol and water, and their film forming times, mechanical properties, drug release, in vivo wound healing in rat and histopathology were assessed. The sodium fusidate-loaded FFH composed of sodium fusidate/PVP/PVA/propylene glycol/ethanol/water at the weight ratio of 1/2/12/3/8/74 could form a corresponding dried film in the wound sites promptly due to fast film-forming time of about 4 min. This FFH showed an appropriate hardness and adhesiveness. Furthermore, this corresponding dried film provided an excellent flexibility and elasticity, and gave relatively high drug release. As compared with the sodium fusidate-loaded commercial product, it significantly improved excision and infection wound healing in rats. This FFH was stable at 45°C for at least 6 months. Therefore, this novel sodium fusidate-loaded FFH would be an effective pharmaceutical product with easy application for the treatment of wounds.

  13. Application Research on Self-healing Technology with Microcapsules for Automobile Brake Pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; DONG Xiuping; ZHANG Heng


    In order to improve the performance of non-asbestos composite auto brake pads that are composed of matrix resin, reinforced material and fillers, a novel method with new technology of self-heal microcapsules was proposed. Nano reinforced fillers' effects were also considered in the experiment project. Five recipe designs for new composite auto brake pads were carried out and cor-responding samples were prepared as well. The friction coefficient and wearing properties at certain temperature, impact intensity and hardness were comparatively studied. Investigations indicate that properties of such composite auto brake pads meet the requirements of the national standards while microcapsule's weight content varies from 5.5wt%-1.09wt% of matrix resin and microcapsule's loca-tion varies in the pads. Nano reinforced fillers have the effects of increasing composites' impact in-tensity and hardness. Application of self-healing microcapsules in auto brake pads is feasible.

  14. Thermally responsive polymer systems for self-healing, reversible adhesion and shape memory applications (United States)

    Luo, Xiaofan

    Responsive polymers are "smart" materials that are capable of performing prescribed, dynamic functions under an applied stimulus. In this dissertation, we explore several novel design strategies to develop thermally responsive polymers and polymer composites for self-healing, reversible adhesion and shape memory applications. In the first case described in Chapters 2 and 3, a thermally triggered self-healing material was prepared by blending a high-temperature epoxy resin with a thermoplastic polymer, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). The initially miscible system undergoes polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) during the curing of epoxy and yields a variety of compositionally dependent morphologies. At a particular PCL loading, the cured blend displays a "bricks-and-mortar" morphology in which epoxy exists as interconnected spheres ("bricks") within a continuous PCL matrix ("mortar"). A heat induced "bleeding" phenomenon was observed in the form of spontaneous wetting of all free surfaces by the molten PCL, and is attributed to the volumetric thermal expansion of PCL above its melting point in excess of epoxy brick expansion, which we term differential expansive bleeding (DEB). This DEB is capable of healing damage such as cracks. In controlled self-healing experiments, heating of a cracked specimen led to PCL bleeding from the bulk that yields a liquid layer bridging the crack gap. Upon cooling, a "scar" composed of PCL crystals was formed at the site of the crack, restoring a significant portion of mechanical strength. We further utilized DEB to enable strong and thermally-reversible adhesion of the material to itself and to metallic substrates, without any requirement for macroscopic softening or flow. After that, Chapters 4--6 present a novel composite strategy for the design and fabrication of shape memory polymer composites. The basic approach involves physically combining two or more functional components into an interpenetrating fiber

  15. Sodium carboxymethylation-functionalized chitosan fibers for cutaneous wound healing application (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Zhou, Zhong-Zheng; Jiang, Chang-Qing; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Kong, Ming; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xi-Guang


    A water absorption biomaterial, sodium carboxymethylation-functionalized chitosan fibers (Na-NOCC fibers) were prepared, applied for cutaneous wound repair, and characterized by FTIR and NMR. The water absorption of Na-NOCC fibers increased significantly with substitution degree rising, from 3.2 to 6.8 g/g, and higher than that of chitosan fibers (2.2 g/g) confirmed by swelling behavior. In the antibacterial action, the high degree of substitution of Na-NOCC fibers exhibited stronger antibacterial activities against E. coli (from 66.54% up to 88.86%). The inhibition of Na-NOCC fibers against S. aureus were above 90%, and more effective than E. coli. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that Na-NOCC2 fibers were no obvious cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblasts. Wound healing test and histological examination showed that significantly advanced granulation tissue and capillary formation in the healing-impaired wounds treated with Na-NOCC fibers, as compared to those treated with gauze, which demonstrated that Na- NOCC fibers could promote skin repair and might have great application for wound healing.

  16. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing. (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike


    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.

  17. Polylactic acid with improved heat deflection temperatures and self-healing properties for durable goods applications. (United States)

    Wertz, J T; Mauldin, T C; Boday, D J


    A method to recover fracture toughness after failure and increase thermal properties of polylactic acid (PLA) for use within durable goods applications is presented. Microcapsules were incorporated into PLA to form a composite material in which the microcapsules served the dual purpose of (1) releasing self-healing additives to fracture regions and (2) serving as nucleating agents to improve the PLA composite's thermal tolerance. Self-healing was achieved though embedment of dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' first generation ruthenium metathesis catalyst, the former being autonomically released into damage volumes and undergoing polymerization in the presence of the catalyst. This approach led to up to 84% recovery of the polymer composite's initial fracture toughness. Additionally, PLA's degree of crystallinity and heat deflection temperature were improved by ∼ 11% and ∼ 21 °C, respectively, relative to nonfilled virgin PLA, owing to microcapsule-induced nucleation. The self-healing system developed here overcomes many property limitations of PLA that can potentially lead to its incorporation into various durable goods.

  18. Therapeutic ultrasound - The healing sound and its applications in oral diseases: The review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothirmai Koneru


    Full Text Available The application of medical ultrasound was mainly centered on the soft tissue diagnostic imaging until now. Recently, its use has been widened and adopted for various therapeutic purposes. It has been reported to facilitate the healing of bone fractures, wounds, apthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. In addition, ultrasound has also been shown to facilitate delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors, promote gene therapy to targeted tissues, and deliver thrombolytic drugs into blood clots. This article reviews the principles and current status of ultrasound-based treatments.

  19. Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in non-healing venous ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Abud


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Treatment of chronic venous ulcers of the lower extremity is still an important difficulty. The principal treatment of these ulcers includes compression therapy, local wound care and surgery. Unresponsiveness to these standard treatments is a frequent situation with negative effects on life quality and reductions in personal productivity. Therefore, there is a need for new applications to increase the effectiveness of treatment in treatment-resistant cases. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the results of topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein in resistant venous ulcers. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of patients with treatment-resistant venous ulceration who were treated with amelogenin extracellular matrix protein between June 2011 and December 2012.. Results: 26 patients (21 male and 5 female with a total number of 28 ulcers (24 patients with 1 ulcer, 2 patients with two ulcers were evaluated. The patients were treated with topically applied amelogenin extracellular matrix protein and regional four bandage compression. Bandages were changed weekly. Each cure continued for six weeks. In fourteen patients (15 ulcers, we observed a complete healing by the end of the first cure. In another twelve cases (13 ulcers, the same period resulted with a reduction in wound diameter. We continued to the second cure for these patients. By the end of the second cure, complete healing was achieved in five cases (6 ulcers. Conclusion: Topical application of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein may be considered as an effective therapeutic choice for refractory venous ulcers.

  20. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs. (United States)

    Jee, Cho-Hee; Eom, Na-Young; Jang, Hyo-Mi; Jung, Hae-Won; Choi, Eul-Soo; Won, Jin-Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Jeong, Dong Wook; Jung, Dong-In


    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and efficacy of intralesional injection as a method of application to acute cutaneous wounds in dogs. Healthy adult beagles (n = 3) were used in this study. Autologous PRP was separated from anticoagulant treated whole blood in three dogs. Cutaneous wounds were created and then treated by intralesional injection of PRP in the experimental group, while they were treated with saline in the control group on days 0, 2 and 4. The healing process was evaluated by gross examination throughout the experimental period and histologic examination on day 7, 14 and 21. In PRP treated wounds, the mean diameter was smaller and the wound closure rate was higher than in the control. Histological study revealed that PRP treated wounds showed more granulation formation and angiogenesis on day 7, and faster epithelialization, more granulation formation and collagen deposition were observed on day 14 than in control wounds. On day 21, collagen deposition and epithelialization were enhanced in PRP treated groups. Overall, PRP application showed beneficial effects in wound healing, and intralesional injection was useful for application of PRP and could be a good therapeutic option for wound management in dogs.

  1. In vitro assessment of biopolymer-modified porous silicon microparticles for wound healing applications. (United States)

    Mori, Michela; Almeida, Patrick V; Cola, Michela; Anselmi, Giulia; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A


    The wound healing stands as very complex and dynamic process, aiming the re-establishment of the damaged tissue's integrity and functionality. Thus, there is an emerging need for developing biopolymer-based composites capable of actively promoting cellular proliferation and reconstituting the extracellular matrix. The aims of the present work were to prepare and characterize biopolymer-functionalized porous silicon (PSi) microparticles, resulting in the development of drug delivery microsystems for future applications in wound healing. Thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) microparticles were coated with both chitosan and a mixture of chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid, and subsequently loaded with two antibacterial model drugs, vancomycin and resveratrol. The biopolymer coating, drug loading degree and drug release behavior of the modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that both the biopolymer coating and drug loading of the THCPSi microparticles were successfully achieved. In addition, a sustained release was observed for both the drugs tested. The viability and proliferation profiles of a fibroblast cell line exposed to the modified THCPSi microparticles and the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also evaluated. The cytotoxicity and proliferation results demonstrated less toxicity for the biopolymer-coated THCPSi microparticles at different concentrations and time points comparatively to the uncoated counterparts. The ROS production by the fibroblasts exposed to both uncoated and biopolymer-coated PSi microparticles showed that the modified PSi microparticles did not induce significant ROS production at the concentrations tested. Overall, the biopolymer-based PSi microparticles developed in this study are promising platforms for wound healing applications.

  2. Field application of self-healing concrete with natural fibres as linings for irrigation canals in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Mors, R.M.; Mera-Ortiz, W.


    This paper describes the first field application of self-healing concrete with alkaliphilic spore-forming bacteria and reinforced with natural fibres. The application took place in the highlands in Ecuador in July 2014. The concrete was cast as linings for an irrigation canal that transports water f

  3. Is human fracture hematoma inherently angiogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J


    This study attempts to explain the cellular events characterizing the changes seen in the medullary callus adjacent to the interfragmentary hematoma during the early stages of fracture healing. It also shows that human fracture hematoma contains the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor and has the inherent capability to induce angiogenesis and thus promote revascularization during bone repair. Patients undergoing emergency surgery for isolated bony injury were studied. Raised circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were seen in all injured patients, whereas the fracture hematoma contained significantly higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor than did plasma from these injured patients. However, incubation of endothelial cells in fracture hematoma supernatant significantly inhibited the in vitro angiogenic parameters of endothelial cell proliferation and microtubule formation. These phenomena are dependent on a local biochemical milieu that does not support cytokinesis. The hematoma potassium concentration is cytotoxic to endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Subcutaneous transplantation of the fracture hematoma into a murine wound model resulted in new blood vessel formation after hematoma resorption. This angiogenic effect is mediated by the significant concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor found in the hematoma. This study identifies an angiogenic cytokine involved in human fracture healing and shows that fracture hematoma is inherently angiogenic. The differences between the in vitro and in vivo findings may explain the phenomenon of interfragmentary hematoma organization and resorption that precedes fracture revascularization.

  4. Enantiopure inherently chiral calix[4]arene derivatives containing quinolin-2-yl-methanol moiety:Synthesis and application in the catalytic asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of novel N,O-type chiral ligands derived from enantiopure inherently chiral calix[4]arenes containing quinolin-2-yl-methanol moiety in the cone or partialcone conformation have been synthe-sized and characterized. Moreover,they have been applied to the catalytic asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde,which represents the first example that the inherently chiral calixarene can be used as the chiral ligands for the catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

  5. Raman spectroscopy and the spectral correlation index for predicting wound healing outcome: towards in vivo application (United States)

    Berger, Adam G.; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.


    Combat wounds are sometimes confounded by healing complications that are not as prevalent in civilian wounds due to their high energy etiology. One complication of wound healing is dehiscence, where a surgically closed wound reopens after closure. This complication can have serious consequences for the patient, but knowledge about the molecular composition of the wound bed beyond what is readily visible may help clinicians mitigate these complications. It is necessary to develop techniques that can be used in vivo to assess and predict wound healing pointof- care so that care-takers can decide the best way to make informed clinical decisions regarding their patient's healing. Raman spectroscopy is a perfect candidate for predicting wound healing due to its ability to provide a detailed molecular fingerprint of the wound bed noninvasively. Here, we study the spectral correlation index, a measure of orthogonality, with ten reference tissue components to stratify wounds based on how they heal. We analyze these indexes over time to show the modulation of these tissue components over the wound healing process. Results show that qualitative observation of the spectra cannot reveal major differences between the dehisced and normal healing wounds, but the spectral correlation index can. Analysis of the spectral correlations across the wound healing process demonstrates the changes throughout the wound healing process, showing that early differences in tissue components may portend wound healing. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy coupled with the spectral correlation index presents as a possible point-of-care tool for enabling discrimination of wounds with impaired healing.

  6. Therapeutic effects of topical application of ozone on acute cutaneous wound healing. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (Pozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-beta, and VEGF.

  7. An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications (United States)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan


    Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm-1. On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ~90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ~10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

  8. Chitosan-Alginate Sponge: Preparation and Application in Curcumin Delivery for Dermal Wound Healing in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Dai


    Full Text Available A biodegradable sponge, composed of chitosan (CS and sodium alginate (SA, was successfully obtained in this work. The sponge was ethereal and pliable. The chemical structure and morphology of the sponges was characterized by FTIR and SEM. The swelling ability, in vitro drug release and degradation behaviors, and an in vivo animal test were employed to confirm the applicability of this sponge as a wound dressing material. As the chitosan content in the sponge decreased, the swelling ability decreased. All types of the sponges exhibited biodegradable properties. The release of curcumin from the sponges could be controlled by the crosslinking degree. Curcumin could be released from the sponges in an extended period for up to 20 days. An in vivo animal test using SD rat showed that sponge had better effect than cotton gauze, and adding curcumin into the sponge enhanced the therapeutic healing effect.

  9. Application-Aware Optimization of Redundant Resources for the Reconfigurable Self-Healing eDNA Hardware Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan; Pop, Paul


    In this paper we are interested in the mapping of embedded applications on a dynamically reconfigurable self-healing hardware architecture known as the eDNA (electronic DNA) architecture. The architecture consists of an array of cells interconnected through a 2D-mesh topology. Each cell consists ...

  10. High bacterial load in asymptomatic diabetic patients with neurotrophic ulcers retards wound healing after application of Dermagraft. (United States)

    Browne, A C; Vearncombe, M; Sibbald, R G


    Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers are a major healthcare burden. These chronic wounds always have a bacterial load, and although normal flora is not harmful, increased tissue burden may impede healing before clinical signs of infection are evident. In this study, chronic noninfected diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers (those with adequate blood supply and pressure offloading) were assessed for bacterial burden immediately before the application of a skin substitute. Eight patients with diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers greater than 1 cm2 and free of necrotic tissue had 3-mm tissue biopsies taken from the ulcer base for quantitative bacteriology. Five of the eight patients (75%) had greater or equal to 10(5) colony forming units/gram organisms present despite the absence of clinical signs of infection. Wound healing rates were linked to bacterial load as determined from quantitative biopsy--no growth was associated with a wound healing rate of 0.2 cm per week, 10(5) to 10(6) colony forming units/gram was associated with a healing rate of 0.15 cm per week, and greater than 10(6) colony forming units/gram was associated with 0.05 cm/per week healing rate. High bacterial burden impeded healing both before and after the application of the skin substitute. The authors will change their clinical practice to assess all diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers using quantitative skin biopsies before applying skin substitutes. All patients will be treated with combination antibiotics and repeat biopsies obtained with decreased bacterial burden (< 10(6) colony forming units/gram) prior to using any bioengineered skin substitute or growth factor treatment.

  11. Antibiotic eluting clay mineral (Laponite®) for wound healing application: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Ghadiri, M; Chrzanowski, W; Rohanizadeh, R


    Different materials in form of sponge, hydrogel and film have been developed and formulated for treating and dressing burn wounds. In this study, the potential of Laponite, a gel forming clay, in combination with an antimicrobial agent (mafenide), as a wound dressing material was tested in vitro. Laponite/mafenide (Lap/Maf) hydrogel was formulated in three different ratios of Lap/Maf 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. Laponite/mafenide/alginate (Lap/Maf/Alg) film was also formulated by combining Lap/Maf gel (1:1) with alginate. Intercalation rate of mafenide into the layers of Laponite nanoparticles and physico-chemical properties, including wound dressing characteristics of materials were studied using various analytical methods. Furthermore, the degradation of materials and the release profile of mafenide were investigated in simulated wound exudates fluid and antibacterial effectiveness of the eluted mafenide was tested on a range of bacterial species. The cytotoxicity of materials was also evaluated in skin fibroblast culture. The results showed that mafenide molecules were intercalated between the nano-sized layers of Laponite. The eluted mafenide showed active antibacterial effects against all three tested bacteria. All intercalated mafenide released from Lap/Maf 1:1 and 1:2 gel formulations and nearly 80% release from 1:3 formulation during test period. No significant difference was observed in release profile of mafenide between Lap/Maf/Alg film and Lap/Maf formulations. Wound dressing tests on Lap/Maf/Alg film showed it is a breathable dressing and has capacity to absorb wound exudates. The study showed that prepared Lap/Maf composite has the potential to be used as an antibiotic eluting gel or film for wound healing application. Additionally, Laponite has shown benefits in wound healing processes by releasing Mg(2+) ions and thereby reducing the cytotoxic effect of mafenide on fibroblast cells.

  12. Augmentation of Bone Tunnel Healing in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts: Application of Calcium Phosphates and Other Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Baxter


    Full Text Available Bone tunnel healing is an important consideration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL replacement surgery. Recently, a variety of materials have been proposed for improving this healing process, including autologous bone tissue, cells, artificial proteins, and calcium salts. Amongst these materials are calcium phosphates (CaPs, which are known for their biocompatibility and are widely commercially available. As with the majority of the materials investigated, CaPs have been shown to advance the healing of bone tunnel tissue in animal studies. Mechanical testing shows fixation strengths to be improved, particularly by the application of CaP-based cement in the bone tunnel. Significantly, CaP-based cements have been shown to produce improvements comparable to those induced by potentially more complex treatments such as biologics (including fibronectin and chitin and cultured cells. Further investigation of CaP-based treatment in the bone tunnels during ACL replacement is therefore warranted in order to establish what improvements in healing and resulting clinical benefits may be achieved through its application.

  13. Biomimetic design of a bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for bone healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Kristen A., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); LeBlanc, Jill M.; Sheets, Kevin T.; Fox, Robert W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); School of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)


    This study describes the design and synthesis of bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone healing applications using a biomimetic approach. Bacterial cellulose (BC) with various surface morphologies (pellicles and tubes) was negatively charged by the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to initiate nucleation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (cdHAp). The cdHAp was grown in vitro via dynamic simulated body fluid (SBF) treatments over a one week period. Characterization of the mineralized samples was done with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The amount of cdHAp observed varied among different samples. XPS demonstrated that the atomic presence of calcium and phosphorus ranged from 0.44 at.% to 7.71 at.% Ca and 0.27 at.% to 11.18 at.% P. The Ca/P overall ratio ranged from 1.22 to 1.92. FESEM images showed that the cdHAp crystal size increased with increasing nanocellulose fibril density. To determine the viability of the scaffolds in vitro, the morphology and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The presence of cdHAp crystals on BC surfaces resulted in increased cell attachment.

  14. The stimulatory effects of topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Rahmani, M R; Rahnama, A; Saeed-Pour, A; Nouri, E; Hosseini, N; Aghaiee, M M


    Some people in different parts of Iran use burned mantles as a wound healing medicine. To perform surface area measurement, twenty rats were divided randomly into two groups of 10 animals each. The 1st group received topical burned radioactive lantern mantle powder at 1st-3rd day after making excision wounds. The 2nd group received non-radioactive lantern mantle powder. For histological study, 36 male rats randomly divided into two groups of 18 animals each. Full thickness excision wound (314+/-31.4 mm(2)) was made on the dorsal neck in all animals after inducing general anesthesia. For the first 3 days, cases received topical application of the radioactive lantern mantle powder. Finally, to measure the tensile strength, an incision was made on the dorsal neck of the rats. Surface area measurement of the wounds showed a progressive surface reduction in both groups. Histological study showed a significant statistically difference between cases and controls with respect to fibrinoid necrosis and neutrophilic exudate at the days 3 and 14. Considering the existence of granulation tissue, a significant difference was observed between case and control groups at days 3 and 7. Tensile strength study showed no significant difference between the cases and controls until 30 days after excision.

  15. Effect of Topical Application of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Excision Wound Healing in Albino Rats


    Naghmeh Ghannadian; Mahboobeh Mehrabani Natanzi; Maliheh Paknejad; Seyed Mohammad Tavangar; Ahmad Reza Dehpour; Mohammad Kamalinejad; Hossein Rastegar (PhD); Roya Sharifi; Minoo Akbari; Parvin Pasalar


    Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dis...

  16. Topical insulin application improves healing by regulating the wound inflammatory response. (United States)

    Chen, Xuelian; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Xiong


    Inflammation, the initiating stage of wound healing, is characterized by increased endothelial permeability, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and secretion of numerous growth factors and chemokines. By controlling wound contamination and infection, as well as inducing the repairing process, inflammatory response plays an irreplaceable role during wound healing. We utilized a variety of approaches to observe the effect of insulin on wound inflammatory response, specifically the effect of insulin on the function of wound macrophages. We also investigated whether insulin-regulated inflammatory response contributed to insulin-induced healing. Mice excisional wounds treated with insulin showed advanced infiltration and resolution of macrophages, which correlated with the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, a potent chemotactic factor for macrophages. Blockage of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 resulted in reduced macrophages infiltration and impaired wound healing despite the presence of insulin. In vitro studies showed insulin-facilitated monocytes/macrophages chemotaxis, pinocytosis/phagocytosis, and secretion of inflammatory mediators as well. Our study strongly suggests that insulin is a potent healing accelerant. Regulating wound inflammatory response, especially the quantity and function of macrophages, is one of the mechanisms explaining insulin-induced accelerated wound healing.

  17. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun


    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  18. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion. (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun


    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature.

  19. UV-Triggered Self-Healing of a Single Robust SiO2 Microcapsule Based on Cationic Polymerization for Potential Application in Aerospace Coatings. (United States)

    Guo, Wanchun; Jia, Yin; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Ruifei; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling; Wang, Haiyan


    UV-triggered self-healing of single microcapsules has been a good candidate to enhance the life of polymer-based aerospace coatings because of its rapid healing process and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio. However, free radical photoinitiators used in single microcapsules commonly suffer from possible deactivation due to the presence of oxygen in the space environment. Moreover, entrapment of polymeric microcapsules into coatings often involves elevated temperature or a strong solvent, probably leading to swelling or degradation of polymer shell, and ultimately the loss of active healing species into the host matrix. We herein describe the first single robust SiO2 microcapsule self-healing system based on UV-triggered cationic polymerization for potential application in aerospace coatings. On the basis of the similarity of solubility parameters of the active healing species and the SiO2 precursor, the epoxy resin and cationic photoinitiator are successfully encapsulated into a single SiO2 microcapsule via a combined interfacial/in situ polymerization. The single SiO2 microcapsule shows solvent resistance and thermal stability, especially a strong resistance for thermal cycling in a simulated space environment. In addition, the up to 89% curing efficiency of the epoxy resin in 30 min, and the obvious filling of scratches in the epoxy matrix demonstrate the excellent UV-induced healing performance of SiO2 microcapsules, attributed to a high load of healing species within the capsule (up to 87 wt %) and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio of the photoinitiator and epoxy resin at 9/100. More importantly, healing chemistry based on a UV-triggered cationic polymerization mechanism is not sensitive to oxygen, extremely facilitating future embedment of this single SiO2 microcapsule in spacecraft coatings to achieve self-healing in a space environment with abundant UV radiation and oxygen.

  20. Self-healing supramolecular bioelastomers with shape memory property as a multifunctional platform for biomedical applications via modular assembly. (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Xin; Hou, Sen; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X


    Mimicking native functional dynamics for traditional biomaterials such as thermoset elastomers is limited due to their lack of responsiveness to biological stimuli and difficulties to incorporate biofunctionalities. Furthermore, the mechanical fracture of traditional thermoset elastomers caused by irreversible covalent bond rupture would lead to their permanent loss of properties. To overcome these challenges, degradable self-healed supramolecular bioelastomers are designed by an elastic poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) backbone and multiple hydrogen-bonding ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) grafts. These supramolecular elastic polymers exhibit efficient self-healing, rapid shape-memory abilities and highly tunable mechanical properties due to the dynamic supramolecular interactions, and perform a good biocompatibility in vitro and a mild host response in vivo. By combining modular approaches, these supramolecular bioelastomers have been further assembled into a multifunctional platform to expand their applications in different biomedical fields. These include a complex 3D scaffold with shape-memory capacity and anisotropic mechanical properties, a controllable drug delivery model via a layer-by-layer technique, a surface antibacterial composite by physical modification, and a spatial oriented cell co-culture system via incorporating different cell-laden self-healing films, demonstrating their potential as building blocks in a wide range of biomedical applications where dynamic properties and biological functions are desired.

  1. Kinetic and Reaction Pathway Analysis in the Application of Botulinum Toxin A for Wound Healing

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    Frank J. Lebeda


    Full Text Available A relatively new approach in the treatment of specific wounds in animal models and in patients with type A botulinum toxin is the focus of this paper. The indications or conditions include traumatic wounds (experimental and clinical, surgical (incision wounds, and wounds such as fissures and ulcers that are signs/symptoms of disease or other processes. An objective was to conduct systematic literature searches and take note of the reactions involved in the healing process and identify corresponding pharmacokinetic data. From several case reports, we developed a qualitative model of how botulinum toxin disrupts the vicious cycle of muscle spasm, pain, inflammation, decreased blood flow, and ischemia. We transformed this model into a minimal kinetic scheme for healing chronic wounds. The model helped us to estimate the rate of decline of this toxin's therapeutic effect by calculating the rate of recurrence of clinical symptoms after a wound-healing treatment with this neurotoxin.

  2. Gadamer's 'apologia for the art of healing': an application to gerontological nursing practice. (United States)

    Mitchell, Mitzi G


    This paper will discuss Hans-George Gadamer's 'The Enigma of Health' Chapter 2, 'Apologia for the Art of Healing's (1965). In this chapter, Gadamer defends the art of healing as essentially an ability to reproduce and re-establish the health of an ill person. He considers modern medicine's progressive reliance on technology as mechanical rather than an art of healing. In support of this concept, I will also refer to Gadamer's Chapter 6, 'Between Nature and Art' and briefly to Beardsworth's 'Practices of Procrastination'. First, I will discuss the above works showing how the authors make their arguments and what conclusions they draw, and then I will relate these arguments and conclusions to nursing, gerontological nursing in particular.

  3. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Sponge for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen


    Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.

  4. Inherent emotional quality of human speech sounds. (United States)

    Myers-Schulz, Blake; Pujara, Maia; Wolf, Richard C; Koenigs, Michael


    During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes-the human speech sounds that constitute words-have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional quality. Moreover, we show that the perceived emotional valence of certain phoneme combinations depends on a specific acoustic feature-namely, the dynamic shift within the phonemes' first two frequency components. These data suggest a phoneme-relevant acoustic property influencing the communication of emotion in humans, and provide further evidence against previously held assumptions regarding the structure of human language. This finding has potential applications for a variety of social, educational, clinical, and marketing contexts.

  5. Current Role and Application of Teriparatide in Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Patients: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Kim, Ji Wan; Lim, Seung-Jae


    Background The use of osteoanabolic agents to facilitate fracture healing has been of heightened interest to the field of orthopaedic trauma. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence of teriparatide for fracture healing and functional recovery in osteoporotic patients. Methods We performed a literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library using terms including “Fracture” [tiab] AND “Teriparatide [tiab] OR “PTH” [tiab]. Results This systematic review included 6 randomized clinical trials, 4 well-controlled retrospective studies, and 1 retrospective post hoc subgroup analysis. Fracture location was 2 in pelvis, 3 in proximal femur, 1 in distal femur, 1 in shoulder, 2 in wrist and 2 in spine. The use of teriparatide yielded positive effects on radiographic bone healing in 6 studies, but was not associated with better radiographic outcome in 3. In terms of functional recovery, teriparatide injection was related with decrease in pain or shorter time to mobilization in 6 studies, but not related with pain numerical scale and mobility in 3. Conclusions Our findings suggest that teriparatide provide selective advantages to fracture healing or functional recovery in the management of osteoporotic fractures. A better understanding of the role of teriparatide on osteoporotic fractures requires greater evidences from large volume prospective trials. PMID:28326303

  6. Developing Flexible, High Performance Polymers with Self-Healing Capabilities (United States)

    Jolley, Scott T.; Williams, Martha K.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Caraccio, Anne J.


    Flexible, high performance polymers such as polyimides are often employed in aerospace applications. They typically find uses in areas where improved physical characteristics such as fire resistance, long term thermal stability, and solvent resistance are required. It is anticipated that such polymers could find uses in future long duration exploration missions as well. Their use would be even more advantageous if self-healing capability or mechanisms could be incorporated into these polymers. Such innovative approaches are currently being studied at the NASA Kennedy Space Center for use in high performance wiring systems or inflatable and habitation structures. Self-healing or self-sealing capability would significantly reduce maintenance requirements, and increase the safety and reliability performance of the systems into which these polymers would be incorporated. Many unique challenges need to be overcome in order to incorporate a self-healing mechanism into flexible, high performance polymers. Significant research into the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into structural composites has been carried out over the past decade by a number of groups, notable among them being the University of I1linois [I]. Various mechanisms for the introduction of self-healing have been investigated. Examples of these are: 1) Microcapsule-based healant delivery. 2) Vascular network delivery. 3) Damage induced triggering of latent substrate properties. Successful self-healing has been demonstrated in structural epoxy systems with almost complete reestablishment of composite strength being achieved through the use of microcapsulation technology. However, the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into a system in which the material is flexible, or a thin film, is much more challenging. In the case of using microencapsulation, healant core content must be small enough to reside in films less than 0.1 millimeters thick, and must overcome significant capillary and surface

  7. Effect of Topical Application of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Excision Wound Healing in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Ghannadian


    Full Text Available Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  8. Effect of topical application of silymarin (Silybum marianum) on excision wound healing in albino rats. (United States)

    Sharifi, Roya; Rastegar, Hossein; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Paknejad, Maliheh; Mehrabani Natanzi, Mahboobeh; Ghannadian, Naghmeh; Akbari, Minoo; Pasalar, Parvin


    Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  9. Raman Microscopy and Imaging: Applications to Skin Pharmacology and Wound Healing (United States)

    Flach, Carol R.; Zhang, Guojin; Mendelsohn, Richard

    The utility of confocal Raman microscopy to study biological events in skin is demonstrated with three examples. (i) monitoring the spatial and structural differences between native and cultured skin, (ii) tracking the permeation and biochemical transformation in skin of a Vitamin E derivative and (iii) tracking the spatial distribution of three major skin proteins (keratin, collagen, and elastin) during wound healing in an explant skin model.

  10. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Y


    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.

  11. Bacterial cellulose-kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials (United States)

    Wanna, Dwi; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M.; Alam, Parvez


    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure-property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin-bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin-cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials.

  12. Ruthenium Grubbs' catalyst nanostructures grown by UV-excimer-laser ablation for self-healing applications (United States)

    Aïssa, B.; Nechache, R.; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.; Merle, P. G.; Rosei, F.


    A self healing composite material consisting of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene (5E2N) monomer reacted with Ruthenium Grubbs' Catalyst (RGC) was prepared. First, the kinetics of the 5E2N ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) reaction RGC was studied as a function of temperature. We show that the polymerization reaction is still effective in a large temperature range (-15 to 45 °C), occurring at short time scales (less than 1 min at 40 °C). Second, the amount of RGC required for ROMP reaction significantly decreased through its nanostructuration by means of a UV-excimer laser ablation process. RGC nanostructures of few nanometers in size where successfully obtained directly on silicon substrates. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data strongly suggest that the RGC still keep its original stoichiometry after nanostructuration. More importantly, the associated ROMP reaction was successfully achieved at an extreme low RGC concentration equivalent to (11.16 ± 1.28) × 10-4 Vol.%, occurring at very short time reaction. This approach opens new prospects for using healing agent nanocomposite materials for self-repair functionality, thereby obtaining a higher catalytic efficiency per unit mass.

  13. Symbiosis theory-directed green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application in infected wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen L


    Full Text Available Lu Wen,1 Pei Zeng,1 Liping Zhang,1 Wenli Huang,1 Hui Wang,2 Gang Chen1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, 2School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized for the first time using an antibacterial endophytic fungus of Chinese medicinal herb Orchidantha chinensis, which has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. The AgNPs were analyzed by various characterization techniques to reveal their morphology, chemical composition, and stability. Also, the relationship between Chinese medicinal herbs, endophytic fungi, and the property of AgNPs was investigated for the first time. Interestingly, an experiment performed in this study revealed the proteins produced by the endophytic fungus to be capped on the nanoparticles, which led to an increase in the stability of spherical and polydispersed AgNPs with low aggregation for over 6 months. More importantly, further study demonstrated that the AgNPs possessed superior antibacterial activity and effectively promoted wound healing. Altogether, the biosynthesis of active AgNPs using the endophytic fungus from Chinese medicinal herb based on the symbiosis theory is simple, eco-friendly, and promising. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Orchidantha chinensis, endophytic fungi, symbiosis theory, wound healing

  14. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves (United States)

    Alam, Reza


    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance discussed here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing. Yong Liang (

  15. Fibrin adhesive implant in wound healing repair of dental sockets with topical application of epsilon aminocaproic acid: histological analysis. (United States)

    Padovan, Luis Eduardo M; Okamoto, Tetuo; Rezende, Maria Cristina Rossifini Alves; Curvêllo, Victor Prado; Nicolielo, Daniela; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi


    The aim of the study was to evaluate wound healing repair of dental sockets after topical application of 5% epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and the use of fibrin adhesive implant in rats under anticoagulant therapy with warfarin. Sixty Albinus wistar rats were used, divided into three groups of 20. In Group I, the animals were given 0.1 mL/100 mg of 0.9% saline solution per day, beginning 6 days before dental extraction and continuing throughout the experimental period. In Group II, the animals received 0.03 mL of sodium warfarin daily, beginning 6 days before the surgery and continuing until the day of sacrifice; after tooth extractions, the sockets were filled with fibrin adhesive material. In Group III the animals were treated as in Group II, and after extractions, the sockets were irrigated with 5 mL of 5% EACA and filled with the same fibrin adhesive material. All groups presented biological phases of wound healing repair, the differences being evident only in the chronology. The results obtained in Group III were very similar to those of Group I in the last period of wound repair, whereas Group II presented a late chronology compared to the other groups.

  16. Self healing in polymers and polymer composites. Concepts, realization and outlook: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Formation of microcracks is a critical problem in polymers and polymer composites during their service in structural applications. Development and coalescence of microcracks would bring about catastrophic failure of the materials and then reduce their lifetimes. Therefore, early sensing, diagnosis and repair of microcracks become necessary for removing the latent perils. In this context, the materials possessing self-healing function are ideal for long-term operation. Self-repairing polymers and polymer composites have attracted increasing research interests. Attempts have been made to develop solutions in this field. The present article reviews state-of-art of the achievements on the topic. According to the ways of healing, the smart materials are classified into two categories: (i intrinsic self-healing ones that are able to heal cracks by the polymers themselves, and (ii extrinsic in which healing agent has to be pre-embedded. The advances in this field show that selection and optimization of proper repair mechanisms are prerequisites for high healing efficiency. It is a challenging job to either invent new polymers with inherent crack repair capability or integrate existing materials with novel healing system.

  17. Fabrication, Characterization, and Evaluation of Bionanocomposites Based on Natural Polymers and Antibiotics for Wound Healing Applications

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    Marius Rădulescu


    Full Text Available The aim of our research activity was to obtain a biocompatible nanostructured composite based on naturally derived biopolymers (chitin and sodium alginate loaded with commercial antibiotics (either Cefuroxime or Cefepime with dual functions, namely promoting wound healing and assuring the local delivery of the loaded antibiotic. Compositional, structural, and morphological evaluations were performed by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analytical techniques. In order to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the biocompatibility of the obtained composites, we performed the tetrazolium-salt (MTT and agar diffusion in vitro assays on the L929 cell line. The evaluation of antimicrobial potential was evaluated by the viable cell count assay on strains belonging to two clinically relevant bacterial species (i.e., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. A novel hypothesis: the application of platelet-rich plasma can promote the clinical healing of white-white meniscal tears. (United States)

    Wei, Li-Cheng; Gao, Shu-Guang; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-Hua


    The white-white tears (meniscus lesion completely in the avascular zone) are without blood supply and theoretically cannot heal. Basal research has demonstrated that menisci are unquestionably important in load bearing, load redistribution, shock absorption, joint lubrication and the stabilization of the knee joint. It has been proven that partial or all-meniscusectomy results in an accelerated degeneration of cartilage and an increased rate of early osteoarthritis. Knee surgeons must face the difficult decision of removing or, if possible, retaining the meniscus; if it is possible to retain the meniscus, surgeons must address the difficulties of meniscal healing. Some preliminary approaches have progressed to improve meniscal healing. However, the problem of promoting meniscal healing in the avascular area has not yet been resolved. The demanding nature of the approach as well as its low utility and efficacy has impeded the progress of these enhancement techniques. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentration derived from autologous blood. In recent years, PRP has been used widely in preclinical and clinical applications for bone regeneration and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesize that the application of platelet-rich plasma for white-white meniscal tears will be a simple and novel technique of high utility in knee surgery.

  19. High Temperature Lightweight Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.


    The present research effort was undertaken to develop a new generation of SiC fiber- reinforced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) with sufficient high temperature plasticity to reduce crack propagation and self-healing capabilities to fill surface-connected cracks to prevent the oxygen ingress to the fibers. A matrix engineered with these capabilities is expected to increase the load bearing capabilities of SiCSiC CMCs at high temperatures. Several matrix compositions were designed to match the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the SiC fibers using a rule of mixture (ROM) approach. The CTE values of these matrices were determined and it was demonstrated that they were generally in good agreement with that of monolithic SiC between room temperature and 1525 K. The parameters to hot press the powders were optimized, and specimens were fabricated for determining bend strength, CTE, oxidation and microstructural characteristics of the engineered matrices. The oxidation tests revealed that some of the matrices exhibited catastrophic oxidation, and therefore, these were eliminated from further consideration. Two promising compositions were down selected based on these results for further development. Four-point bend tests were conducted on these two promising matrices between room temperature and 1698 K. Although theses matrices were brittle and failed at low stresses at room temperature, they exhibited high temperature ductility and higher stresses at the higher temperatures. The effects of different additives on the self-healing capabilities of these matrices were investigated. The results of preliminary studies conducted to slurry and melt infiltration trials with CrSi2 are described.

  20. Effect of Aloe vera application on the content and molecular arrangement of glycosaminoglycans during calcaneal tendon healing. (United States)

    Aro, Andrea Aparecida de; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marretto; Nishan, Umar; Perez, Mylena Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Foglio, Mary Ann; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Gomes, Laurecir; Vidal, Benedicto De Campos; Pimentel, Edson Rosa


    Although several treatments for tendon lesions have been proposed, successful tendon repair remains a great challenge for orthopedics, especially considering the high incidence of re-rupture of injured tendons. Our aim was to evaluate the pharmacological potential of Aloe vera on the content and arrangement of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during tendon healing, which was based on the effectiveness of A. vera on collagen organization previously observed by our group. In rats, a partial calcaneal tendon transection was performed with subsequent topical A. vera application at the injury site. The tendons were treated with A. vera ointment for 7 days and excised on the 7(th) , 14(th) , or 21(st) day post-surgery. Control rats received ointment without A. vera. A higher content of GAGs and a lower amount of dermatan sulfate were detected in the A. vera-treated group on the 14(th) day compared with the control. Also at 14 days post-surgery, a lower dichroic ratio in toluidine blue stained sections was observed in A. vera-treated tendons compared with the control. No differences were observed in the chondroitin-6-sulfate and TGF-β1 levels between the groups, and higher amount of non-collagenous proteins was detected in the A. vera-treated group on the 21(st) day, compared with the control group. No differences were observed in the number of fibroblasts, inflammatory cells and blood vessels between the groups. The application of A. vera during tendon healing modified the arrangement of GAGs and increased the content of GAGs and non-collagenous proteins.

  1. Use of autologous fibrin glue in dermatologic surgery: application of skin graft and second intention healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Machado de Moraes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of biological sealant, an autologous fibrin glue, in dermatological surgery. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: The Dermatology Service of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP, referral center. PATIENTS: 14 patients with malign epithelial cutaneoos tumors participated in the evaluation, each having two tumors, generally facial and symmetrical, in order to perform a comparative evaluation on the same individual. PROCEDURES: The glue was prepared beforehand with a sample of autologous blood. Surgical extirpation of the tumor was followed by grafts or second intention healing. OUTCOMES: The efficiency of the sealant was then evaluated in relation to hemostasis, adhesion, surgical time and evolution of the granulation tissue, clinically and histologically. RESULTS: Immediate hemostasis and graft adhesion, with a significant reduction of surgical time, and in the open wounds there was immediate hemostasis and a clinical increase in granulation tissue, but with no histological differences among the groups on the 7th day. CONCLUSION: It is an adjuvant resource in skin cancer surgery.

  2. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna


    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  3. Adhesive-tape soft lithography for patterning mammalian cells: application to wound-healing assays. (United States)

    Shrirao, Anil B; Hussain, Ali; Cho, Cheul H; Perez-Castillejos, Raquel


    This paper introduces a benchtop method for patterning mammalian cells-i.e., for culturing cells at specific locations-on planar substrates. Compared with standard cell culture techniques, which do not allow the control of what areas of a monolayer are populated by one type of cell or another, techniques of cell patterning open new routes to cell biology. Researchers interested in cell patterning, however, are often times hindered by limited access to photolithographic capabilities. This paper shows how cells can be patterned easily with sub-millimeter precision using a non-photolithographic technique that is based on the use of office adhesive tape and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). This method is fast (~4 h to go from a layout to have the cells patterned in the shape of such layout) and only requires materials and tools readily available in a conventional biomedical laboratory. A wound-healing assay is presented here that illustrates the potential of the technique (which we call tape-based soft lithography) for patterning mammalian cells and studying biologically significant questions such as collective cellular migration.

  4. Applicability of confocal laser scanning microscopy for evaluation and monitoring of cutaneous wound healing (United States)

    Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne; Bob, Adrienne; Terhorst, Dorothea; Ulrich, Martina; Fluhr, Joachim; Mendez, Gil; Roewert-Huber, Hans-Joachim; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard


    There is a high demand for noninvasive imaging techniques for wound assessment. In vivo reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents an innovative optical technique for noninvasive evaluation of normal and diseased skin in vivo at near cellular resolution. This study was designed to test the feasibility of CLSM for noninvasive analysis of cutaneous wound healing in 15 patients (7 male/8 female), including acute and chronic, superficial and deep dermal skin wounds. A commercially available CLSM system was used for the assessment of wound bed and wound margins in order to obtain descriptive cellular and morphological parameters of cutaneous wound repair noninvasively and over time. CLSM was able to visualize features of cutaneous wound repair in epidermal and superficial dermal wounds, including aspects of inflammation, neovascularisation, and tissue remodelling in vivo. Limitations include the lack of mechanic fixation of the optical system on moist surfaces restricting the analysis of chronic skin wounds to the wound margins, as well as a limited optical resolution in areas of significant slough formation. By describing CLSM features of cutaneous inflammation, vascularisation, and epithelialisation, the findings of this study support the role of CLSM in modern wound research and management.

  5. Bone healing in 2016 (United States)

    Buza, John A.; Einhorn, Thomas


    Summary Delayed fracture healing and nonunion occurs in up to 5–10% of all fractures, and can present a challenging clinical scenario for the treating physician. Methods for the enhancement of skeletal repair may benefit patients that are at risk of, or have experienced, delayed healing or nonunion. These methods can be categorized into either physical stimulation therapies or biological therapies. Physical stimulation therapies include electrical stimulation, low-intensity pulsed ultrasonography, or extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Biological therapies can be further classified into local or systemic therapy based on the method of delivery. Local methods include autologous bone marrow, autologous bone graft, fibroblast growth factor-2, platelet-rich plasma, platelet-derived growth factor, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Systemic therapies include parathyroid hormone and bisphosphonates. This article reviews the current applications and supporting evidence for the use of these therapies in the enhancement of fracture healing. PMID:27920804

  6. Monitoring the restoration of interfacial contact for self healing thermal interface materials for LED and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafont, U.L.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Van der Zwaag, S.


    While conventional self healing materials focus on the restoration of mechanical properties, newer generations of self healing materials focus on the restoration of other functional (i.e. non-mechanical) properties. Thermal conductivity is an example of an important functional property of a Thermal

  7. Polymer damage mitigation---predictive lifetime models of polymer insulation degradation and biorenewable thermosets through cationic polymerization for self-healing applications (United States)

    Hondred, Peter Raymond

    Over the past 50 years, the industrial development and applications for polymers and polymer composites has become expansive. However, as with any young technology, the techniques for predicting material damage and resolving material failure are in need of continued development and refinement. This thesis work takes two approaches to polymer damage mitigation---material lifetime prediction and spontaneous damage repair through self-healing while incorporating bio-renewable feedstock. First, material lifetime prediction offers the benefit of identifying and isolating material failures before the effects of damage results in catastrophic failure. Second, self-healing provides a systematic approach to repairing damaged polymer composites, specifically in applications where a hands-on approach or removing the part from service are not feasible. With regard to lifetime prediction, we investigated three specific polymeric materials---polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE), and Kapton. All three have been utilized extensively in the aerospace field as a wire insulation coating. Because of the vast amount of electrical wiring used in aerospace constructions and the potential for electrical and thermal failure, this work develops mathematical models for both the thermal degradation kinetics as well as a lifetime prediction model for electrothermal breakdown. Isoconversional kinetic methods, which plot activation energy as a function of the extent of degradation, present insight into the development each kinetic model. The models for PTFE, ETFE, and Kapton are one step, consecutive three-step, and competitive and consecutive five-step respectively. Statistical analysis shows that an nth order autocatalytic reaction best defined the reaction kinetics for each polymer's degradation. Self-healing polymers arrest crack propagation through the use of an imbedded adhesive that reacts when cracks form. This form of damage mitigation focuses on

  8. Synthetic Self-Healing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Given enough time, pressure, temperature fluctuation, and stress any material will fail. Currently, synthesized materials make up a large part of our everyday lives, and are used in a number of important applications such as; space travel, under water devices, precise instrumentation, transportation, and infrastructure. Structural failure of these material scan lead to expensive and dangerous consequences. In an attempt to prolong the life spans of specific materials and reduce efforts put into repairing them, biologically inspired, self-healing systems have been extensively investigated. The current review explores recent advances in three methods of synthesized self-healing: capsule based, vascular, and intrinsic. Ideally, self-healing materials require no human intervention to promote healing, are capable of surviving all the steps of polymer processing, and heal the same location repeatedly. Only the vascular method holds up to all of these idealities.

  9. Chitosan Combined with ZnO, TiO2 and Ag Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Wound Healing Applications: A Mini Review of the Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Khac Hoang Bui


    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural polymer that has been widely utilized for many purposes in the food, textile, agriculture, water treatment, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Based on its characteristics, including biodegradability, non-toxicity and antimicrobial properties, it has been employed effectively in wound healing applications. Importantly, however, it is necessary to improve chitosan’s capacities by combination with zinc oxide (ZnO, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and silver (Ag nanoparticles (NPs. In this review of many of the latest research papers, we take a closer look at the antibacterial effectiveness of chitosan combined with ZnO, TiO2 and Ag NPs and also evaluate the specific wound healing application potentials.

  10. Application of a silver-olefin coordination polymer as a catalytic curing agent for self-healing epoxy polymers (United States)

    Everitt, D. T.; Coope, T. S.; Trask, R. S.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.


    A silver-olefin based coordination polymer was prepared in a simple, one step process to act as an initiator to facilitate the ring-opening polymerization of epoxides. Thermal analysis found the complex to be capable of curing a range of commercially available epoxy resins used in the manufacture of conventional composite materials. Curing of the oligomeric diglycidyl ether bisphenol A resin, Epon 828, in combination with a non-toxic solvent, ethyl phenylacetate, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characterization of the resultant cured polymers was conducted by single lap shear tests. Tapered double cantilever beam (TDCB) test specimens containing 2.5 pph of silver-olefin initiator, both with and without embedded microcapsules, were analyzed for their healing performance. Healing efficiency values were found to be strongly dependent on the applied healing temperature. A mean recovery of 74% fracture load was found in TDCB samples after being healed at 70 °C for 48 h.

  11. The inherent politics of quality in public park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelius; Fors, Hanna


    In this paper, we highlight and illustrate the inherent politics embedded in “quality” as a concept for managing public parks. Reflecting more generic quality concepts, contemporary quality models in park management include concepts for both operational, strategic and stakeholder management as well...... managing the park organisation itself. However, quality concepts and their application through various management models include as well as exclude the access, values and worldviews of particular interests. In this way, any particular quality concept and model embeds its own politics by inherent...... allocations of ‘who gets what, when and how’. We illustrate the inherent politics by providing a case study of a widely adopted quality model for operational management that has been adopted and implemented in Denmark as part of new public management reforms. In perspective, other quality concepts and models...

  12. Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks (United States)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh


    Composite cryotanks, or composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to weight savings. Future NASA missions are expected to use COPVs in spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. However, reliability, reparability, and reusability of the COPVs are still being addressed, especially in cryogenic temperature applications; this has limited the adoption of COPVs in reusable vehicle designs. The major problem with composites is the inherent brittleness of the epoxy matrix, which is prone to microcrack formation, either from exposure to cryogenic conditions or from impact from different sources. If not prevented, the microcracks increase gas permeation and leakage. Accordingly, materials innovations are needed to mitigate microcrack damage, and prevent damage in the first place, in composite cryotanks. The self-healing technology being developed is capable of healing the microcracks through the use of a novel engineered nanocomposite, where a uniquely designed nanoparticle additive is incorporated into the epoxy matrix. In particular, this results in an enhancement in the burst pressure after cryogenic cycling of the nanocomposite COPVs, relative to the control COPVs. Incorporating a novel, self-healing, epoxy-based resin into the manufacture of COPVs allows repeatable self-healing of microcracks to be performed through the simple application of a low-temperature heat source. This permits COPVs to be reparable and reusable with a high degree of reliability, as microcracks will be remediated. The unique phase-separated morphology that was imparted during COPV manufacture allows for multiple self-healing cycles. Unlike single-target approaches where one material property is often improved at the expense of another, robustness has been introduced to a COPV by a combination of a modified resin and

  13. In Situ Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles within Antifouling Zwitterionic Hydrogels by Catecholic Redox Chemistry for Wound Healing Application. (United States)

    GhavamiNejad, Amin; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang


    A multifunctional hydrogel that combines the dual functionality of both antifouling and antimicrobial capacities holds great potential for many bioapplications. Many approaches and different materials have been employed to synthesize such a material. However, a systematic study, including in vitro and in vivo evaluation, on such a material as wound dressings is highly scarce at present. Herein, we report on a new strategy that uses catecholic chemistry to synthesize antimicrobial silver nanoparticles impregnated into antifouling zwitterionic hydrogels. For this purpose, hydrophobic dopamine methacrylamide monomer (DMA) was mixed in an aqueous solution of sodium tetraborate decahydrate and DMA monomer became soluble after increasing pH to 9 due to the complexation between catechol groups and boron. Then, cross-linking polymerization of zwitterionic monomer was carried out with the solution of the protected dopamine monomer to produce a new hydrogel. When this new hydrogel comes in contact with a silver nitrate solution, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are formed in its structure as a result of the redox property of the catechol groups and in the absence of any other external reducing agent. The results obtained from TEM and XRD measurements indicate that AgNPs with diameters of around 20 nm had formed within the networks. FESEM images confirmed that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel network, and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the catechol moiety in the polymeric backbone of the hydrogel is responsible for the reduction of silver ions into the AgNPs. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that these mussel-inspired, antifouling, antibacterial hydrogels have great potential for use in wound healing applications.

  14. Application of Antrodia camphorata Promotes Rat’s Wound Healing In Vivo and Facilitates Fibroblast Cell Proliferation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra A. Amin


    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata is a parasitic fungus from Taiwan, it has been documented to possess a variety of pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Antrodia camphorata ethanol extract to accelerate the rate of wound healing closure and histology of wound area in experimental rats. The safety of Antrodia camphorata was determined in vivo by the acute toxicity test and in vitro by fibroblast cell proliferation assay. The scratch assay was used to evaluate the in vitro wound healing in fibroblast cells and the excision model of wound healing was tested in vivo using four groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Our results showed that wound treated with Antrodia camphorata extract and intrasite gel significantly accelerates the rate of wound healing closure than those treated with the vehicle. Wounds dressed with Antrodia camphorata extract showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure and granulation tissue contained less inflammatory cell and more fibroblast compared to wounds treated with the vehicle. Masson’s trichrom stain showed granulation tissue containing more collagen and less inflammatory cell in Antrodia camphorata treated wounds. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata extract significantly enhanced the rate of the wound enclosure in rats and promotes the in vitro healing through fibroblast cell proliferation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov


    Full Text Available In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of various tissues. PRP is used in regenerative medicine, because it provides two of three components (growth factors and scaffolds necessary for complete tissue regeneration. The particular reason for the appearance of lesions is important in order to select an appropriate treatment method and technical application. PRP may be used for treatment of various chronic and hard-to-heal cutaneous wounds, especially when standard conventional therapy is not good enough and surgical treatment is not possible. It reduces the duration, cost of treatment and the hospital stay. There is reduction of wound pain after starting the treatment, reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission, wound healing is restored, and local immunity is activated.

  16. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.


    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique

  17. Dental resin cure monitoring by inherent fluorescence (United States)

    Li, Qun; Zhou, Jack X.; Li, Qingxiong; Wang, Sean X.


    It is demonstrated that the inherent fluorescence of a dental composite resin can be utilized to monitor the curing status, i.e. degree of conversion of the resin. The method does not require any sample preparation and is potentially very fast for real time cure monitoring. The method is verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis.

  18. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds (United States)

    Cress, U.; Held, C.


    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  19. Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues (United States)

    Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.


    This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…

  20. Clinical Study of External Application of Qiyu Oil(芪榆油) Gauze for Promoting Post-operational Healing in Patients with Anal Fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍堂; 曹波; 邓文玲; 李志


    Objective:To observe the effects of the external application of Qiyu oil(芪榆油)gauze(QYOG) for promoting post-operational healing in patients with anal fistula and to explore its mechanism of action so as to provide a beneficial scientific basis for its wide use.Methods:Sixty patients with anal fistula scheduled to receive simple low anal fistulectomy were equally assigned,according to the sequence of hospitalization, to the tested group and the control group,and their wounds were classified according to l...

  1. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats (United States)

    Neves, L. M. G.; Matheus, R. L.; Santos, G. M. T.; Esquisatto, M. A. M.; Amaral, M. E. C.; Mendonça, F. A. S.


    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明秋; 容敏智


    Living organisms possess the ability of self-healing for nonfatal harm, like regeneration of the cut skin and broken bone, guided by instinct. As a result, their injury tolerance is substantially enhanced, which ensures healthy growth and breeding from generation to generation. Inspired by the functionality of naturally occurring species, self-healing polymers have been prepared as a member of intelligent materials family. They are coupled with built-in capability of rehabilitating tiny damages produced during manufacturing and/or usage. In recent years, the authors' lab systematically studied strength recovery of self-healing polymeric materials for structural application. By using knowledge of polymer chemistry, polymer physics, materials mechanics,etc. ,a series of extrinsic and intrinsic self-healing polymers and polymer composites were developed and characterized. The proposed strategies turn out to be feasible for typical thermosetting and thermoplastics polymers. Accordingly, topics including synthesis techniques,formulation optimization, processing, structure and properties relationship, healing mechanisms, stability and durability were carefully investigated. The present article briefly reviews the works carried out by the authors' team. Innovative routes that correlate materials chemistry to full capacity restoration are discussed for further development from bioinspired toward biomimetic repair.%自修复型高分子材料属于智能材料的一类,仿照生物体损伤自愈合的功能,通过材料内部的自诊断和自响应机制,及时修复材料在成型加工或使用过程产生的微小裂纹,避免其进一步扩展.近年来本课题组针对结构用自修复型高分子材料的强度恢复问题,综合利用高分子化学、高分子物理、材料力学等学科的理论和方法,设计、合成了一系列外植型和本征型自修复高分子材料,提出的自修复策略适用于典型热固性和热塑性高分子材料.此外,

  3. 煤矿本质安全管理综合评价的SVM模型及应用%SVM Model for Comprehensive Evaluation of Coal Mine Inherent Safety Management and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 王志军


    为评价煤矿本质安全管理水平,根据煤矿本质安全管理的内涵,构建了评价指标体系。鉴于目前评价方法主观设置指标权重的缺陷,考虑到支持向量机算法的诸多优势,建立了基于支持向量机的煤矿本质安全管理综合评价模型。根据以往煤矿本质安全管理评价资料,构建了学习样本。采用留一法交互校验表明,该评估方法具有较高的精度,且无需人为设置指标权重,避免了人的主观因素对评价结果的影响,能够更客观、准确地得出评价结果。应用SVM模型对煤矿本质安全管理进行综合评价,可以将定性的问题进行定量评价,合理地反映煤矿本质安全管理的现状,有利于监管部门评价煤矿安全管理水平和企业内部的评比及管理,对建立煤矿安全管理机制具有重要作用。%An evaluation index system was constituted according to the connotation of the mine inherent safety management in order to evaluate the level of the mine inherent safety management. In view of the disadvantage of subjectively setting the index weight in the current evaluation method and in consideration of many advantages of the support vector machine algorithm, an integrated evaluation model for coal mine inherent safety management was established based on the support vector machine. A learning sample was constructed according to the previous data of mine inherent safety management evaluation. The cross validation with leave-one out of procedure showed this evaluation method had a high accuracy,need not to artificially set the index weight, can avoid the influence of the person's subjective factors on the evaluation results,and thus get objective and accurate evaluation results. When SVM model was used for the integrate evaluation of the mine inherent safety management system,the quantitative assessment can be done to a qualitative problem so as to rationally reflect the status of the mine

  4. Inherent Safety Characteristics of Advanced Fast Reactors (United States)

    Bochkarev, A. S.; Korsun, A. S.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Alekseev, P. N.


    The study presents SFR transient performance for ULOF events initiated by pump trip and pump seizure with simultaneous failure of all shutdown systems in both cases. The most severe cases leading to the pin cladding rupture and possible sodium boiling are demonstrated. The impact of various features on SFR inherent safety performance for ULOF events was analysed. The decrease in hydraulic resistance of primary loop and increase in primary pump coast down time were investigated. Performing analysis resulted in a set of recommendations to varying parameters for the purpose of enhancing the inherent safety performance of SFR. In order to prevent the safety barrier rupture for ULOF events the set of thermal hydraulic criteria defining the ULOF transient processes dynamics and requirements to these criteria were recommended based on achieved results: primary sodium flow dip under the natural circulation asymptotic level and natural circulation rise time.

  5. The inherent ethics and integrity of education


    Godon, Rafal; Hogan, Padraig


    The paper begins with some introductory remarks that explain why understanding education as a coherent human practice is necessary for a proper account of ethics in the field of education. The authors take three steps: presenting education as a practice in its own right, discussing the concept of thinking in the context of educational practice and finally revealing some practical consequences of the inherent ethics of education. The paper invites readers to further investigatio...

  6. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng, PhD


    Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds.

  7. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems. (United States)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio


    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of "substitution" and "moderation", since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed.

  8. 龙血竭提取物促进创面愈合的实验研究%Application of Resina Draconis Extract on Accelerating Animal Wound Healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉辉; 肖丹; 郑晓; 顾岩; 郭善禹


    Objective To investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Resina Draconis (RDEE) in animal wound healing. Methods Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, MEBO group (treated with MEBO) and RDEE group (treated with RDEE). Wound healing rates and healing time were calculated 3, 7, 11 and 15 days after treatment, and tissues were harvested at the same time for histological, immunohistochemical analysis and MVD calculation. The expression of VEGF was determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Results Wound healing time in RDEE group was shorter than in control group (P<0.05). There was no difference of would healing time between RDEE group and MEBO group. Wound healing rates, MVD number (3, 7, 11 days after treatment) and the expression of VEGF were significantly higher in RDEE group and MEBO group than in control group (P<0.05). Histological results showed more well-organized bands of collagen, more fibrob-lasts and less inflammatory cells in RDEE group compared with control group. Conclusion The extract from Resina Draconis possesses wound healing activity, and is worthy of clinical application.%目的探讨龙血竭乙醇提取物(Ethanolic extract of Resina Draconis, RDEE)促进创面愈合的疗效。方法将48只SD大鼠随机分为对照组、湿润烧伤膏组(MEBO组)和龙血竭乙醇提取物组(RDEE组)。测量和计算伤后第3、7、11和15天创面面积,计算创面愈合率和愈合时间;采用HE、Masson染色和CD31免疫组织化学染色,观察创面肉芽组织结构改变、胶原分布,并计算微血管密度(Microvessel density,MVD);采用荧光定量PCR和Western Blot,检测创面肉芽组织中VEGF表达的变化。结果 RDEE组创面愈合时间明显比对照组短(P<0.05),MEBO组和RDEE组之间无显著性差异;RDEE组、MEBO组创面愈合率和伤后第3、7、11天的MVD、VEGF 表达量均高于对照组,差异显著(P<0.05);RDEE组创面

  9. A review of locking compression plate biomechanics and their advantages as internal fixators in fracture healing. (United States)

    Miller, Danielle L; Goswami, Tarun


    Metallic implants are often involved in the open reduction and internal fixation of fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation is commonly used in cases of trauma when the bone cannot be healed using external methods such as casting. The locking compression plate combines the conventional screw hole, which uses non-locking screws, with a locking screw hole, which uses locking head screws. This allows for more versatility in the application of the plate. There are many factors which affect the functionality of the plate (e.g., screw placement, screw choice, length of plate, distance from bone, etc.). This paper presents a review of the literature related to the biomechanics of locking compression plates and their use as internal fixators in fracture healing. Furthermore, this paper also addresses the materials used for locking compression plates and their mechanical behavior, parameters that control the overall success, as well as inherent bone quality results.

  10. Inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yagang [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Box 235, Baoding, Hebei 071003 (China); Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); E-mail:; Wang Changjiang [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China); Zhou Zhong [Center for Nonlinear Complex Systems, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan 650091 (China)


    The inherent randomicity in 4-symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. The symbolic sequences bear three characteristics. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. By using transfer probability of Markov chain (MC), we obtain analytic expressions of generating functions in four probabilities stochastic wander model, which can be applied to all 4-symbolic systems. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to study some properties of DNA sequences.

  11. Prevention of domino effect: from active and passive strategies to inherently safer design. (United States)

    Cozzani, Valerio; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Salzano, Ernesto


    The possible application of an inherent safety approach to the prevention of domino accidents was explored. The application of the inherent safety guidewords to the definition of effective actions for the prevention of domino events was analyzed. Due to the constraints originated by the conventional approach to process design, the "limitation of effects" guideword resulted the more effective in the identification of inherent safety actions to avoid domino events. Detailed design criteria for the improvement of layout in the framework of inherent safety were identified and discussed. Simple rules of thumbs were obtained for the preliminary assessment of safety distances and of critical inventories with respect to the escalation of fires and explosions. The results evidenced that the integration of inherent safety criteria with conventional passive or active protections seems a promising route for the prevention of severe domino accidental scenarios in chemical and process plants.

  12. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew


    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  13. Wound Healing and Care (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Wound Healing and Care KidsHealth > For Teens > Wound Healing and Care Print A A A What's in ... mouth, or sunken eyes. There's good news about wound healing when you're a teen: Age is on ...

  14. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Veerman, E.C.I.


    Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In

  15. Sensors and actuators inherent in biological species (United States)

    Taya, Minoru; Stahlberg, Rainer; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Ying Joyce


    This paper addresses examples of sensing and active mechanisms inherent in some biological species where both plants and animals cases are discussed: mechanosensors and actuators in Venus Fly Trap and cucumber tendrils, chemosensors in insects, two cases of interactions between different kingdoms, (i) cotton plant smart defense system and (ii) bird-of-paradise flower and hamming bird interaction. All these cases lead us to recognize how energy-efficient and flexible the biological sensors and actuators are. This review reveals the importance of integration of sensing and actuation functions into an autonomous system if we make biomimetic design of a set of new autonomous systems which can sense and actuate under a number of different stimuli and threats.

  16. Piezo1 Channels Are Inherently Mechanosensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Syeda


    Full Text Available The conversion of mechanical force to chemical signals is critical for many biological processes, including the senses of touch, pain, and hearing. Mechanosensitive ion channels play a key role in sensing the mechanical stimuli experienced by various cell types and are present in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels are characterized thoroughly, but less is known about their counterparts in vertebrates. Piezos have been recently established as ion channels required for mechanotransduction in disparate cell types in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Piezos in heterologous cells gives rise to large mechanically activated currents; however, it is unclear whether Piezos are inherently mechanosensitive or rely on alternate cellular components to sense mechanical stimuli. Here, we show that mechanical perturbations of the lipid bilayer alone are sufficient to activate Piezo channels, illustrating their innate ability as molecular force transducers.

  17. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity. (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum


    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  18. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V


    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  19. Welding Distortion Prediction in 5A06 Aluminum Alloy Complex Structure via Inherent Strain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng


    Full Text Available Finite element (FE simulation with inherent deformation is an ideal and practical computational approach for predicting welding stress and distortion in the production of complex aluminum alloy structures. In this study, based on the thermal elasto-plastic analysis, FE models of multi-pass butt welds and T-type fillet welds were investigated to obtain the inherent strain distribution in a 5A06 aluminum alloy cylindrical structure. The angular distortion of the T-type joint was used to investigate the corresponding inherent strain mechanism. Moreover, a custom-designed experimental system was applied to clarify the magnitude of inherent deformation. With the mechanism investigation of welding-induced buckling by FE analysis using inherent deformation, an application for predicting and mitigating the welding buckling in fabrication of complex aluminum alloy structure was developed.

  20. Ruthenium Grubbs' catalyst nanostructures grown by UV-excimer-laser ablation for self-healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiessa, B., E-mail: [Department of Smart Materials and Sensors for Space Missions, MPB Technologies Inc., 151 Hymus Blvd., Montreal H9R 1E9 (Canada); Nechache, R. [Centre Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications. Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-EMT, 1650, Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W. [Department of Smart Materials and Sensors for Space Missions, MPB Technologies Inc., 151 Hymus Blvd., Montreal H9R 1E9 (Canada); Merle, P.G. [Concordia Center for Composites, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 2M8 (Canada); Rosei, F., E-mail: [Centre Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications. Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-EMT, 1650, Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful preparation of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene (5E2N) monomer reacted with Ruthenium Grubbs' Catalyst (RGC) composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetics of the 5E2N ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is effective in a large temperature range (-20 to 45 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetics of the 5E2N ROMP is occurring at very short time scales (<1 min at 40 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful preparation of RGC nanoparticles (NPs) by UV-excimer laser ablation approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ROMP reaction associated to RGC-NPs was achieved at an unprecedented extreme low RGC, equivalent to 0.00117 Vol.%. - Abstract: A self healing composite material consisting of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene (5E2N) monomer reacted with Ruthenium Grubbs' Catalyst (RGC) was prepared. First, the kinetics of the 5E2N ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) reaction RGC was studied as a function of temperature. We show that the polymerization reaction is still effective in a large temperature range (-15 to 45 Degree-Sign C), occurring at short time scales (less than 1 min at 40 Degree-Sign C). Second, the amount of RGC required for ROMP reaction significantly decreased through its nanostructuration by means of a UV-excimer laser ablation process. RGC nanostructures of few nanometers in size where successfully obtained directly on silicon substrates. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data strongly suggest that the RGC still keep its original stoichiometry after nanostructuration. More importantly, the associated ROMP reaction was successfully achieved at an extreme low RGC concentration equivalent to (11.16 {+-} 1.28) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Vol.%, occurring at very short time reaction. This approach opens new prospects for using healing agent nanocomposite materials for self-repair functionality, thereby obtaining a higher catalytic efficiency per

  1. Coblation tonsillectomy: is it inherently bloody? (United States)

    Khan, I; Abelardo, E; Scott, N W; Shakeel, M; Menakaya, O; Jaramillo, M; Mahmood, K


    The aim of the study was to compare a single surgeon's post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage rates using cold steel dissection and coblation tonsillectomy techniques. Retrospective study on patients, who underwent tonsillectomy at West Wales General Hospital (WWGH) performed by a single surgeon from 2006 to 2010 employing both cold steel and coblation tonsillectomies. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-squared tests. The nominated surgeon performed 239 tonsillectomies at WWGH from 2006 to 2010. 119 patients underwent cold steel dissection and 120 had coblation tonsillectomy. There was no demographic difference between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups (median 1 day in each group). 6/119 (5.0%) patients in the cold steel group, and 7/120 (5.8%) in the coblation group had post-operative bleeding (p = 1.00). The return to theatre rate for cold steel dissection was 1/119 (0.84%) and for coblation surgery was 1/120 (0.83%) (p = 1.00). Among the first 60 cases of coblation tonsillectomies, 4 patients (6.6%) had post-operative haemorrhage and the latter 60 cases had 3 patients (5%). There was no evidence of a difference in the overall post-operative bleeding between those who had cold steel dissection and coblation tonsillectomies. These data suggest that higher post-operative haemorrhage is not inherent to coblation tonsillectomy.

  2. Conceptual design of inherently safe integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. I.; Chang, M. H.; Lee, D. J. and others


    The design concept of a 300 MWt inherently safe integral reactor(ISIR) for the propulsion of extra large and superhigh speed container ship was developed in this report. The scope and contents of this report are as follows : 1. The state of the art of the technology for ship-mounted reactor 2. Design requirements for ISIR 3. Fuel and core design 4. Conceptual design of fluid system 5. Conceptual design of reactor vessel assembly and primary components 6. Performance analyses and safety analyses. Installation of two ISIRs with total thermal power of 600MWt and efficiency of 21% is capable of generating shaft power of 126,000kW which is sufficient to power a container ship of 8,000TEU with 30knot cruise speed. Larger and speedier ship can be considered by installing 4 ISIRs. Even though the ISIR was developed for ship propulsion, it can be used also for a multi-purpose nuclear power plant for electricity generation, local heating, or seawater desalination by mounting on a movable floating barge. (author)

  3. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-ethyl cellulose based bio-composites with novel characteristics for infection free wound healing application. (United States)

    Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Kyazze, Godfrey; Locke, Ian Charles; Tron, Thierry; Keshavarz, Tajalli


    A series of bio-composites including poly3-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB)] grafted ethyl cellulose (EC) stated as P(3HB)-EC were successfully synthesised. Furthermore, natural phenols e.g., p-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) and ferulic acid (FA) were grafted onto the newly developed P(3HB)-EC-based bio-composites under laccase-assisted environment without the use of additional initiators or crosslinking agents. The phenol grafted bio-composites were critically evaluated for their antibacterial and biocompatibility features as well as their degradability in soil. In particular, the results of the antibacterial evaluation for the newly developed bio-composites indicated that 20HBA-g-P(3HB)-EC and 15FA-g-P(3HB)-EC bio-composites exerted strong bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against Gram(-)E. coli NTCT 10418 as compared to the Gram(+)B. subtilis NCTC 3610. This study shows further that at various phenolic concentrations the newly synthesised bio-composites remained cytocompatible with human keratinocyte-like HaCaT skin cells, as 100% cell viability was recorded, in vitro. As for the degradation, an increase in the degradation rate was recorded during the soil burial analyses over a period of 42 days. These findings suggest that the reported bio-composites have great potential for use in wound healing; covering the affected skin area which may favour tissue repair over shorter periods.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and application of iron (II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles in mimic of wound healing model (United States)

    Konyala, Divya

    The research study focused on synthesis, characterization and applications of Fe3O4 core-shelled magnetic nanomaterials. This Fe3O4 magnetic nanomaterials will be prepared by using cost effective and convenient wet-chemistry method and will encapsulated using aqueous extracts of medicinal natural products. Three natural products namely Symplocos racemosa, Picrorhiza kurroa and Butea monosperma used to encapsulate Fe3O 4 MNMs due to their scope to reduce the risk of cancer, improves health, increase energy and enhance the immunity. These three medicinal natural products are synthesize by using water as a solvents to derive its active constituents, which will further used to functionalize the magnetic nanomaterials. The magnetic nanoparticles characterization studies performed using X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscope, Transmission electron microscope, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Magnetic property. Fe3O4 magnetic nanomaterials biological activity was tested on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The results pointed out that, due to the adequate coating of Fe 3O4 (Iron Oxide) core by the medicinal chemical constituents from the natural products, the absorption of Fe3O4 magnetic nanomaterials was not detected in the UV-VIS Spectroscopy. TEM images showed that Fe3O4 coated with natural product extract in core-shelled structure, and the size of the particle ranges from 6 nm to 10 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was performed to determine the nature of chemicals present in natural extracts and functionalized Fe3O 4 magnetic nanomaterials. The model of wound healing mimic and antibacterial activity performed on gram-negative (Escherichia coli), indicating steady increasing cell growth after adding Fe3O4 MNMs. It was also found that MNMs synthesized at high temperatures shows less wound healing activity, when compared to MNMs prepared at room temperature due to formation

  5. Measurement of inherent optical properties in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Kurian, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    Inherent optical properties, absorption and began attenuation were measured in situ using a reflective tube absorption meter at nint wavelength, 412, 440, 488, 510, 555, 630, 650, 676 and 715 nm, in the Arabian Sea during March. Since inherent...

  6. The healing Buddha. (United States)

    Chen, Thomas S N; Chen, Peter S Y


    The iconography of the healing Buddha embraces two healing traditions, symbolized by the healing stone lapis lazuli from Central Asia and by the myrobalan fruit from the ayurvedic medicine of ancient India. The first mention of the healing Buddha is in Buddhist texts of the first century BC, and the earliest extant icons date from the fourth century AD. This suggests the cult of the healing Buddha was a relatively late development in the history of Buddhism. Worshippers sought his help in alleviating spiritual, mental and physical suffering, as well as for medical cures. In China followers believed he was also a cosmic Buddha, to whom one appealed for longevity and protection from disasters. This form of faith-based healing remains vibrant in China, Japan and Tibet to this day.

  7. Distribution of Longitudinal Inherent Strains in Multiple-passes Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng HE; Jiuhai ZHANG; Toshio Terasaki; Testuya Akiyama


    A fundamental theory for the analysis of residual welding stresses and deformation based on the inherent strain distribution along the welded joint is introduced. The computing method of distribution of longitudinal inherent strains in multiple-passes welding in heavy plate weldment is proposed. Distribution of longitudinal inherent strains in one-pass welding and two-passes welding are compared and analyzed. The effect of cutting on inherent strain is discussed.

  8. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.


    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  9. Self-healing epoxy composites: preparation, characterization and healing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaz A. Chowdhury


    Full Text Available Low velocity impact damage is common in fiber reinforced composites, which leads to micro-crack and interfacial debonding, where damage is microscopic and invisible. The concept of self-healing composites can be a way of overcoming this limitation and extending the life expectancy while expanding their usage in structural applications. In the current study, extrinsic self-healing concept was adopted using urea-formaldehyde microcapsules containing room temperature curing epoxy resin system (SC-15 as the healing agent prepared by in situ polymerization. Microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for structural analysis. Size and shape of microcapsules were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Size of the microcapsules was between 30 and 100 μm. Thermal characterization was carried out using thermogravimetric analysis. Microcapsules were thermally stable till 210 °C without any significant decomposition. Fiber reinforced composite fabrication was carried out in three different steps. In the first step, epoxy resin was encapsulated in urea-formaldehyde shell material, which was confirmed by FTIR analysis. In the next step, encapsulation of amine hardener was achieved by vacuum infiltration method. These two different microcapsules were added with epoxy at 10:3 ratio and composite fabrication was done with hand layup method. Finally, healing performance was measured in terms of low velocity impact test and thermoscopy analysis. Low velocity impact test with 30 J and 45 J impact loads confirmed the delamination and micro-crack in composite materials and subsequent healing recovery observed in terms of damaged area reduction and restoration of mechanical properties.

  10. Inherently fluorescent polystyrene microspheres for coating, sensing and cellular imaging. (United States)

    Qu, Jian-Bo; Xu, Yu-Liang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanan; Sui, Yuanhong; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Xiaojuan


    Commercially available polystyrene (PS) fluorescent microspheres are widely used in biological field for tracing, in vivo imaging and calibration of flow cytometry, among other applications. However, these particles do suffer from some drawbacks such as the leakage and photobleaching of organic dyes within them. In the present study, inherently fluorescent properties of PS based microspheres have been explored for the first time. Here we find that a simple chloromethylation reaction endows the polystyrene particles with inherent fluorescence without any subsequent conjugation of an external fluorophore. A possible mechanism for fluorescence is elucidated by synthesizing and investigating p-ethylbenzyl chloride, a compound with similar structure. Significantly, no photobleaching or leaking issues were observed owing to the stable structure of the microspheres. Chloromethylated PS (CMPS) microspheres can keep their perpetual blue fluorescence even in dry powder state making them attractive as a potential coating material. Furthermore, the chloromethyl groups on CMPS microspheres make them very convenient for further functionalization. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted microspheres showed good biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity, and could be used to image intracellular Fe(3+) due to the selective fluorescence quenching effect of aqueous Fe(3+) in cytoplasm.

  11. Application of wet healing dressing in treatment of carcinomatous wounds%湿性愈合方法在癌性伤口治疗中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪霞; 穆婷婷; 李金艳


    目的:探讨湿性愈合方法治疗癌性伤口的疗效。方法选取2011年1月-2012年7月在我科住院患者中发生癌性破溃的患者22例,应用湿性愈合敷料换药1个月后观察其治疗效果。结果22例癌性肿瘤破溃患者应用湿性愈合敷料换药后治愈9例(41%),效果显著11例(50%),伤口稳定未发展2例(9%)。结论湿性愈合方法及新型敷料,能促进癌性伤口早期愈合,减少创面渗出及换药次数,缩短创面愈合时间。%Objective To study the application of wet healing dressing in treatment of carcinomatous wounds.Methods Therapeutic effect of wet healing dressing in 22 patients with ulcerated carcinomatous wounds was observed 1 month after treatment.Results Of the 22 patients with ulcerated carcinomatous wounds who were treated with wet healing dressing, 9 (41%) were cured, 11 (50%) were significantly improved, and 2 (9%) were stable with no exacerbation.Conclusion Wet healing dressing can release the pain of changing dress, increase the curative rate of ulcerated wounds, shorten the wound healing time, decrease the exudation from wounds and times of dress changing, improve the patients quality of life, and reduce the workload of medical staff, and is thus worth to be popularized. The healing of ulcerated carcinomatous wounds is not related with the age of patients and the size of wounds.

  12. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation. (United States)

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A


    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing.

  13. Saliva and wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.


    Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival

  14. A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems. (United States)

    Mayet, Naeema; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness


    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves the mediation of many initiators effective during the healing process such as cytokines, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, the defence mechanism of the body undergoes a step-by-step but continuous process known as the wound healing cascade to ensure optimal healing. Thus, when designing a wound healing system or dressing, it is pivotal that key factors such as optimal gaseous exchange, a moist wound environment, prevention of microbial activity and absorption of exudates are considered. A variety of wound dressings are available, however, not all meet the specific requirements of an ideal wound healing system to consider every aspect within the wound healing cascade. Recent research has focussed on the development of smart polymeric materials. Combining biopolymers that are crucial for wound healing may provide opportunities to synthesise matrices that are inductive to cells and that stimulate and trigger target cell responses crucial to the wound healing process. This review therefore outlines the processes involved in skin regeneration, optimal management and care required for wound treatment. It also assimilates, explores and discusses wound healing drug-delivery systems and nanotechnologies utilised for enhanced wound healing applications.

  15. Clinical Application of Mucosal Healing in Inflammatory Bowel Disease%黏膜愈合在炎症性肠病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Until the late-1990s, symptomatic remission has been the key parameter for efficacy evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).In recent years, mucosal healing (MH) has been included into efficacy evaluation of IBD, and has been used as an important endpoint and treatment goal in clinical trails.MH may change the natural course of IBD, so as to achieve sustaining clinical remission, reduction of hospitalization rate and surgical risk of IBD patients.This article reviewed the clinical application of MH in IBD.%至上世纪90年代末,症状缓解仍是炎症性肠病(IBD)疗效评估的重要指标.近年,黏膜愈合(MH)逐渐被纳入IBD的疗效评估,并作为临床试验的重要终点和治疗目标.MH可改变IBD的自然病程,以达持续临床缓解,由此降低患者的住院率和手术风险.本文就MH在IBD临床应用中的价值作一综述.

  16. Clinical Applications of S53P4 Bioactive Glass in Bone Healing and Osteomyelitic Treatment: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. P. van Gestel


    Full Text Available Nowadays, S53P4 bioactive glass is indicated as a bone graft substitute in various clinical applications. This review provides an overview of the current published clinical results on indications such as craniofacial procedures, grafting of benign bone tumour defects, instrumental spondylodesis, and the treatment of osteomyelitis. Given the reported results that are based on examinations, such as clinical examinations by the surgeons, radiographs, CT, and MRI images, S53P4 bioactive glass may be beneficial in the various reported applications. Especially in craniofacial reconstructions like mastoid obliteration and orbital floor reconstructions, in grafting bone tumour defects, and in the treatment of osteomyelitis very promising results are obtained. Randomized clinical trials need to be performed in order to determine whether bioactive glass would be able to replace the current golden standard of autologous bone usage or with the use of antibiotic containing PMMA beads (in the case of osteomyelitis.

  17. Development of inherent core technologies for advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keung Koo; Noh, J.M.; Hwang, D.H. [and others


    Recently, the developed countries made their effort on developing the advanced reactor which will result in significantly enhanced safety and economy. However, they will protect the advanced reactor and its design technology with patent and proprietary right. Therefore, it is very important to develop our own key core concepts and inherent core design technologies which can form a foundation of indigenous technologies for development of the domestic advanced reactor in order to keep the superiority in the nuclear plant building market among the developing countries. In order to provide the basic technology for the core design of advanced reactor, this project is for developing the inherent core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies and technologies for core analyses. The feasibility study of constructing domestic critical facilities are performed by surveying the status and utilization of foreign facilities and by investigating the demand for domestic facilities. The research results developed in this project, such as core analysis methodologies for hexagonal core, conceptual core design based on hexagonal fuel assemblies and soluble boron core design and control strategies, will provide a technical foundation in developing core design of domestic advanced reactor. Furthermore, they will strengthen the competitiveness of Korean nuclear technology. We also expect that some of the design concepts developed in this project to improve the reactor safety and economy can be applicable to the design of advanced reactor. This will significantly reduce the public anxiety on the nuclear power plant, and will contribute to the economy of construction and operation for the future domestic reactors. Even though the critical facility will not be constructed right now, the investigation of the status and utilization of foreign critical facility will contribute to the future critical facility construction. (author). 150 refs., 34 tabs., 103

  18. 面向容忍入侵的自治愈应用服务器设计与实现%Design and implementation of intrusion-tolerant oriented self-healing application server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周睿鹏; 郭渊博; 刘伟


    针对现有容忍入侵应用服务器在自治愈方面的不足,提出了一种面向容忍入侵的自治愈应用服务器的构建方法.在容忍入侵应用服务器的基础上,设计了自治愈功能组件,包括检测部件、管理部件和执行部件,将自治愈功能透明地加入到容忍入侵应用服务器中,解决了容忍入侵应用服务器中存在的隐性入侵、软件老化以及容侵前提条件易遭破坏的问题,进一步提高了容忍入侵应用服务器的可靠性和生存性.最后在项目组研发的容忍入侵应用服务器平台--JANTM中实现了对自治愈功能的支持.%Aiming at the current intrusion-tolerant application server' s limitation for self-healing, a method to design an intrusiontolerant oriented self-healing application server is proposed.By the way of establishing a self-healing functional components, including the detection components, management components and implementation components, we add self-healing capabilities into the intrusiontolerant application server.It solves some problems in the intrusion-tolerant application servers, for example the hidden intrusion,software aging, and the vulnerable prerequisite of intrusion tolerance, and further enhances the reliability and survivability of the intrusiontolerant application server.Finally, an intrusion-tolerant oriented self-healing application server is realized, JANTM is built (J2EE based adaptive intrusion tolerant middleware) which is developed by our project team.

  19. Healing Childhood Trauma Worldwide (United States)

    Kuban, Caelan


    Millions of the world's children are exposed to traumatic events and relationships every day. Whatever the cause, this overwhelming stress produces a host of unsettling symptoms and reactions. The author highlights six practical principles that undergird healing interventions.

  20. 香油在变应性血管炎患者干痂类皮损愈合中的应用%Application of sesame oil to healing dried scab in patients with allergic vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓兰; 卢在超; 刘秋玉; 胡国英; 刘丽莎; 冯子芸; 黄霞霞


    Objective To study the effect of sesame oil on healing care of dried scab skin lesions in patients with allergic vas-culitis. Methods Sixty - one patients with allergic vasculitis and severe dried - crab skin lesion were studied; they were hospitalized in Department of Rheumatology in PLA General Hospital from December, 2009 to May, 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups randomly. The patients in normal healing group ( n = 26 ) were treated with physiological saline debridement, then external application of silver ion antibacterial dressing. The patients in trial group ( n = 35 ) were treated with application of sesame oil to soak the scabs off after the normal procedure, then application of silver ion antibacterial dressing. Their healing status was observed. Results In the trial group, the recovering time was shortened; the small wound dry scabs normally dropped off within (5.3 ±1.0) days, healing of small area wound( ≤6 cm ) or decrease in area of the wound was observed within( 13.2 ±1.2) days. There were significant differences between the two groups in their dried scab drop - off time (P <0. 01) . Compared with the normal healing group, the trial group had much more cases whose dried scabs dropped off or healed up, and more cases whose pain feelings were relieved or significantly relieved ( P < 0. 01). The healing intervention effects had no significant differences between blood scabs and the pus scabs. Conclusions Sesame oil promotes the healing process of dried scab skin lesions in patients with allergic vasculitis, also relieves their pain, and can be applied to scab healing in clinical care.%目的 探讨香油用于变应性血管炎患者干痂类皮损的护理效果.方法 将2009-12至2012-05在解放军总医院风湿科住院治疗的61例皮肤干痂性破损严重的变应性血管炎患者随机分为常规护理组和干预护理组.常规护理组(n=26)采用生理盐水清创,外敷银离子抗菌敷料的方法进行

  1. Basics in nutrition and wound healing. (United States)

    Wild, Thomas; Rahbarnia, Arastoo; Kellner, Martina; Sobotka, Lubos; Eberlein, Thomas


    Wound healing is a process that can be divided into three different phases (inflammatory, proliferative, and maturation). Each is characterized by certain events that require specific components. However, wound healing is not always a linear process; it can progress forward and backward through the phases depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. If the wound-healing process is affected negatively, this can result in chronic wounds. Chronic wounds demand many resources in the clinical daily routine. Therefore, local wound management and good documentation of the wound is essential for non-delayed wound healing and prevention of the development of chronic wounds. During the wound-healing process much energy is needed. The energy for the building of new cells is usually released from body energy stores and protein reserves. This can be very challenging for undernourished and malnourished patients. Malnutrition is very common in geriatric patients and patients in catabolic phases of stress such as after injury or surgery. For that reason a close survey of the nutritional status of patients is necessary to start supplementation quickly, if applicable. Wound healing is indeed a very complex process that deserves special notice. There are some approaches to develop guidelines but thus far no golden standard has evolved. Because wounds, especially chronic wounds, cause also an increasing economic burden, the development of guidelines should be advanced.

  2. Diabetes and wound healing


    Svendsen, Rikke; Irakunda, Gloire; Knudsen List, Karoline Cecilie; Sønderstup-Jensen, Marie; Hölmich Rosca, Mette Maria


    Diabetes is a disease where the glucose level in the blood is high, due to either insulin resistance, impaired insulin sensitivity or no insulin production. The high glucose level causes several complications, one of them being an impaired wound healing process, which might lead to chronic wounds, ulcers. Several factors play a role in the development of ulcers, and recent research indicates that microRNA might play a significant role in skin development and wound healing. The purpose of this...

  3. Biomimetic Self-Healing (United States)


    as well as the storage and delivery of liquid reagents, new materials have been developed with extended longevity that are capable of restoring...may involve high-temperature curing. The capsule Figure 3. Autonomous self-healing rubber. Reproduced with permis- sion from the CNRS image bank ...EPON 828; diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)) matrix embedded with 1st gen- eration Grubbs catalyst.[64] Upon crack damage, the liquid healing

  4. Implementation of inherence calculus in the PowerLoom environment (United States)

    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward

    The article describes an attempt to implement abstract and concrete inherence calculi in the PowerLoom technology. Issues in the field of artificial intelligence, ontology and philosophy have been addressed. The inherence calculus is a type of a formal logic system. The PowerLoom technology consists of a knowledge representation language and an inference engine. Six inherence calculi have been implemented and an appropriate testing environment has been developed. The inherence calculus has been also extended by categorical properties and a theoretical discussion of ontological Boolean algebra has been conducted. Carried out experiments showed properties of the inherence calculi and also verified capabilities of PowerLoom to construct such logic systems. It occurred that expert system operational mode of PowerLoom outperforms its abilities to work as a mathematical theorem prover.

  5. Investigation of Regenerated Cellulose/Poly(acrylic acid Composite Films for Potential Wound Healing Applications: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Bajpai


    Full Text Available Regenerated cellulose/poly(acrylic acid composite films have been synthesized for wound dressing applications. The water absorbency of these films was studied as a function of amount of cross-linker N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide and cellulose contents in the feed mixture. The samples, having different compositions, showed tensile strength and percent elongation in the range of 9.98×105 to 13.40×105 N/m2 and 110 to 265, respectively. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR for various films was found to be in the range of 2.03 to 7.18 mg/cm2/h. These films were loaded with antibacterial drug miconazole nitrate and their release was studied in the physiological pH at 37°C. The release data was found to fit well the diffusion controlled Higuchi model. Finally the films demonstrated fair antibacterial and antifungal action, thus establishing their strong candidature as wound dressing materials.

  6. Self-healing polymer composites: mimicking nature to enhance performance. (United States)

    Trask, R S; Williams, H R; Bond, I P


    Autonomic self-healing materials, where initiation of repair is integral to the material, are being developed for engineering applications. This bio-inspired concept offers the designer an ability to incorporate secondary functional materials capable of counteracting service degradation whilst still achieving the primary, usually structural, requirement. Most materials in nature are themselves self-healing composite materials. This paper reviews the various self-healing technologies currently being developed for fibre reinforced polymeric composite materials, most of which are bioinspired, inspired by observation of nature. The most recent self-healing work has attempted to mimic natural healing through the study of mammalian blood clotting and the design of vascular networks found in biological systems. A perspective on current and future self-healing approaches using this biomimetic technique is offered. The intention is to stimulate debate outside the engineering community and reinforce the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in this exciting field.

  7. Self-healing composites: in-situ repair solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coope, T.S.; Luterbacher, R.; Turkenburg, D.H.; Fischer, H.R.; Bond, I.P.


    Realising self-healing composites in a commercial environment remains a challenge for the transport sector. Herein, this research considers the design envelope and the implications of embedding self-healing agents into commercially relevant fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite applications. A no

  8. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers (United States)

    Bogert, Philip B.; Working, Dennis C.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Smith, Janice Y.; Topping, Crystal C.; Britton, Sean M.; Bagby, Paul R.; Siochi, Emilie J.


    The motivation for this work is to develop self-healing polymeric materials to enable damage tolerant systems, and to tailor puncture healing for use temperatures and applications. This will be a benefit in environments and conditions where access for manual repair is limited or impossible, or where damage may not be detected.

  9. Tikkun Olam: A Model for Healing the World. (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer


    Discusses Tikkun Olam--the Jewish tenet of healing the world through individual good deeds--and its applicability to the practice of adventure therapy. Focuses on the therapeutic relationship, as it develops in group settings, and the role of adventure leaders and therapists in nourishing such relationships to provide a vehicle for healing or…

  10. Microwave Assisted Healing of Thermally Mendable Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Sosa


    Full Text Available Polymer matrix composites offer high specific strength; however, their potential weight savings have been limited by the concern of damage tolerance. If microcracking and similar incurred damage could be autonomously sealed, composite structures could be built thinner and lighter while still addressing damage tolerance, thus achieving the weight savings they promise. Various self-healing mechanisms have been proposed to this end. Herein, a method of thermally reversible polymerization is investigated. To date, thermally activated repair of composites have been accomplished typically through resistive heating, which has certain inherent complexities. An alternate heating method, via microwave exposure of carbon nanotubes incorporated throughout a thermal reversible polymer matrix, is demonstrated. Carbon nanotube-doped composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption over an undoped control sample. Furthermore, it is shown that these composites can be heated locally by a focused microwave source. The particular composite formulation and layup studied could be uniformly heated to the targeted healing temperature of 100°C in as little as 20 seconds, followed by a healing time on the scale of minutes with total time depending upon the extent of damage.

  11. Inherent Difference in Saliency for Generators with Different PM Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Eriksson


    Full Text Available The inherent differences between salient and nonsalient electrical machines are evaluated for two permanent magnet generators with different configurations. The neodymium based (NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs in a generator are substituted with ferrite magnets and the characteristics of the NdFeB generator and the ferrite generator are compared through FEM simulations. The NdFeB generator is a nonsalient generator, whereas the ferrite machine is a salient-pole generator, with small saliency. The two generators have almost identical properties at rated load operation. However, at overload the behaviour differs between the two generators. The salient-pole, ferrite generator has lower maximum torque than the NdFeB generator and a larger voltage drop at high current. It is concluded that, for applications where overload capability is important, saliency must be considered and the generator design adapted according to the behaviour at overload operation. Furthermore, if the maximum torque is the design criteria, additional PM mass will be required for the salient-pole machine.

  12. Design of a low-profile printed array of loaded dipoles with inherent frequency selectivity properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D.; Savoia, S.; Gerini, G.; Neto, A.; Galdi, V.


    This work presents the design of a low-profile array of printed dipoles with inherent filtering properties for radar applications. The antenna and the band-pass filter are integrated in a single module, which is small enough to fit within the array unit cell (with period of about 0.4 ? at the highes

  13. Impurities in Silicon Nanocrystals: The intentional and the inherent (United States)

    Rowe, David J.

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) have become an important class of materials in the fields of photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, lighting, and medicine. Impurities within SiNCs dramatically alter the electrical and optical properties of the host material, whether the impurity is intentionally added in an attempt to manipulate properties, or is inherent to the material and its natural state. Despite such remarkable changes, impurity incorporation within SiNCs remains poorly understood, since concepts applied to understanding impurities in bulk materials may not completely translate to nanomaterials. Understanding the effect of SiNC impurities requires new technologies to produce materials suitable for study combined with new insights to expound the differences in the nanoscale physics. Nonthermal plasma-assisted gas-phase synthesis provides an excellent route to producing and investigating impurities within SiNCs due to the unique chemical reaction environment of the plasma. The robustness of such a technique allows for the production of very pure SiNCs or SiNCs with added impurities simply by adding different chemicals to the plasma. The chapters in this document focus on the effect that different impurities have on the properties of SiNCs. Chapter 2 focuses on heavily P-doped SiNCs exhibiting the first known observation of a unique electrical and optical property known as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) within free-standing SiNCs. Chapter 3 explains the synthesis of B- and P-doped SiGeNC alloys and their deposition into thin films for thermoelectric applications. Chapter 4 highlights research which uses P-doped SiNCs to form emitter layers for pn-junction type solar cells, including device fabrication and optical characterization. Chapter 5 examines inherent impurities in the form of dangling bond defects which may be responsible for the quenching of SiNC photoluminescence, and their evolution during the process of air-ambient oxidation. Several appendices at

  14. Wound healing in urology. (United States)

    Ninan, Neethu; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves


    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex phenomenon of replacing devitalized tissues in the body. Urethral healing takes place in four phases namely inflammation, proliferation, maturation and remodelling, similar to dermal healing. However, the duration of each phase of wound healing in urology is extended for a longer period when compared to that of dermatology. An ideal wound dressing material removes exudate, creates a moist environment, offers protection from foreign substances and promotes tissue regeneration. A single wound dressing material shall not be sufficient to treat all kinds of wounds as each wound is distinct. This review includes the recent attempts to explore the hidden potential of growth factors, stem cells, siRNA, miRNA and drugs for promoting wound healing in urology. The review also discusses the different technologies used in hospitals to treat wounds in urology, which make use of innovative biomaterials synthesised in regenerative medicines like hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, films etc., incorporated with growth factors, drug molecules or nanoparticles. These include surgical zippers, laser tissue welding, negative pressure wound therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

  15. Healing relationships and the existential philosophy of Martin Buber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Kurt C


    Full Text Available Abstract The dominant unspoken philosophical basis of medical care in the United States is a form of Cartesian reductionism that views the body as a machine and medical professionals as technicians whose job is to repair that machine. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for an alternative philosophy of medicine based on the concept of healing relationships between clinicians and patients. This is accomplished first by exploring the ethical and philosophical work of Pellegrino and Thomasma and then by connecting Martin Buber's philosophical work on the nature of relationships to an empirically derived model of the medical healing relationship. The Healing Relationship Model was developed by the authors through qualitative analysis of interviews of physicians and patients. Clinician-patient healing relationships are a special form of what Buber calls I-Thou relationships, characterized by dialog and mutuality, but a mutuality limited by the inherent asymmetry of the clinician-patient relationship. The Healing Relationship Model identifies three processes necessary for such relationships to develop and be sustained: Valuing, Appreciating Power and Abiding. We explore in detail how these processes, as well as other components of the model resonate with Buber's concepts of I-Thou and I-It relationships. The resulting combined conceptual model illuminates the wholeness underlying the dual roles of clinicians as healers and providers of technical biomedicine. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that health care should be focused on healing, with I-Thou relationships at its core.

  16. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work concerns the development of a prototype of a Volume Scattering Function (VSF) sensor for measurement of this inherent optical property(IOP) of seawater....

  17. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light propagation in the sea and the consequent remote sensing signals seen by aircraft and spacecraft is fundamentally governed by the inherent optical properties...

  18. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok K. Singal


    We show that a partial coherence due to antenna mechanism can be inherently present in any compact synchrotron source, which resolves many long-standing problems in the spectra and variability of compact extragalactic radio sources.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova


    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  20. Inherently safe reactors and a second nuclear era. (United States)

    Weinberg, A M; Spiewak, I


    The Swedish PIUS reactor and the German-American small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor are inherently safe-that is, their safety relies not upon intervention of humans or of electromechanical devices but on immutable principles of physics and chemistry. A second nuclear era may require commercialization and deployment of such inherently safe reactors, even though existing light-water reactors appear to be as safe as other well-accepted sources of central electricity, particularly hydroelectric dams.

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Bhutani


    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is the use of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. Today several approved applications and indications exist for HBOT. HBOT has been successfully used as adjunctive therapy for wound healing. Non-healing wounds such as diabetic and vascular insufficiency ulcers have been one major area of study for hyperbaric physicians where use of HBOT as an adjunct has been approved for use by way of various studies and trials. HBOT is also indicated for infected wounds like clostridial myonecrosis, necrotising soft tissue infections, Fournier′s gangrene, as also for traumatic wounds, crush injury, compartment syndrome, compromised skin grafts and flaps and thermal burns. Another major area of application of HBOT is radiation-induced wounds, specifically osteoradionecrosis of mandible, radiation cystitis and radiation proctitis. With the increase in availability of chambers across the country, and with increasing number of studies proving the benefits of adjunctive use for various kinds of wounds and other indications, HBOT should be considered in these situations as an essential part of the overall management strategy for the treating surgeon.

  2. Healing the nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Dortzbach


    Full Text Available This article gives the motivations, methodology and some results of a study done in Christian healing interventions in African contexts of� stress and violence. Healing in community has been viewed through the prism of �shalom�. Shalom occurs when people who are in a� right� relationship with God� and� each other enjoy and share together the resources of the earth� in ways� that� show Christ� is Lord of all creation. Charts are given showing� the various kinds of community needs, ways to intervene, and some indications of ways to evaluate the interventions.

  3. Fracture behaviors of ceramic tissue scaffolds for load bearing applications


    Ali Entezari; Seyed-Iman Roohani-Esfahani; Zhongpu Zhang; Hala Zreiqat; Dunstan, Colin R.; Qing Li


    Healing large bone defects, especially in weight-bearing locations, remains a challenge using available synthetic ceramic scaffolds. Manufactured as a scaffold using 3D printing technology, Sr-HT-Gahnite at high porosity (66%) had demonstrated significantly improved compressive strength (53 ± 9 MPa) and toughness. Nevertheless, the main concern of ceramic scaffolds in general remains to be their inherent brittleness and low fracture strength in load bearing applications. Therefore, it is cruc...

  4. 42 CFR 60.32 - The HEAL lender or holder insurance contract. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The HEAL lender or holder insurance contract. 60.32... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.32 The HEAL lender or holder insurance contract. (a)(1) If the Secretary approves an application to be a HEAL lender or holder, the Secretary and...

  5. Self-healing mechanism based on dispersed solid particles of various monomeric bismaleimides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, D.H.; Fischer, H.R.


    In view of self-healing materials for high temperature applications we have studied the use of solid monomeric bismaleimide particles as embedded self-healing component dispersed in a host material. Below the self-healing activation temperature, bismaleimides remain inert while above it they may rap

  6. Effect of topical application of fibronectin in duodenal wound healing in rats Efeito da aplicação tópica da fibronectina em feridas duodenais de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Neuma de Souza Brito


    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN, a large family of plasma and extracellular matrix glycoproteins, plays an important role in wound healing. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fibronectin on the healing of sutured duodenal wounds, correlating with the serum and tissue level of the substance. METHODS: An experimental study was done in 30 adult Wistar rats divided into two group. In the control group (n=15 a duodenal suture was treated with saline solution 0,9% and in the test group the duodenal wounds were treated with 1% FN. The duodenal wound healing process was studied in the 5th, 7tn and 10th postoperative days, by histological sections stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichromic and immunohistochemical reaction for FN. A digital histological grading system was used to obtain a score for each group and to observe the healing process. RESULTS: the FN was present in the several layers of the duodenum and the cellular and plasmatic FN increased with the evolution of healing. In the test group the FN enhanced the wound healing within 5, 7 and 10 days after injury, when compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The topical use of FN in duodenal sutured wounds in rats enhances healing by stimulating the appearence of fibroblasts into the wound site and development of granulation tissue. This acceleration of the repair process may have an important application in the healing of duodenal wounds.A fibronectina (FN, um componente da grande família das glicoproteínas do plasma e da matriz extracelular, desempenha um importante papel na cicatrização das feridas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da fibronectina na cicatrização de lesões duodenais suturadas, e estabelecer correlação dos parâmetros de cicatrização com os níveis tissulares e séricos da substância. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo experimental com 30 ratos Wistar adultos dividos em dois grupos. No grupo de controle (n=15 uma lesão duodenal suturada foi tratada com aplicação tópica de 1ml

  7. Healing Invisible Wounds (United States)

    Adams, Erica J.


    As many as 9 in 10 justice-involved youth are affected by traumatic childhood experiences. According to "Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense," between 75 and 93 percent of youth currently incarcerated in the justice system have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual…

  8. Fibronectin and wound healing. (United States)

    Grinnell, F


    I have tried to briefly review the evidence (summarized in Table II) indicating that fibronectin is important in cutaneous wound healing. Fibronectin appears to be an important factor throughout this process. It promotes the spreading of platelets at the site of injury, the adhesion and migration of neutrophils, monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells into the wound region, and the migration of epidermal cells through the granulation tissue. At the level of matrix synthesis, fibronectin appears to be involved both in the organization of the granulation tissue and basement membrane. In terms of tissue remodeling, fibronectin functions as a nonimmune opsonin for phagocytosis of debris by fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and under some circumstances, macrophages. Fibronectin also enhances the phagocytosis of immune-opsonized particles by monocytes, but whether this includes phagocytosis of bacteria remains to be determined. In general, phagocytosis of bacteria has not appeared to involve fibronectin. On the contrary, the presence of fibronectin in the wound bed may promote bacterial attachment and infection. Because of the ease of experimental manipulations, wound healing experiments have been carried out on skin more frequently than other tissues. As a result, the possible role of fibronectin has not been investigated thoroughly in the repair of internal organs and tissues. Nevertheless, it seems reasonable to speculate that fibronectin plays a central role in all wound healing situations. Finally, the wound healing problems of patients with severe factor XIII deficiencies may occur because of their inability to incorporate fibronectin into blood clots.

  9. Self-healing supramolecular nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.


    The aim of this thesis is to execute a bottom-up design of the intrinsically self-healing nanocomposites. We briefly introduced the self-healing materials in chapter 1, covering classification and basic self-healing mechanism. In chapter 2, we have synthesized polyborosiloxane (PBS) according to th

  10. Grubbs催化剂及其在聚合物基复合材料自修复中应用%Grubbs catalyst and its application in self-healing polymeric composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪祚; 王颖


    The basic structure and properties of Grubbs catalyst and its application in the ring-opening metathesis polumerization of dicyclopentadiene and the self-healing polymeric composite by microcapsule technology were introduced briefly.%对格拉布(Grubbs)催化剂的结构及特性,催化对双环戊二烯的开环复分解聚合反应及其在自修复聚合物基复合材料中的应用开拓,进行了扼要的综述.




    In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of vario...

  12. Thermally responsive polymer electrolytes for inherently safe electrochemical energy storage (United States)

    Kelly, Jesse C.

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs), supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries have emerged as premier candidates to meet the rising demands in energy storage; however, such systems are limited by thermal hazards, thermal runaway, fires and explosions, all of which become increasingly more dangerous in large-format devices. To prevent such scenarios, thermally-responsive polymer electrolytes (RPEs) that alter properties in electrochemical energy storage devices were designed and tested. These RPEs will be used to limit or halt device operation when temperatures increase beyond a predetermined threshold, therefore limiting further heating. The development of these responsive systems will offer an inherent safety mechanism in electrochemical energy storage devices, while preserving the performance, lifetimes, and versatility that large-format systems require. Initial work focused on the development of a model system that demonstrated the concept of RPEs in an electrochemical device. Aqueous electrolyte solutions of polymers exhibiting properties that change in response to temperature were developed for applications in EDLCs and supercapacitors. These "smart materials" provide a means to control electrochemical systems where polymer phase separation at high temperatures affects electrolyte properties and inhibits device performance. Aqueous RPEs were synthesized using N-isopropylacrylamide, which governs the thermal properties, and fractions of acrylic acid or vinyl sulfonic acids, which provide ions to the solution. The molecular properties of these aqueous RPEs, specifically the ionic composition, were shown to influence the temperature-dependent electrolyte properties and the extent to which these electrolytes control the energy storage characteristics of a supercapacitor device. Materials with high ionic content provided the highest room temperature conductivity and electrochemical activity; however, RPEs with low ionic content provided the highest "on

  13. On Four Ways against Cooperative Principle & Inherent Conversational Implicatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By using methods of theoretical review,and example analysis,this paper aims at further analyzing Grice’s 4 ways of against the Cooperative Principle and inherent conversational implicatures in order to prove that once the Cooperative Principle is violated,the conversational implicatures arise.This will benefit the communicational practice.This paper finds out that any way against CP must cause conversational implicatures.There are limitations in this paper.It just covers the four ways of Grice introduced by Jiang Wangqi(2000),and inherent conversational implicatures found by the author.It might have other ways and implicatures as well.

  14. On Four Ways against Cooperative Principle& Inherent Conversational Implicatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By using methods of theoretical review,and example analysis,this paper aims at further analyzing Grice’s 4 ways of against the Cooperative Principle and inherent conversational implicatures in order to prove that once the Cooperative Principle is violated,the conversational implicatures arise.This will benefit the communicational practice.This paper finds out that any way against CP must cause conversational implicatures.There are limitations in this paper.It just covers the four ways of Grice introduced by Jiang Wangqi(2000),and inherent conversational implicatures found by the author.It might have other ways and implicatures as well.

  15. Acceleration of cutaneous wound healing by brassinosteroids. (United States)

    Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Schmidt, Barbara; Shakarjian, Michael P; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Raskin, Ilya


    Brassinosteroids are plant growth hormones involved in cell growth, division, and differentiation. Their effects in animals are largely unknown, although recent studies showed that the anabolic properties of brassinosteroids are possibly mediated through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway. Here, we examined biological activity of homobrassinolide (HB) and its synthetic analogues in in vitro proliferation and migration assays in murine fibroblast and primary keratinocyte cell culture. HB stimulated fibroblast proliferation and migration and weakly induced keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. The effects of topical HB administration on progression of wound closure were further tested in the mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. C57BL/6J mice were given a full-thickness dermal wound, and the rate of wound closure was assessed daily for 10 days, with adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 as a positive control. Topical application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced wound size and accelerated wound healing in treated animals. mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 were significantly lower, while tumor necrosis factor alpha was nearly suppressed in the wounds from treated mice. Our data suggest that topical application of brassinosteroids accelerates wound healing by positively modulating inflammatory and reepithelialization phases of the wound repair process, in part by enhancing Akt signaling in the skin at the edges of the wound and enhancing migration of fibroblasts in the wounded area. Targeting this signaling pathway with brassinosteroids may represent a promising approach to the therapy of delayed wound healing.

  16. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jumaat Mohd. Yussof


    Full Text Available Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth factors initiate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. Inflammation is followed by the proliferation of fibroblasts, which lay down the extracellular matrix. Simultaneously, various white cells and other connective tissue cells release both the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and the tissue inhibitors of these metalloproteinases (TIMPs. MMPs remove damaged structural proteins such as collagen, while the fibroblasts lay down fresh extracellular matrix proteins. Fluid collected from acute, healing wounds contains growth factors, and stimulates fibroblast proliferation, but fluid collected from chronic, nonhealing wounds does not. Fibroblasts from chronic wounds do not respond to chronic wound fluid, probably because the fibroblasts of these wounds have lost the receptors that respond to cytokines and growth factors. Nonhealing wounds contain high levels of IL1, IL6, and MMPs, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio. Clinical examination of wounds inconsistently predicts which wounds will heal when procedures like secondary closure are planned. Surgeons therefore hope that these chemicals can be used as biomarkers of wounds which have impaired ability to heal. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will help the healing of chronic, nonhealing wounds.

  17. Self-healing polymers (United States)

    Klein, Daniel J. (Inventor)


    A three dimensional structure fabricated from a self-healing polymeric material, comprising poly(ester amides) obtained from ethylene glycol, azelaic acid and 1,1-aminoundecanoic acid, wherein polymeric material has a melt index above 2.5 g/10 min. as determined by ASTM D1238 at C. and 2.16kg, impact resistance and ductility sufficient to resist cracking and brittle fracture upon impact by a 9 mm bullet fired at a temperature of about C. at subsonic speed in a range from about 800 feet/sec to about 1000 feet/sec. It has been determined that the important factors necessary for self-healing behavior of polymers include sufficient impact strength, control of the degree of crystallinity, low melting point and the ability to instantly melt at impacted area.

  18. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson


    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment. Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine



    S. I. Artiukhova; T. T. Tolstoguzova


    Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechn...

  20. Photoresponsive Self-Healing Polymer Composite with Photoabsorbing Hybrid Microcapsules. (United States)

    Gao, Lei; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Chao


    Microcapsule-based self-healing polymer materials are highly desirable because they can heal large-volume cracks without changing the original chemical structures of polymers. However, they are limited by processing difficulties and inhomogeneous distributions of two components. Herein, we report a one-component photoresponsive self-healing polymer composite with photoabsorbing hybrid microcapsules (PAHM), which gives the microcapsules photoabsorbing properties by introducing nano-TiO2 particles as photoabsorbing and emulsified agents in the poly(urea-formaldehyde)/TiO2 hybrid shells. Upon mechanical damage and then exposure to light, the photoresponsive healing agents in the cracks will be solidified to allow for self-healing, while the healing agents in the unbroken PAHM will be protected and remain unreacted, which endows this photoresponsive microcapsule-based self-healing composite with self-healing properties like those found in the conventional two-component microcapsule-based systems. Given the universality of this hybrid polymerization method, incorporation of the photoabsorbing particles to conventional polymer shells may further broaden the scope of applications of these widely used materials.

  1. Attenuated Realities: Pynchon's Trajectory from V. to Inherent Vice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hume


    Full Text Available Part of what established Pynchon as postmodern was his piling up of multiple realities. Hence, the surprise that 'Inherent Vice' retains only the most attenuated forms of such worlds alternative to our own. In earlier fiction, we find a world served by the Tristero postal system, a world inhabited by angels, by thanatoids and other forms of the dead, by Japanese film monsters, by giant vegetables. In Pynchon’s fictive realities, an airship can sail beneath desert sand or through the center of the globe via Symmes’s Hole, and the photograph of a corpse can be run backward in time to show its murderer. Up through 'Against the Day', Pynchon showered us with alternate realities that reached beyond the material world that most of us accept as 'alles, was der Fall ist'. 'Inherent Vice' departs from this vision. Has Pynchon simply grown up? Or grown old? Or is something else operating here? I will provide a brief taxonomy of Pynchon’s multiple worlds as characterized by paranoia, mysticism, religion, and humor and then analyze what remains of these in 'Inherent Vice'. Among the causes for his changed technique may be his choice of genre. The detective story is epistemological rather than ontological in its questions, so Pynchon concerns himself far more with what Doc Sportello can know than with making him navigate through multiple realities. I argue, however, that 'Inherent Vice' is surprisingly a worst-case scenario for Pynchon.

  2. Tactical supply chain planning models with inherent flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmaeilikia, Masoud; Fahimnia, Behnam; Sarkis, Joeseph


    Supply chains (SCs) can be managed at many levels. The use of tactical SC planning models with multiple flexibility options can help manage the usual operations efficiently and effectively, whilst improve the SC resiliency in response to inherent environmental uncertainties. This paper defines...

  3. Multifunctional composites: Healing, heating and electromagnetic integration (United States)

    Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John


    Multifunctional materials, in the context of this research, integrate other functions into materials that foremost have outstanding structural integrity. Details of the integration of electromagnetic, heating, and healing functionalities into fiber-reinforced polymer composites are presented. As a result of fiber/wire integration through textile braiding and weaving, the dielectric constant of a composite may be tuned from negative to positive values. These wires are further leveraged to uniformly heat the composite through resistive heating. A healing functionality is introduced by utilizing a polymer matrix with the ability to heal internal cracking through thermally-reversible covalent bonds based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The Double Cleavage Drilled Compression (DCDC) specimen is applied to study the fracture and healing characteristics of the neat polymer. This method allows for quantitative evaluation of incremental crack growth, and ensures that the cracked sample remains in one piece after the test, improving the ability to re-align the fracture surfaces prior to healing. Initially, the fracture strength of PMMA is studied with various DCDC geometries to develop a model of the propagation of a crack within this type of specimen. Applied to the healable polymer (2MEP4F), repeated fracture-healing cycles demonstrate that treatment at temperatures between 85 to 95°C results in full fracture toughness recovery and no dimensional changes due to creep. The fracture toughness after each fracturing and healing cycle has been calculated, using the model, to yield a fracture toughness of about 0.71 MPa·m1/2 for this material at room temperature. Glass and carbon fiber-reinforced composites have been fabricated with the 2MEP4F polymer, and the ability of this polymer to heal microcracks in fiber-reinforced composites is demonstrated. Microcracks have been introduced into the composites by cryogenic cycling in liquid nitrogen, causing a reduction in the storage

  4. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind


    ONiAl do not rule out CLC as a viable alternative for CO2 capture, but long term durability studies along with realistic testing of the carrier in a continuous rig is needed to firmly conclude. For comparative purposes a perovskite was synthesized and tested in CLC, under similar conditions as NiONiAl. The results indicate that in a moving bed CLC application, perovskites have inherent disadvantages as compared to simpler compounds, by virtue of low relative oxygen content. (Author)

  5. The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams


    Full Text Available Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing.

  6. Identifikasi Leptin pada Kesembuhan Luka Tikus yang Diberi Pakan Lemak Tinggi dan Aplikasi Zinc Topikal (LEPTIN IDENTIFICATION ON WOUND HEALING OF RAT GIVEN HIGH FAT DIET AND TOPICAL ZINC APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devita Anggraeni


    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes and play an important role in wound healing. The objectiveof this research was to study the role of leptin in wound healing in mice experimentally given high fat dietsand its correlation to zinc. Thirty two male Sprague Dawley rats at three months of age were used in thisstudy. Rats were randomly allotted into four groups (A,B,C and D of 8. Rats in group A and B were fednormal diet, while rats in group C and D were fed high fat diet. After two months of treatment, skin incisionsurgery was performed at the back side of the rat. Incision wound was closed with single interruptedsuture. The wound of rats in group A and C were treated with vaseline, while in the group B and D weretreated with zinc 10%. One day after surgery, blood sample were collected frpm four rats from each groupand analysed for leptin (Rat leptin ELISA Int, Genway Biotech Inc. Wounded skin from all animals werealso taken for histopathological examination (Haematoxylin and Eosin. Three days after the surgery, thesame analysis were done for the remaining rats. Leptin level was analyzed statistically using ANOVA forfactorial experiment, while histopathologic analysis was done descriptively. The results showed that theleptin level was significantly affected by time (P<0.05, as leptin level in blood at three days after surgerywas significantly lower than the level at one day after surgery. Meanwhile, histopathological examinationshowed that the percentage of epidermal closure in animals in group A,B,C,and D were 75%, 100%, 25%and 75%, respectivelly. Therefore, it was concluded that topical application of zinc might have significanteffect on the wound healing of the rats fed normal diets as well as these that given a high fat diet.

  7. A new self-healing epoxy with tungsten (VI) chloride catalyst. (United States)

    Kamphaus, Jason M; Rule, Joseph D; Moore, Jeffrey S; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R


    Using self-healing materials in commercial applications requires healing chemistry that is cost-effective, widely available and tolerant of moderate temperature excursions. We investigate the use of tungsten (VI) chloride as a catalyst precursor for the ring-opening metathesis polymerization of exo-dicyclopentadiene (exo-DCPD) in self-healing applications as a means to achieve these goals. The environmental stability of WCl6 using three different delivery methods was evaluated and the associated healing performance was assessed following fracture toughness recovery protocols. Both as-received and recrystallized forms of the WCl6 resulted in nearly complete fracture recovery in self-activated tests, where healing agent is manually injected into the crack plane, at 12wt% WCl6 loading. In situ healing using 15wt% microcapsules of the exo-DCPD produced healing efficiencies of approximately 20%.

  8. Efficacy of frog skin lipids in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram Rama


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frog skin has been sequentially and scientifically evaluated by our group for its wound healing efficiency. Owing to the complex structure of skin, attempts were being made to analyse the role of individual constituents in different phases of healing. Our earlier papers have shown the significance of frog skin not only in wound healing but also enhancing the proliferating activity of the epidermal and dermal cells which are instrumental for normal healing process. We also have identified for the first time novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of Rana tigerina and thereby reduce the complications involved in the sepsis. Purpose of the study and Results The current study envisages the role of frog skin lipids in the inflammatory phase of wound healing. The lipid moiety of the frog skin dominated by phospholipids exhibited a dose dependent acceleration of healing irrespective of the mode of application. The efficiency of the extract is attributed partially to the anti-inflammatory activity as observed by the histochemical and immunostimulatory together with plethysmographic studies. Conclusions Thus, frog skin for the first time has been demonstrated to possess lipid components with pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. The identification and characterization of such natural healing molecules and evaluating their mechanism of action would therefore provide basis for understanding the cues of Nature and hence can be used for application in medicine.

  9. Trehalose lyophilized platelets for wound healing. (United States)

    Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Kaipainen, Arja; Ho, David; Orser, Cindy; Pebley, Walter; Rudolph, Alan; Orgill, Dennis P


    Fresh platelet preparations are utilized to treat a wide variety of wounds, although storage limitations and mixed results have hampered their clinical use. We hypothesized that concentrated lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations, preserved with trehalose, maintain and possibly enhance fresh platelets' ability to improve wound healing. We studied the ability of a single dose of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets to enhance wound healing when topically applied on full-thickness wounds in the genetically diabetic mouse. We compared these results with the application of multiple doses of fresh platelet preparations and trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets as well as multiple doses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and wounds left untreated. Trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets, in single and multiple applications, multiple applications of fresh platelets and multiple applications of VEGF increased granulation tissue deposition, vascularity, and proliferation when compared with untreated wounds, as assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Wounds treated with multiple doses of VEGF and a single dose of freeze-dried platelets reached 90% closure faster than wounds left untreated. A single administration of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations enhanced diabetic wound healing, therefore representing a promising strategy for the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

  10. [Advances in the effects of pH value of micro-environment on wound healing]. (United States)

    Tian, Ruirui; Li, Na; Wei, Li


    Wound healing is a complex regeneration process, which is affected by lots of endogenous and exogenous factors. Researches have confirmed that acid environment could prevent wound infection and accelerate wound healing by inhibiting bacteria proliferation, promoting oxygen release, affecting keratinocyte proliferation and migration, etc. In this article, we review the literature to identify the potential relationship between the pH value of wound micro-environment and the progress of wound healing, and summarize the clinical application of variation of pH value of micro-environment in wound healing, thereby to provide new treatment strategy for wound healing.

  11. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi


    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  12. Combined application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and functional electrical stimulation accelerates bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model. (United States)

    Hu, Jianzhong; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Ling; Lu, Hongbin


    The objective of this study was to elucidate the combined use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on patella-patellar tendon (PPT) junction healing using a partial patellectomy model in rabbits. LIPUS was delivered continuously starting day 3 postoperative until week 6. FES was applied on quadriceps muscles to induce tensile force to the repaired PPT junction 5 days per week for 6 weeks since week 7 postoperatively. Forty rabbits with partial patellectomy were randomly divided into four groups: control, LIPUS alone, FES alone, and LIPUS + FES groups. At week 12, the PPT complexes were harvested for histology, radiographs, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and biomechanical testing. There was better remodeling of newly formed bone and fibrocartilage zone in the three treatment groups compared with the control group. LIPUS and/or FES treatments significantly increased the area and bone mineral content of new bone. The failure load and ultimate strength of PPT complex were also highly improved in the three treatment groups. More new bone formed and higher tensile properties were showed in the LIPUS + FES group compared with the LIPUS or FES alone groups. Early LIPUS treatment and later FES treatment showed the additive effects of accelerating PPT junction healing.

  13. Self-Healing by Means of Runtime Execution Profiling

    CERN Document Server

    Fuad, Mohammad Muztaba; Baek, Jinsuk


    A self-healing application brings itself into a stable state after a failure put the software into an unstable state. For such self-healing software application, finding fix for a previously unseen fault is a grand challenge. Asking the user to provide fixes for every fault is bad for productivity, especially when the users are non-savvy in technical aspect of computing. If failure scenarios come into existence, the user wants the runtime environment to handle those situations autonomically. This paper presents a new technique of finding self-healing actions by matching a fault scenario to already established fault models. By profiling and capturing runtime parameters and execution pathWays, stable execution models are established and later are used to match with an unstable execution scenario. Experimentation and results are presented that showed that even with additional overheads; this technique can prove beneficial for autonomically healing faults and reliving system administrators from mundane troublesho...

  14. Cyto- and genotoxicological assessment and functional characterization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid-based copolymeric hydrogels with potential for future use in wound healing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirf, Dominik; Devery, Sinead M [Department of Life and Physical Science, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Higginbotham, Clement L [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Rowan, Neil J, E-mail: sdevery@ait.i, E-mail: dkirf@ait.i, E-mail: chigginbotham@ait.i, E-mail: nrowan@ait.i [Department of Nursing and Health Science, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland)


    This study investigated the toxicity of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid copolymer hydrogels crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate. There is a pressing need to establish the toxicity status of these new copolymers because they may find applications in future wound healing processes. Investigations revealed that the capacity of these hydrogels for swelling permitted the retention of high amounts of water yet still maintaining structural integrity. Reverse phase HPLC analysis suggested that unreacted monomeric base material was efficiently removed post-polymerization by applying an additional purification process. Subsequently, in vitro toxicity testing was performed utilizing direct and indirect contact exposure of the polymers to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. No indication of significant cell death was observed using the established MTT, neutral red (NR) and fluorescence-based toxicity endpoint indicators. In addition, the alkaline Comet assay showed no genotoxic effects following cell exposure to hydrogel extracts. Investigations at the nucleotide level using the Ames mutagenicity assay demonstrated no evidence of mutagenic activity associated with the polymers. Findings from this study demonstrated that these hydrogels are non-cytotoxic and further work can be carried out to investigate their potential as a wound-healing device that will impact positively on patient health and well-being.

  15. Music Healing Rituals in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussakorn Binson


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the music healing rituals from North, Northeast and Southern Thailand. In general, these healing rituals bring together supportive elements from the family, the community and spiritual entities with the shaman as a conductor. Shaman utilizes music in corporate the community as a whole including elicits the support from the spiritual entitles. Traditional music healing process played the role as enticement to recruit spirits, distract the patients from experiencing unpleasant in their body. Even in today’s modern society these healing rituals have persisted, as they are inseparable from these regions’ animistic beliefs system.

  16. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P


    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment...

  17. Stereotypes, Students’ Perceptions and Inherent Creativity: Further Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Baxter


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to: ascertain how first year university students perceive accounting in a timeperiod following the high profile corporate collapses of the early 21st century; understand the factors thatinfluence these perceptions; and determine if there is an association between students’ perceptions ofaccounting and their inherent creativity. The findings of the study show that the majority of first yearuniversity students still hold a traditional stereotypical perception of accounting. School teachers and subjectswere reported by the students as being the main influences on their perceptions. Students’ perceptions ofaccounting are also linked to their inherent creativity. A limitation of the study is that the sample is drawnfrom students at two Australian universities. Therefore, the results may not generalise to other institutions.This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on students’ perceptions of accounting and theimpact of various factors. There are implications for educators in designing appropriate curricula and thepromotion of accounting by the accounting profession.

  18. Innovation and wound healing. (United States)

    Harding, Keith


    Innovation in medicine requires unique partnerships between academic research, biotech or pharmaceutical companies, and health-care providers. While innovation in medicine has greatly increased over the past 100 years, innovation in wound care has been slow, despite the fact that chronic wounds are a global health challenge where there is a need for technical, process and social innovation. While novel partnerships between research and the health-care system have been created, we still have much to learn about wound care and the wound-healing processes.

  19. Microencapsulation of Self-healing Concrete Properties (United States)


    particle board, hardwood plywood and laminating adhesive. Some of the properties of this chemical includes a high surface hardness, volumetric...flexibility to place healing plies in different locations within the laminate in order to tailor the repair to the likely damage. This is an excellent... textile and lumber processing. In concrete applications, this product is used to reduce the concrete porosity. When added, a chemical reaction occurs

  20. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing. (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E


    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that were shown to directly affect skin wound healing. To date, TiRe contains 397 entries for four organisms: Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus domesticus, and Homo sapiens. Analysis of the TiRe dataset of skin wound healing-associated genes showed that skin wound healing genes are (i) over-conserved among vertebrates, but are under-conserved in invertebrates; (ii) enriched in extracellular and immuno-inflammatory genes; and display (iii) high interconnectivity and connectivity to other proteins. The latter may provide potential therapeutic targets. In addition, a slower or faster skin wound healing is indicative of an aging or longevity phenotype only when assessed in advanced ages, but not in the young. In the long run, we aim for TiRe to be a one-station resource that provides researchers and clinicians with the essential data needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing, designing new experiments, and the development of new therapeutic strategies. TiRe is freely available online at

  1. Inherent Shear-Dilatation Coexistence in Metallic Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Min-Qiang; JIANG Si-Yue; DAI Lan-Hong


    Shear deformation can induce normal stress or hydrostatic stress in metallic glasses [Nature Mater. 2 (2003) 449, Intermetallics 14 (2006) 1033]. We perform the bulk deformation of three-dimensional Cu46Zr54 metallic glass (MG) and Cu single crystal model systems using molecular dynamics simulation. The results indicate that hydrostatic stress can incur shear stress in MG, but not in crystal. The resultant pronounced asymmetry between tension and compression originates from this inherent shear-dilatation coexistence in MG.

  2. Bioethanol production from germinated grain by inherent enzymes


    Kádár, Zsófia; Christensen, Anne Deen; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda


    The malting in brewing process develops enzymes that are required to hydrolyze the complex starch in grain into simple fermentable sugars. These proceed the three following steps: Steeping encourages germination to start, germination prepares the conversion of the starch to sugars, and kilning stops the germination. In this study, a method for bioethanol production from rye grain was developed by utilizing the inherent amylase activity from germination of the seed. Grain germination was pe...

  3. Unusual inherent electrochemistry of graphene oxides prepared using permanganate oxidants. (United States)

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Saněk, Filip; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin


    Graphene and graphene oxides are materials of significant interest in electrochemical devices such as supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and sensors. Graphene oxides and reduced graphenes are typically prepared by oxidizing graphite in strong mineral acid mixtures with chlorate (Staudenmaier, Hofmann) or permanganate (Hummers, Tour) oxidants. Herein, we reveal that graphene oxides pose inherent electrochemistry, that is, they can be oxidized or reduced at relatively mild potentials (within the range ±1 V) that are lower than typical battery potentials. This inherent electrochemistry of graphene differs dramatically from that of the used oxidants. Graphene oxides prepared using chlorate exhibit chemically irreversible reductions, whereas graphene oxides prepared through permanganate-based methods exhibit very unusual inherent chemically reversible electrochemistry of oxygen-containing groups. Insight into the electrochemical behaviour was obtained through cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Our findings are of extreme importance for the electrochemistry community as they reveal that electrode materials undergo cyclic changes in charge/discharge cycles, which has strong implications for energy-storage and sensing devices.

  4. Healing agent for self-healing cementious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.M.


    The invention provides a process for the production of a cementious material. The process comprises mixing cement starting materials and a particulate healing agent to provide the cementious material. The healing agent comprises coated particles, wherein the coated particles comprise bacterial mater

  5. The effects of caffeine on wound healing. (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Pastar, Irena; Sawaya, Andrew; Yin, Natalie; Tomic-Canic, Marjana


    The purine alkaloid caffeine is a major component of many beverages such as coffee and tea. Caffeine and its metabolites theobromine and xanthine have been shown to have antioxidant properties. Caffeine can also act as adenosine-receptor antagonist. Although it has been shown that adenosine and antioxidants promote wound healing, the effect of caffeine on wound healing is currently unknown. To investigate the effects of caffeine on processes involved in epithelialisation, we used primary human keratinocytes, HaCaT cell line and ex vivo model of human skin. First, we tested the effects of caffeine on cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration, processes essential for normal wound epithelialisation and closure. We used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation assay to test the effects of seven different caffeine doses ranging from 0·1 to 5 mM. We found that caffeine restricted cell proliferation of keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, scratch wound assays performed on keratinocyte monolayers indicated dose-dependent delays in cell migration. Interestingly, adhesion and differentiation remained unaffected in monolayer cultures treated with various doses of caffeine. Using a human ex vivo wound healing model, we tested topical application of caffeine and found that it impedes epithelialisation, confirming in vitro data. We conclude that caffeine, which is known to have antioxidant properties, impedes keratinocyte proliferation and migration, suggesting that it may have an inhibitory effect on wound healing and epithelialisation. Therefore, our findings are more in support of a role for caffeine as adenosine-receptor antagonist that would negate the effect of adenosine in promoting wound healing.

  6. Humor's healing potential. (United States)

    Seaward, B L


    In the past three decades the medical world has begun to take more serious notice of the healing power of humor and the positive emotions associated with it. Humor and laughter are currently being employed by psychotherapists and other care givers as tools to promote and maintain health, as well as intervention and rehabilitation tools for a host of maladies and illnesses related to stress and life-style. Although this empirical medical approach is relatively new, the study of humor has revealed a complex psychological phenomenon. Senses of humor have been categorized in types associated with personality. Humor has many styles and can be found in almost any situation, on any occasion. Theories of humor include the superiority theory, the incongruity theory, the release/relief theory, and the divinity theory. Laughter has many clinical benefits, promoting beneficial physiological changes and an overall sense of well-being. Humor even has long-term effects that strengthen the effectiveness of the immune system. In healthcare, humor therapy can help relieve stress associated with disease and illness. It serves as a diversionary tactic, a therapeutic tool for disorders such as depression, and a coping mechanism. It also is a natural healing component for care givers trying to cope with the stress and personal demands of their occupations.

  7. All-printed magnetically self-healing electrochemical devices. (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; López, Cristian S; Vinu Mohan, Allibai Mohanan; Yin, Lu; Kumar, Rajan; Wang, Joseph


    The present work demonstrates the synthesis and application of permanent magnetic Nd2Fe14B microparticle (NMP)-loaded graphitic inks for realizing rapidly self-healing inexpensive printed electrochemical devices. The incorporation of NMPs into the printable ink imparts impressive self-healing ability to the printed conducting trace, with rapid (~50 ms) recovery of repeated large (3 mm) damages at the same or different locations without any user intervention or external trigger. The permanent and surrounding-insensitive magnetic properties of the NMPs thus result in long-lasting ability to repair extreme levels of damage, independent of ambient conditions. This remarkable self-healing capability has not been reported for existing man-made self-healing systems and offers distinct advantages over common capsule and intrinsically self-healing systems. The printed system has been characterized by leveraging crystallographic, magnetic hysteresis, microscopic imaging, electrical conductivity, and electrochemical techniques. The real-life applicability of the new self-healing concept is demonstrated for the autonomous repair of all-printed batteries, electrochemical sensors, and wearable textile-based electrical circuits, indicating considerable promise for widespread practical applications and long-lasting printed electronic devices.

  8. Combined effect of PLGA and curcumin on wound healing activity. (United States)

    Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Coco, Régis; Memvanga, Patrick B; Ucakar, Bernard; des Rieux, Anne; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique


    Wound healing is a complex process involving many interdependent and overlapping sequences of physiological actions. The application of exogenous lactate released from poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing processes. Curcumin is a well-known topical wound healing agent for both normal and diabetic-impaired wounds. Hence, we hypothesized that the PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin could much potentially accelerate the wound healing. In a full thickness excisional wound healing mouse model, PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles showed a twofold higher wound healing activity compared to that of PLGA or curcumin. Histology and RT-PCR studies confirmed that PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited higher re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and anti-inflammatory potential. PLGA nanoparticles offered various benefits for the encapsulated curcumin like protection from light degradation, enhanced water solubility and showed a sustained release of curcumin over a period of 8 days. In conclusion, we demonstrated the additive effect of lactic acid from PLGA and encapsulated curcumin for the active healing of wounds.

  9. [To ponder the key issues in achieving wound healing]. (United States)

    Lu, Shuliang


    The understanding of the mechanism of wound healing is deepening. Key issues in the process of wound healing need to be seriously considered, i.e. how to establish the concept of application of phasic and selective means to promote wound healing according to the characteristics of a network and sequential process; to correctly assess the function and status of macrophages in wound healing and to explore the conditions of regulating timely infiltration of macrophages, as well as the phasic and orderly expression of type Iand type II macrophages; to properly understand the role and status of extracellular matrix components or the three-dimensional structure and morphology in wound healing; to elucidate the effects of wound microenvironment on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells; to find out the intrinsic mechanism of negative pressure in the process of wound healing. The understanding of the above problems are of great value for us to grasp the intrinsic mechanism of wound healing in order to establish a more effective and rational treatment of wound.

  10. Effects of Dermal Multipotent Cell Transplantation on Skin Wound Healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiChunmeng; ChengTianmin; SuYongping; RanXinze; MaiYue; QuJifu; LouShufen; XuHui; LuoChengji


    There is increasing evidence that dermis contains adult multipotent stem cells. To investigate the effects of dermis-derived multipotent cells on wound healing, we transplanted a clonal population of dermis-derived multipotent cells (termed as DMCs) by topical and systemic application into the skin wound of rats with simple wounds and rats with combined wound and radiation injury. Our results suggest that both topical and systemic transplantation of DMCs accelerate the healing process in rats with a simple wound; the promoting effect by topical transplantation occurs earlier than systemic transplantation. However, systemic transplantation of DMCs promotes the healing process in irradiated rats, while topical transplantation of DMCs fails. Further studies on the mechanisms of DMCs to promote wound healing indicate that the supernatant of DMCs could promote the proliferation of fibroblasts and epidermal cells; DMCs expressed transcripts of a serics of cytokincs and cxtraccllular matrix molecules, including VEGF, PDGF, HGF, TGF-β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and Fibronectin, which were closely related to the wound healing by DNA microarray analysis. The implanted DMCs can engraft into recipient skin wounded tissues after transplantation by the FISH analysis with Y-chromosome-specific probe. Systemic transplantation of DMCs also promotes the recovery of peripheral white blood cells in irradiated rats. These results demonstrate the different effects of DMCs on wound healing in nonirradiated and irradiated rats and illustrate the importance of optimizing wound healing via the topical or systemic transplantation of stem cells.

  11. The Application Study of Self-healing Cement in Shallow Water%自愈合水泥在浅海固井中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大钧; 张直建; 雷鑫宇; 齐志刚


    According to the actual situation of the shallow cementing,the self-healing properties of self-healing cement is studied.The experiment used simulated seawater to slurry mixing,and tested the compressive strength recovery and the permeability declines of the cement under different curing temperature and medium.Under the curing temperature of 50 ℃ and 70 ℃,the cement,s compressive strength recovery and permeability decline under the simulated seawater conservation are more than 100% ; in crude oil curing,cement,s compressive strength recovery and permeability decreased more than 90%.%针对浅海固井的实际情况,研究了自愈合水泥的自愈合性能.实验利用模拟海水配浆,并测试了水泥石试件在模拟海水、原油、不同温度养护下的抗压强度的恢复情况及其渗透率的下降情况.实验结果表明,在50℃、70℃养护温度下,模拟海水养护中的水泥石试件抗压强度恢复和渗透率的下降均超过了100%;在原油养护下的水泥石试件抗压强度恢复和渗透率的下降均达到了90%以上.

  12. Cell therapy for wound healing. (United States)

    You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu


    In covering wounds, efforts should include utilization of the safest and least invasive methods with goals of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. The recent development of advanced wound healing technology has triggered the use of cells to improve wound healing conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide information on clinically available cell-based treatment options for healing of acute and chronic wounds. Compared with a variety of conventional methods, such as skin grafts and local flaps, the cell therapy technique is simple, less time-consuming, and reduces the surgical burden for patients in the repair of acute wounds. Cell therapy has also been developed for chronic wound healing. By transplanting cells with an excellent wound healing capacity profile to chronic wounds, in which wound healing cannot be achieved successfully, attempts are made to convert the wound bed into the environment where maximum wound healing can be achieved. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes, adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells, bone marrow stem cells, and platelets have been used for wound healing in clinical practice. Some formulations are commercially available. To establish the cell therapy as a standard treatment, however, further research is needed.

  13. Self-Healing Laminate System (United States)

    Beiermann, Brett A. (Inventor); Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor)


    A laminate material may include a first flexible layer, and a self-healing composite layer in contact with the first flexible layer. The composite layer includes an elastomer matrix, a plurality of first capsules including a polymerizer, and a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The laminate material may self-heal when subjected to a puncture or a tear.

  14. Our Pathway toward Healing Racism (United States)

    Honour, Robert


    In this article, Robert Honour, Training and Staff Development Manager, at the Fairfax, Virginia, Department of Family Services (DFS), reports on the outcome of "Healing Racism" training at his organization. Participants in "Healing Racism Institutes" are transforming relationships and creating an organizational culture that…

  15. Clinical aspects of tendon healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)


    textabstractWe know that healing of a tendon wound takes place by an invasion of fibreblasts from the surrounding tissues; the tendon itself has no intrinsic healing capacity. lt was Potenza (1962) who proved that a traumatic suture of the tendons within their sheath is followed by disintegration of

  16. Reader's Advisory and Bibliotherapy:Helping or Healing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Sturm


    Full Text Available Reader s advisory, helping library patrons find books to read based on their prior reading preferences, is a common endeavor for most librarians. Bibliotherapy, using books to promote healing, is a special kind of reader s advisory. This article traces the origins of these two concepts and examines their underlying assumptions. It addresses the process through which stories may aid in healing and the process librarians should follow if they decide to engage in bibliotherapy. It concludes that librarians must know the difference between advising and counseling on both a professional and personal level and that they should be wary of letting the power inherent in the readers advisory role endanger their professionalism.

  17. 局部应用胰岛素对糖尿病小鼠创面愈合的影响%Effects of topical application of insulin on wound healing in diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超飞; 刘琰; 陈雪莲; 章雄


    Objective To investigate the effects of topical application of iusulin on wound healing in diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in C57BL/6J inice( n = 10, each group ) by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin( STZ ) using multiple injections with low dose or single injection with high dose manner. Four weeks after treatment, glucose metabolism index was assessed to compare the characteristics of insulin resistance between the two groups. C57BL/6J( n =40 )mice were induced to diabeticmellitus using multiple low doses of STZ injections. Eight weeks after induction, 4 fi ill-thickness skin wounds with diameter 7 mm were made on the hack of diabetic mice. Each wound was treated with 20 jxl NS,O. 1 unit insulin/20 jxl NS,O. 5 unit insulin/20 jxl NS and 20 (jj NS respectively. Each group of wounds were used with mentioned drugs immediately after wounds making, once a day, until complete healing. At 0,1 ,3 ,5,7 ,9 and 11 days, transparent membranes were used to record wound areas and to calculate the healing rates. Meanwhile,we observed the process of wound epithelialization and recorded the time of complete healing. At day 11 , wound tissues were collected. H&E staining and Masson staining were used to observe the structure of healed tissues. The angiogenesis of healed skin was qualified by CD31 I m mi mo hi sto chemistry. Results Compared to the single high dose injection group,the fasting blood glucose level, insulin level and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly increased in the multiple low doses injection group, while the insulin sensitivity index was markedly reduced( P < 0. 05 -0.01 ).The healing time in 0. 1 and 0.5 unit insulin groups were ( 10. 6 ± 1.5 )d and ( 11.3 ±0.9 )d, by contrast, the control group was ( 12 ± 1.2 )d( P <0. 05 ). The quality of wound healing in 0. 1 and 0. 5 unit insulin groups were significantly improved, which included the increased number of spikes in the

  18. The Flexibility Hypothesis of Healing. (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kirmayer, Laurence J


    Theories of healing have attempted to identify general mechanisms that may work across different modalities. These include altering expectations, remoralization, and instilling hope. In this paper, we argue that many forms of healing and psychotherapy may work by inducing positive psychological states marked by flexibility or an enhanced ability to shift cognitive sets. Healing practices may induce these states of cognitive and emotional flexibility through specific symbolic interventions we term "flexibility primers" that can include images, metaphors, music, and other media. The flexibility hypothesis suggests that cognitive and emotional flexibility is represented, elicited, and enacted through multiple modalities in healing rituals. Identifying psychological processes and cultural forms that evoke and support cognitive and emotional flexibility provides a way to understand the cultural specificity and potential efficacy of particular healing practices and can guide the design of interventions that promote resilience and well-being.

  19. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    Self-healing anticorrosive coatings are multi-component so-called smart materials, which have been proposed as a way to long-lasting corrosion protection of steel structures. The presently most promising technology route is based on microcapsules, filled with active healing agents, and has been...... the focus of this work. The microcapsules consist of a solid polymeric shell and a liquid core material. When a microcrack, originating from internal stress or a physical damage, propagates through the coating, the microcapsules rupture and release healing agents, which flow to the fracture plane due...... to capillary forces. The healing agents then start to react, form a polymer network, and =glue‘ the crack. The approach has been applied to development of an epoxy-based self-healing anticorrosive coating for above water heavy duty corrosion protection. Emphasis has been on investigation of practical issues...

  20. Murine models of human wound healing. (United States)

    Chen, Jerry S; Longaker, Michael T; Gurtner, Geoffrey C


    In vivo wound healing experiments remain the most predictive models for studying human wound healing, allowing an accurate representation of the complete wound healing environment including various cell types, environmental cues, and paracrine interactions. Small animals are economical, easy to maintain, and allow researchers to take advantage of the numerous transgenic strains that have been developed to investigate the specific mechanisms involved in wound healing and regeneration. Here we describe three reproducible murine wound healing models that recapitulate the human wound healing process.

  1. Self-healing composites: A review


    Wang, Yongjing; Pham, Duc Truong; Ji, Chunqian


    Self-healing composites are composite materials capable of automatic recovery when damaged. They are inspired by biological systems such as the human skin which are naturally able to heal themselves. This paper reviews work on self-healing composites with a focus on capsule-based and vascular healing systems. Complementing previous survey articles, the paper provides an updated overview of the various self-healing concepts proposed over the past 15 years, and a comparative analysis of healing...

  2. Self-healing composites: A review


    Yongjing Wang; Duc Truong Pham; Chunqian Ji


    Self-healing composites are composite materials capable of automatic recovery when damaged. They are inspired by biological systems such as the human skin which are naturally able to heal themselves. This paper reviews work on self-healing composites with a focus on capsule-based and vascular healing systems. Complementing previous survey articles, the paper provides an updated overview of the various self-healing concepts proposed over the past 15 years, and a comparative analysis of healing...

  3. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  4. Effect of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing. (United States)

    Jang, Joon Chul; Choi, Rak-Jun; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung


    In covering wounds, efforts should include use of the safest and least invasive methods with a goal of achieving optimal functional and cosmetic outcome. The recent development of advanced technology in wound healing has triggered the use of cells and/or biological dermis to improve wound healing conditions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis on wound healing efficacy.Ten nude mice were used in this study. Four full-thickness 6-mm punch wounds were created on the dorsal surface of each mouse (total, 40 wounds). The wounds were randomly assigned to one of the following 4 treatments: topical application of Dulbecco phosphate-buffered saline (control), human fibroblasts (FB), artificial dermis (AD), and human fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis (AD with FB). On the 14th day after treatment, wound healing rate and wound contraction, which are the 2 main factors determining wound healing efficacy, were evaluated using a stereoimage optical topometer system, histomorphological analysis, and immunohistochemistry.The results of the stereoimage optical topometer system demonstrated that the FB group did not have significant influence on wound healing rate and wound contraction. The AD group showed reduced wound contraction, but wound healing was delayed. The AD with FB group showed decreased wound contraction without significantly delayed wound healing. Histomorphological analysis exhibited that more normal skin structure was regenerated in the AD with FB group. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the AD group and the AD with FB group produced less α-smooth muscle actin than the control group, but this was not shown in the FB group.Fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis may minimize wound contraction without significantly delaying wound healing in the treatment of skin and soft tissue defects.

  5. Advances and Perspectives on Tissue Repair and Healing (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Marques, Aparecida M. C.; de Sousa, Ana Paula C.; Aciole, Jouber M. S.; Soares, Luiz G. P.


    Wound healing involves local and systemic responses that reflect the etiology of the lesion, type of tissue, systemic condition and others. Despite being essentially the same for different wounds, the pattern of healing may change due to intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. The type of tissue has also to be considered. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to improve healing including phototherapies such as Laser, LEDs and Lamps. Their effects on soft and mineralized tissues are well reported. The choice of appropriated parameters is essential for the results of the treatment and includes wavelength, power density, energy, duration and frequency of application and others. We studied the effects of different types of light on the healing of both soft and mineralized tissues using different models. We found that the use of Laser and polarized light are effective on improving the healing of diabetic and undernourished animals. We also found that Laser light is capable of improving the healing of drug-induced impairment and on increasing the survival rate of flaps on both diabetic and non-diabetic animals. We have also studied and shown the influence of the laser parameters on the healing of surgical and laser wounds. Lately we verified the positive effect of LEDs on healing. We used Laser/LED light for improving bone healing in conditions such as in dental implants, autologous grafts, biomaterials and fractures. From these reports and our own experience we have no doubt whatsoever that the use of phototherapies, carried out with appropriate parameters, promotes quicker tissue repair.

  6. An Inherent Probabilistic Aspect of the Hough Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhanyi; YANG Changjiang; YANG Yi; MA Songde


    In this paper, a new property of the Hough transform is discovered, namely an inherent probabilistic aspect which is independent of the input image and embedded in the transformation process from the image space to the parameter space. It is shown that such a probabilistic aspect has a wide range of implications concerning the specification of implementation schemes and the performance of Hough transform. In particular, it is shown that in order to make the Hough transform really meaningful, anappropriate curve (surface) density function must be, either explicitlyor implicitly, supplied during its implementation process, and that the widely used approach to uniformly discretizing parameter space in the literature is generally inadequate.

  7. Music and Healing During Post-Election Violence in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otieno Akombo


    Full Text Available The significance of music as a healing agent permeates across the cultural spectrum. Hitherto, we find people of many cultures incorporating music to transform those unhealthy individuals into healthy ones. This paper extrapolates from the events that led to Kenya's post-election violence of 2007 and enumerates how a Kenyan community musician embraced the therapeutic qualities inherent in the cultural music of the Kenyan people to help the violence victims who developed post-traumatic stress disorder following the disputed elections. The story adds nuance to our understanding of how community musicians are still an invaluable therapeutic resource albeit their lack of professional training.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yalin; He Langchong; Chen Fang


    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of taspine on wound healing and fibroblast proliferation. Methods The effect of taspine on skin wound was observed in vivo. The different concentration of taspine hydrochloride was added to L929 fibroblast cultivated in vitro, and lactate dehydrogenase was detected and MTT method was applied to observe effect of taspine on fibroblast proliferation. Results The local application of taspine 3 mg/Ml and 1.5 mg/mL accelerated the healing of skin wounded. In vitro, 0.01~0.5 μg/mL of taspine hydrochloride showed no effect on the change of lactate dehydrogenase activity and fibroblast proliferation. Conclusion Taspine is a kind of active alkaloid from leontice robustum which can enhance wound healing, its mechanism on wound healing is not by means of accelerating the proliferation of fibroblast, other mechanisms are necessary for being further studied.

  9. Basis, evidences and consequences of the inherent stellar encocooning

    CERN Document Server

    Celis, L


    Based on 7093 observations with photoelectrical photometrical measurements of 191 Mira stars, the following equations (from the papers [1] to [18]) give the basis to establish the Inherent Stellar Encocooning with the spectro-photometric characteristics of the red giant variable stars, especially the Miras, which have large amplitudes (approx 50% of giant variables). The specific basis that justifies a progressive covering with ionized molecules, cold gases, dust and grains are: The relation of the visual amplitudes A sub v =A sub r +E sub A whose real luminosity separate the intrinsic pulsation and amplitude excess effects due to the presence of molecules [145] and an opaque envelope of cool gases; The relation of the visual absolute magnitudes M sub v =M sub v sub r (P)+M sub a (delta sub T sub i sub O V) which is affected by an inherent absorption and/or occultation, and; The relation that defines the probable absolute luminosity and depends on the period and the (Sa) spectral type at maximum M sub v =-2.2...

  10. 局部应用PTD-SOD对机械性创伤愈合的影响%Efficacy of topical application of PTD-SOD on wound healing in mice with mechanical injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元刚; 程欲; 张晨; 刘树滔; 饶平凡


    protein PTD-SOD with different concentrations(1 000 U,3 000 U,6 000 U and 10 000 U)were used to deal with the wounds continuously for 13 days.The mice were divided into different concentration SOD treatment group and PTD-SOD treatment group,model control group,physiological saline treatment group and compound iodine solution control group.The wound healing situation and healing percentage of the fight and left skin wounds of each mouse in every group was recorded every day.At day 14 after wound,the wound healing skin of each group was removed and some were used to make 10%tissues homogenate for detecting the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)and contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydroxyproline(Hyp);in the meantime,the other removed skin were fixed in 10% formalin for observing the histopathological changes of the tissues. Results Compared with the model control group,the physiological saline treatment group and the compound iodine solution control group,the skin wound healing percentage was significantly(P<0.05 or P<0.01)improved,with increase of the activities of SOD,CAT,GSH-Px and contents of Hyp (P<0.05 or P<0.01)and decrease of MDA(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the SOD groups or PTD-SOD groups (except for 10 000 U PTD-SOD group).When compared with the physiological saline treatment group or the compound iodine solution treatment group,the effect was similar to the model control group.In comparison to the SOD groups,under the same dosage and environment condition,the PTD-SOD groups were much better than SOD groups with regard to promoting skin wound healing percentage,increasing activities of antioxidases and contents of Hyp,decreasing contents of MDA.Among the PTD-SOD groups,the effect of high dosage 10 000 U on promoting skin wound healing was declined. Conclusions The oxidative stress may playan important role in the development of wound healing.Proper application of treatment with antioxidants is a alternative strategy in

  11. Progress in corneal wound healing. (United States)

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh


    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  12. 物理治疗促进伤口愈合及预防瘢痕形成在整形外科的应用%Application of Physiotherapy for Promoting Wound Healing and Avoiding Scar Remaining in Plastic Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Poor wound healing and scar formation are common postoperative complications in orthopaedics all the time. In the treatment progress of plastic surgery, for promoting wound healing and preventing scarring, in addition to the surgical treatment, the comhination of all kinds of physical therapy can achieve better treatment effect. Physical therapy is mainly to influence collagen enzyme activity through levating temperature and then reach the purpose of treatment. At the same time different physical therapies have their u-nique functioning principles. Controlled Clinical application trials show that early surgery combined with physical therapy can achieve better treatment effect, it's suggested that plastic surgeon adopt combination therapy method in the early period.%伤口的愈合不良及瘢痕的形成一直是整形外科中常见的术后并发症.现阶段,在整形外科的治疗进展中,促进伤口愈合及预防瘢痕形成方面,除了手术治疗外,同时联合各种物理治疗能达到更好的治疗效果.物理治疗主要是通过升高温度影响胶原酶的活性,进而达到治疗的目的,同时不同的物理治疗又具有各自发挥作用的独特原理.临床应用的对照试验表明,手术早期联合物理治疗可达到更好的治疗效果,进而建议整形外科医师应早期利用联合治疗的方法.

  13. Application of Hybrid Communication in Distribution Network Fault Self-healing System%混合组网通信在配电网故障自愈中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊杰; 张家红; 束洪春; 董俊; 张海; 王书领


    本文提出一种混合组网通信在配电网故障自愈中的应用方法。首先分析了当前智能配电网中的通讯技术及通讯技术组网方案。然后对现阶段配网自动化采用的有线和无线通讯方式进行了探讨和总结,分析出混合组网通信方式在智能配电网中应用的优势,并结合混合组网通信方式对智能配电网的通信组网方案进行适应性研究,通过通信方式的多样化特点,构建出智能配电网多通信方式的自组网方案。最后,提出一种基于EPON和GPRS无线通信的智能配电网故障自愈系统并进行了总结。%This paper presents an application method of hybrid network communication in distribution network fault self-healing system. Firstly, this paper analyzes smart distribution grid communication technology and networking solutions currently. Then makes a conclusion about wired and wireless communication used in distribution automation after discussing, According to the analy-sis of hybrid network communication applied in smart distribution network, combining advantages with hybrid networking communi-cation, this paper researches suitability about networking solutions in smart distribution network, builds a multiple communication and wireless ad hoc network program about smart distribution network. Finally, proposes a self-healing system based on EPON and GPRS wireless communication and gives a summary.

  14. Self-healing of damage in fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. (United States)

    Hayes, S A; Zhang, W; Branthwaite, M; Jones, F R


    Self-healing resin systems have been discussed for over a decade and four different technologies had been proposed. However, little work on their application as composite matrices has been published although this was one of the stated aims of the earliest work in the field. This paper reports on the optimization of a solid-state self-healing resin system and its subsequent use as a matrix for high volume fraction glass fibre-reinforced composites. The resin system was optimized using Charpy impact testing and repeated healing, while the efficiency of healing in composites was determined by analysing the growth of delaminations following repeated impacts with or without a healing cycle. To act as a reference, a non-healing resin system was subjected to the same treatments and the results are compared with the healable system. The optimized resin system displays a healing efficiency of 65% after the first healing cycle, dropping to 35 and 30% after the second and third healing cycles, respectively. Correction for any healability due to further curing showed that approximately 50% healing efficiency could be achieved with the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin containing 7.5% of polybisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin. The composite, on the other hand, displays a healing efficiency of approximately 30%. It is therefore clear that the solid-state self-healing system is capable of healing transverse cracks and delaminations in a composite, but that more work is needed to optimize matrix healing within a composite and to develop a methodology for assessing recovery in performance.

  15. Activated protein C to heal pressure ulcers. (United States)

    Wijewardena, Aruna; Lajevardi, Sepehr S; Vandervord, Elle; Vandervord, John; Lang, Thomas C; Fulcher, Gregory; Jackson, Christopher J


    Pressure ulcers present a major clinical challenge, are physically debilitating and place the patient at risk of serious comorbidities such as septic shock. Recombinant human activated protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and angiogenic effects that promote rapid wound healing. Topical negative pressure wound therapy (TNP) has become widely used as a treatment modality in wounds although its efficacy has not been proven through randomised controlled trials. The aim of this study was to determine the preliminary efficacy and safety of treatment with APC for severe chronic pressure sores with and without TNP. This case presentation describes the history, management and outcome of two patients each with a severe chronic non-healing pressure ulcer that had failed to respond to conventional therapy. TNP was added to conservative management of both ulcers with no improvement seen. Then local application of small doses of APC was added to TNP and with conservative management, resulted in significant clinical improvement and rapid healing of both ulcers, displaying rapid growth of vascular granulation tissue with subsequent epithelialisation. Patients tolerated the treatment well and improvements suggested by long-term follow-up were provided. Randomised placebo-controlled double blind trials are needed to quantify the efficacy, safety, cost-effectiveness, optimal dose and quality of life changes seen from treatment with APC.

  16. Self-Healing and Optimizing Adhoc Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Taneja


    Full Text Available Wireless networking is an emerging field with its potential applications in extremely unpredictable and dynamic environments. Individuals and industries choose wireless because it allows flexibility of location, whether that means mobility, portability, or just ease of installation at a fixed point. Wireless networks that fix their own broken communication links may speed up their widespread acceptance. The challenge for wireless communication is optimized handling of unpredictable environment through which commu¬nications travels. Despite early problems in overcoming this pitfall, the newest develop¬ments in self-healing wireless networks are solving the problem. The changes made to the network architectures are resulting in new methods of applica¬tion design for this medium. This paper presents an overview of self healing networks and a new scheme has been proposed that tries to heal the routing when a link failure occurs. The scheme can be incorporated into any adhoc on-demand unicast routing protocol. In this research work, the proposed scheme has been incorporated to AODV and observation is that the performance has been improved. The simulations have been carried over NS2 simulator with existing schemes and proposed scheme. Simulation results indicated that the proposed technique provides robustness.

  17. Chirality as an inherent general property of matter. (United States)

    Davankov, Vadim


    A statement has been formulated that chirality is an indispensable inherent property of all material objects, at one level of organization of matter or another. The translation of chirality from one level of material objects to another deserves our attention. The parity violation of weak interactions can be discussed in terms of the homochirality of the pool of fundamental particles, as it translates into optical activity of metal vapors. Individual photons and energy quanta are considered to be chiral entities, too, since they can be separated into beams of circularly polarized radiation. The chiral structure of the universe has been proposed and a method of determining the orientation of the axis of rotation of the universe suggested.

  18. Determination of the cadmium and copper content inherent to metallothionein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, B.; Kozar, S.; Pavicic, J.; Juric, D. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Zagreb, P.O.B. 1016, HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia)


    The reliability of the voltammetric determination of the cadmium and copper content (at pH 1.0), inherent to metallothionein (MT) isolated from the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis, was investigated. An artifact signal enhancement of copper, caused by the cupric-thionein complex adsorption at the mercury electrode, was established. This artifact was removed by UV-digestion of the sample for 15-20 h prior to analysis. A similar artifact was not detected for cadmium, because at this pH the cadmium-thionein complex has dissociated, and cadmium exists in the ionic form. Therefore, the voltammetric analysis of the cadmium content can be performed directly at pH 1.0, without prior UV-digestion of the sample. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  19. Game Over Interdependent Networks: Rationality Makes the System Inherent Deficient

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yuhang; He, Shibo; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian


    Many real-world systems are composed of interdependent networks that rely on one another. Such networks are typically designed and operated by different entities, who aim at maximizing their own interest. In this paper, we study the game over interdependent networks, investigating how the rational behaviors of entities impact the whole system. We first introduce a mathematical model to quantify the interacting payoffs among varying entities. Then we study the Nash equilibrium and compare it with the optimal social welfare. We reveal that the cooperation between different entities can be reached to maximize the social welfare only when the average degree of each network is constant. Otherwise, there may be a huge gap between the Nash equilibrium and optimal social welfare. Therefore, the rationality of different entities that operates these networks makes the system inherently deficient and even extremely vulnerable in some cases. Furthermore, we uncover some factors (such as weakening coupled strength of inte...

  20. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling. (United States)

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A


    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring.

  1. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobene, G; Ambriola, M; Ameli, F; Amore, I; Anghinolfi, M; Anzalone, A; Avanzini, C; Barbarino, G C; Barbarito, E; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Beverini, N; Bonori, M; Bouhadef, B; Brescia, M; Cacopardo, G; Cafagna, F; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Castorina, E; Ceres, A; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Cocimano, R; Coniglione, R; Cordelli, M; Costa, M; Cuneo, S; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Marzo, C; De Rosa, G; De Vita, R; Distefano, C; Falchini, E; Fiorello, C; Flaminio, V; Fratini, K; Gabrielli, A; Galeotti, S; Gandolfi, E; Grimaldi, A; Habel, R; Leonora, E; Lo Presti, D; Lonardo, A; Longo, G; Lucarelli, F; Maccioni, E; Margiotta, A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Megna, R; Migneco, E; Mongelli, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Musumeci, M; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Osipenko, M; Osteria, G; Papaleo, R; Pappalardo, V; Petta, C; Piattelli, P; Raffaelli, F; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Rovelli, A; Ruppi, M; Russo, G V; Russo, S; Sapienza, P; Schuller, J P; Sedita, M; Shirokov, E; Simeone, F; Sipala, V; Spurio, M; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Trasatti, L; Urso, S; Valente, V; Vicini, P


    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Cerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60-100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 1/m (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it doe not show seasonal variation.

  2. Evaluation of inherent toxicology and biocompatibility of magnesium phosphate bone cement. (United States)

    Yu, Yonglin; Wang, Jing; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Bingwen; Chen, Honghong; Guo, Han; Zhong, Gaoren; Qu, Weidong; Jiang, Songhui; Huang, Huangyuan


    Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is a kind of novel biodegradable bone adhesive for its distinct performance. However, there is few research work concerning on the systemic biocompatibility and genetic toxicological evaluation of MPC. In this study, the investigation on the inherited toxicology of MPC including gene mutation assay (Ames test), chromosome aberration assay (micronucleus test), and DNA damage assay (unscheduled DNA synthesis test) were carried out. Fracture healing and degradation behavior were explored for the evaluation of the biocompatibility of MPC, using macroscopical histological, histomorphometrical, and scanning electron microscopical methods. The results of mutagenicity and potential carcinogenicity of MPC extracts were negative, and the animal implantation illustrated no toxicity and good resorption. The study suggested that bioresorbable MPC was safe for application and might have potential applications for physiological fracture fixation.

  3. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate

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    Chen Su-May Sheih


    Full Text Available In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropriate emotional reading material. The researcher deployed semi-structured in-depth interview, and interviewed 21 undergraduates in Taipei City and Taipei County. This study is aimed to understand the kinds of fictions undergraduates read when they are upset and to analyze the emotional healing process of identification, catharsis, and insight so that the emotional healing efficacy can be evaluated. The findings showed that romance, realistic fiction, fantasy, martial arts novel, inspirational fiction, historical fiction, and science fiction can provide full process of emotional healing efficacy. However, detective fiction, online novel, psychological fiction, and horror fiction can only provide parts of the healing process. Besides, the healing efficacy of a specific fiction is different from reader to reader.

  4. Mechanism of intramolecular photostabilization in self-healing cyanine fluorophores. (United States)

    van der Velde, Jasper H M; Ploetz, Evelyn; Hiermaier, Matthias; Oelerich, Jens; de Vries, Jan Willem; Roelfes, Gerard; Cordes, Thorben


    Organic fluorophores, which are popular labels for microscopy applications, intrinsically suffer from transient and irreversible excursions to dark-states. An alternative to adding photostabilizers at high concentrations to the imaging buffer relies on the direct linkage to the fluorophore. However, the working principles of this approach are not yet fully understood. In this contribution, we investigate the mechanism of intramolecular photostabilization in self-healing cyanines, in which photodamage is automatically repaired. Experimental evidence is provided to demonstrate that a single photostabilizer, that is, the vitamin E derivative Trolox, efficiently heals the cyanine fluorophore Cy5 in the absence of any photostabilizers in solution. A plausible mechanism is that Trolox interacts with the fluorophore through intramolecular quenching of triplet-related dark-states, which is a mechanism that appears to be common for both triplet-state quenchers (cyclooctatetraene) and redox-active compounds (Trolox, ascorbic acid, methylviologen). Additionally, the influence of solution-additives, such as cysteamine and procatechuic acid, on the self-healing process are studied. The results suggest the potential applicability of self-healing fluorophores in stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) with optical super-resolution. The presented data contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanism involved in intramolecular photostabilization and has high relevance for the future development of self-healing fluorophores, including their applications in various research fields.

  5. 组织工程生物绷带及敷料在创伤修复领域中的应用%Application of biological bandage and dressing in wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    BACKGROUND: Medical dressings as covering of the wound can replace damaged skin and play a temporary barrier function in the process of wound healing, and avoid or control wound infection to provide a conductive environment for wound healing. How to fixed quickly, stop bleeding effectively, and reduce or prevent the adverse effect of injured limb blood circulation after hemostasis, the acceleration of wound healing and the reduction of pain is an urgent problem of trauma critical care medicine.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the application status and research progress of medical biological dressings in the field of wound healing, and reveal its development prospect to provide theoretical basis for the application of medical biological dressings in the progress of wound healing.METHODS: The articles concerning medical biological dressings were retrieved in CNKI database and PubMed database from January 1998 to December 2008, using the key words of "medical dressing, biological material, chitosan, hydrogel, tissue engineering" in Chinese or "medical dressing, biological material, chitosan, hydrogel, tissue engineering" in English in the title and abstract. The content of articles related with wound healing and literatures recently published or published in authoritative magazines from the same field were selected. Totally 146 literatures were primarily selected (Chinese 107, English 39),according to inclusion criteria, 38 documents of which were involved for summarization.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The medical dressings of the current clinical use and research were divided into natural material and synthetic macromolecule, inorganic material and composite according to the materials. Moreover, the problems of dressing products in the quality control were discussed, the further direction of dressing products was prospected, and a theoretical basis for research and development of dressing products were provided.%背景:医用敷料作为伤口处的覆盖物,在伤口愈合过

  6. [Specificities in children wound healing]. (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Antonicelli, F; Tuton, D; Mazouz Dorval, S; François, C


    Children have specific characteristics of wound healing. The aim of this study was to describe the specific clinical characteristics of wounds healing in children and to present the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms with regard to infant age. The tissue insult or injury in fetus can heal without scar, mainly due to reduced granulation tissue associated to diminished or even no inflammatory phase, modified extracellular matrix such as the concentration of hyaluronic acid in amniotic liquid, expression and arrangement of collagen and tenascin. Thickness of children skin is a serious negative factor in case of trauma, whereas poor co-morbidities and efficient growth tissue mechanisms are beneficial to good evolution, even in cases of extensive damage and loss of tissue. The subsequent tissue mechanical forces, wound healing during childhood, spanning from the age of 2 until the end of puberty, is associated with more hypertrophic scars, both in duration and in intensity. Consequently, unnecessary surgery has to be avoided during this period when possible, and children with abnormal or pathologic wound healing should benefit from complementary treatments (hydration, massage, brace, silicone, hydrotherapy…), which represent efficient factors to minimize tissue scarring. After wound healing, the growth body rate can be responsible for specific complications, such as contractures, alopecia, and scar intussusceptions. Its evolutionary character implies the need of an attentive follow-up until adult age. Psychologic repercussions, as a consequence of pathologic scars, must be prevented and investigated by the surgeon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An original approach to automatic design of image filters is presented in this paper. The proposed solution employs Field Programmable Gate Array reconfigurable hardware at simplified functional level and produces high quality image when image features are corrupted by different types of noise. In addition, parallel architectures can be used to ease the enormous computational load due to different operations conducted on image data sets. Self healing circuit is the one which can compete against traditional designs in terms of quality and implementation cost in Xilinx’s chips. During the first phase, schemes for testing the configured processing elements of a reconfigurable circuit evolved for image enhancement application is presented. In the second phase, the internal Processing Elements in evolved circuit found faulty, they are restructured such that the sparse processing elements replace the faulty processing elements both functionally and structurally. Simulation results show that the evolved circuit is inherently testable and can restructure itself by avoiding the faulty ProcessingElements and make use of sparse ones. In third phase implantation of FPGA based image enhancement filter using Virtex-IV application board.

  8. Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Y Gbedema


    Full Text Available As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae. Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor-time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC ranging between 64 and 512 μg/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC 50 value of 103.2 μg/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm 2 (control to 25.2 mm 2 . Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana.

  9. Communicating uncertainty: managing the inherent probabilistic character of hazard estimates (United States)

    Albarello, Dario


    Science is much more fixing the limits of our knowledge about possible occurrences than the identification of any "truth". This is particularly true when scientific statements concern prediction of natural phenomena largely exceeding the laboratory scale as in the case of seismogenesis. In these cases, many scenarios about future occurrences result possible (plausible) and the contribution of scientific knowledge (based on the available knowledge about underlying processes or the phenomenological studies) mainly consists in attributing to each scenario a different level of likelihood (probability). In other terms, scientific predictions in the field of geosciences (hazard assessment) are inherently probabilistic. However, despite of this, many scientist (seismologists, etc.) in communicating their position in public debates tend to stress the " truth" of their statements against the fancy character of pseudo-scientific assertions: stronger is the opposition of science and pseudo-science, more hidden becomes the probabilistic character of scientific statements. The problem arises when this kind of "probabilistic" knowledge becomes the basis of any political action (e.g., to impose expensive form of risk reducing activities): in these cases the lack of any definitive "truth" requires a direct assumption of responsibility by the relevant decider (being the single citizen or the legitimate expression of a larger community) to choose among several possibilities (however characterized by different levels of likelihood). In many cases, this can be uncomfortable and strong is the attitude to delegate to the scientific counterpart the responsibility of these decisions. This "transfer" from the genuine political field to an improper scientific context is also facilitated by the lack of a diffuse culture of "probability" outside the scientific community (and in many cases inside also). This is partially the effect of the generalized adoption (by media and scientific

  10. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera extract into natural Tragacanth Gum as a novel green wound healing product. (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz


    Application of natural materials in wound healing is an interest topic due to effective treatment with no side effects. In this paper, Aloe Vera extract was encapsulated into Tragacanth Gum through a sonochemical microemulsion process to prepare a wound healing product. FESEM/EDX and FT-IR proved the successfully formation of the nanocapsules with spherical shape by cross-linking aluminum ions with Tragacanth Gum. The therapeutic characteristics of the prepared wound healing product were investigated using antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and wound healing assays. Relative high antimicrobial activities with the microbial reduction of 84, 91 and 80% against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, a cell viability of 98% against human fibroblast cells and a good wound healing activity with considerable migration rate of fibroblast cells are the important advantages of the new formed wound healing product.

  11. Investigations of Self-Healing Property of Chitosan-Reinforced Epoxy Dye Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsnügül Yılmaz Atay


    Full Text Available Chitosan has a very wide application range in different parts of life such as in biomedical and antimicrobial areas. In recent years the self-healing property of chitosan becomes more of an issue. In the study chitosan was used to obtain a self-healing composite material. An epoxy dye was converted to a self-healing coating. Different types of samples were prepared by coating the glass substrates with a polymer matrix reinforced with various amounts of chitosan. The samples were characterized by fourier transform Infrared (FTIR and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. In addition, self-healing test was applied as a primary objective of this research. In this respect, the samples were scratched with a very thin pin, and they were analyzed by SEM periodically. It was observed that chitosan-reinforced dyes showed self-healing property. Mechanism of the self-healing process was also scrutinized.

  12. Energy storage inherent in large tidal turbine farms. (United States)

    Vennell, Ross; Adcock, Thomas A A


    While wind farms have no inherent storage to supply power in calm conditions, this paper demonstrates that large tidal turbine farms in channels have short-term energy storage. This storage lies in the inertia of the oscillating flow and can be used to exceed the previously published upper limit for power production by currents in a tidal channel, while simultaneously maintaining stronger currents. Inertial storage exploits the ability of large farms to manipulate the phase of the oscillating currents by varying the farm's drag coefficient. This work shows that by optimizing how a large farm's drag coefficient varies during the tidal cycle it is possible to have some flexibility about when power is produced. This flexibility can be used in many ways, e.g. producing more power, or to better meet short predictable peaks in demand. This flexibility also allows trading total power production off against meeting peak demand, or mitigating the flow speed reduction owing to power extraction. The effectiveness of inertial storage is governed by the frictional time scale relative to either the duration of a half tidal cycle or the duration of a peak in power demand, thus has greater benefits in larger channels.

  13. Solving Optimal Control Problems by Exploiting Inherent Dynamical Systems Structures (United States)

    Flaßkamp, Kathrin; Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Kobilarov, Marin


    Computing globally efficient solutions is a major challenge in optimal control of nonlinear dynamical systems. This work proposes a method combining local optimization and motion planning techniques based on exploiting inherent dynamical systems structures, such as symmetries and invariant manifolds. Prior to the optimal control, the dynamical system is analyzed for structural properties that can be used to compute pieces of trajectories that are stored in a motion planning library. In the context of mechanical systems, these motion planning candidates, termed primitives, are given by relative equilibria induced by symmetries and motions on stable or unstable manifolds of e.g. fixed points in the natural dynamics. The existence of controlled relative equilibria is studied through Lagrangian mechanics and symmetry reduction techniques. The proposed framework can be used to solve boundary value problems by performing a search in the space of sequences of motion primitives connected using optimized maneuvers. The optimal sequence can be used as an admissible initial guess for a post-optimization. The approach is illustrated by two numerical examples, the single and the double spherical pendula, which demonstrates its benefit compared to standard local optimization techniques.

  14. Airborne LIDAR as a tool for estimating inherent optical properties (United States)

    Trees, Charles; Arnone, Robert


    LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems have been used most extensively to generate elevation maps of land, ice and coastal bathymetry. There has been space-, airborne- and land-based LIDAR systems. They have also been used in underwater communication. What have not been investigated are the capabilities of LIDARs to measure ocean temperature and optical properties vertically in the water column, individually or simultaneously. The practical use of bathymetric LIDAR as a tool for the estimation of inherent optical properties remains one of the most challenging problems in the field of optical oceanography. LIDARs can retrieve data as deep as 3-4 optical depths (e.g. optical properties can be measured through the thermocline for ~70% of the world's oceans). Similar to AUVs (gliders), UAV-based LIDAR systems will increase temporal and spatial measurements by several orders of magnitude. The LIDAR Observations of Optical and Physical Properties (LOOPP) Conference was held at NURC (2011) to review past, current and future LIDAR research efforts in retrieving water column optical/physical properties. This new observational platform/sensor system is ideally suited for ground truthing hyperspectral/geostationary satellite data in coastal regions and for model data assimilation.

  15. Inherently analog quantity representations in olive baboons (Papio anubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Barnard


    Full Text Available Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1 a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2 an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment -naive olive baboons (Papio anubis to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4, large (>4, or span (small vs. large numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  16. Functionalised inherently conducting polymers as low biofouling materials. (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Nagle, Alex R; Wallace, Gordon G; Hanks, Timothy W; Molino, Paul J


    Diatoms are a major component of microbial biofouling layers that develop on man-made surfaces placed in aquatic environments, resulting in significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper describes surface functionalisation of the inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and their efficacy as fouling resistant materials. Their ability to resist interactions with the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The capacity of the ICP-PEG materials to prevent settlement and colonisation of the fouling diatom Amphora coffeaeformis (Cleve) was also assayed. Variations were demonstrated in the dopants used during ICP polymerisation, along with the PEG molecular weight, and the ICP-PEG reaction conditions, all playing a role in guiding the eventual fouling resistant properties of the materials. Optimised ICP-PEG materials resulted in a significant reduction in BSA adsorption, and > 98% reduction in diatom adhesion.

  17. Making appropriation 'stick': stabilizing politics in an 'inherently feminist' tool. (United States)

    Hasson, Katie Ann


    This article examines how feminist politics are made to 'stick' to appropriated technologies in the context of a contemporary feminist women's health clinic in the US. Feminist clinics such as 'FemHealth', founded as part of 1970s women's health movements, put medical tools and knowledge into lay women's hands, making the appropriation of medical technologies a centerpiece of their political project. In the process, they rejected the authority of physicians and gave new politicized meanings to the tools they claimed as their own. As lay healthworkers at FemHealth continued the project of appropriation, they also continued to negotiate their dependence on physicians to perform tasks that required a medical license. Drawing on participant observation and interviews with healthworkers, I argue that struggles over the role and authority of physicians in this clinic play out through debates over two similar and competing tools used in the abortion procedure: the single-tooth tenaculum and the cervical stabilizer. Many healthworkers invested in the stabilizer as 'inherently feminist' in hopes that it would maintain its politics even when passed into physicians' hands. While appropriation depends on the ability of users to alter a technology's meanings, actors may feel invested in the new politics taken on by appropriated tools and work towards making those meanings persist, or 'stick'.

  18. Dualheap Selection Algorithm: Efficient, Inherently Parallel and Somewhat Mysterious

    CERN Document Server

    Sepesi, Greg


    An inherently parallel algorithm is proposed that efficiently performs selection: finding the K-th largest member of a set of N members. Selection is a common component of many more complex algorithms and therefore is a widely studied problem. Not much is new in the proposed dualheap selection algorithm: the heap data structure is from J.W.J.Williams, the bottom-up heap construction is from R.W. Floyd, and the concept of a two heap data structure is from J.W.J. Williams and D.E. Knuth. The algorithm's novelty is limited to a few relatively minor implementation twists: 1) the two heaps are oriented with their roots at the partition values rather than at the minimum and maximum values, 2)the coding of one of the heaps (the heap of smaller values) employs negative indexing, and 3) the exchange phase of the algorithm is similar to a bottom-up heap construction, but navigates the heap with a post-order tree traversal. When run on a single processor, the dualheap selection algorithm's performance is competitive wit...

  19. Managing inherent complexity for sustainable walleye fisheries in Lake Erie (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Drouin, Richard; Gaden, Marc; Knight, Roger; Tyson, Jeff; Zhao, Yingming; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.


    In Lake Erie, Walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus) is king. The naturally occurring species is the foundation of commercial fishing operations on the Canadian side of the lake and is a much-prized sport fish on the American side. Management of Lake Erie walleye fisheries is complex and takes place in an inter-jurisdictional setting composed of resource agencies from the states of Michigan (MDNR), Ohio (ODNR), Pennsylvania (PFBC), and New York (NYDEC) and the province of Ontario (OMNR). The complexity of walleye management is exacerbated by interactions among environmental and ecological changes in Lake Erie, complex life-history characteristics of the species, public demand for walleye, and cultural/governance differences among managing groups and their respective constituents. Success of future management strategies will largely hinge upon our ability to understand these inherent complexities and to employ tactics that successfully accommodate stock productivity and human demand in a highly dynamic environment. In this report, we review the history of Lake Erie walleye management, outline the multi-jurisdictional process for international management of walleye, and discuss strategies to address challenges facing managers.

  20. Pharmacological modulation of wound healing in experimental burns. (United States)

    Jurjus, Abdo; Atiyeh, Bishara S; Abdallah, Inaya M; Jurjus, Rosalyne A; Hayek, Shady N; Jaoude, Marlene Abou; Gerges, Alice; Tohme, Rania A


    Factors involved in wound healing and their interdependence are not yet fully understood; nevertheless, new prospects for therapy to favor speedy and optimal healing are emerging. Reports about wound healing modulation by local application of simple and natural agents abound even in the recent literature, however, most are anecdotal and lack solid scientific evidence. We describe the effect of silver sulfadiazine and moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), a recently described burn ointment of herbal origin, on mast cells and several wound healing cytokines (bFGF, IL-1, TGF-beta, and NGF) in the rabbit experimental burn model. The results demonstrate that various inflammatory cells, growth factors and cytokines present in the wound bed may be modulated by application of local agents with drastic effects on their expression dynamics with characteristic temporal and spatial regulation and changes in the expression pattern. Such data are likely to be important for the development of novel strategies for wound healing since they shed some light on the potential formulations of temporally and combinatory optimized therapeutic regimens.

  1. Design and development of self-healing dental composites. (United States)

    Huyang, George; Debertin, Anne E; Sun, Jirun


    The purpose of this project is to design and develop a clinically applicable self-healing dental composite (SHDC). The value of resin-based dental restorations could be improved by increasing their service lives. One way to improve longevity is to obturate micro-cracks that form during or after the composite hardens in the dental cavity. Toward this end, we introduce here a new type of SHDC made with contemporary dental components plus two additional ingredients: a healing powder (HP, strongtium fluoroaluminosilicate particles) and a healing liquid (HL, aqueous solutions of polyacrylic acids) that is enclosed within silica microcapsules. As micro-cracks develop, they will break the microcapsules in their propagation path, thereby releasing HL. This liquid will then react with particles of HP exposed by the crack formation, forming an insoluble reaction product that fills and seals the cracks. The key factors to achieve this self-healing of cracks are discussed. The elastic modulus of a SHDC appeared to be satisfactory. The healing process was confirmed by means of mechanical, morphological, and chemical methods. The SHDC restored micro-cracks without external intervention, thereby showing potential for increasing the service lives of dental restorations. Importantly, this SHDC contains only clinically-tested, biocompatible materials, making it readily applicable.

  2. Self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials state-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tittelboom, Kim; Belie, Nele; Schlangen, Erik


    Self-healing materials are man-made materials which have the built-in capability to repair damage. Failure in materials is often caused by the occurrence of small microcracks throughout the material. In self-healing materials phenomena are triggered to counteract these microcracks. These processes are ideally triggered by the occurrence of damage itself. Thus far, the self-healing capacity of cement-based materials has been considered as something "extra". This could be called passive self-healing, since it was not a designed feature of the material, but an inherent property of it. Centuries-old buildings have been said to have survived these centuries because of the inherent self-healing capacity of the binders used for cementing building blocks together. In this State-of-the-Art Report a closer look is taken at self-healing phenomena in cement-based materials. It is shown what options are available to design for this effect rather than have it occur as a "coincidental extra".

  3. Self-healing materials with microvascular networks. (United States)

    Toohey, Kathleen S; Sottos, Nancy R; Lewis, Jennifer A; Moore, Jeffrey S; White, Scott R


    Self-healing polymers composed of microencapsulated healing agents exhibit remarkable mechanical performance and regenerative ability, but are limited to autonomic repair of a single damage event in a given location. Self-healing is triggered by crack-induced rupture of the embedded capsules; thus, once a localized region is depleted of healing agent, further repair is precluded. Re-mendable polymers can achieve multiple healing cycles, but require external intervention in the form of heat treatment and applied pressure. Here, we report a self-healing system capable of autonomously repairing repeated damage events. Our bio-inspired coating-substrate design delivers healing agent to cracks in a polymer coating via a three-dimensional microvascular network embedded in the substrate. Crack damage in the epoxy coating is healed repeatedly. This approach opens new avenues for continuous delivery of healing agents for self-repair as well as other active species for additional functionality.

  4. [Wound healing and wound dressing]. (United States)

    Eitel, F; Sklarek, J


    This review article intends to discuss the clinical management of wounds in respect to a pathophysiological background. Recent results of research in the field of wound healing are demonstrated. Wound healing can be seen as aseptic inflammatory response to a traumatic stimulus. The activation of the clotting cascade by the trauma induces a sequence of humoral and cellular reactions. Platelets, granulocytes and macrophages are activated stepwisely. In the first phase of wound healing the wounded tissue area will be prepared for phagocytosis by enzymatic degradation of ground substance and depolymerisation of protein macromolecules (wound edema). Following the phagocytic microdebridement mesenchymal cells proliferate and produce matrix substance. Microcirculation within the traumatized area will be restored by angiogenesis, macroscopically observed as new formed granulation tissue. This leads to the wound healing phase of scar tissue formation. In this complexity of reactions naturally many possibilities of impairment are given. The most common complication during wound healing is the infection. It can be seen as self reinforcing process. The therapy of the impairment of wound healing consists in the disruption of the specific vicious circle, in the case of an osseus infection that would be a macrodebridement (that is necrectomy) and biomechanical stabilization. The surgical management of wounds principally consists in ensuring an undisturbed sequence of the healing process. This can be done by the wound excision that supports the phagocytic microdebridement. A further possibility is to avoid overwhelming formation of edema by eliminating the traumatic stimulus, by immobilization of the injured region and by ensuring a physiological microenvironment with a primary suture if possible. There are up to the present no drugs available to enhance cell proliferation and to regulate wound healing but it seems that experimental research is successful in characterizing

  5. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr


    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  6. Healing texts and healing techniques in indigenous Balinese medicine. (United States)

    McCauley, A P


    Case histories of three prominent Balinese healers illustrate various ways that indigenous medical texts are used in healing. Most healers employ mantras, spells and inscriptions from the texts because they believe them to have innate power which can heal. A smaller group of healers are literate in the archaic language used in the palm-leaf medical manuscripts. However, their use of these manuscripts often differs from the literal and unambiguous way that Westerners read medical documents. An examination of Balinese medical manuscripts, in the context of the conventions of Balinese literature, demonstrates the use of these texts to align the body with the macrocosm and to reaffirm the beliefs of the ancestors.

  7. Wound healing: an overview of acute, fibrotic and delayed healing. (United States)

    Diegelmann, Robert F; Evans, Melissa C


    Acute wounds normally heal in a very orderly and efficient manner characterized by four distinct, but overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Specific biological markers characterize healing of acute wounds. Likewise, unique biologic markers also characterize pathologic responses resulting in fibrosis and chronic non-healing ulcers. This review describes the major biological processes associated with both normal and pathologic healing. The normal healing response begins the moment the tissue is injured. As the blood components spill into the site of injury, the platelets come into contact with exposed collagen and other elements of the extracellular matrix. This contact triggers the platelets to release clotting factors as well as essential growth factors and cytokines such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Following hemostasis, the neutrophils then enter the wound site and begin the critical task of phagocytosis to remove foreign materials, bacteria and damaged tissue. As part of this inflammatory phase, the macrophages appear and continue the process of phagocytosis as well as releasing more PDGF and TGF beta. Once the wound site is cleaned out, fibroblasts migrate in to begin the proliferative phase and deposit new extracellular matrix. The new collagen matrix then becomes cross-linked and organized during the final remodeling phase. In order for this efficient and highly controlled repair process to take place, there are numerous cell-signaling events that are required. In pathologic conditions such as non-healing pressure ulcers, this efficient and orderly process is lost and the ulcers are locked into a state of chronic inflammation characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration with associated reactive oxygen species and destructive enzymes. Healing proceeds only after the inflammation is controlled. On the opposite end of the spectrum, fibrosis is characterized by

  8. Defining the inherent stability of degenerative spondylolisthesis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Simmonds, Andrea M; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Dvorak, Marcel F; Dea, Nicolas; Melnyk, Angela D; Fisher, Charles G


    OBJECT A range of surgical options exists for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS). The chosen technique inherently depends on the stability of the DLS. Despite a substantial body of literature dedicated to the outcome analysis of numerous DLS procedures, no consensus has been reached on defining or classifying the disorder with respect to stability or the role that instability should play in a treatment algorithm. The purpose of this study was to define grades of stability and to develop a guide for deciding on the optimal approach in surgically managing patients with DLS. METHODS The authors conducted a qualitative systematic review of clinical or biomechanical analyses evaluating the stability of and surgical outcomes for DLS for the period from 1990 to 2013. Research focused on nondegenerative forms of spondylolisthesis or spinal stenosis without associated DLS was excluded. The primary extracted results were clinical and radiographic parameters indicative of DLS instability. RESULTS The following preoperative parameters are predictors of stability in DLS: restabilization signs (disc height loss, osteophyte formation, vertebral endplate sclerosis, and ligament ossification), no disc angle change or less than 3 mm of translation on dynamic radiographs, and the absence of low-back pain. The validity and magnitude of each parameter's contribution can only be determined through appropriately powered prospective evaluation in the future. Identifying these parameters has allowed for the creation of a preliminary DLS instability classification (DSIC) scheme based on the preoperative assessment of DLS stability. CONCLUSIONS Spinal stability is an important factor to consider in the evaluation and treatment of patients with DLS. Qualitative assessment of the best available evidence revealed clinical and radiographic parameters for the creation of the DSIC, a decision aid to help surgeons develop a method of preoperative evaluation to better

  9. Distribution of Inherent Strains and Residual Stresses in Medium Thickness Plate Weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A fundamental theory for the analysis of residual weldingstresses and deformation based on the inherent strain distribution along the welded joint is introduced. Distribution of inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses in medium thickness plate weldment is calculated and analyzed.A new method of calculating inherent strains and longitudinal residual stresses is proposed.

  10. Registration of optical imagery and LiDAR data using an inherent geometrical constraint. (United States)

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Mei; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Li, Linyuan; Qi, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Jinghui; Chu, Qing


    A novel method for registering imagery with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is proposed. It is based on the phenomenon that the back-projection of LiDAR point cloud of an object should be located within the object boundary in the image. Using this inherent geometrical constraint, the registration parameters computation of both data sets only requires LiDAR point clouds of several objects and their corresponding boundaries in the image. The proposed registration method comprises of four steps: point clouds extraction, boundary extraction, back-projection computation and registration parameters computation. There are not any limitations on the geometrical and spectral properties of the object. So it is suitable not only for structured scenes with man-made objects but also for natural scenes. Moreover, the proposed method based on the inherent geometrical constraint can register two data sets derived from different parts of an object. It can be used to co-register TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) LiDAR point cloud and UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) image, which are obtaining more attention in the forest survey application. Using initial registration parameters comparable to POS (position and orientation system) accuracy, the performed experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed registration method.

  11. Effective material parameter retrieval of anisotropic elastic metamaterials with inherent nonlocality (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Heung Son; Ma, Pyung Sik; Kim, Yoon Young


    In this paper, the scattering (S-) parameter retrieval method is presented specifically for anisotropic elastic metamaterials; so far, no retrieval has been accomplished when elastic metamaterials exhibit fully anisotropic behavior. Complex constitutive property and intrinsic scattering behavior of elastic metamaterials make their characterization far more complicated than that for acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials. In particular, elastic metamaterials generally exhibit anisotropic scattering behavior due to higher scattering modes associated with shear deformation. They also exhibit nonlocal responses to some degrees, which originate from strong multiple scattering interactions even in the long wavelength limit. Accordingly, the conventional S-parameter retrieval methods cannot be directly used for elastic metamaterials, because they determine only the diagonal components in effective tensor property. Also, the conventional methods simply use the analytic inversion formulae for the material characterization so that inherent nonlocality cannot be taken into account. To establish a retrieval method applicable to anisotropic elastic metamaterials, we propose an alternative S-parameter method to deal with full anisotropy of elastic metamaterials. To retrieve the whole effective anisotropic parameter, we utilize not only normal but also oblique wave incidences. For the retrieval, we first retrieve the ratio of the effective stiffness tensor to effective density and then determine the effective density. The proposed retrieval method is validated by characterizing the effective material parameters of various types of non-resonant anisotropic metamaterials. It is found that the whole effective parameters are retrieved consistently regardless of used retrieval conditions in spite of inherent nonlocality.

  12. Healing particles in self-healing thermal barrier coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derelioglu, Z.; Anusuya Ponnusami, S.; Turteltaub, S.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W.G.


    Crack healing in ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) may be realized by embedding Mo-Si based particles in the thermal barrier coating. Upon cracking, these particles are exposed to oxygen that permeates through the top layer and the crack gap is filled with SiO2 which is produced from oxidation

  13. Fibrin Glue Does Not Improve Healing of Gastrointestinal Anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob


    BACKGROUND/AIM: Anastomotic leakage remains a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. In order to reduce its incidence, several clinical and experimental studies on anastomotic sealing have been performed. In a number of these studies, the sealing material has been fibrin...... on the healing effects of FG on gastrointestinal anastomoses. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases were searched for studies evaluating the healing process of gastrointestinal anastomoses after any kind of FG application. The search period was from 1953 to December 2013. RESULTS: Twenty...

  14. Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences Using Inherent Safety Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Wigeland; J. E. Cahalan


    Sodium-cooled fast reactors are designed to have a high level of safety. Events of high probability of occurrence are typically handled without consequence through reliable engineering systems and good design practices. For accidents of lower probability, the initiating events are characterized by larger and more numerous challenges to the reactor system, such as failure of one or more major engineered systems and can also include a failure to scram the reactor in response. As the initiating conditions become more severe, they have the potential for creating serious consequences of potential safety significance, including fuel melting, fuel pin disruption and recriticality. If the progression of such accidents is not mitigated by design features of the reactor, energetic events and dispersal of radioactive materials may result. For severe accidents, there are several approaches that can be used to mitigate the consequences of such severe accident initiators, which typically include fuel pin failures and core disruption. One approach is to increase the reliability of the reactor protection system so that the probability of an ATWS event is reduced to less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year, where larger accident consequences are allowed, meeting the U.S. NRC goal of relegating such accident consequences as core disruption to these extremely low probabilities. The main difficulty with this approach is to convincingly test and guarantee such increased reliability. Another approach is to increase the redundancy of the reactor scram system, which can also reduce the probability of an ATWS event to a frequency of less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year or lower. The issues with this approach are more related to reactor core design, with the need for a greater number of control rod positions in the reactor core and the associated increase in complexity of the reactor protection system. A third approach is to use the inherent reactivity feedback that occurs in a fast reactor to

  15. Cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation by BRAF inhibitors (United States)

    Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Li, Shuoran; Xie, Michael W.; Sun, Lu; Hugo, Willy; Huang, Rong Rong; Jiao, Jing; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Realegeno, Susan; Krystofinski, Paige; Azhdam, Ariel; Komenan, Sara Marie D.; Atefi, Mohammad; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Pellegrini, Matteo; Cochran, Alistair J.; Modlin, Robert L.; Herschman, Harvey R.; Lo, Roger S.; McBride, William H.; Segura, Tatiana; Ribas, Antoni


    BRAF inhibitors are highly effective therapies for the treatment of BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, with the main toxicity being a variety of hyperproliferative skin conditions due to paradoxical activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in BRAF wild-type cells. Most of these hyperproliferative skin changes improve when a MEK inhibitor is co-administered, as it blocks paradoxical MAPK activation. Here we show how the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib accelerates skin wound healing by inducing the proliferation and migration of human keratinocytes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Topical treatment with vemurafenib in two wound-healing mice models accelerates cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation; addition of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor reverses the benefit of vemurafenib-accelerated wound healing. The same dosing regimen of topical BRAF inhibitor does not increase the incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in mice. Therefore, topical BRAF inhibitors may have clinical applications in accelerating the healing of skin wounds. PMID:27476449

  16. Effect of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor on wound healing. (United States)

    Seo, Seung Yong; Han, Song-Iy; Bae, Chun Sik; Cho, Hoon; Lim, Sung Chul


    PGE2 is an important mediator of wound healing. It is degraded and inactivated by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Various growth factors, type IV collagen, TIMP-2 and PGE2 are important mediators of inflammation involving wound healing. Overproduction of TGF-β and suppression of PGE2 are found in excessive wound scarring. If we make the condition downregulating growth factors and upregulating PGE2, the wound will have a positive effect which results in little scar formation after healing. TD88 is a 15-PGDH inhibitor based on thiazolinedione structure. We evaluated the effect of TD88 on wound healing. In 10 guinea pigs (4 control and 6 experimental groups), we made four 1cm diameter-sized circular skin defects on each back. TD88 and vehicle were applicated on the wound twice a day for 4 days in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Tissue samples were harvested for qPCR and histomorphometric analyses on the 2nd and 4th day after treatment. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant reepithelization in the experimental group. qPCR analysis showed significant decrease of PDGF, CTGF and TIMP-2, but significant increase of type IV collagen in the experimental group. Taken together TD88 could be a good effector on wound healing, especially in the aspects of prevention of scarring.

  17. The Role of Iron in the Skin & Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Anne Wright


    Full Text Available In this review article we discuss current knowledge about iron in the skin and the cutaneous wound healing process. Iron plays a key role in both oxidative stress and photo-induced skin damage. The main causes of oxidative stress in the skin include reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in the skin by ultraviolet (UVA 320-400 nm portion of the ultraviolet spectrum and biologically available iron. We also discuss the relationships between iron deficiency, anaemia and cutaneous wound healing. Studies looking at this fall into two distinct groups. Early studies investigated the effect of anaemia on wound healing using a variety of experimental methodology to establish anaemia or iron deficiency and focused on wound-strength rather than effect on macroscopic healing or re-epithelialisation. More recent animal studies have investigated novel treatments aimed at correcting the effects of systemic iron deficiency and localised iron overload. Iron overload is associated with local cutaneous iron deposition, which has numerous deleterious effects in chronic venous disease and hereditary haemochromatosis. Iron plays a key role in chronic ulceration and conditions such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and Lupus Erythematosus are associated with both anaemia of chronic disease and dysregulation of local cutaneous iron haemostasis. Iron is a potential therapeutic target in the skin by application of topical iron chelators and novel pharmacological agents, and in delayed cutaneous wound healing by treatment of iron deficiency or underlying systemic inflammation.

  18. Self-Healing Metals and Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.


    Self-healing in inorganic materials is a relatively new area in materials science and engineering that draws inspiration from biological systems that can self-repair damage. This article reviews the preliminary attempts to impart self-healing behavior to metals. Several challenges yet exist in the development of metallic alloys that can self-repair damage, including surface bonding issues, such as liquid/solid contact angle (wetting) and oxidation, and practical issues, such as capillary pressure for delivery of a liquid metal to a damaged area or crack, and the overall mechanical properties of a composite system. Although the applied research approaches reviewed have obtained marginal success, the development of self-healing metallic systems has the potential to benefit a wide range of industrial applications and thus deserves greater investment in fundamental research.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Different Commercial Topical Natural Products Base Formulation on Wound Healing in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surayya Razali


    Full Text Available Summary. Wound healing is impaired and delayed in diabetes state. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different topical natural products; Olive Heal, olive oil and vitamin E on the wound healing process in normal and diabetic rats. The study was carried out using 56 male Sprague-Dawley rats which were assigned randomly into 7 groups:  group I (normal wounded untreated, group II (normal wounded treated with Olive Heal, group III (diabetic wounded untreated, group IV (diabetic wounded treated with Jelonet®, group V (diabetic wounded treated with Olive Heal, group VI (diabetic wounded treated with olive oil, and group VII (diabetic wounded treated with palm vitamin E. Four full thickness excisions were made at the back of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by rate of wound closure and histological evaluation on the tenth day after wounding. All treatments were able to enhance the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure significantly (p0.05 on collagen deposition and neovascularization scores. However, all treatments showed high histological scores compared to group III. In conclusion, topical application of the natural products enhanced wound healing process in normal and diabetic rats. Industrial relevance. Wound healing impairment in diabetes mellitus patients is one of the complications which can debilitate patients. Natural products that can be used as topical dressing have been studied. This study was conducted to determine the ability of Olive Heal, olive oil and vitamin E in promoting wound healing. These treatments pose fewer side effects compared to the chemical drugs used commercially. In addition, antioxidant contents in these natural products may play a role to reduce radicals and act as scavengers against reactive species. It may protect the cells from oxidative damage thus expediting wound healing. This will explore the possibilities of commercializing these natural products as wound healing agents

  20. High Temperature Self-Healing Metallic Composite (United States)

    Kutelia, E. R.; Bakhtiyarov, S. I.; Tsurtsumia, O. O.; Bakhtiyarov, A. S.; Eristavi, B.


    This work presents the possibility to realize the self healing mechanisms for heterogeneous architectural metal/ceramic high temperature sandwich thermal barrier coating systems on the surfaces refractory metals by analogy of wound healing in the skin.

  1. Nerve growth factor improves ligament healing. (United States)

    Mammoto, Takeo; Seerattan, Ruth A; Paulson, Kent D; Leonard, Catherine A; Bray, Robert C; Salo, Paul T


    Previous work has shown that innervation participates in normal ligament healing. The present study was performed to determine if exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) would improve the healing of injured ligament by promoting reinnervation, blood flow, and angiogenesis. Two groups of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral medial collateral ligament transection (MCL). One group was given 10 microg NGF and the other was given PBS via osmotic pump over 7 days after injury. After 7, 14, and 42 days, in vivo blood flow was measured using laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI). Morphologic assessments of nerve density, vascularity, and angiogenesis inhibitor production were done in three animals at each time point by immunohistochemical staining for the pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, the endothelial marker vWF, and the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2). Ligament scar material and structural mechanical properties were assessed in seven rats at each time point. Increased nerve density was promoted by NGF at both 14 and 42 days. Exposure to NGF also led to increased ligament vascularity, as measured by histologic assessment of vWF immunohistochemistry, although LSPI-measured blood flow was not significantly different from controls. NGF treatment also led to decreased expression of TSP-2 at 14 days. Mechanical testing revealed that exposure to NGF increased failure load by 40%, ultimate tensile strength by 55%, and stiffness by 30% at 42 days. There were no detectable differences between groups in creep properties. The results suggest that local application of NGF can improve ligament healing by promoting both reinnervation and angiogenesis, and results in scars with enhanced mechanical properties.

  2. Nutritional Aspects of Gastrointestinal Wound Healing


    Mukherjee, Kaushik; Sandra L Kavalukas; Barbul, Adrian


    Significance: Although the wound healing cascade is similar in many tissues, in the gastrointestinal tract mucosal healing is critical for processes such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers and healing of the mucosa, submucosa, and serosal layers is needed for surgical anastomoses and for enterocutaneous fistula. Failure of wound healing can result in complications including infection, prolonged hospitalization, critical illness, organ failure, readmission, new or worsening enterocutaneo...

  3. Plasma Proteins and Wound Healing (United States)


    an iron donor for proline hydroxylase synthesis. Hapto- globin also may prevent retardation of wound healing caused by infection by reducing the...dans le syndrome degression et la croissance tissulaire. Expos. Annu. Biochim. Med., 1970, 30: 149. JEEEAY, H. The metabolism of scrum proteins—III

  4. Gastronomy healing after transgastric peritoneoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Andersen, Luise; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg


    INTRODUCTION: Reliable closure and infection prevention are the main barriers for implementation of pure transgastric peritoneoscopy. The primary aim of this study was to assess healing of over the scope clip (OTSC) closed gastrotomies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pure transgastric peritoneoscopy was ...

  5. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Chundran


    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  6. Wound healing: a new perspective on glucosylated tetrahydrocurcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Rao A


    Full Text Available Adari Bhaskar Rao,1 Ernala Prasad,1 Seelam Siva Deepthi,1 Vennapusa Haritha,1 Sistla Ramakrishna,1 Kuncha Madhusudan,1 Mullapudi Venkata Surekha,2 Yerramilli Sri Rama Venkata Rao3 1Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, 2Pathology Division, National Institute of Nutrition, 3Ashian Herbex Ltd, Hyderabad, AP, India Abstract: Wound healing represents a dynamic set of coordinated physiological processes observed in response to tissue injury. Several natural products are known to accelerate the process of wound healing. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC, an in vivo biotransformed product/metabolite of curcumin, is known to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities similar to those of native curcuminoids. The poor bioavailability of these curcuminoids limits their clinical applications. The present study highlights the percutaneous absorption and wound healing activity of glucosyl-conjugated THC (glucosyl-THC in male Wistar rats. A high plasma concentration of glucosyl-THC (4.35 µg/mL was found in rats 3 hours after application. A significant enhanced wound healing activity and reduced epithelialization time were observed in rats that received glucosyl-THC. This may have been due to the improved bioavailability of the glucosyl compound. The nonstaining and lack of skin-sensitive side effects render the bioconjugated glucosyl-THC a promising therapeutic compound in the management of excision wounds and in cosmetic applications, in the near future. Keywords: glucosylation, epithelialization, granulation tissue, cosmetic, therapeutic

  7. Repetitive Biomimetic Self-healing of Ca2+-Induced Nanocomposite Protein Hydrogels (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Qiuchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Lei, Yu


    Self-healing is a capacity observed in most biological systems in which the healing processes are autonomously triggered after the damage. Inspired by this natural behavior, researchers believed that a synthetic material possessing similar self-recovery capability could also be developed. Albeit various intrinsic self-healing systems have been developed over the past few decades, restriction on the biocompatibility due to the required synthetic conditions under extreme pH and with poisonous cross-linker significantly limits their application in biomedical field. In this study, a highly biocompatible nanocomposite protein hydrogel with excellent biomimetic self-healing property is presented. The self-healing protein gel is made by inducing calcium ions into the mixture of heat-induced BSA nano-aggregates and pristine BSA molecules at room temperature and under physiological pH due to the ion-mediated protein-protein association and the bridging effect of divalent Ca2+ ions. The as-prepared protein hydrogel shows excellent repetitive self-healing properties without using any external stimuli at ambient condition. Such outstanding self-recovery performance was quantitatively evaluated/validated by both dynamic and oscillatory rheological analysis. Moreover, with the presence of calcium ions, the self-healing behavior can be significantly facilitated/enhanced. Finally, the superior biocompatibility demonstrated by in vitro cytotoxicity analysis suggests that it is a promising self-healing material well-suited for biomedical applications.

  8. Ultrasound stimulation of maxillofacial bone healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Stegenga, B; Raghoebar, GM; de Bont, LGM


    A substantial part of the maxillofacial surgery practice deals with maxillofacial bone healing. In the past decades, low-intensity ultrasound treatment has been shown to reduce the healing time of fresh fractures of the extremities up to 38%, and to heal delayed and non-unions up to 90% and 83%, res

  9. News in wound healing and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo; Karlsmark, Tonny


    -TNFalpha) and Lactobacillus plantarum cultures have also been successfully used in hard to heal, atypical wounds. Knowledge on influencing factors as smoking and biofilm on the healing process has also been improved. Smoking results in delayed healing and increased risk of postoperative infection, whereas the role of biofilm...

  10. Preparation of guar gum scaffold film grafted with ethylenediamine and fish scale collagen, cross-linked with ceftazidime for wound healing application. (United States)

    Jana, Piyali; Mitra, Tapas; Selvaraj, Thirupathi Kumara Raja; Gnanamani, A; Kundu, P P


    Present study describes the synthesis of carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) from the native guar gum (GG) and the prepared CMGG is grafted with ethylenediamine (EDA) to form aminated CMGG. Then, fish scale collagen and aminated CMGG are cross-linked by ceftazidime drug through non- covalent ionic interaction. The resultant cross-linked film is subjected to the analysis of (1)HNMR, ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM and XRD. The TNBS results revealed that 45% of interaction between EDA and CMGG and 90-95% of Ceftazidime is released from aminated CMGG-Ceftazidime-Collagen (ACCC) film after 96h of incubation at physiological pH. In vitro cell line studies reveal the biocompatibility of the cross-linked film and the antimicrobial studies display the growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms. Overall, the study indicates that the incorporation of Ceftazidime into collagen and aminated CMGG can improve the functional property of aminated CMGG as well as collagen, leading to its biomedical applications.

  11. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing (United States)

    Salamone, Joseph C.; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E.


    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  12. Come and play with HEAL in Microcosm!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi


    A new interactive game in Microcosm informs about hadron therapy – come and test it!   HEAL is a new interactive game currently under evaluation at Microcosm to inform visitors about hadron therapy, one aspect of the CERN-related contributions to the medical field. Microcosm is continuously evolving and new content is installed regularly. One of the most recent exhibits is called HEAL - an interactive game with the aim of informing visitors about the hadron therapy to treat cancer. It has been developed by Jenny Rompa, a PhD student at CERN, within the activities of MediaLab.  The application is controlled through body movements and the player is asked to set the right energy and the right angle of the hadron beam to make the (brain) cancer disappear. As part of her doctoral thesis, Jenny also built a questionnaire to hand out to visitors in order to examine their user experience. The goal of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using inter...

  13. Photobiomodulation in promoting wound healing: a review. (United States)

    Kuffler, Damien P


    Despite diverse methods being applied to induce wound healing, many wounds remain recalcitrant to all treatments. Photobiomodulation involves inducing wound healing by illuminating wounds with light emitting diodes or lasers. While used on different animal models, in vitro, and clinically, wound healing is induced by many different wavelengths and powers with no optimal set of parameters yet being identified. While data suggest that simultaneous multiple wavelength illumination is more efficacious than single wavelengths, the optimal single and multiple wavelengths must be better defined to induce more reliable and extensive healing of different wound types. This review focuses on studies in which specific wavelengths induce wound healing and on their mechanisms of action.

  14. Folk healing: a description and synthesis. (United States)

    Ness, R C; Wintrob, R M


    All societies have developed ways of dealing with physical and mental illness, defined as folk healing systems. The authors review the systems of folk healing that have evolved in different cultural groups in the United States. They describe the faith healing practices of fundamentalist Christian groups, the belief in rootwork among white and black people in the southeastern United States, curanderismo among Mexican-Americans, and espiritismo among Americans from Puerto Rico. Most believers in folk healing also go to physicians for medical care. The authors argue that physicians should familiarize themselves with patients' folk healing beliefs in order to serve them more effectively.

  15. Effects of the Four-Herb Compound ANBP on Wound Healing Promotion in Diabetic Mice. (United States)

    Hou, Qian; He, Wen-Jun; Chen, Li; Hao, Hao-Jie; Liu, Jie-Jie; Dong, Liang; Tong, Chuan; Li, Mei-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing


    Wound healing is a troublesome problem in diabetic patients. Besides, there is also an increased risk of postsurgical wound complications for diabetic patient. It has been revealed that traditional Chinese medicine may promote healing and inhibit scar formation, while the changes of morphology and physiology of wounds on such medicine treatment still remain elusive. In this study, we first used the ultralow temperature preparation method to produce mixed superfine powder from Agrimonia pilosa (A), Nelumbo nucifera (N), Boswellia carteri (B), and Pollen typhae (P), named as ANBP. Applying ANBP on 40 streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice (4-6 weeks, 20 ± 2 g), we observed that the wound healing process was accelerated and the wound healing time was shortened (14 days, P wound healing, promote vascularization, and inhibit inflammation, suggesting the potential clinic application of ANBP for diabetes mellitus and refractory wounds.

  16. Progress in the remote-controlled activation of self-healing processes (United States)

    Shaaban, Ahmad; Schmidt, Annette M.


    Self-healing materials, able to heal themselves either spontaneously or after activation, and ultimately restore diverse properties such as mechanical, optical or electrical properties, are under intense investigation for various classes of material, including polymers, cementous materials, asphalts, metals, composites, and more. Among these, on-command self-healing systems can be classified as an approach towards a spatially resolved, externally controlled activation of self-healing behavior. Towards this goal, the last decade has experienced significant progress. Various methods, mainly based on indirect heating mechanisms, such as resistive, induction, or photo-induced heating, have been presented, depending on different antenna materials and energy sources, and tailored for different applications. This review discusses the up-to-date achievements in the field of on-command self-healing materials with a focus on electromagnetic and mechanochemical activation.

  17. Self-Healing Materials Systems: Overview of Major Approaches and Recent Developed Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aïssa


    Full Text Available The development of self-healing materials is now being considered for real engineering applications. Over the past few decades, there has been a huge interest in materials that can self-heal, as this property can increase materials lifetime, reduce replacement costs, and improve product safety. Self-healing systems can be made from a variety of polymers and metallic materials. This paper reviews the main technologies currently being developed, particularly on the thermosetting composite polymeric systems. An overview of various self-healing concepts over the past decade is then presented. Finally, a perspective on future self-healing approaches using this biomimetic technique is offered. The intention is to stimulate debate and reinforce the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in this exciting field.

  18. Self-healing composites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Wang


    Full Text Available Self-healing composites are composite materials capable of automatic recovery when damaged. They are inspired by biological systems such as the human skin which are naturally able to heal themselves. This paper reviews work on self-healing composites with a focus on capsule-based and vascular healing systems. Complementing previous survey articles, the paper provides an updated overview of the various self-healing concepts proposed over the past 15 years, and a comparative analysis of healing mechanisms and fabrication techniques for building capsules and vascular networks. Based on the analysis, factors that influence healing performance are presented to reveal key barriers and potential research directions.

  19. Biologic agents for anterior cruciate ligament healing: A systematic review (United States)

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Loibl, Markus; Andriolo, Luca; Filardo, Giuseppe; Zellner, Johannes; Koch, Matthias; Angele, Peter


    AIM To systematically review the currently available literature concerning the application of biologic agents such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells to promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of biologic agents (i.e., PRP or stem cells) to favor ACL healing during reconstruction or repair. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: Clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in English language, on the use of PRP or stem cells during ACL reconstruction/repair. Exclusion criteria were articles written in other languages, reviews, or studies analyzing other applications of PRP/stem cells in knee surgery not related to promoting ACL healing. RESULTS The database search identified 394 records that were screened. A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis: In one paper stem cells were applied for ACL healing, in one paper there was a concomitant application of PRP and stem cells, whereas in the remaining 21 papers PRP was used. Based on the ACL injury pattern, two papers investigated biologic agents in ACL partial tears whereas 21 papers in ACL reconstruction. Looking at the quality of the available literature, 17 out of 21 studies dealing with ACL reconstruction were randomized controlled trials. Both studies on ACL repair were case series. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the role of stem cells in promoting ACL healing both in case of partial and complete tears. The role of PRP is still controversial and the only advantage emerging from the literature is related to a better graft maturation over time, without documenting beneficial effects in terms of clinical outcome, bone-graft integration and prevention of bony tunnel enlargement. PMID:27672573

  20. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)


    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  1. A novel methodology for self-healing at the nanoscale in CNT/epoxy composites (United States)

    Quigley, E.; Datta, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.


    Self-healing materials have the potential to repair induced damage and extend the service life of aerospace or civil components as well as prevent catastrophic failure. A novel technique to provide self-healing capabilities at the nanoscale in carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposites is presented in this paper. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with the healing agent (dicyclopentadiene) were used to fabricate self-healing CNT/epoxy nanocomposite films. The structure of CNTs was considered suitable for this application since they are nanosized, hollow, and provide a more consistent size distribution than polymeric nanocapsules. Specimens with different weight fractions of the functionalized CNTs were fabricated to explore the effect of weight fraction of functionalized CNTs on the extent of healing. Optical micrographs with different fluorescent filters showed partial or complete healing of damage approximately two to three weeks after damage was induced. Results indicate that by using CNTs to encapsulate a healing agent, crack growth in self-healing CNT/epoxy nanocomposites can be retarded, leading to safer materials that can autonomously repair itself.

  2. Simultaneous, inherently temperature and strain insensitive bio-sensors based on dual-resonance long-period gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Bock, Wojtek J; Mikulic, Predrag


    Addressing the temperature and strain induced cross-talks simultaneously, we propose an inherently strain and temperature insensitive fiber-optic bio-sensor. The insensitivity has been achieved by properly adjusting the dopants and their concentrations in the optical fiber core region, and by optimizing the grating period and the strength of concatenated dual-resonance long-period-gratings. The simulations have been carried out using the same fiber parameters as used in our earlier experimental studies, which matched excellently with the experimental results. The proposed sensor has a theoretical refractive-index sensitivity of 4607 nm/RIU, which can be used to detect changes as small as 2.2 x10^-7 in ambient refractive indices using a detection system with spectral resolution of 1 pm. Our work finds application in developing precision biosensors with inherent insensitivity towards temperature and axial strain fluctuations. The sensor is currently under fabrication at our lab.

  3. A new casting defect healing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W. [ForMat Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Viswanathan, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.

  4. Platelet gel for healing cutaneous chronic wounds. (United States)

    Crovetti, Giovanni; Martinelli, Giovanna; Issi, Marwan; Barone, Marilde; Guizzardi, Marco; Campanati, Barbara; Moroni, Marco; Carabelli, Angelo


    Wound healing is a specific host immune response for restoration of tissue integrity. Experimental studies demonstrated an alteration of growth factors activity due to their reduced synthesis, increased degradation and inactivation. In wound healing platelets play an essential role since they are rich of alpha-granules growth factors (platelet derived growth factor--PDGF; transforming growth factor-beta--TGF-beta; vascular endothelial growth factor--VEGF). Topical use of platelet gel (PG), hemocomponent obtained from mix of activated platelets and cryoprecipitate, gives the exogenous and in situ adding of growth factors (GF). The hemocomponents are of autologous or homologous origin. We performed a technique based on: multicomponent apheretic procedure to obtain plasma rich platelet and cryoprecipitate; manual processing in an open system, in sterile environment, for gel activation. Every step of the gel synthesis was checked by a quality control programme. The therapeutic protocol consists of the once-weekly application of PG. Progressive reduction of the wound size, granulation tissue forming, wound bed detersion, regression and absence of infective processes were considered for evaluating clinical response to hemotherapy. 24 patients were enrolled. They had single or multiple cutaneous ulcers with different ethiopathogenesis. Only 3 patients could perform autologous withdrawal; in the others homologous hemocomponent were used, always considering suitability and traceability criteria for transfusional use of blood. Complete response was observed in 9 patients, 2 were subjected to cutaneous graft, 4 stopped treatment, 9 had partial response and are still receiving the treatment. In each case granulation tissue forming increased following to the first PG applications, while complete re-epithelization was obtained later. Pain was reduced in every treated patient. Topical haemotherapy with PG may be considered as an adjuvant treatment of a multidisciplinary process

  5. Monocyte/macrophage androgen receptor suppresses cutaneous wound healing in mice by enhancing local TNF-alpha expression. (United States)

    Lai, Jiann-Jyh; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chuang, Kuang-Hsiang; Chang, Philip; Yu, I-Chen; Lin, Wen-Jye; Chang, Chawnshang


    Cutaneous wounds heal more slowly in elderly males than in elderly females, suggesting a role for sex hormones in the healing process. Indeed, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to inhibit cutaneous wound healing. AR is expressed in several cell types in healing skin, including keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and infiltrating macrophages, but the exact role of androgen/AR signaling in these different cell types remains unclear. To address this question, we generated and studied cutaneous wound healing in cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) mice. General and myeloid-specific ARKO mice exhibited accelerated wound healing compared with WT mice, whereas keratinocyte- and fibroblast-specific ARKO mice did not. Importantly, the rate of wound healing in the general ARKO mice was dependent on AR and not serum androgen levels. Interestingly, although dispensable for wound closure, keratinocyte AR promoted re-epithelialization, while fibroblast AR suppressed it. Further analysis indicated that AR suppressed wound healing by enhancing the inflammatory response through a localized increase in TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, AR enhanced local TNF-alpha expression via multiple mechanisms, including increasing the inflammatory monocyte population, enhancing monocyte chemotaxis by upregulating CCR2 expression, and enhancing TNF-alpha expression in macrophages. Finally, targeting AR by topical application of a compound (ASC-J9) that degrades AR protein resulted in accelerated healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic approach that may lead to better treatment of wound healing.

  6. Modulation of inflammation by Cicaderma ointment accelerates skin wound healing. (United States)

    Morin, Christophe; Roumegous, Audrey; Carpentier, Gilles; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; Garrigue-Antar, Laure; Caredda, Stéphane; Courty, José


    Skin wound healing is a natural and intricate process that takes place after injury, involving different sequential phases such as hemostasis, inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, and remodeling that are associated with complex biochemical events. The interruption or failure of wound healing leads to chronic nonhealing wounds or fibrosis-associated diseases constituting a major health problem where, unfortunately, medicines are not very effective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of Cicaderma ointment (Boiron, Lyon, France) to accelerate ulcer closure without fibrosis and investigate wound healing dynamic processes. We used a necrotic ulcer model in mice induced by intradermal doxorubicin injection, and after 11 days, when the ulcer area was maximal, we applied Vaseline petroleum jelly or Cicaderma every 2 days. Topical application of Cicaderma allowed a rapid recovery of mature epidermal structure, a more compact and organized dermis and collagen bundles compared with the Vaseline group. Furthermore, the expression of numerous cytokines/molecules in the ulcer was increased 11 days after doxorubicin injection compared with healthy skin. Cicaderma rapidly reduced the level of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and others of the TNF pathway, which can be correlated to a decrease of polymorphonuclear recruitment. It is noteworthy that the modulation of inflammation through TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-4, and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor was maintained 9 days after the first ointment application, facilitating the wound closure without affecting angiogenesis. These cytokines seem to be potential targets for therapeutic approaches in chronic wounds. Our results confirm the use of Cicaderma for accelerating skin wound healing and open new avenues for sequential treatments to improve healing.

  7. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals rat colovesical fistula. (United States)

    Grgic, Tihomir; Grgic, Dora; Drmic, Domagoj; Sever, Anita Zenko; Petrovic, Igor; Sucic, Mario; Kokot, Antonio; Klicek, Robert; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag


    To establish the effects of BPC 157 on the healing of rat colovesical fistulas, Wistar Albino male rats were randomly assigned to different groups. BPC 157, a stable gastric pentadecapeptide, has been used in clinical applications-specifically, in ulcerative colitis-and was successful in treating both external and internal fistulas. BPC 157 was provided daily, perorally, in drinking water (10µg/kg, 12ml/rat/day) until sacrifice or, alternatively, 10µg/kg or 10ng/kg intraperitoneally, with the first application at 30min after surgery and the last at 24h before sacrifice. Controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5.0ml/kg ip) or water only (12ml/rat/day). Assessment (i.e., colon and vesical defects, fistula leaking, fecaluria and defecation through the fistula, adhesions and intestinal obstruction as healing processes) took place on days 7, 14 and 28. Control colovesical fistulas regularly exhibited poor healing, with both of the defects persisting; continuous fistula leakage; fecaluria and defecation through the fistula; advanced adhesion formation; and intestinal obstruction. By contrast, BPC 157 given perorally or intraperitoneally and in µg- and ng-regimens rapidly improved the whole presentation, with both colon and vesical defects simultaneously ameliorated and eventually healed. The maximal instilled volume was continuously raised until it reached the values of healthy rats, there were no signs of fecaluria and no defecation through the fistula, there was counteraction of advanced adhesion formation or there was an intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects appear to be suited to inducing full healing of colocutaneous fistulas in rats.

  8. Mechanophores for Self-Healing Applications (United States)


    mechanochemical reactions. This important breakthrough came early and was achieved through the use of flow fields [10] and ultra-sound cavitation that caused...important breakthrough came early and was achieved through the use of flow fields [10] and ultra-sound cavitation that caused high shear stress on... Ultrasound Acoustic fields generated by an ultrasound transducer are the most common method to stretch dissolved polymers and the standard method used for

  9. Embryonic stem cell-derived M2-like macrophages delay cutaneous wound healing. (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Denecke, Bernd; Ludwig, Andreas; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi


    In adults, repair of deeply injured skin wounds results in the formation of scar tissue, whereas in embryos wounds heal almost scar-free. Macrophages are important mediators of wound healing and secrete cytokines and tissue remodeling enzymes. In contrast to host defense mediated by inflammatory M1 macrophages, wound healing and tissue repair involve regulatory M2/M2-like macrophages. Embryonic/fetal macrophages are M2-like, and this may promote scar-free wound healing. In the present study, we asked whether atopical application of ex vivo generated, embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM) improve wound healing in mice. ESDM were tested side by side with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Compared to BMDM, ESDM resembled a less inflammatory and more M2-like macrophage subtype as indicated by their reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and reduced bacterial phagocytosis. Despite this anti-inflammatory phenotype in cell culture, ESDM prolonged the healing of deep skin wounds even more than BMDM. Healed wounds had more scar formation compared to wounds receiving BMDM or cell-free treatment. Our data indicate that atopical application of ex vivo generated macrophages is not a suitable cell therapy of dermal wounds.

  10. Microcapsule-based self-healing anticorrosive coatings: Capsule size, coating formulation, and exposure testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Pedersen, Lars Thorslund


    Self-healing coatings is a rapidly growing research area, where focus has mainly been on development of new approaches to the mechanism of self-healing. However, there is a growing need for investigation of practical issues related to formulation, application, and testing of true self-healing coa......Self-healing coatings is a rapidly growing research area, where focus has mainly been on development of new approaches to the mechanism of self-healing. However, there is a growing need for investigation of practical issues related to formulation, application, and testing of true self......-healing coatings. In this work, ways of reducing the size of poly(urea–formaldehyde) microcapsules, filled with linseed oil and intended for a microcapsule-based self-healing anticorrosive coating (above water exposure), are explored. The influence of microcapsules on epoxy coating performance is also studied...... a decrease in microcapsule size but were accompanied by excessive formation of nanoparticles. Thus, isolation of too large microcapsules has been performed by filtration utilizing a novel low-energy fluoropolymer-coated steel sieve. An estimation of the critical pigment (microcapsule) volume concentration...

  11. Facile optimal synthesis of inherently electroconductive polythiophene nanoparticles. (United States)

    Li, Xin-Gui; Li, Ji; Huang, Mei-Rong


    demonstrate uncommon characteristics including easy synthesis, low cost of production, large pi-conjugated structure, high conductivity, solution processability, and extensive potential for further application.

  12. Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties (United States)

    Bond, Clare


    Geoscience is perhaps unique in its reliance on incomplete datasets and building knowledge from their interpretation. This interpretation basis for the science is fundamental at all levels; from creation of a geological map to interpretation of remotely sensed data. To teach and understand better the uncertainties in dealing with incomplete data we need to understand the strategies individual practitioners deploy that make them effective interpreters. The nature of interpretation is such that the interpreter needs to use their cognitive ability in the analysis of the data to propose a sensible solution in their final output that is both consistent not only with the original data but also with other knowledge and understanding. In a series of experiments Bond et al. (2007, 2008, 2011, 2012) investigated the strategies and pitfalls of expert and non-expert interpretation of seismic images. These studies focused on large numbers of participants to provide a statistically sound basis for analysis of the results. The outcome of these experiments showed that a wide variety of conceptual models were applied to single seismic datasets. Highlighting not only spatial variations in fault placements, but whether interpreters thought they existed at all, or had the same sense of movement. Further, statistical analysis suggests that the strategies an interpreter employs are more important than expert knowledge per se in developing successful interpretations. Experts are successful because of their application of these techniques. In a new set of experiments a small number of experts are focused on to determine how they use their cognitive and reasoning skills, in the interpretation of 2D seismic profiles. Live video and practitioner commentary were used to track the evolving interpretation and to gain insight on their decision processes. The outputs of the study allow us to create an educational resource of expert interpretation through online video footage and commentary with

  13. Prediction Models on Distribution of Inherent Strains in T Type Welding Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng HE; Jicai FENG; Jiecai HAN; Yiyu QIAN


    A fundamental theory for the analysis of residual welding stresses and deformation based on the inherent strain distribution along the welded joint is introduced. The method of predicting maximum hardness Hv(y, z) and maximum inherent strain gmax is given

  14. Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro [Nuclear Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1394 (Japan)


    As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

  15. Strategische keuzen in verkeersveiligheidsbeleid en onderzoek : naar een inherent veiliger wegverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszbach, R.


    In the Multiyear plan for traffic safety the terms "inherent safe" and "systematic management" were used. This report explains why these terms can be used and shows their correlation in the traffic safety theories. Some elements which can be a part of an inherent safe traffic and transport system ar

  16. Wound healing in the 21st century. (United States)

    Schreml, Stephan; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Prantl, Lukas; Landthaler, Michael; Babilas, Philipp


    Delayed wound healing is one of the major therapeutic and economic issues in medicine today. Cutaneous wound healing is an extremely well-regulated and complex process basically divided into 3 phases: inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling. Unfortunately, we still do not understand this process precisely enough to give direction effectively to impaired healing processes. There have been many new developments in wound healing that provide fascinating insights and may improve our ability to manage clinical problems. Our goal is to acquaint the reader with selected major novel findings about cutaneous wound healing that have been published since the beginning of the new millennium. We discuss advances in areas such as genetics, proteases, cytokines, chemokines, and regulatory peptides, as well as therapeutic strategies, all set in the framework of the different phases of wound healing.

  17. Use of platelet-rich fibrin over skin wounds: Modified secondary intention healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B Desai


    Full Text Available The healing process after any surgical intervention has always posed a challenge for the surgeons. In spite of the advances in wound closure techniques and devices, there is a crucial need for newer methods of enhancing the healing process to achieve optimal outcomes. Fibrin adhesives and platelet concentrates have proven useful in various treatment modalities in the fields of microvascular and plastic surgery. This case report shows its unique use in the field of maxillofacial and cutaneous surgery. It shows an innovative technique of enhancement of skin wound healing by local application of platelet-rich fibrin.



    Kondrateva, A.


    Results of morphological research of marginal gingival tissues before surgical treatment and in process of wound healing in patients with traditional postoperative period and application of transcranial stimulation are presented. It is shown that transcranial stimulation accelerates wound healing and is an effective method of non-drug treatment of periodontal patients after surgery.

  19. Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogels Based on Reversible Physical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Strandman


    Full Text Available Dynamic and reversible polymer networks capable of self-healing, i.e., restoring their mechanical properties after deformation and failure, are gaining increasing research interest, as there is a continuous need towards extending the lifetime and improving the safety and performance of materials particularly in biomedical applications. Hydrogels are versatile materials that may allow self-healing through a variety of covalent and non-covalent bonding strategies. The structural recovery of physical gels has long been a topic of interest in soft materials physics and various supramolecular interactions can induce this kind of recovery. This review highlights the non-covalent strategies of building self-repairing hydrogels and the characterization of their mechanical properties. Potential applications and future prospects of these materials are also discussed.

  20. Phases of the wound healing process. (United States)

    Brown, Annemarie

    This is the first in a six-part series on wound management. It describes the stages of the wound healing process and explains how they relate to nursing practice. Nurses need to know how to recognise and understand the different phases so they can identify whether wounds are healing normally and apply the appropriate treatments to remove the barriers to healing. Part 2 (page 14) focuses on wound assessment.

  1. Therapeutic ultrasound to promote healing of lower extremity venous ulcers: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alberto Aguilera Eguía


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this CAT (Critically Appraised Topic was to check the validity of the results and applicability regarding the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound in increasing healing of lower extremity ulcers and to answer the question: In subjects that have lower extremity venous ulcers, does high-frequency therapeutic ultrasound improve healing rate compared to placebo? Method. We conducted an analysis of the article "Therapeutic Ultrasound for lower extremity venous ulcers, Cochrane Systematic Review" of Cullum, et al (2010. Results. The application of high-frequency therapeutic ultrasound could increase healing in patients with lower extremity venous ulcers, RR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.96. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic ultrasound to promote healing in lower extremity venous ulcers is neither endorsed nor discouraged.

  2. Influence of oxygen on wound healing. (United States)

    Yip, Wai Lam


    Oxygen has an important role in normal wound healing. This article reviews the evidence concerning the role of oxygen in wound healing and its influence on the different stages of wound healing. The evidence reviewed has demonstrated that improving oxygenation may be helpful in limiting wound infection, although there is a lack of good quality studies on the role of oxygen in the proliferative phase and in reepithelialisation. Overall, the relationship between oxygen and wound healing is complex. Knowledge of this aspect is important as many treatment modalities for refractory wounds are based on these principles.

  3. Management of impaired fracture healing: Historical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe


    Full Text Available Introduction Establishing continuity of long bones in cases of impaired bone healing and pseudo-arthrosis is one of the most complex problems in orthopedics. Impaired bone healing The problem of impaired fracture healing is not new. As in other areas of human life, the roots of modern treatment of impaired bone healing lie in ancient medicine. A relatively high percentage of impaired bone healing, as well as unsatisfactory results of standard therapies of impaired bone healing and pseudoarthrosis demonstrate the actuality of this problem. This paper represents an attempt to pay respect to some of those who have dedicated their work to this problem in orthopedic surgery, and it is a historical review on impaired bone fracture healing. At the same time it should be an additional stimulus and challenge for orthopedic surgeons to further study impaired bone fracture healing, improve the existing and find new methods for their adequate treatment. Conclusion The authors are certain that the number of researchers throughout the world who have contributed to treatment modalities of impaired bone healing, is much higher, but not all are mentioned in this paper. However, it does not lessen their contributions to orthopedics.

  4. Full-thickness splinted skin wound healing models in db/db and heterozygous mice: implications for wound healing impairment. (United States)

    Park, Shin Ae; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Covert, Jill; Dubielzig, Richard R; Isseroff, Roslyn Rivkah; Schurr, Michael; Abbott, Nicholas L; McAnulty, Jonathan; Murphy, Christopher J


    The excisional dorsal full-thickness skin wound model with or without splinting is widely utilized in wound healing studies using diabetic or normal mice. However, the effects of splinting on dermal wound healing have not been fully characterized, and there are limited data on the direct comparison of wound parameters in the splinted model between diabetic and normal mice. We compared full-thickness excisional dermal wound healing in db/db and heterozygous mice by investigating the effects of splinting, semi-occlusive dressing, and poly(ethylene glycol) treatment. Two 8-mm full-thickness wounds were made with or without splinting in db/db and heterozygous mice. Body weights, splint maintenance, wound contraction, wound closure, and histopathological parameters including reepithelialization, wound bed collagen deposition, and inflammation were compared between groups. Our results show that silicone splint application effectively reduced wound contraction in heterozygous and db/db mice. Splinted wounds, as opposed to nonsplinted wounds, exhibited no significant differences in wound closure between heterozygous and db/db mice. Finally, polyethylene glycol and the noncontact dressing had no significant effect on wound healing in heterozygous or db/db mice. We believe these findings will help investigators in selection of the appropriate wound model and data interpretation with fully defined parameters.

  5. A Study on Emotional Healing Efficacy of Fiction for Undergraduate


    Chen Su-May Sheih; Pi-Fen Chang Chien


    In modern society, undergraduates may encounter multiple pressures and thus feel the sense of alienation, anxiety, disturbance and depression. For undergraduates, reading can be independently conducted without the intervention of an instructor; therefore, undergraduates who feel reluctant to expose private emotions to counselors can help themselves through the reading of emotional healing books. This is the application of bibliotherapy. Among various resources, fiction can serve as an appropr...

  6. Highly Elastic and Self-Healing Composite Colloidal Gels. (United States)

    Diba, Mani; Wang, Huanan; Kodger, Thomas E; Parsa, Shima; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G


    Composite colloidal gels are formed by the pH-induced electrostatic assembly of silica and gelatin nanoparticles. These injectable and moldable colloidal gels are able to withstand substantial compressive and tensile loads, and exhibit a remarkable self-healing efficiency. This study provides new, critical insight into the structural and mechanical properties of composite colloidal gels and opens up new avenues for practical application of colloidal gels.

  7. Synthesis of a new hardener agent for self-healing epoxy resins (United States)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata; Naddeo, Carlo; Longo, Pasquale; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Agovino, Anna


    Actually, the development of smart composites capable of self-repair in aeronautical structures is still at the planning stage owing to complex issues to overcome. One of the critical points in the development of self-healing epoxy resin is related to the impossibility to employ primary amines as hardeners. In this paper, the synthesis of a new hardener for self-healing resins is shown together with applicability conditions/ranges.

  8. Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Microcapsule-Based Self-Healing Composites


    Liberata Guadagno; Marialuigia Raimondo; Umberto Vietri; Carlo Naddeo; Anja Stojanovic; Andrea Sorrentino; Wolfgang H. Binder


    Self-healing materials are beginning to be considered for applications in the field of structural materials. For this reason, in addition to self-healing efficiency, also mechanical properties such as tensile and compressive properties are beginning to become more and more important for this kind of materials. In this paper, three different systems based on epoxy-resins/ethylidene-norbornene (ENB)/Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st-generation (HG1) catalyst are investigated in terms of mechanical properties ...

  9. Oral CPSI-2364 Treatment Prevents Postoperative Ileus in Swine without Impairment of Anastomotic Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O. Vilz


    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus (POI is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME. We demonstrated that orally applicated CPSI-2364 prevents POI in rodents by blockade of p38 MAPK pathway and abrogation of NO production in macrophages. In the present experimental swine study we compared the effect of orally and intravenously administered CPSI-2364 on POI and examined CPSI-2364 effect on anastomotic healing. Methods: CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via oral or intravenous route. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation of the small bowel. ME specimens were examined by quantitative PCR for CCL2 chemokine gene expression and myeloperoxidase activity. Functional analyzes included measurement of ileal smooth-muscle ex vivo contractility, in vivo intestinal and colonic transit. Furthermore, anastomotic healing of a rectorectostomy after CPSI-2364 treatment was assessed by perianastomotic hydroxyproline concentration, a histochemically evaluated healing score and anastomotic bursting pressure (ABP. Results: CPSI-2364 abolished inflammation of the ME and improved postoperative smooth muscle contractility and intestinal transit independently of its application route. Hydroxyproline concentration and ABP measurement revealed no wound healing disturbances after oral or intravenous CPSI-2364 treatment whereas histological scoring demonstrated delayed anastomotic healing after intravenous treatment. Conclusion: CPSI-2364 effectively prevents POI in swine independently of its application route. Impairment of anastomotic healing could be observed after intravenous but not oral preoperative CPSI-2364 treatment. Subsumed, an oral preoperative administration of CPSI-2364 appears to be a safe and efficient strategy for prophylaxis of POI.

  10. Self-healing nanocomposite using shape memory polymer and carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Liu, Yingtao; Rajadas, Abhishek; Chattopadhyay, Aditi


    Carbon fiber reinforced composites are used in a wide range of applications in aerospace, mechanical, and civil structures. Due to the nature of material, most damage in composites, such as delaminations, are always barely visible to the naked eye, which makes it difficult to detect and repair. The investigation of biological systems has inspired the development and characterization of self-healing composites. This paper presents the development of a new type of self-healing material in order to impede damage progression and conduct in-situ damage repair in composite structures. Carbon nanotubes, which are highly conductive materials, are mixed with shape memory polymer to develop self-healing capability. The developed polymeric material is applied to carbon fiber reinforced composites to automatically heal the delamination between different layers. The carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates are manufactured using high pressure molding techniques. Tensile loading is applied to double cantilever beam specimens using an MTS hydraulic test frame. A direct current power source is used to generate heat within the damaged area. The application of thermal energy leads to re-crosslinking in shape memory polymers. Experimental results showed that the developed composite materials are capable of healing the matrix cracks and delaminations in the bonded areas of the test specimens. The developed self-healing material has the potential to be used as a novel structural material in mechanical, civil, aerospace applications.

  11. Improved Accuracy of the Inherent Shrinkage Method for Fast and More Reliable Welding Distortion Calculations (United States)

    Mendizabal, A.; González-Díaz, J. B.; San Sebastián, M.; Echeverría, A.


    This paper describes the implementation of a simple strategy adopted for the inherent shrinkage method (ISM) to predict welding-induced distortion. This strategy not only makes it possible for the ISM to reach accuracy levels similar to the detailed transient analysis method (considered the most reliable technique for calculating welding distortion) but also significantly reduces the time required for these types of calculations. This strategy is based on the sequential activation of welding blocks to account for welding direction and transient movement of the heat source. As a result, a significant improvement in distortion prediction is achieved. This is demonstrated by experimentally measuring and numerically analyzing distortions in two case studies: a vane segment subassembly of an aero-engine, represented with 3D-solid elements, and a car body component, represented with 3D-shell elements. The proposed strategy proves to be a good alternative for quickly estimating the correct behaviors of large welded components and may have important practical applications in the manufacturing industry.

  12. Personal utility is inherent to direct-to-consumer genomic testing. (United States)

    Chung, Matthew Wai Heng; Ng, Joseph Chi Fung


    People for and against direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic tests are arguing around two issues: first, on whether an autonomy-based account can justify the tests; second, on whether the tests bring any personal utility. Bunnik et al, in an article published in this journal, were doubtful on the latter, especially in clinically irrelevant and uninterpretable sequences, and how far this claim could go in the justification. Here we argue that personal utility is inherent to DTC genomic tests and their results. We discuss Bunnik et al's account of personal utility and identify problems in its motivation and application. We then explore concepts like utility and entertainment which suggest that DTC genomic tests bring personal utility to their consumers, both in the motivation and the content of the tests. This points to an alternative account of personal utility which entails that entertainment value alone is adequate to justify DTC genomic tests, given appropriate strategies to communicate tests results with the consumers. It supports the autonomy-based justification of the test by showing that DTC genomic test itself stands as a valuable option and facilitates meaningful choice of the people.

  13. A random optimization approach for inherent optic properties of nearshore waters (United States)

    Zhou, Aijun; Hao, Yongshuai; Xu, Kuo; Zhou, Heng


    Traditional method of water quality sampling is time-consuming and highly cost. It can not meet the needs of social development. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has well time resolution, spatial coverage and more general segment information on spectrum. It has a good potential in water quality supervision. Via the method of semi-analytical, remote sensing information can be related with the water quality. The inherent optical properties are used to quantify the water quality, and an optical model inside the water is established to analysis the features of water. By stochastic optimization algorithm Threshold Acceptance, a global optimization of the unknown model parameters can be determined to obtain the distribution of chlorophyll, organic solution and suspended particles in water. Via the improvement of the optimization algorithm in the search step, the processing time will be obviously reduced, and it will create more opportunity for the increasing the number of parameter. For the innovation definition of the optimization steps and standard, the whole inversion process become more targeted, thus improving the accuracy of inversion. According to the application result for simulated data given by IOCCG and field date provided by NASA, the approach model get continuous improvement and enhancement. Finally, a low-cost, effective retrieval model of water quality from hyper-spectral remote sensing can be achieved.

  14. Impact of operational model nesting approaches and inherent errors for coastal simulations (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer M.; Norman, Danielle L.; Amoudry, Laurent O.; Souza, Alejandro J.


    A region of freshwater influence (ROFI) under hypertidal conditions is used to demonstrate inherent problems for nested operational modelling systems. Such problems can impact the accurate simulation of freshwater export within shelf seas, so must be considered in coastal ocean modelling studies. In Liverpool Bay (our UK study site), freshwater inflow from 3 large estuaries forms a coastal front that moves in response to tides and winds. The cyclic occurrence of stratification and remixing is important for the biogeochemical cycles, as nutrient and pollutant loaded freshwater is introduced into the coastal system. Validation methods, using coastal observations from fixed moorings and cruise transects, are used to assess the simulation of the ROFI, through improved spatial structure and temporal variability of the front, as guidance for best practise model setup. A structured modelling system using a 180 m grid nested within a 1.8 km grid demonstrates how compensation for error at the coarser resolution can have an adverse impact on the nested, high resolution application. Using 2008, a year of typical calm and stormy periods with variable river influence, the sensitivities of the ROFI dynamics to initial and boundary conditions are investigated. It is shown that accurate representation of the initial water column structure is important at the regional scale and that the boundary conditions are most important at the coastal scale. Although increased grid resolution captures the frontal structure, the accuracy in frontal position is determined by the offshore boundary conditions and therefore the accuracy of the coarser regional model.

  15. Generalized Ocean Color Inversion Model for Retrieving Marine Inherent Optical Properties (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Franz, Bryan A.; Bailey, Sean W.; Feldman, Gene C.; Boss, Emmanuel; Brando, Vittorio E.; Dowell, Mark; Hirata, Takafumi; Lavender, Samantha J.; Lee, ZhongPing; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stephane; Melin, Frederic; Moore, Timothy S.; Smyth, TImothy J.; Antoine, David; Devred, Emmanuel; Fantond'Andon, Odile Hembise; Mangin, Antoine


    Ocean color measured from satellites provides daily, global estimates of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs). Semi-analytical algorithms (SAAs) provide one mechanism for inverting the color of the water observed by the satellite into IOPs. While numerous SAAs exist, most are similarly constructed and few are appropriately parameterized for all water masses for all seasons. To initiate community-wide discussion of these limitations, NASA organized two workshops that deconstructed SAAs to identify similarities and uniqueness and to progress toward consensus on a unified SAA. This effort resulted in the development of the generalized IOP (GIOP) model software that allows for the construction of different SAAs at runtime by selection from an assortment of model parameterizations. As such, GIOP permits isolation and evaluation of specific modeling assumptions, construction of SAAs, development of regionally tuned SAAs, and execution of ensemble inversion modeling. Working groups associated with the workshops proposed a preliminary default configuration for GIOP (GIOP-DC), with alternative model parameterizations and features defined for subsequent evaluation. In this paper, we: (1) describe the theoretical basis of GIOP; (2) present GIOP-DC and verify its comparable performance to other popular SAAs using both in situ and synthetic data sets; and, (3) quantify the sensitivities of their output to their parameterization. We use the latter to develop a hierarchical sensitivity of SAAs to various model parameterizations, to identify components of SAAs that merit focus in future research, and to provide material for discussion on algorithm uncertainties and future ensemble applications.

  16. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities. (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng


    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications.

  17. Computability, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and an inherent limit on the predictability of evolution. (United States)

    Day, Troy


    The process of evolutionary diversification unfolds in a vast genotypic space of potential outcomes. During the past century, there have been remarkable advances in the development of theory for this diversification, and the theory's success rests, in part, on the scope of its applicability. A great deal of this theory focuses on a relatively small subset of the space of potential genotypes, chosen largely based on historical or contemporary patterns, and then predicts the evolutionary dynamics within this pre-defined set. To what extent can such an approach be pushed to a broader perspective that accounts for the potential open-endedness of evolutionary diversification? There have been a number of significant theoretical developments along these lines but the question of how far such theory can be pushed has not been addressed. Here a theorem is proven demonstrating that, because of the digital nature of inheritance, there are inherent limits on the kinds of questions that can be answered using such an approach. In particular, even in extremely simple evolutionary systems, a complete theory accounting for the potential open-endedness of evolution is unattainable unless evolution is progressive. The theorem is closely related to Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and to the halting problem from computability theory.

  18. Acceleration of diabetic wound healing using a novel protease-anti-protease combination therapy. (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Nguyen, Trung T; Suckow, Mark A; Wolter, William R; Gooyit, Major; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland


    Nonhealing chronic wounds are major complications of diabetes resulting in >70,000 annual lower-limb amputations in the United States alone. The reasons the diabetic wound is recalcitrant to healing are not fully understood, and there are limited therapeutic agents that could accelerate or facilitate its repair. We previously identified two active forms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-8 and MMP-9, in the wounds of db/db mice. We argued that the former might play a role in the body's response to wound healing and that the latter is the pathological consequence of the disease with detrimental effects. Here we demonstrate that the use of compound ND-336, a novel highly selective inhibitor of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and MMP-14, accelerates diabetic wound healing by lowering inflammation and by enhancing angiogenesis and re-epithelialization of the wound, thereby reversing the pathological condition. The detrimental role of MMP-9 in the pathology of diabetic wounds was confirmed further by the study of diabetic MMP-9-knockout mice, which exhibited wounds more prone to healing. Furthermore, topical administration of active recombinant MMP-8 also accelerated diabetic wound healing as a consequence of complete re-epithelialization, diminished inflammation, and enhanced angiogenesis. The combined topical application of ND-336 (a small molecule) and the active recombinant MMP-8 (an enzyme) enhanced healing even more, in a strategy that holds considerable promise in healing of diabetic wounds.

  19. Efficacy of Jasminum grandiflorum L. leaf extract on dermal wound healing in rats. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Adya P; Kumar, Mohan; Tripathi, Yamini B


    Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury and natural products accelerate the healing process. Here, we have explored the efficacy of topical administration of an ointment, prepared by methanolic extract of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Oleaceae) leaves, on cutaneous wound healing in rats. The topical application of the Jasminum ointment on full thickness excision wounds accelerated the healing process. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher determined by total hydroxyl proline, hexosamine, protein and DNA content. The response was concentration- and time-dependent, when observed on days 4, 8 and 12 after wound creation. The rate of wound healing was faster as determined by wound contraction, tensile strength and other histopathological changes. In addition, this ointment also raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) with high GSH content and low lipid peroxidation products in wound tissue. Thus, it could be suggested that the ointment from the methanolic extract of J. grandiflorum leaf improves the rate of wound healing by enhancing the rate of collagen synthesis and also by improving the antioxidant status in the newly synthesised healing wound tissue.

  20. Total Particulate Matter and Wound Healing: An in vivo Study with Histological Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objectives Wound healing in the skin is a multifarious orchestration of cellular processes and cigarette smoking may be a cause for delayed wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the plausible association between exposures of cigarette total particulate matter (TPM) and wound healing. Methods An in vivo wound healing model of mice was established for determination of assorted events of wound healing, dermal matrix regeneration, re-epithelialization, and neovascularization. A total of 72 adult mice, separated in eight groups, were exposed to TPM for 12 days. Results A highly considerable diminution in wound closure (P<0.001) was pragmatic among all TPM-treated mice from day 6 to day 8 post-wounding. Histological investigations unveiled a noteworthy impede in the outcome of re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration and maturation of collagen bundles among all TPM-exposed wounds. Delayed commencement of neovascularization was pragmatic among all TPM-treated mice, on day 12 post wounding. Abbot curve, angular spectrum, and other different parameters of 3D surface behavior of wounds revealed a very highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in angiogenesis on days 6 and 8 post-wounding, which points that application of TPM instigates extensive delay in trigging the progression of angiogenesis, resulting in delayed onset of wound healing. Conclusion Our annotations validate the damaging effects of TPM on wound healing and excessive use of TPM may lead to the production of chronic wounds and oral ulcers.

  1. Improving Impact Strength Recovery of Fractured and Healed Rice Husks Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odhong, O.V.E


    Full Text Available Rice husks fibre reinforced polypropylene composite (rhfrpc is a natural plant fibre reinforced polymer composite having advantages of high strength, light weight and affordability. They are commonly used for light load structural and non structural applications. They are mainly used as particle boards, for fencing post, roofing tiles, for interiors of car and aircrafts among other usages. This material once cracked by impact forces cannot be repaired using traditional repair methods for engineering materials such as metals or other composites that can be repaired by welding or by patch repair methods respectively, thus a method of repair of rice husks fibre reinforced polypropylene composites by refilling the damaged volume by injection of various healing agents has been investigated. The composite coupons were produced by injection moulding, cooled sufficiently and prepared for charpy impact tests. Test results for pristine coupons were a maximum of 48 J/mm2 . The destroyed coupons were then subjected to healing in a fabricated healing fixture. Healing agents such as epoxy resin, ethyl cyanoacrylate, and tannin gum have been investigated for their use as possible healing agents to fill the damaged volume and perform healing action at the fractured surfaces. The impact test results were recorded and compared with those of unhealed pristine coupons. The recovered strengths were a maximum of 60 J/mm2 translating into a 125% impact strength recovery, and this is good enough for the healed composites to be recommended for reuse in their second lives of their respective original functions.

  2. Biafine topical emulsion accelerates excisional and burn wound healing in mice. (United States)

    Krausz, Aimee E; Adler, Brandon L; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie M; Musaev, Tagai; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam J


    Macrophages play a fundamental role in wound healing; therefore, employing a strategy that enhances macrophage recruitment would be ideal. It was previously suggested that the mechanism by which Biafine topical emulsion improves wound healing is via enhanced macrophage infiltration into the wound bed. The purpose of this study was to confirm this observation through gross and histologic assessments of wound healing using murine full-thickness excisional and burn wound models, and compare to common standards, Vaseline and silver sulfadiazine (SSD). Full-thickness excisional and burn wounds were created on two groups of 60 mice. In the excisional arm, mice were divided into untreated control, Biafine, and Vaseline groups. In the burn arm, mice were divided into untreated control, Biafine, and SSD groups. Daily treatments were administered and healing was measured over time. Wound tissue was excised and stained to appropriately visualize morphology, collagen, macrophages, and neutrophils. Collagen deposition was measured and cell counts were performed. Biafine enhanced wound healing in murine full-thickness excisional and burn wounds compared to control, and surpassed Vaseline and SSD in respective wound types. Biafine treatment accelerated wound closure clinically, with greater epidermal/dermal maturity, granulation tissue formation, and collagen quality and arrangement compared to other groups histologically. Biafine application was associated with greater macrophage and lower neutrophil infiltration at earlier stages of healing when compared to other study groups. In conclusion, Biafine can be considered an alternative topical therapy for full-thickness excisional and burn wounds, owing to its advantageous biologically based wound healing properties.

  3. A Concert between Biology and Biomechanics: The Influence of the Mechanical Environment on Bone Healing (United States)

    Glatt, Vaida; Evans, Christopher H.; Tetsworth, Kevin


    In order to achieve consistent and predictable fracture healing, a broad spectrum of growth factors are required to interact with one another in a highly organized response. Critically important, the mechanical environment around the fracture site will significantly influence the way bone heals, or if it heals at all. The role of the various biological factors, the timing, and spatial relationship of their introduction, and how the mechanical environment orchestrates this activity, are all crucial aspects to consider. This review will synthesize decades of work and the acquired knowledge that has been used to develop new treatments and technologies for the regeneration and healing of bone. Moreover, it will discuss the current state of the art in experimental and clinical studies concerning the application of these mechano-biological principles to enhance bone healing, by controlling the mechanical environment under which bone regeneration takes place. This includes everything from the basic principles of fracture healing, to the influence of mechanical forces on bone regeneration, and how this knowledge has influenced current clinical practice. Finally, it will examine the efforts now being made for the integration of this research together with the findings of complementary studies in biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. By bringing together these diverse disciplines in a cohesive manner, the potential exists to enhance fracture healing and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. PMID:28174539

  4. Regional disturbances in blood flow and metabolism in equine limb wound healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette A.; Petersen, Lars; Bundgaard, Louise;


    As in other fibroproliferative disorders, hypoxia has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolism and blood flow locally in full-thickness wounds healing with (limb wounds) and without (body...... a significant difference between body and limb wounds. In conclusion, the metabolic disturbances may suggest an inadequate oxygen supply during the wound healing process in equine limb wounds healing with EGT. This may be related to the inherently decreased perfusion in the wound bed of limb wounds....... wounds) formation of EGT. Microdialysis was used to recover endogenous metabolites from the wounds, and laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure blood flow. Measurements were performed before wounding and 1-28 days after wounding. Blood flow was consistently lower in limb wounds than in body wounds...

  5. 负压封闭引流技术在创面愈合应用中的护理措施%Nursing care in the application of vacuum sealing drainage in in wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨负压封闭引流技术在烧伤矫形科创面愈合中的应用效果及护理措施.方法:对47例患者彻底清洁创面后行负压封闭术治疗7~33d.结果:经负压封闭引流技术后,感染得到控制,骨外露面积逐渐缩小,引导肉芽组织覆盖创面后植皮,全部愈合.结论:负压封闭引流刺激创面促进新鲜肉芽的生长,加速伤口愈合,提高了治愈率,密切的观察和全方位的护理是成功的关键.%Objective To investigate the effect of vacuum sealing drainage on wound healing in depart?ment of burn and nursing measures. Methods 47 patients were treated with wound healing drainage after the debridement for 7-33 days. Results After the vacuum sealing drainage the infection was con?trolled.The area of bone exposed gradually reduced and all the wounds were healed by guiding the granulation tissue to cover the wounds and skin grafting. Conclusion Vacuum sealing drainage can stimulate the wound promote the growth of fresh granulation,accelerate the wound healing and improve the cure rate.Meanwhile a close observation and all-round nursing care are the key to success.

  6. Non-invasive objective devices for monitoring the inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases of cutaneous wound healing and skin scarring. (United States)

    Ud-Din, Sara; Bayat, Ardeshir


    Objective evaluation of cutaneous wounds through the use of non-invasive devices is important for diagnosis, monitoring treatment response and can lead to the development of improved theranostic strategies. The need for objective monitoring of wound healing and scar formation is evident as this enables accurate diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis for clinicians and allows for the standardisation and validation of methodology for researchers. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the current application of non-invasive objective technologies for the assessment of wound healing through the different phases of repair. We propose that cutaneous healing parameters can be split into three core domains: anatomical, mechanical and physiological. These categories can be further subdivided with respect to specific phases of healing. There is no single instrument, which can measure all the parameters of healing simultaneously; thus, it is important to choose the correct device for the particular healing characteristics being monitored. However, multiprobe systems, which include a number of devices connected to one main unit, are useful as they enable multiple measurements of different parameters. Many of the devices have not been validated against histological examination. Additionally, some of the instruments have not been evaluated in all wound or scar types and may not be useful throughout all phases of cutaneous wound healing. In conclusion, non-invasive objective devices are useful in the assessment of cutaneous wound healing, as these tools can link the treatment and diagnosis by evaluating response to treatment and thus could aid as a marker for healing and scar maturation.

  7. Wound Healing and Infection in Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue


    To clarify the evidence on smoking and postoperative healing complications across surgical specialties and to determine the impact of perioperative smoking cessation intervention.......To clarify the evidence on smoking and postoperative healing complications across surgical specialties and to determine the impact of perioperative smoking cessation intervention....

  8. Wound healing and infection in surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue


    : The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved.......: The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved....

  9. Healing of experimentally created defects: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E


    of these materials questionable. Healing and degradation of alloplastic materials are inconsistent with subsequent restricted use. The principle of guided tissue regeneration excluding soft tissue cells from a certain area is not alone sufficient to insure complete bony healing. Recombinant bone morphogenetic...

  10. Energy Healing for Cancer: A Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agdal, Rita; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Johannessen, Helle


    of energy healing are reiki, therapeutic touch and healing touch. Material and Methods: PubMed, AMED, JStor, Social Science Citation Index and PsycInfo databases were searched, and articles were rated according to the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) quality scale. Six quantitative and two...



    Jaiprakash, B.; Chandramohan,; Reddy, D. Narishma


    The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.

  12. Introducing HEAL: The Health Education Assets Library. (United States)

    Candler, Chris S.; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian H. J.; Dennis, Sharon E.


    Describes the development of a new Health Education Assets Library (HEAL), a freely accessible, national library of high-quality digital multimedia to support all levels of health sciences education. HEAL's primary mission is to provide educators with high-quality and free multimedia materials (such as images and videos) to augment health science…

  13. Self-healing cable for extreme environments (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)


    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  14. Engineered biopolymeric scaffolds for chronic wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Dickinson


    Full Text Available Skin regeneration requires the coordinated integration of concomitant biological and molecular events in the extracellular wound environment during overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and matrix remodeling. This process is highly efficient during normal wound healing. However, chronic wounds fail to progress through the ordered and reparative wound healing process and are unable to heal, requiring long-term treatment at high costs. There are many advanced skin substitutes, which mostly comprise bioactive dressings containing mammalian derived matrix components and/or human cells, in clinical use. However, it is presently hypothesized that no treatment significantly outperforms the others. To address this unmet challenge, recent research has focused on developing innovative acellular biopolymeric scaffolds as more efficacious wound healing therapies. These biomaterial-based skin substitutes are precisely engineered and fine-tuned to recapitulate aspects of the wound healing milieu and target specific events in the wound healing cascade to facilitate complete skin repair with restored function and tissue integrity. This mini-review will provide a brief overview of chronic wound healing and current skin substitute treatment strategies while focusing on recent engineering approaches that regenerate skin using synthetic, biopolymeric scaffolds. We discuss key polymeric scaffold design criteria, including degradation, biocompatibility, and microstructure, and how they translate to inductive microenvironments that stimulate cell infiltration and vascularization to enhance chronic wound healing. As healthcare moves towards precision medicine-based strategies, the potential and therapeutic implications of synthetic, biopolymeric scaffolds as tunable treatment modalities for chronic wounds will be considered.

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves colorectal anastomotic healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. Boersema (Geesien); Z. Wu (Zhouqiao); L.F. Kroese; S. Vennix (Sandra); Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne); J.W. van Neck (Han); K.H. Lam; G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J. Jeekel (Johannes); J.F. Lange (Johan F.)


    textabstractPurpose: Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been found to improve the healing of poorly oxygenated tissues. This study aimed to investigate the influence of HBOT on the healing in ischemic colorectal anastomosis. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a treatment group

  16. Recent advances on self healing of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Jonkers, H.M.; Qian, S.; Garcia, A.


    In this paper an overview is given of new developments obtained in research on self healing of cracks in cement based materials and asphalt concrete. At Delft University various projects are running to study self healing mechanisms. The first project that is discussed is Bacterial Concrete, in which

  17. Electrical Stimulation and Cutaneous Wound Healing: A Review of Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ud-Din


    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation (ES has been shown to have beneficial effects in wound healing. It is important to assess the effects of ES on cutaneous wound healing in order to ensure optimization for clinical practice. Several different applications as well as modalities of ES have been described, including direct current (DC, alternating current (AC, high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC, low-intensity direct current (LIDC and electrobiofeedback ES. However, no one method has been advocated as the most optimal for the treatment of cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, this review aims to examine the level of evidence (LOE for the application of different types of ES to enhance cutaneous wound healing in the skin. An extensive search was conducted to identify relevant clinical studies utilising ES for cutaneous wound healing since 1980 using PubMed, Medline and EMBASE. A total of 48 studies were evaluated and assigned LOE. All types of ES demonstrated positive effects on cutaneous wound healing in the majority of studies. However, the reported studies demonstrate contrasting differences in the parameters and types of ES application, leading to an inability to generate sufficient evidence to support any one standard therapeutic approach. Despite variations in the type of current, duration, and dosing of ES, the majority of studies showed a significant improvement in wound area reduction or accelerated wound healing compared to the standard of care or sham therapy as well as improved local perfusion. The limited number of LOE-1 trials for investigating the effects of ES in wound healing make critical evaluation and assessment somewhat difficult. Further, better-designed clinical trials are needed to improve our understanding of the optimal dosing, timing and type of ES to be used.

  18. Effects of the application of Aloe vera (L. and microcurrent on the healing of wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats Efeitos da aplicação de Aloe vera (L. e microcorrente no reparo de lesões cirúrgicas induzidas em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cruz Franchini


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel combined or not with microcurrent application on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, animals topically treated with Aloe vera, animals treated with a microcurrent, and animals receiving topical application of Aloe vera combined with microcurrent application. RESULTS: The results indicated differences in wound healing between the various treatments when compared to the control group. Tissue hyperplasia was lower in the control group compared to the other treated groups. Accelerated wound healing was observed in the group treated with Aloe vera compared to control. Animals submitted to microcurrent application only and the group treated with microcurrent plus Aloe vera presented an earlier onset of the proliferative phase compared to the control group and animals treated with Aloe vera gel alone. Morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous application of Aloe vera gel and microcurrent is an excellent choice for the treatment of open wounds thus indicating a synergistic action of these two applications.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da aplicação tópica do gel de Aloe vera, combinada ou não com a aplicação de microcorrente no reparo de lesões cutâneas induzidas cirurgicamente em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em: grupo controle, tratado topicamente com gel in natura de Aloe vera, tratado com microcorrente e tratado com aplicação tópica de Aloe vera associada à microcorrente. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do presente trabalho indicaram que o reparo tecidual ocorreu de forma diferenciada nos vários tratamentos empregados quando comparados ao grupo controle. A hiperplasia tecidual no grupo controle foi menor que a observada nos demais grupos tratados. No grupo tratado com aplica

  19. SWAD: inherent photon counting performance of amorphous selenium multi-well avalanche detector (United States)

    Stavro, Jann; Goldan, Amir H.; Zhao, Wei


    Photon counting detectors (PCDs) have the potential to improve x-ray imaging, however they are still hindered by several performance limitations and high production cost. By using amorphous Selenium (a-Se) the cost of PCDs can be significantly reduced compared to crystalline materials and enable large area detector fabrication. To overcome the problem of low carrier mobility and low charge conversion gain in a-Se, we are developing a novel direct conversion a- Se field-Shaping multi-Well Avalanche Detector (SWAD). SWAD circumvents the charge transport limitation by using a Frisch grid built within the readout circuit, reducing charge collection time to ~200 ns. Field shaping permits depth independent avalanche gain in wells, resulting in total conversion gain that is comparable to Si and CdTe. In the present work we investigate the effects of charge sharing and energy loss to understand the inherent photon counting performance for SWAD at x-ray energies used in breast imaging applications (20-50keV). The energy deposition profile for each interacting x-ray was determined with Monte Carlo simulation. For the energy ranges we are interested in, photoelectric interaction dominates, with a k-fluorescence yield of approximately 60%. Using a monoenergetic 45 keV beam incident on a target pixel in 400um of a-Se, our results show that only 20.42 % and 22.4 % of primary interacting photons have kfluorescence emissions which escape the target pixel for 100um and 85um pixel sizes respectively, demonstrating SWAD's potential for high spatial resolution applications.

  20. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal


    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  1. ATC Taskload Inherent to the Geometry of Stochastic 4-D Trajectory Flows with Flight Technical Errors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method to quantify the probabilistic controller taskload inherent to maintaining aircraft adherence to 4-D trajectories within flow corridors is presented. An...

  2. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing. (United States)

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R


    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing.

  3. [The role of erythropoietin in improvement of wound healing]. (United States)

    Sorg, H; Kuhbier, J W; Menger, B; Reimers, K; Harder, Y; Vogt, P M


    Pleiotropic substances are characterized by their versatile and complex range of actions which makes them potential new active agents for the therapy of wounds. Besides its known effect to increase red blood cell production, the glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been found to demonstrate a tissue protective effect in several other organs. The administration of EPO during skin wound healing is most likely essentially based on its cytopotective, proangiogenic, antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory effects. Herein EPO stimulates a coordinated interaction of different types of cells at a low or only a single dose. This review article aims to present the advantages and disadvantages of EPO administration in different experimental models to study the healing and regeneration processes of the skin and discusses possible clinical applications.

  4. Wound healing - A literature review* (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; Costa, Tila Fortuna; Andrade, Zilton de Araújo; Medrado, Alena Ribeiro Alves Peixoto


    Regeneration and tissue repair processes consist of a sequence of molecular and cellular events which occur after the onset of a tissue lesion in order to restore the damaged tissue. The exsudative, proliferative, and extracellular matrix remodeling phases are sequential events that occur through the integration of dynamic processes involving soluble mediators, blood cells, and parenchymal cells. Exsudative phenomena that take place after injury contribute to the development of tissue edema. The proliferative stage seeks to reduce the area of tissue injury by contracting myofibroblasts and fibroplasia. At this stage, angiogenesis and reepithelialization processes can still be observed. Endothelial cells are able to differentiate into mesenchymal components, and this difference appears to be finely orchestrated by a set of signaling proteins that have been studied in the literature. This pathway is known as Hedgehog. The purpose of this review is to describe the various cellular and molecular aspects involved in the skin healing process. PMID:27828635


    Kuzminova, J A; Plyasunova, S A; Jogov, V V; Smetanina, N S


    The laboratory diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis is based on detection of spherocytes in peripheral blood, decreasing of index of sphericity, decreasing of osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The new test of diagnostic of hereditary spherocytosis build on molecular defect was developed on the basis of binding extracellular fragments of protein of band 3 with eosin-5-maleimide (EMA-test). The study was carried out to implement comparative analysis of sensitivity and specificity of techniques applied to diagnose inherent spherocytosis. The sampling of 94 patients with various forms of anemias was analyzed All patients were applied complex clinical laboratory examination including analysis of osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, erythrocytometry and EMA-test as specific techniques of diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis. In 51 out of 94 patients (54%) decreasing of values of EMA-test was detected and in 47 patients diagnosis of inherent spherocytosis was confirmed. The standard values of EMA-test were established in 43 patients (46%) and 12 patients out of them with established diagnosis of inherent spherocytosis. Therefore, sensitivity of EMA-test made up to 79% and specificity - 80%. The most sensitive techniques of diagnostic remain osmotic resistance of erythrocytes (91%) and index of sphericity (up to 96%). But the highest specificity in this respect has EMA-test (80%). Nowadays, none of implemented techniques of diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis can be applied as a universal one. The implementation of complex examination is needed for proper diagnostic of disease.

  6. Profiling wound healing with wound effluent: Raman spectroscopic indicators of infection (United States)

    Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.


    The care of modern traumatic war wounds remains a significant challenge for clinicians. Many of the extremity wounds inflicted during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom are colonized or infected with multi-drug resistant organisms, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii. Biofilm formation and resistance to current treatments can significantly confound the wound healing process. Accurate strain identification and targeted drug administration for the treatment of wound bioburden has become a priority for combat casualty care. In this study, we use vibrational spectroscopy to examine wound exudates for bacterial load. Inherent chemical differences in different bacterial species and strains make possible the high specificity of vibrational spectroscopy.

  7. Microstructure, rheological and wound healing properties of collagen-based gel from cuttlefish skin. (United States)

    Jridi, Mourad; Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Rebaii, Tarak; Souissi, Nabil; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Nasri, Moncef


    Collagen-based biomaterials are of the utmost importance for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate structural and rheological properties of collagen-based gel obtained from cuttlefish skin, and to investigate its ability to enhance wound healing. Scanning electron microscopy of resulted gel showed a dense fibrillar microstructure with high interconnection network with a smaller pore size. In addition, the rheological characterization of collagen gel showed an excellent reversibility, when subjected to a temperature variation. Moreover, in the wound-healing study, topical application of collagen based gel increased significantly the percentage of wound closure over a period of 12 days, when compared to the untreated and CICAFLORA(®)-treated groups. Wound-healing activity of collagen gel was confirmed by histopathology study. Thus, cuttlefish collagen based gel might be useful as a wound healing agent.

  8. Marine-derived biological macromolecule-based biomaterials for wound healing and skin tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Chandika, Pathum; Ko, Seok-Chun; Jung, Won-Kyo


    Wound healing is a complex biological process that depends on the wound condition, the patient's health, and the physicochemical support given through external materials. The development of bioactive molecules and engineered tissue substitutes to provide physiochemical support to enhance the wound healing process plays a key role in advancing wound-care management. Thus, identification of ideal molecules in wound treatment is still in progress. The discovery of natural products that contain ideal molecules for skin tissue regeneration has been greatly advanced by exploration of the marine bioenvironment. Consequently, tremendously diverse marine organisms have become a great source of numerous biological macromolecules that can be used to develop tissue-engineered substitutes with wound healing properties. This review summarizes the wound healing process, the properties of macromolecules from marine organisms, and the involvement of these molecules in skin tissue regeneration applications.

  9. The development of low-molecular weight hydrogels for applications in cancer therapy (United States)

    Tian, Ran; Chen, Jin; Niu, Runfang


    To improve the anti-cancer efficacy and to counteract the side effects of chemotherapy, a variety of drug delivery systems have been invented in past decades, but few of these systems have succeeded in clinical trials due to their respective inherent shortcomings. Recently, low-molecular weight hydrogels of peptides that self-assemble via non-covalent interactions have attracted considerable attention due to their good biocompatibility, low toxicity, inherent biodegradability as well as their convenience of design. Low-molecular weight hydrogels have already shown promise in biomedical applications as diverse as 3D-cell culture, enzyme immobilization, controllable MSC differentiation, wound healing, drug delivery etc. Here we review the recent development in the use of low-molecular weight hydrogels for cancer therapy, which may be helpful in the design of soft materials for drug delivery.

  10. Biological strategies to enhance rotator cuff healing. (United States)

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Rizzello, Giacomo; Berton, Alessandra; Maltese, Ludovica; Fumo, Caterina; Khan, Wasim S; Denaro, Vincenzo


    Rotator cuff tear causes a high rate of morbidity. After surgical repair, the presence of a scar tissue reduces tendon biomechanical properties. Emerging strategies for enhancing tendon healing are growth factors, cytokines, gene therapy and tissue engineering. However their efficacy has to be proved. Growth factors help the process of tendon healing by aiding cells chemotaxis, differentiation and proliferation. Numerous growth factors, including the bone morphogenetic proteins and platelet-derived growth factor can be found during the early healing process of a rotator cuff repair. Growth factors are delivered to the repair site using tissue-engineered scaffolding, coated sutures, or dissolved in a fibrin sealant. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous concentration of platelets and contains an high density of growth factors. There is some evidence that platelet-rich plasma may improve pain and recovery of function in a short time period, but it does not improve healing rates in rotator cuff. Thus the routine use of platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repair is not recommended. The addition of mesenchymal stem cells to scaffolds can lead to the production of a better quality healing tissue. Gene therapy is a gene transfer from a cell into another, in order to over-express the gene required. In this way, cultures of stem cells can over-express growth factors. Better understanding of the mechanisms of physiological tendon healing can promote the correct use of these new biological therapies for a better healing tissue.

  11. Application of ultrasonic rinse combined with Tenderwet to postoperative difficult to heal wound%超声冲洗联合德湿威在术后难愈伤口中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦; 叶锦; 张克勤; 曾登芬; 李黔生; 王晶; 蒋小娟


    Objective To explore the clinical effects of ultrasonic irrigation combined with Tenderwet on postoperative difficult to heal wounds. Methods Forty cases of phase Ⅱ- Ⅲ postoperative difficult to heal wounds were selected and divided into experimental group and control group with 20 ones in each group. The experimental group received the low frequency ultrasonic rinse, and the control group received vortex flow douching. After the douching, both groups received the dressing with interactive Tenderwet activated by Ringers solution covered on the wounds. Fourteen days later, the curative effects of both groups were compared. Results There was no significant difference in the scores of pain between the two groups. The debridement time was( 4. 35 ±2. 12 )d in the experimental group and( 8. 98 ±4. 30 )d in the control group. After the treatment, the excellence rate was 85% in the experimental group and 40% in the control group. The percentage of healing area in the experimental group was( 69. 00 ±22. 25 )% ,and that in the control group was( 37. 00 ± 19. 84 )% . There were significant differences in the debridement time, overall effective rate, and the percentage of healing area between the two groups( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Ultrasonic rinse can quickly and effectively remove the fibrin precipitate of the chronic and difficult to heal wounds with slight pain. The debridement combined with Tenderwet can shorten the healing time and improve the recovery.%目的 探讨超声冲洗联合德湿威处理术后难愈伤口的临床效果.方法 选择Ⅱ~Ⅲ级术后难愈伤口40例,分为实验组与对照组各20例.实验组采用低频超声冲洗,对照组采用涡流式冲洗,冲洗后均采用TenderWet(德湿威)交互式敷料,用林格液激活后覆盖紧贴于伤口,14 d后观察疗效.结果 两组疼痛计分无显著差别;实验组清创期(4.35±2.12)d,对照组清创期(8.98±4.30)d;实验组治疗后显效率85%,对照组显效率为40%;实验

  12. Overview of Wound Healing and Management. (United States)

    Childs, Dylan R; Murthy, Ananth S


    Wound healing is a highly complex chain of events, and although it may never be possible to eliminate the risk of experiencing a wound, clinicians' armamentarium continues to expand with methods to manage it. The phases of wound healing are the inflammatory phase, the proliferative phase, and the maturation phase. The pathway of healing is determined by characteristics of the wound on initial presentation, and it is vital to select the appropriate method to treat the wound based on its ability to avoid hypoxia, infection, excessive edema, and foreign bodies.

  13. The Huichol offering: a shamanic healing journey. (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Carl Allen


    An American transcultural psychiatrist, and a Mexican engineer deeply involved with the Huichol Indians, build a team that heals a decade-long epidemic caused by sorcery. Huichol children in boarding schools became possessed by demonic witchcraft that transformed them into aggressive animals. Many local shaman had been called in to treat the illness but had been unsuccessful. The team found a way to incorporate traditional belief and ritual, with modern psychological principles to weave a healing story. This article represents the ultimate integration of mind/body/spirit medicine to heal across cultures.

  14. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena


    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  15. A Bayesian based quasi-analytical algorithm for retrieval of inherent optical properties from ocean color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Haigang; SHI Ping; CHEN Chuqun


    The recently developed quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) is a promising algorithm for deriving inherent optical properties from ocean color. Unlike the conventional semi-analytical algorithm, QAA does not need a priori knowledge of the spectral shape of chlorophyll absorption. However, several empirical relations, which may not be universally applicable and can result in low noise tolerance, are involved in QAA. In this study, the Bayesian inversion theory is introduced to improve the performance of QAA. In the estimation of total absorption coefficient at the reference wavelength, instead of empirical algorithms used in the QAA, the Bayesian approach is employed in combination with an optical model that uses separate parameters to account explicitly for the contribution of molecular and particle scatterings to remote sensing reflectance, a priori knowledge produced by the QAA, the Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC) for choosing the optimal regularization parameter, and genetic algorithms for global optimization. Coefficients at other wavelengths are then derived using an empirical estimate of particle backscattering spectral shape. When applied to a simulated dataset synthesized by IOCCG, the Bayesian algorithm outperforms QAA algorithm, especially in higher chlorophyll concentration waters. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) between the true and the derived a(440) and bb(440) are reduced from 0.918 and 0.039 m-1 for QAA-555 to 0.367 and 0.023 m-1 for Bayes-555, 0.205 and 0.007 m-1 for QAA-640 to 0.092 and 0.005 m-1 for Bayes-640, and 0.207 and 0.007 m-1 for QAA-blending to 0.096 and 0.005 m-1 for Bayes-blending. Results of noise sensitivity analysis show that the Bayesian algorithm is more robust than QAA.

  16. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leilei Bai; Changhui Wang; Liansheng He; Yuansheng Pei


    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China.The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined.Combined with rotated principal component analysis,multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities.The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20 mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH.The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption.A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH,Fe,200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox),surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs.However,factors related to other properties (Ca,P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected.In addition,the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox + Alox) of the WTRs (p < 0.05).Overall,WTRs with high contents of Alox,Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications.

  17. 烧伤膏外用对浅Ⅱ度水火烫伤创面愈后色素沉着的影响%Effects of burn ointment external application on the hyperpigmentation after healing wound of superficial Ⅱ degree burns of water and fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄树林; 徐茂奇


    Objective To investigate the effects of burn ointment external application on the hyperpigmenta-tion after healing wound of superficial II degree burns of water and fire. Methods 84 patients with burns of water and fire were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in two groups received basic therapy including debridement and antibiotics. 40 cases in treatment group received external application of burn ointment No. I at early period and burn ointment No. II at late period. Control group received external application of silver sulfadiazine cream. The frequency of dressing in two groups was a time every other day, a week for a course of treatment. After two courses wound healing time were recorded. The status of hyperpigmentation after wound healing was observed three months later. The ratio of hyperpigmentation area and burn area was calculated. Results Wound healing time, the incidence of hyperpigmentation and the ratio of hyperpigmentation area and burn area in the treatment group (13. 63 + 1.51 d, 20.0% , 15.25 ±3.80) were lower than those in control group (14.70 ±1.34 d, 40.9% , 25.60 ±5.40, P <0. 01, P <0.05). Conclusion External application of burn ointment can significantly reduce healing time, prevent and reduce hyperpigmentation.%目的 观察烧伤膏外用对浅Ⅱ度水火烫伤创面愈后色素沉着的影响.方法 将84例水火烫伤患者随机分为2组,2组均予常规清创、抗感染等基础治疗,治疗组40例早期予烧伤膏Ⅰ号外用,后期予烧伤膏Ⅱ号外用;对照组44例加磺胺嘧啶银乳膏外用治疗.2组均隔日换药1次,1周为1个疗程,治疗2个疗程.统计2组创面修复时间.嘱患者3个月后复诊,观察记录是否发生创面修复后色素沉着,统计色素沉着面积/烧伤面积值.结果 治疗组40例,创面修复时间( 13.63±1.51)d,色素沉着发生率20.0% (8/40),色素沉着面积/烧伤面积为5% ~ 30%,平均(15.25±3.80)%;对照组44例,创面修复时间(14.70±1

  18. 120 Years of Accelerators that Heal

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The discovery of X rays was made possible by the intelligent use of the best accelerator of the time. Since then, the development of particle accelerators has been at the root of both fundamental discoveries in physics and unforeseeable medical applications. The lecture will describe the major steps in this 120-year history of diagnostics and tumour therapy.   The first attempts to heal tumours with X rays were made only one month after Röntgen’s discovery, but the understanding of the mechanisms by which the radiation kills the cells and the introduction of dose fractionation took much longer. The use of X rays in diagnostics developed much faster and its benefits were very visible during the First World War. Today no tumour could be treated and no patient could be operated without a CT scan, which employs an X ray tube that is not very different from the one introduced by William Coolidge in 1912.   On the particle therapy frontier, more sophisticated and larger pa...

  19. Bifunctional Therapeutic High-Valence Silver-Pyridoxine Nanoparticles with Proliferative and Antibacterial Wound-Healing Activities. (United States)

    Rangasamy, Sabarinathan; Tak, Yu Kyung; Kim, Sunhee; Paul, Avijit; Song, Joon Myong


    The antibacterial and moisturizing effects inherent to silver nanoparticles contribute greatly to their use as a topical antibacterial agent. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles provides topical wounds with an indirect environment for healing through the prevention of pathogenic infection. However, the direct wound-healing effects of silver nanoparticles have not been previously explored. In this work, we report a bimodal therapeutic silver nanoparticle that possesses both direct wound-healing and antibacterial properties. The nanoparticles consist of high-valence silver-pyridoxine complexes. The wound-healing efficacy was verified in diabetic mice, as well as in vitro assays. A MAPK pathway study demonstrated that silver-pyridoxine nanoparticles induced the proliferation and migration of keratinocyte and fibroblast cells. Antibacterial activities in 8 different pathogenic bacteria responsible for the infection of burn wounds were tested. The rapid wound healing occurring on skin wounds of diabetic mice attests to the utility of bimodal therapeutic silver nanoparticles as a next-generation topical therapeutic agent.

  20. Is the inherent potential of maize roots efficient for soil phosphorus acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture requires improved phosphorus (P management to reduce the overreliance on P fertilization. Despite intensive research of root adaptive mechanisms for improving P acquisition, the inherent potential of roots for efficient P acquisition remains unfulfilled, especially in intensive agriculture, while current P management generally focuses on agronomic and environmental concerns. Here, we investigated how levels of soil P affect the inherent potential of maize (Zea mays L. roots to obtain P from soil. Responses of root morphology, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, and phosphate transporters were characterized and related to agronomic traits in pot and field experiments with soil P supply from deficiency to excess. Critical soil Olsen-P level for maize growth approximated 3.2 mg kg(-1, and the threshold indicating a significant environmental risk was about 15 mg kg(-1, which represented the lower and upper levels of soil P recommended in current P management. However, most root adaptations involved with P acquisition were triggered when soil Olsen-P was below 10 mg kg(-1, indicating a threshold for maximum root inherent potential. Therefore, to maintain efficient inherent potential of roots for P acquisition, we suggest that the target upper level of soil P in intensive agriculture should be reduced from the environmental risk threshold to the point maximizing the inherent potential of roots.

  1. Laser therapy in wound healing associated with diabetes mellitus - Review* (United States)

    de Sousa, Raquel Gomes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira


    The article discusses the results of a literature review on the application of low intensity laser therapy on the healing of wounds associated diabetes mellitus in the last 10 years. Objective To determine the most effective parameter in healing wounds related to diabetes mellitus, as well as the most widely used type of laser. Methodology consisted of bibliographic searching the databases Bireme, SciELO, PubMed/Medline and Lilacs by using the keywords related to the topic. Were selected from these keywords, papers discussing the use of laser on wounds associated with diabetes, published in the period 2005-2014, in Portuguese or English. Results After analyzing the research, 12 studies consistent with the theme were selected. Conclusion Based on this review, the studies that showed more satisfactory results in healing diabetic wounds were those who applied energy densities in the range of 3-5 J/cm2, power densities equal to or below 0.2 W/cm2 and continuous emission. The He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm was used more often. PMID:27579745

  2. Regenerative Medicine: Novel Approach in Burn Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Context Burn wounds of the skin require a long period to healing, which very often is incomplete, with functional and esthetic consequences for the patients. Stem cells in the traumatized tissue represent the promoters of the healing process and are a primary focus for regenerative medicine, which aims to find and use the triggers for the activation of stem cells of sin tissue. Evidence Acquisition At present, tissue engineering, composite epithelial autografts, multipotent stem cells and combined gene delivery with stem cell therapy are the approaches used in regenerative medicine. Alongside, the development of 3D scaffolds or matrices is a promising adjunct, as studies investigate the multiple uses of these supports for wound repair. Results Application of cells to the burn wound could be performed, either by the bedside, as a non-invasive procedure, or in the operating room, with the use of a matrix, scaffold or dermal substitute. Cell spraying, although under use in clinical setting, is not yet supported by conclusive data. Magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging and positron emission tomography are currently used to assess the viability and location of stem cells, after transplantation. Conclusions Stem cell therapies in wound care may lessen the morbidities associated with wound healing. An ideal method for the effective administration of stem cells for burn patients has not yet been elucidated. Further comparison of the local and systemic effects in burn patients, associated with each route of stem cell delivery, needs to be performed.

  3. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Drobnik


    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or β-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  4. Bioconcrete: next generation of self-healing concrete. (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin


    Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has a high tendency to form cracks. These cracks lead to significant reduction in concrete service life and high replacement costs. Although it is not possible to prevent crack formation, various types of techniques are in place to heal the cracks. It has been shown that some of the current concrete treatment methods such as the application of chemicals and polymers are a source of health and environmental risks, and more importantly, they are effective only in the short term. Thus, treatment methods that are environmentally friendly and long-lasting are in high demand. A microbial self-healing approach is distinguished by its potential for long-lasting, rapid and active crack repair, while also being environmentally friendly. Furthermore, the microbial self-healing approach prevails the other treatment techniques due to the efficient bonding capacity and compatibility with concrete compositions. This study provides an overview of the microbial approaches to produce calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Prospective challenges in microbial crack treatment are discussed, and recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  5. The Interactions and Inherent Relationships Between Alternative Health Care Providers and Their Patients (United States)


    Therapies such as acupuncture/Traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy , reflexology, healing touch, and even chiropractic are but a few practices...purposeful sample of five different types of alternative providers: a doctor of homeopathy , a doctor of acupuncture/Traditional Chinese medicine, a

  6. Diabetic foot disease: impact of ulcer location on ulcer healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickwell, KM; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kars, M


    Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing.......Healing of heel ulcers in patients with diabetes is considered to be poor, but there is relatively little information on the influence of ulcer location on ulcer healing....

  7. Self-Healing of biocompatible polymeric nanocomposities (United States)

    Espino, Omar; Chipara, Dorina


    Polymers are vulnerable to damage in form of cracks deep within the structure, where detection is difficult and repair is near to impossible. These cracks lead to mechanical degradation of the polymer. A method has been created to solve this problem named polymeric self healing. Self healing capabilities implies the dispersion within the polymeric matrix of microcapsules filled with a monomer and of catalyst. Poly urea-formaldehyde microcapsules used in this method are filled with dicyclopentadiene that is liberated after being ruptured by the crack propagation in the material. Polymerization is assisted by a catalyst FGGC that ignites the self healing process. Nanocomposites, such as titanium oxide, will be used as an integration of these polymers that will be tested by rupturing mechanically slowly. In order to prove the self healing process, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and SEM are used.

  8. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)


    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  9. Current wound healing procedures and potential care. (United States)

    Dreifke, Michael B; Jayasuriya, Amil A; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C


    In this review, we describe current and future potential wound healing treatments for acute and chronic wounds. The current wound healing approaches are based on autografts, allografts, and cultured epithelial autografts, and wound dressings based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. The Food and Drug Administration approved wound healing dressings based on several polymers including collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. The new potential therapeutic intervention for wound healing includes sustained delivery of growth factors, and siRNA delivery, targeting microRNA, and stem cell therapy. In addition, environment sensors can also potentially utilize to monitor and manage microenvironment at wound site. Sensors use optical, odor, pH, and hydration sensors to detect such characteristics as uric acid level, pH, protease level, and infection - all in the hopes of early detection of complications.

  10. Microgravity and the implications for wound healing. (United States)

    Farahani, Ramin Mostofizadeh; DiPietro, Luisa A


    Wound healing is a sophisticated response ubiquitous to various traumatic stimuli leading to an anatomical/functional disruption. The aim of present article was to review the current evidence regarding the effects of microgravity on wound healing dynamics. Modulation of haemostatic phase because of alteration of platelet quantity and function seems probable. Furthermore, production of growth factors that are released from activated platelets and infiltration/function of inflammatory cells seem to be impaired by microgravity. Proliferation of damaged structures is dependent on orchestrated function of various growth factors, for example transforming growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor, all of which are affected by microgravitational status. Moreover, gravity-induced alterations of gap junction, neural inputs, and cell populations have been reported. It may be concluded that different cellular and extracellular element involved in the healing response are modified through effect of microgravity which may lead to impairment in healing dynamics.

  11. Skin wound healing modulation by macrophages. (United States)

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash


    Skin wound healing is a multi stage phenomenon that requires the activation, recruitment or activity of numerous cell types as keratinocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblast and inflammatory cells. Among the latter, macrophages appear to be central to this process. They colonize the wound at its very early stage and in addition to their protective immune role seem to organize the activity of other cell types at the following stages of the healing. Their benefit to this process is however controversial, as macrophages are described to promote the speed of healing but may also favour the fibrosis resulting from it in scars. Moreover wound healing defects are associated with abnormalities in the inflammatory phase. In this review, we summarise our knowledge on what are the Wound Associated Macrophages, and how they interact with the other cell types to control the reepithelisation, angiogenesis and the extracellular matrix remodelling. We believe this knowledge may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on skin wounds.

  12. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  13. Sustained inflammasome activity in macrophages impairs wound healing in type 2 diabetic humans and mice. (United States)

    Mirza, Rita E; Fang, Milie M; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Ennis, William J; Koh, Timothy J


    The hypothesis of this study was that sustained activity of the Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome in wounds of diabetic humans and mice contributes to the persistent inflammatory response and impaired healing characteristic of these wounds. Macrophages (Mp) isolated from wounds on diabetic humans and db/db mice exhibited sustained inflammasome activity associated with low level of expression of endogenous inflammasome inhibitors. Soluble factors in the biochemical milieu of these wounds are sufficient to activate the inflammasome, as wound-conditioned medium activates caspase-1 and induces release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in cultured Mp via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. Importantly, inhibiting inflammasome activity in wounds of db/db mice using topical application of pharmacological inhibitors improved healing of these wounds, induced a switch from proinflammatory to healing-associated Mp phenotypes, and increased levels of prohealing growth factors. Furthermore, data generated from bone marrow-transfer experiments from NLRP-3 or caspase-1 knockout to db/db mice indicated that blocking inflammasome activity in bone marrow cells is sufficient to improve healing. Our findings indicate that sustained inflammasome activity in wound Mp contributes to impaired early healing responses of diabetic wounds and that the inflammasome may represent a new therapeutic target for improving healing in diabetic individuals.

  14. Microcapsule-Type Self-Healing Protective Coating for Cementitious Composites with Secondary Crack Preventing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Min Kim


    Full Text Available A microcapsule-type self-healing protective coating with secondary crack preventing capability has been developed using a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (STP/dibutyltin dilaurate (DD healing agent. STP undergoes condensation reaction in the presence of DD to give a viscoelastic substance. STP- and DD-containing microcapsules were prepared by in-situ polymerization and interfacial polymerization methods, respectively. The microcapsules were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The microcapsules were integrated into commercial enamel paint or epoxy coating formulations, which were applied on silicon wafers, steel panels, and mortar specimens to make dual-capsule self-healing protective coatings. When the STP/DD-based coating was scratched, self-healing of the damaged region occurred, which was demonstrated by SEM, electrochemical test, and water permeability test. It was also confirmed that secondary crack did not occur in the healed region upon application of vigorous vibration to the self-healing coating.

  15. Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Microcapsule-Based Self-Healing Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Guadagno


    Full Text Available Self-healing materials are beginning to be considered for applications in the field of structural materials. For this reason, in addition to self-healing efficiency, also mechanical properties such as tensile and compressive properties are beginning to become more and more important for this kind of materials. In this paper, three different systems based on epoxy-resins/ethylidene-norbornene (ENB/Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st-generation (HG1 catalyst are investigated in terms of mechanical properties and healing efficiency. The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the self-healing systems are mainly determined by the chemical nature of the epoxy matrix. In particular, the replacement of a conventional flexibilizer (Heloxy 71 with a reactive diluent (1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether allows obtaining self-healing materials with better mechanical properties and higher thermal stability. An increase in the curing temperature causes an increase in the elastic modulus and a slight reduction of the healing efficiency. These results can constitute the basis to design systems with high regenerative ability and appropriate mechanical performance.

  16. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh Seong Lin


    Full Text Available Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I diabetic rats receiving control cream , (II diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream , and (III diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream . Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing.

  17. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (United States)

    Lin, Teoh Seong; Abd Latiff, Azian; Abd Hamid, Noor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah bt; Mazlan, Musalmah


    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing. PMID:23097676

  18. Regeneration: the ultimate example of wound healing. (United States)

    Murawala, Prayag; Tanaka, Elly M; Currie, Joshua D


    The outcome of wound repair in mammals is often characterized by fibrotic scaring. Vertebrates such as zebrafish, frogs, and salamanders not only heal scarlessly, but also can regenerate lost appendages. Decades of study on the process of animal regeneration has produced key insights into the mechanisms of how complex tissue is restored. By examining our current knowledge of regeneration, we can draw parallels with mammalian wound healing to identify the molecular determinants that produce such differing outcomes.

  19. A wound healing model with sonographic monitoring. (United States)

    Hoffmann, K; Winkler, K; el-Gammal, S; Altmeyer, P


    The methods used hitherto for quantification of skin repair processes only allow an examiner a two-dimensional assessment of superficial wound healing. With the recent advent of high frequency B-scan ultrasonography in dermatology it has become possible to follow the course of healing and evaluate the healing processes in deeper layers of the skin. In this investigation 80 patients received cryosurgery for treatment of basal cell carcinomas on the face or neck region. As the size of cryosurgical defects can be precisely controlled they are potentially useful as standardized wound healing models. The course of wound healing after cryosurgery using a digital ultrasound scanner (DUB 20, Taberna pro medicum, Lüneburg, Germany) was monitored. The usable depth of penetration of the echo signal is approximately 7 mm. The lateral resolution is approximately 200 microns, the axial resolution approximately 80 microns. The cryolesion and the repair processes were examined ultrasonographically and clinically over a period of at least 3 weeks or until the wound had completely healed. The depth of invasion and lateral extent of the basal cell carcinoma as well as the size of the induced cryolesion can be determined by ultrasound. The exudative phase after cryosurgery, with developing oedema and necrosis, can be quantified on the basis of the reduced reflectivity in the corium. The repair processes taking place in the region of necrosis can be visualized in the ultrasound scan. The ultrasonically monitored wound healing model which we have demonstrated is particularly suitable for investigating the efficacy of drugs which promote healing.

  20. Ritual healing and mental health in India. (United States)

    Sax, William


    Ritual healing is very widespread in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and is by far the most common option for those with serious behavioral disturbances. Although ritual healing thus accounts for a very large part of the actual health care system, the state and its regulatory agencies have, for the most part, been structurally blind to its existence. A decade of research on in this region, along with a number of shorter research trips to healing shrines and specialists elsewhere in the subcontinent, and a thorough study of the literature, suggest that such techniques are often therapeutically effective. However, several considerations suggest that ritual healing may not be usefully combined with mainstream "Western" psychiatry: (a) psychiatry is deeply influenced by the ideology of individualism, which is incompatible with South Asian understandings of the person; (b) social asymmetries between religious healers and health professionals are too great to allow a truly respectful relationship between them; and (c) neither the science of psychiatry nor the regulatory apparatus of the state can or will acknowledge the validity of "ritual therapy"--and even if they did so, regulation would most likely destroy what is most valuable about ritual healing. This suggests that it is best if the state maintain its structural blindness to ritual healing.

  1. Wound Healing Effect of Curcumin: A Review. (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Manayi, Azadeh; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Hajheydari, Zohreh; Gortzi, Olga; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad


    Wound healing is a complex process that consists of several phases that range from coagulation, inflammation, accumulation of radical substances, to proliferation, formation of fibrous tissues and collagen, contraction of wound with formation of granulation tissue and scar. Since antiquity, vegetable substances have been used as phytotherapeutic agents for wound healing, and more recently natural substances of vegetable origin have been studied with the attempt to show their beneficial effect on wound treatment. Curcumin, the most active component of rhizome of Curcuma longa L. (common name: turmeric), has been studied for many years due to its bio-functional properties, especially antioxidant, radical scavenger, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, which play a crucial role in the wound healing process. Moreover, curcumin stimulated the production of the growth factors involved in the wound healing process, and so curcumin also accelerated the management of wound restoration. The aim of the present review is collecting and evaluating the literature data regarding curcumin properties potentially relevant for wound healing. Moreover, the investigations on the wound healing effects of curcumin are reported. In order to produce a more complete picture, the chemistry and sources of curcumin are also discussed.

  2. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte


    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  3. Nutritional Aspects of Gastrointestinal Wound Healing (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushik; Kavalukas, Sandra L.; Barbul, Adrian


    Significance: Although the wound healing cascade is similar in many tissues, in the gastrointestinal tract mucosal healing is critical for processes such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers and healing of the mucosa, submucosa, and serosal layers is needed for surgical anastomoses and for enterocutaneous fistula. Failure of wound healing can result in complications including infection, prolonged hospitalization, critical illness, organ failure, readmission, new or worsening enterocutaneous fistula, and even death. Recent Advances: Recent advances are relevant for the role of specific micronutrients, such as vitamin D, trace elements, and the interplay between molecules with pro- and antioxidant properties. Our understanding of the role of other small molecules, genes, proteins, and macronutrients is also rapidly changing. Recent work has elucidated relationships between oxidative stress, nutritional supplementation, and glucose metabolism. Thresholds have also been established to define adequate preoperative nutritional status. Critical Issues: Further work is needed to establish standards and definitions for measuring the extent of wound healing, particularly for inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers. In addition, a mounting body of evidence has determined the need for adequate preoperative nutritional supplementation for elective surgical procedures. Future Directions: A large portion of current work is restricted to model systems in rodents. Therefore, additional clinical and translational research is needed in this area to promote gastrointestinal wound healing in humans, particularly those suffering from critical illness, patients with enterocutaneous fistula, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcers, and those undergoing surgical procedures. PMID:27867755

  4. Self-healing coatings containing microcapsule (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Le-ping; Wang, Si-jie; Li, Wu-jun


    Effectiveness of epoxy resin filled microcapsules was investigated for healing of cracks generated in coatings. Microcapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization of urea-formaldehyde resin to form shell over epoxy resin droplets. Characteristics of these capsules were studied by 3D measuring laser microscope, particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to investigate their surface morphology, size distribution, chemical structure and thermal stability, respectively. The results indicate that microcapsules containing epoxy resins can be synthesized successfully. The size is around 100 μm. The rough outer surface of microcapsule is composed of agglomerated urea-formaldehyde nanoparticles. The size and surface morphology of microcapsule can be controlled by selecting different processing parameters. The microcapsules basically exhibit good storage stability at room temperature, and they are chemically stable before the heating temperature is up to approximately 200 °C. The model system of self-healing coating consists of epoxy resin matrix, 10 wt% microencapsulated healing agent, 2 wt% catalyst solution. The self-healing function of this coating system is evaluated through self-healing testing of damaged and healed coated steel samples.

  5. Arrayed SU-8 polymer thermal actuators with inherent real-time feedback for actively modifying MEMS’ substrate warpage (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Xiao, Dingbang; Chen, Zhihua; Wu, Xuezhong


    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a batch-fabricated micro-thermal actuators array with inherent real-time self-feedback, which can be used to actively modify micro-electro-mechanical systems’ (MEMS’) substrate warpage. Arrayed polymer thermal actuators utilize SU-8 polymer (a thick negative photoresist) as a functional material with integrated Ti/Al film-heaters as a microscale heat source. The electro-thermo-mechanical response of a micro-fabricated actuator was measured. The resistance of the Al/Ti film resistor varies obviously with ambient temperature, which can be used as inherent feedback for observing real-time displacement of activated SU-8 bumps (0.43 μm Ω-1). Due to the high thermal expansion coefficient, SU-8 bumps tend to have relatively large deflection at low driving voltage and are very easily integrated with MEMS devices. Experimental results indicated that the proposed SU-8 polymer thermal actuators (array) are able to achieve accurate rectification of MEMS’ substrate warpage, which might find potential applications for solving stress-induced problems in MEMS.

  6. {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling reveals inherent biological variation in yeast and nematode model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Reinke, Stacey N.; Lemire, Bernard D., E-mail: [University of Alberta, Department of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine (Canada)


    The application of metabolomics to human and animal model systems is poised to provide great insight into our understanding of disease etiology and the metabolic changes that are associated with these conditions. However, metabolomic studies have also revealed that there is significant, inherent biological variation in human samples and even in samples from animal model systems where the animals are housed under carefully controlled conditions. This inherent biological variability is an important consideration for all metabolomics analyses. In this study, we examined the biological variation in {sup 1}H NMR-based metabolic profiling of two model systems, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using relative standard deviations (RSD) as a measure of variability, our results reveal that both model systems have significant amounts of biological variation. The C. elegans metabolome possesses greater metabolic variance with average RSD values of 29 and 39%, depending on the food source that was used. The S. cerevisiae exometabolome RSD values ranged from 8% to 12% for the four strains examined. We also determined whether biological variation occurs between pairs of phenotypically identical yeast strains. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to discriminate between pair members based on their metabolic phenotypes. Our results highlight the variability of the metabolome that exists even for less complex model systems cultured under defined conditions. We also highlight the efficacy of metabolic profiling for defining these subtle metabolic alterations.

  7. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading. (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E


    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  8. Hope for healing: the mobilization of interest in three types of religious healing in the Netherlands since 1850

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellenga, S.J.


    The author examines the development of the popularity of religious healing in the Netherlands since 1850 and the factors that contribute to its continuation. He focuses upon three traditions: devotional healing in Roman Catholicism, charismatic healing in Pentecostalism and paranormal healing in wes

  9. Early Healing Events after Periodontal Surgery: Observations on Soft Tissue Healing, Microcirculation, and Wound Fluid Cytokine Levels (United States)

    Kaner, Doğan; Soudan, Mouaz; Zhao, Han; Gaßmann, Georg; Schönhauser, Anna; Friedmann, Anton


    Early wound healing after periodontal surgery with or without enamel matrix derivative/biphasic calcium phosphate (EMD/BCP) was characterized in terms of soft tissue closure, changes of microcirculation, and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid/wound fluid (GCF/WF). Periodontal surgery was carried out in 30 patients (18 patients: application of EMD/BCP for regeneration of bony defects; 12 patients: surgical crown lengthening (SCL)). Healthy sites were observed as untreated controls. GCF/WF samples were collected during two post-surgical weeks. Flap microcirculation was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Soft tissue healing was evaluated after two weeks. GCF/WF levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-10 were determined using a multiplex immunoassay. Surgery caused similar reductions of flap microcirculation followed by recovery within two weeks in both EMD/BCP and SCL groups. GCF/WF and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were immediately increased after surgery, and returned only partially to baseline levels within the two-week observation period. Levels of IL-10 were temporarily reduced in all surgical sites. Flap dehiscence caused prolonged elevated levels of GCF/WF, IL-1β, and TNF-α. These findings show that periodontal surgery triggers an immediate inflammatory reaction corresponding to the early inflammatory phase of wound healing, and these inflammation measures are temporary in case of maintained closure of the flap. However, flap dehiscence causes prolonged inflammatory exudation from the periodontal wound. If the biological pre-conditions for periodontal wound healing are considered important for the clinical outcome, care should be taken to maintain primary closure of the flap. PMID:28134829

  10. Self-healing Hydrogels Based on Dynamic Chemistry and Their Biomedical Applications%基于动态化学的自愈性水凝胶及其在生物医用材料中的应用研究展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚玲; 杨斌; 许亮鑫; 张小勇; 陶磊; 危岩


    effects, etc. Reversible covalent bonds usually include those chemistry bonds that could be reversible in mild conditions as imine bonds, disulfide bonds, acylhydrazone bonds and so on. Those hydrogels with dynamic cross-linked networks could not only manage external damages and repair themselves as self-healing materials but also gain multi-responsive properties to environmental stimuli. The latter specialty comes from the adptive property of dynamic bonds to react to changes of reaction environments like pH, temperature and chemical reactants, thus building the foundation to develop self-healing hydrogels further into a multi-functional self-adaptive smart soft matter, which is of great significance for research to enrich multi-functional materials. Besides, hydrogel as a soft matter have long been vastly used in biomedical applications due to their superior biocompatibility and resemblance to biological tissues as mainly components (usually more than 70%) of hydrogel are water. They are playing a more and more important role in biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, cell culture, tissue engineering and manmade biomimetic materials. Developing multi-functional smart soft matter with self-healing property as self-healing hydrogels would be quite helpful to this emerging field with unexpected more biomedical materials. This paper reviews recent works about self-healing hydrogels based on dynamic chemistry and their future biomedical applications. Systems based on multiple-hydrogen bonds, coordination effects, hydrophobic effects, acylhydrazone bonds and imine bonds are specifically discussed.

  11. Recent Advances in Thermoplastic Puncture-Healing Polymers (United States)

    Gordon, K. L.; Working, D. C.; Wise, K. E.; Bogert, P. B.; Britton, S. M.; Topping, C.C.; Smith, J. Y.; Siochi, E. J.


    Self-healing materials provide a route for enhanced damage tolerance in materials for aerospace applications. In particular, puncture-healing upon impact has the potential to mitigate significant damage caused by high velocity micrometeoroid impacts. This type of material also has the potential to improve damage tolerance in load bearing structures to enhance vehicle health and aircraft durability. The materials being studied are those capable of instantaneous puncture healing, providing a mechanism for mechanical property retention in lightweight structures. These systems have demonstrated healing capability following penetration of fast moving projectiles -- velocities that range from 9 mm bullets shot from a gun (approx.330 m/sec) to close to micrometeoroid debris velocities of 4800 m/sec. In this presentation, we report on a suite of polymeric materials possessing this characteristic. Figure 1 illustrates the puncture healing concept. Puncture healing in these materials is dependent upon how the combination of a polymer's viscoelastic properties responds to the energy input resulting from the puncture event. Projectile penetration increases the temperature in the vicinity of the impact. Self-healing behavior occurs following puncture, whereby energy must be transferred to the material during impact both elastically and inelastically, thus establishing two requirements for puncture healing to occur: a.) The need for the puncture event to produce a local melt state in the polymer material and b.) The molten material has to have sufficient melt elasticity to snap back and close the hole. 1,2 Previous ballistic testing studies revealed that Surlyn materials warmed up to a temperature approx.98 C during projectile puncture (3 C higher than it s melting temperature). 1,2 The temperature increase produces a localized flow state and the melt elasticity to snap back thus sealing the hole. Table 1 lists the commercially polymers studied here, together with their physical

  12. Chinese Food and Cancer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu


    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, apart from studying the effectiveness of chemo or radiotherapy in killing cancer cells, studies should examine ways of reducing drug side effects on patients and ways of enhancing the bodies’ immune system at the same time. Our defence system not only includes immune response, there are also detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant mechanisms, the ability for DNA damage repair and regulation of the hormone metabolism. Harmful environmental oestrogens that enter the human body can cause an increase of 16-α-hydroxyestrone as a harmful estradiol metabolite, the ratio between 16-α-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestrone relates to the risk of breast cancer. It is suggested that choosing nutritional products (that decrease the amount of 16-α-hydroxyestrone to regulate the hormone metabolism can help with prevention of breast cancer. Increasing the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (Ω-3 benefits health. Unsaturated fatty acid omega-6 (Ω-6 appears to be easily oxidised which can lead to DNA damage and increase the occurrence of cancer. The most important aspect to this approach is to reduce the ratio between saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid Ω-6, which is harmful to health. Olive oil has a high content of Ω-3 that benefits health. Ω-3 fatty acid can also be obtained from some fish, green vegetables and nuts. Linoleic acid is the most important source of Ω-6 fatty acid. Linolenic acid is the most important source of Ω-3 fatty acid. Natural foods e.g., purslane, is rich in Ω-3; the mustard family vegetables can increase the activity of detoxifying enzymes. Chinese Kiwi fruit drink reduces the side effects of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide, which is also a DNA damaging agent. Soybean, job’s tears, garlic, mushroom varieties and tea have anti-cancer effects. Properly used nutritional products may assist treatment and recovery. Good balanced nutrition is essential for cancer healing.

  13. Nanoparticles for tendon healing and regeneration: literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenico Parchi


    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are commonly met in the emergency department. Unfortunately, tendon tissue has limited regeneration potential and usually the consequent formation of scar tissue causes inferior mechanical properties Nanoparticles could be used in different way to improve tendon healing and regeneration, ranging from scaffolds manufacturing (increasing the strength and endurance or anti-adhesions, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties to gene therapy. This paper aims to summarize the most relevant studies showing the potential application of nanoparticles for tendon tissue regeneration

  14. Nanoparticles for Tendon Healing and Regeneration: Literature Review (United States)

    Parchi, Paolo D.; Vittorio, Orazio; Andreani, Lorenzo; Battistini, Pietro; Piolanti, Nicola; Marchetti, Stefano; Poggetti, Andrea; Lisanti, Michele


    Tendon injuries are commonly met in the emergency department. Unfortunately, tendon tissue has limited regeneration potential and usually the consequent formation of scar tissue causes inferior mechanical properties. Nanoparticles could be used in different way to improve tendon healing and regeneration, ranging from scaffolds manufacturing (increasing the strength and endurance or anti-adhesions, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory properties) to gene therapy. This paper aims to summarize the most relevant studies showing the potential application of nanoparticles for tendon tissue regeneration. PMID:27597828

  15. Dai Minghuan Quality Management in Reducing the Application of Poor Perineal Wound Healing%戴明环质量管理在降低会阴切口愈合不良中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新红; 赵慧玲


    Objective Discussion about the effect of PDCA Cycle on reducing perineal incision infection.Method Set 612 virginal birth cases from January to December in 2014 as control group,set 646 virginal birth cases from January to November in 2015 as observation group.To apply general nursing to episiotomy incision in control group,and apply PDCA Cycle to continually improve quality of care in observation group.Result The rate of poor healing of episiotomy incision was lower than that of control group,and the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion Through continuous quality control of episiotomy wound ,PDCA quality management mode can reduce the incidence of poor healing of postpartum perineal incision.%目的:探讨戴明环(PDCA)质量管理对降低会阴伤口感染的效果。方法将2014年1月至12月在我院足月顺产的产妇612例设为对照组;2015年1月11月在我院足月顺产的产妇646例设为观察组。对照组产后按常规进行会阴切口护理,观察组采用PDCA质量管理方法进行持续性质量管理。结果观察组产妇会阴切口愈合不良发生率低于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论遵循PDCA质量管理模式,通过会阴切口护理质量的持续改进,能降低产妇产后的会阴切口愈合不良发生率。

  16. Processing and damage recovery of intrinsic self-healing glass fiber reinforced composites (United States)

    Sordo, Federica; Michaud, Véronique


    Glass fiber reinforced composites with a self-healing, supramolecular hybrid network matrix were produced using a modified vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process adapted to high temperature processing. The quality and fiber volume fraction (50%) of the obtained materials were assessed through microscopy and matrix burn-off methods. The thermo-mechanical properties were quantified by means of dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing very high damping properties compared to traditional epoxy-based glass fiber reinforced composites. Self-healing properties were assessed by three-point bending tests. A high recovery of the flexural properties, around 72% for the elastic modulus and 65% of the maximum flexural stress, was achieved after a resting period of 24 h at room temperature. Recovery after low velocity impact events was also visually observed. Applications for this intrinsic and autonomic self-healing highly reinforced composite material point towards semi-structural applications where high damping and/or integrity recovery after impact are required.

  17. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels for sustained release of ferulic acid on corneal wound healing. (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Tseng, Po-Chen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sung, Yen-Jen; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Cheng, Yung-Hsin


    Oxidative damage to cornea can be induced by alkaline chemical burn which may cause vision loss or blindness. Recent studies showed that exogenous application of natural antioxidants may be a potential treatment for corneal wound healing. However, low ocular bioavailability and short residence time are the limiting factors of topically administered antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural phenolic compound and an excellent antioxidant. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of FA in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) under oxidative stress and evaluate the feasibility of use the thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogel containing FA for corneal wound healing. The results demonstrated that post-treatment of FA on CECs could decrease the inflammation-level and apoptosis. In the rabbit corneal alkali burn model, post-treatment FA-loaded hydrogel may promote the corneal wound healing. The results of study suggest that FA-loaded hydrogel may have the potential applications in treating corneal alkali burn.

  18. Advances in the effects of pH value of micro-environment on wound healing%微环境pH值对创面愈合的作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田瑞瑞; 李娜; 魏力


    Wound healing is a complex regeneration process,which is affected by lots of endogenous and exogenous factors.Researches have confirmed that acid environment could prevent wound infection and accelerate wound healing by inhibiting bacteria proliferation,promoting oxygen release,affecting keratinocyte proliferation and migration,etc.In this article,we review the literature to identify the potential relationship between the pH value of wound micro-environment and the progress of wound healing,and summarize the clinical application of variation of pH value of micro-environment in wound healing,thereby to provide new treatment strategy for wound healing.

  19. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (United States)


    ... sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force activated door sensor of a door system installed according to the installation instructions shall...

  20. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice. (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin


    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices.

  1. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.


    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  2. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Alzate, A.; Bartumeus, F.; de Jager, M.; Weerman, E.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Naguib, M.; Nolet, B.A.; Van de Koppel, J.


    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatu

  3. Child as Totem: Redressing the Myth of Inherent Creativity in Early Childhood (United States)

    McClure, Marissa


    In this article, I present a reexamination of the myth of inherent creativity in early childhood to elucidate how still-dominant discourses of optimization such as child development, individualism, expression, creativity, and visual realism exert limiting pressures on understandings of the art and visual culture that children consume and create.…

  4. An Inherent Chiral Calix[4]arene Bearing Chiral Groups without Forming Sub-ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Xian LIU; Yan Song ZHENG; Wan Ling MO


    The NMR spectra revealed that the calixarene frame of 1, 3-disubstituted calix[4]arenes bearing optically active groups is asymmetric, even without the formation of a sub-ring. This inherent chirality arises from the interaction of the two chiral groups, which hinder the substituents' free rotation. Thus, these chiral calix[4]arenes display good chiral recognition ability.

  5. Making the Grade: Describing Inherent Requirements for the Initial Teacher Education Practicum (United States)

    Sharplin, Elaine; Peden, Sanna; Marais, Ida


    This study explores the development, description, and illustration of inherent requirement (IR) statements to make explicit the requirements for performance on an initial teacher education (ITE) practicum. Through consultative group processes with stakeholders involved in ITE, seven IR domains were identified. From interviews with academics,…

  6. The Inherent Politics of Managing the Quality of Urban Green Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Sullivan, Sidney George; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis;


    of such ‘inherent politics’ through a case study of a widespread approach to operationalizing quality in urban green space management. We conclude that adoption of any quality model has both limiting and enabling implications for public participation and decision-making and that a critical stance is needed within...

  7. The attractive Achilles heel of germ cell tumours : an inherent sensitivity to apoptosis-inducing stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, DCJ; de Vries, EGE; Vellenga, E; de Jong, S


    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are extremely sensitive to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. The rapid time course of apoptosis induction after exposure to cisplatin suggests that TGCT cells are primed to undergo programmed cell death as an inherent property of the cell of origin. In fact, apo

  8. Inherent and apparent optical measurements in the Hudson/Raritan estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, S.; Rijkeboer, M.; Gons, H.J.


    During an August, 1999 field campaign, measurements were made to establish hydrologic optical properties of the Hudson/Raritan Estuary (New York-New Jersey): 1) concurrent above-and below-surface spectral irradiance; 2) sampling for laboratory determination of inherent optical properties; and 3) con

  9. The Market for Academic Knowledge: Its Historical Emergence and Inherent Tensions (United States)

    Weik, Elke


    This paper contributes to the discussion about the marketisation of universities by providing a historical perspective. Going back to the time when the market for academic knowledge emerged, I argue that it was created through incorporating a number of inherent tensions that have been, and still are, shaping its development. I show how these…

  10. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones]. (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I


    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  11. Unlocking variability: inherent variation and developmental traits of garlic plants originated from sexual reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, E.; Scholten, O.E.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Kamenetsky, R.


    Recent collections of fertile garlic (Allium sativum) accessions from Central Asia allow a detailed study of seedling developments and the evaluation of inherent variations. We hereby provide a comprehensive account of the ontogenesis of a population of garlic seedlings and their vegetative and repr

  12. Self-healing metallopolymers: Detailed investigation of the self-healing properties by scratch testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, S.; Bose, R.K.; Sandmann, B.; Hager, M.D.; Garcia Espallargas, S.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Schubert, U.S.


    In the last decade several intrinsic self-healing materials have been developed in which the healing mechanism was mainly based on the reversibility of a certain structural element. For this purpose, reversible covalent bonds, e.g., based on the Diels-Alder reaction or weaker non-covalent interactio

  13. Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-healing and healing cutaneous leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Moafi, M; Rezvan, H; Sherkat, R; Taleban, R; Asilian, A; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, S; Nilforoushzadeh, M A; Jaffary, F; Mansourian, M; Sokhanvari, F; Ansari, N


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) heals spontaneously within several weeks or months, but, in rare cases, CL-active lesions last for many years. In this study, we assessed cell-mediated immunity in non-healing CL through the measurement of three pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17a and CXCL-11. For this, 32 patients afflicted with healing or non-healing CL were recruited in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of every patient were treated with three antigens: purified protein derivative (PPD), soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Cytokine quantification was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results of our study showed that neither cytokine produced in the presence of a PPD stimulator (as an irrelevant antigen) significantly differed between the healing and non-healing groups (P-value ≥0.05 for all of them). However, IFN-γ, CXCL-11 and IL-17a levels produced in the presence of PHA or SLA were significantly higher within the healing than in the non-healing group (P-value <0.01 for all of them). It seems that appropriate levels of IFN-γ, as well as IL-17a and CXCL-11, contribute to the control of Leishmania infection.

  14. General concept of wound healing, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O.H. Prasetyono


    Full Text Available Wound healing is a transition of processes which is also recognized as one of the most complex processes in human physiology. Complex series of reactions and interactions among cells and mediators take place in the healing process of wound involving cellular and molecular events. The inflammatory phase is naturally intended to remove devitalized tissue and prevent invasive infection. The proliferative phase is characterized by the formation of granulation tissue within the wound bed, composed of new capillary network, fibroblast, and macrophages in a loose arrangement of supporting structure. This second phase lasts from day 8 to 21 after the injury is also the phase for epithelialisation. The natural period of proliferative phase is a reflection for us in treating wound to reach the goal which ultimately defines as closed wound. The final maturation phase is also characterized by the balancing between deposition of collagen and its degradation. There are at least three prerequisites which are ideal local conditions for the nature of wound to go on a normal process of healing i.e. 1 all tissue involved in the wound and surrounding should be vital, 2 no foreign bodies in the wound, and 3 free from excessive contamination/infection. The author formulated a step ladder of thinking in regards of healing intentions covering all acute and chronic wounds. Regarding the “hierarchy” of healing intention, the fi rst and ideal choice to heal wounds is by primary intention followed by tertiary intention and lastly the secondary intention. (Med J Indones 2009;18:206-14Key words: inflammatory mediator, epithelialisation, growth factor, wound healing

  15. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities. (United States)

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris


    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we investigated whether there was a biasing effect of these two forms of action capability on visual perception of location. In a virtual reality room, subjects had to stop a moving ball from hitting a pillar. On some trials, the ball disappeared automatically during its motion. Subjects had to estimate the location of the ball's disappearance in these trials. We expected that if action is necessary but action capability (inherent or momentary) is limiting performance, the location of approaching objects with respect to the observer is underestimated. By judging the objects to be nearer than they really are, the need to select and execute the appropriate action increases, thereby facilitating quick action (Cole et al. in Psychol Sci 24(1):34-40, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446953 ). As a manipulation of inherent action capability in a virtual environment, two groups of participants (video game players vs. non-video game players) were entered into the study (high and low action capability). Momentary action capability was manipulated by using two difficulty levels in the experiment (Easy vs. Difficult). Results indicated that inherent and momentary action capabilities interacted together to influence online location judgments: Non-players underestimated locations when the task was Difficult. Taken together, our data suggest that both inherent and momentary action capabilities influence location judgments.

  16. Craniofacial Wound Healing with Photobiomodulation Therapy: New Insights and Current Challenges. (United States)

    Arany, P R


    The fundamental pathophysiologic response for the survival of all organisms is the process of wound healing. Inadequate or lack of healing constitutes the etiopathologic basis of many oral and systemic diseases. Among the numerous efforts to promote wound healing, biophotonics therapies have shown much promise. Advances in photonic technologies and a better understanding of light-tissue interactions, from parallel biophotonics fields such as in vivo optical imaging and optogenetics, are spearheading their popularity in biology and medicine. Use of high-dose lasers and light devices in dermatology, ophthalmology, oncology, and dentistry are now popular for specific clinical applications, such as surgery, skin rejuvenation, ocular and soft tissue recontouring, and antitumor and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. However, a less well-known clinical application is the therapeutic use of low-dose biophotonics termed photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, which is aimed at alleviating pain and inflammation, modulating immune responses, and promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration. Despite significant volumes of scientific literature from clinical and laboratory studies noting the phenomenological evidence for this innovative therapy, limited mechanistic insights have prevented rigorous and reproducible PBM clinical protocols. This article briefly reviews current evidence and focuses on gaps in knowledge to identify potential paths forward for clinical translation with PBM therapy with an emphasis on craniofacial wound healing. PBM offers a novel opportunity to examine fundamental nonvisual photobiological processes as well as develop innovative clinical therapies, thereby presenting an opportunity for a paradigm shift from conventional restorative/prosthetic approaches to regenerative modalities in clinical dentistry.

  17. PLGA based drug delivery systems: Promising carriers for wound healing activity. (United States)

    Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique


    Wound treatment remains one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome healthcare issues in the world. Current treatment options are limited and require repeated administrations which led to the development of new therapeutics to satisfy the unmet clinical needs. Many potent wound healing agents were discovered but most of them are fragile and/or sensitive to in vivo conditions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a widely used biodegradable polymer approved by food and drug administration and European medicines agency as an excipient for parenteral administrations. It is a well-established drug delivery system in various medical applications. The aim of the current review is to elaborate the applications of PLGA based drug delivery systems carrying different wound healing agents and also present PLGA itself as a wound healing promoter. PLGA carriers encapsulating drugs such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins/peptides, and nucleic acids targeting various phases/signaling cycles of wound healing, are discussed with examples. The combined therapeutic effects of PLGA and a loaded drug on wound healing are also mentioned.

  18. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing. (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun


    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation.

  19. Physics of Wound Healing I: Energy Considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Apell, S Peter; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S; Pizziconi, Vincent


    Wound healing is a complex process with many components and interrelated processes on a microscopic level. This paper addresses a macroscopic view on wound healing based on an energy conservation argument coupled with a general scaling of the metabolic rate with body mass M as M^{\\gamma} where 0 <{\\gamma}<1. Our three main findings are 1) the wound healing rate peaks at a value determined by {\\gamma} alone, suggesting a concept of wound acceleration to monitor the status of a wound. 2) We find that the time-scale for wound healing is a factor 1/(1 -{\\gamma}) longer than the average internal timescale for producing new material filling the wound cavity in corresondence with that it usually takes weeks rather than days to heal a wound. 3) The model gives a prediction for the maximum wound mass which can be generated in terms of measurable quantities related to wound status. We compare our model predictions to experimental results for a range of different wound conditions (healthy, lean, diabetic and obses...

  20. Self-healing sandwich composite structures (United States)

    Fugon, D.; Chen, C.; Peters, K.


    Previous research demonstrated that a thin self-healing layer is effective in recovering partial sandwich composite performance after an impact event. Many studies have been conducted that show the possibility of using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to monitor the cure of a resin through strain and temperature monitoring. For this experiment, FBG sensors were used to monitor the curing process of a self-healing layer within a twelve-layer fiberglass laminate after impact. First, five self-healing sandwich composite specimens were manufactured. FBG sensors were embedded between the fiberglass and foam core. Then the fiberglass laminate was impacted with the use of a drop tower and the curing process was monitored. The collected data was used to compare the cure of the resin and fiberglass alone to the cure of the resin from a self-healing specimen. For the low viscosity resin system tested, these changes were not sufficiently large to identify different polymerization states in the resin as it cured. These results indicate that applying different resin systems might increase the efficiency of the self-healing in the sandwich composites.

  1. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosińczuk


    Full Text Available Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study.

  2. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Iizuka; Shiho Konno


    The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events;restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.

  3. Self-healing polymers---The importance of choosing an adequate healing monomer, and the olefin metathesis polymerization of agricultural oils (United States)

    Mauldin, Timothy C.

    Modern society's immense and ill-fated reliance on petrochemical-based polymeric materials will likely necessitate a shift in polymer production paradigms in the near future. The work presented herein attempts to address this issue via a two-pronged approach. First, efforts to improve the duration of composite materials by incorporation of a self-healing function are discussed, the fruitful application of which can potentially reduce or eliminate the massive carbon footprints associated with the repair/replacement of damaged materials. And second, polymeric materials derived predominately from natural and renewable feedstock---namely vegetable oils---are developed. Early microcapsule-based self-healing materials utilized dicyclopentadiene-filled microcapsules and Grubbs' olefin metathesis catalyst to initiate the healing mechanism. However, the patent-protected catalyst, made from the precious metal ruthenium and sometimes costly ligands, will likely never be inexpensive and therefore limit large-scale applications. Hence, clever approaches to reduce the healing catalyst loading in self-healing polymers are of great interest. To this end, our efforts have revolved around solving the problem of the relatively inefficient use of Grubbs' catalyst during the healing mechanism. Given that the mismatch of the olefin metathesis polymerization and Grubbs' catalyst dissolution (in monomer) kinetics is a known cause of this inefficient use of the catalyst, we attempted to tune the "latency" (i.e. pot life) of the olefin metathesis polymerization to ensure more complete dissolution of catalyst in monomer. In an alternative approach to improving efficient catalyst dissolution, we developed a simple model to predict relative dissolution rates of Grubbs' catalyst in a small library of healing monomers. This model was shown experimentally to be able to aid in the selection of, for example, reactive monomer additives that can yield impressive improvements in catalyst dissolution

  4. Emulating Native Periosteum Cell Population and Subsequent Paracrine Factor Production To Promote Tissue Engineered Periosteum-Mediated Allograft Healing


    Hoffman, Michael D.; Benoit, Danielle S.W.


    Emulating autograft healing within the context of decellularized bone allografts has immediate clinical applications in the treatment of critical-sized bone defects. The periosteum, a thin, osteogenic tissue that surrounds bone, houses a heterogeneous population of stem cells and osteoprogenitors. There is evidence that periosteum-cell derived paracrine factors, specifically vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), orchestrate autograft healing throug...

  5. Effects of anti-osteoporosis medications on fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Schwarz, Peter


    A number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing. This is prevalent in certain risk groups such as elderly, osteoporotics, postmenopausal women, and in people with malnutrition. At present, no pharmacologic treatments are available. Thus, there is an unmet need for medications that can...... healing. However, more randomized clinical trials documenting the clinical efficacy of PTH as a promoter of fracture healing in the clinical setting are warranted. Also, strontium ranelate seems to have beneficial effects on fracture healing under conditions with impaired healing. However, no clinical...... antiresorptive agents are available, but very few studies have addressed their effects on bone healing....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amin Syukur


    Kajian ini mengungkap tentang sufi healing, yaitu terapi di dalam literatur tentang sifisme. Kajian ini memfokuskan pada perilaku yang berasosiasi dengan sufi healing atau pencegahan penyakit, baik secara fisik maupun mental, dan kemudian menentukan aspek-aspek yang mendukung sistem terapi rasional dan empirik. Hasil yang diperoleh dari kajian ini adalah penemuan treatment alternatif atau preventif terhadap penyakit secara tepat yang sesuai dengan tuntutan masyarakat saat ini. Ditemukan bahwa sufi healing merupakan bentuk terapi alternatif yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan nilai-nilai sufisme se­bagai cara treatment atau pencegahan. Model ini telah dikenal dalam ma­syarakat sejak Islam dan sufisme berkembang. Rujukan ilmiah dari mengenai sistem kerja peng­obatan­nya dapat ditemukan dalam berbagai teori psikologi transpersonal, di mana kesadaran menjadi fokus kajian. Secara medis, pengobatan ini juga disebut psycho-neurons-endocrine-immunology, yang kesimpulannya adalah adanya hubungan antara fikiran dan tubuh dalam kesehatan manusia,

  7. Dynamics of bone graft healing around implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Venkataraman


    A few questions arise pertaining to the use of bone grafts along with implants are whether these are successful in approximation with implant. Do they accelerate bone regeneration? Are all defects ultimately regenerated with new viable bone? Is the bone graft completely resorbed or integrated in new bone? Does the implant surface characteristic positively affect osseointegration when used with a bone graft? What type of graft and implant surface can be used that will have a positive effect on the healing type and time? Finally, what are the dynamics of bone graft healing around an implant? This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of bone graft healing in general and in vicinity of another foreign, avascular body, namely the implant surface, and further, the role of bone grafts in osseointegration and/or clinical success of the implants.

  8. Discrete element modeling of inherently anisotropic granular assemblies with polygonal particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Seyedi Hosseininia


    In the present article,we study the effect of inherent anisotropy,i.e.,initial bedding angle of particles and associated voids on macroscopic mechanical behavior of granular materials,by numerical simulation of several biaxial compression tests using the discrete element method (DEM).Particle shape is considered to be irregular convex-polygonal.The effect of inherent anisotropy is investigated by following the evolution of mobilized shear strength and volume change during loading.As experimental tests have already shown,numerical simulations also indicate that initial anisotropic condition has a great influence on the strength and deformational behavior of granular assemblies.Comparison of simulations with tests using oval particles,shows that angularity influences both the mobilized shear strength and the volume change regime,which originates from the interlocking resistance between particles.

  9. Maximum acceptable inherent buoyancy limit for aircrew/passenger helicopter immersion suit systems. (United States)

    Brooks, C J


    Helicopter crew and passengers flying over cold water wear immersion suits to provide hypothermic protection in case of ditching in cold water. The suits and linings have trapped air in the material to provide the necessary insulation and are thus very buoyant. By paradox, this buoyancy may be too much for a survivor to overcome in escaping from the cabin of a rapidly sinking inverted helicopter. The Canadian General Standard Board requested that research be conducted to investigate what should be the maximum inherent buoyancy in an immersion suit that would not inhibit escape, yet would provide adequate thermal insulation. This experiment reports on 12 subjects who safely escaped with 146N (33 lbf) of added buoyancy from a helicopter underwater escape trainer. It discusses the logic for and recommendation that the inherent buoyancy in a helicopter crew/passenger immersion suit system should not exceed this figure.

  10. Microvascular networks for continuous self-healing materials (United States)

    Toohey, Kathleen Suzanne

    Microcapsule-based and hollow glass fiber-based self-healing composites enable a single repair of crack damage in a given location. Re-mendable polymers have demonstrated crack mending for multiple cycles, but only with heat treatment and applied pressure. We demonstrate, for the first time, the autonomic characteristics of microencapsulated systems with the ability to heal repeated damage events in a continuous self-healing coating on a microvascular substrate. A three-dimensional, interconnected microvascular network in the substrate serves as a delivery system for healing materials to heal damage in a polymer coating. Two approaches to microvascular delivery are explored: one using a fluid monomer in the network with solidphase catalyst particles in the coating, and one using two or more separate networks with two fluid healing components. In both systems, the fluid(s) flow from the microchannels into the crack plane through capillary action, and polymerization occurs to heal the crack. In the single-fluid system, a single crack in a brittle epoxy coating is healed as many as seven times, and the ability to heal continuously is limited only by the availability of catalyst. The two-part healing system contained in separate networks in a specimen has significant potential to extend the repeatability of the healing process due to the microvascular supply of both healing components. Preliminary tests of this two-part system demonstrate that multiple healing cycles are possible.

  11. [The treatment of slowly healing wounds with collagen and growth factors]. (United States)

    Baĭchev, G; Penkova, R; Deliĭski, T


    Experience had with the local application of collagen and autologous growth factors, isolated from platelets, in 35 patients presenting chronic, slowly healing wounds, treated with conventional methods, is discussed. In 24 cases of the series reviewed the wounds undergo epithelization within six weeks, and in the remainder (11)-within 10 weeks. As shown by the results, the healing process is quicker in wounds of patients treated with growth factors in combination with collagen, as compared to the control group--p(t) > 0.05.

  12. Porcine cholecyst–derived scaffold promotes full-thickness wound healing in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Revi


    Full Text Available Graft-assisted healing is an important strategy for treating full-thickness skin wounds. This study evaluated the properties of porcine cholecyst–derived scaffold and its use for treating full-thickness skin wound in rabbit. The physical properties of cholecyst-derived scaffold were congenial for skin-graft application. Compared to a commercially available skin-graft substitute made of porcine small intestinal submucosa, the cholecyst-derived scaffold was rich in natural biomolecules like elastin and glycosaminoglycans. When used as a xenograft, it promoted healing with excess cell proliferation at early phases and acceptable collagen deposition in the later remodelling phases.

  13. Evaluation of an intensified continuous heat-exchanger reactor for inherently safer characteristics


    BENAISSA, Wassila; Gabas, Nadine; Cabassud, Michel; Carson, Douglas; Elgue, Sébastien; Demissy, Michel


    The present paper deals with the establishment of a new methodology in order to evaluate the inherently safer characteristics of a continuous intensified reactor in the case of an exothermic reaction. The transposition of the propionic anhydride esterification by 2-butanol into a new prototype of ‘‘heatexchanger/ reactor’’, called open plate reactor (OPR), designed by Alfa Laval Vicarb has been chosen as a case study. Previous studies have shown that this exothermic reaction is relatively sim...

  14. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan


    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  15. Enhancement of the self-healing ability in oxidation induced self-healing ceramic by modifying the healing agent (United States)

    Nakao, Wataru; Abe, Shihomi


    The available temperature range of the self-healing induced by high temperature oxidation of SiC can be controlled by the particle size of the contained SiC particles. In this study, three types of alumina-SiC composites were prepared. The SiC particle sizes of the composites were 270, ˜30 nm, and less than 10 nm. The self-healing abilities were estimated by the strength recovery behavior at several temperatures. The use of nanometer-sized dispersed SiC particles as healing agent decreases the activation energy of the SiC oxidation obtained from the differential thermal analysis with several heating rates. This implies that smaller SiC particles can give rise to the oxidation at lower temperature. Moreover, the lowest temperature at which the cracked strength was completely recovered for 10 h was strongly affected by the SiC particle size. As the SiC particle size varied from 270 to ˜30 nm, the lowest temperature varied from 1300 to 950 °C. However, alumina composite containing SiC particles whose particle size is less than 10 nm cannot recover completely the cracked strength under every condition, because the space between crack walls cannot be filled with the formed oxide due to the small volume of SiC on the crack walls. Therefore, it was found that there is an optimal SiC particle size for endowing self-healing ability.

  16. 糖尿病难愈创面应用小剂量胰岛素:上皮化、纤维化及血管新生*★%Application of low-dose insulin in diabetes refractory wound healing:Epithelialization, collagen deposition and angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 栗勇; 苏映军; 王钠; 徐晨; 周博


      背景:糖尿病会影响正常创面愈合过程而形成难愈性创面。目的:观察局部应用小剂量胰岛素对糖尿病难愈性创面愈合的作用。方法:将大鼠随机分为实验组与对照组,对照组喂予普通饲料,实验组采用高糖高脂饲料结合小剂量链脲佐菌素诱导大鼠糖尿病模型。随后在各组大鼠背部建立创面,对照组大鼠不予处理,实验组随机等分为模型组、凡士林组和胰岛素组,后2组分别以凡士林和小剂量胰岛素涂抹创面。结果与结论:实验组大鼠糖尿病诱导成功率几乎100%;模型组、凡士林组和胰岛素组大鼠创面完全上皮化时间均较对照组明显延长(P <0.05);且与模型组和凡士林组相比,胰岛素组大鼠创面愈合率显著升高,上皮化程度高,并且胶原纤维密度增加,排列较为规整,血管化程度增加。说明局部应用小剂量胰岛素可以促进上皮化、纤维化及血管新生,从而加速糖尿病创面的愈合速度。%BACKGROUND: Diabetes can influence the normal course of wound healing, thus leading to refractory wound. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of topical application of low-dose insulin on diabetes refractory wound healing. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into experimental group and control group: rats in the control group were fed with regular diet and those in the experimental group were fed with high-carbohydrates-fat diet. Rats in the experimental group received intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetic models. Wounds were made on the back of the rats. The rats in the control group received no treatment, while rats in the experimental group were divided into model group, Vaseline group and insulin group. Wounds in the Vaseline group and insulin group were treated with Vaseline and a smal dose of insulin, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUTION: The success rate of induction for diabetes in the experimental group

  17. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E Foley

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively. The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min. During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines.

  18. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Vicente


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming performance in a screening test and then exercise trained for 10 weeks using one of two constant-velocity or two interval-velocity training regimes for comparison against control trained fish (low speed continuously. Disease resistance was assessed by a viral disease challenge test (infectious pancreatic necrosis and gene expression analyses of the host response in selected organs. Results An inherently good swimming performance was associated with improved disease resistance, as good swimmers showed significantly better survival compared to poor swimmers in the viral challenge test. Differences in mortalities between poor and good swimmers were correlated with cardiac mRNA expression of virus responsive genes reflecting the infection status. Although not significant, fish trained at constant-velocity showed a trend towards higher survival than fish trained at either short or long intervals. Finally, only constant training at high intensity had a significant positive effect on fish growth compared to control trained fish. Conclusions This is the first evidence suggesting that inherent swimming performance is associated with disease resistance in fish.

  19. Impact of exotic and inherent dissolved organic matter on sorption of phenanthrene by soils. (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Xiong, Wei; Ling, Wanting; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Qiuling


    The impacts of exotic and inherent dissolved organic matter (DOM) on phenanthrene sorption by six zonal soils of China, chosen so as to have different soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, were investigated using a batch technique. The exotic DOM was extracted from straw waste. In all cases, the sorption of phenanthrene by soils could be well described by the linear equation. The presence of inherent DOM in soils was found to impede phenanthrene sorption, since the apparent distribution coefficients (K(d)(*)) for phenanthrene sorption by deionized water-eluted soils were 3.13-21.5% larger than the distribution coefficients (K(d)) by control soils. Moreover, the enhanced sorption of phenanthrene by eluted versus control soils was in positive correlation with SOC contents. On the other hand, it was observed that the influence of exotic DOM on phenanthrene sorption was related to DOM concentrations. The K(d)(*) values for sorption of phenanthrene in the presence of exotic DOM increased first and decreased thereafter with increasing the added DOM concentrations (0-106mgDOC/L). The K(d)(*) values at a low exotic DOM concentration ( or =52mgDOC/L) of added exotic DOM clearly impeded the distribution of phenanthrene between soil and water. The effects of exotic and inherent DOM on phenanthrene sorption by soils may primarily be described as 'cumulative sorption', association of phenanthene with DOM in solution, and modified surface nature of soil solids due to DOM binding.

  20. Nature of Communication Ineffectiveness Inherent in the Procurement Systems on Mass Housing Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ebenezer Kwofie


    Full Text Available Mass housing projects (MHPs are deemed to exhibit unique procurement systems which consequently induce communication ineffectiveness that continues to dominate the challenges among mass housing project teams. However, this acknowledged communication ineffectiveness inherent in the unique procurement system features of mass housing project among the project team remains to be empirically examined. This study seeks to investigate the influence of procurement system (PS features of MHPs to communication ineffectiveness among the mass housing project team. By adopting a quantitative method design, a structured questionnaire survey on project team leaders managing MHPs in Ghana was used in collecting empirical data. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to explore the communication problems inherent in the PS features of mass housing projects. The results revealed moderate to high effects of communication ineffectiveness in information flow and information composition inherent in the unique PS features of MHPs. The results further revealed misunderstanding, inaccuracies, barriers, and information dissemination challenges as the major communication ineffectiveness induced by the PS features of MHPs. By gaining knowledge and understanding into the communication ineffectiveness associated with these features of MHPs, practitioners are well positioned to plan communication and management strategies to engender success in mass housing delivery.

  1. Effect of Shengji Yuhong plaster on the wound healing after anal fistula surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Zhong Liu; Ma Li


    Objective:To observe the effect of Shengji Yuhong plaster on the wound healing after anal fistula surgery.Methods:A total of 120 patients with anal fistula who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2011 to December, 2013 for operation were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 50 cases in each group after operation. The patients in the observation group were given external application of Shengji Yuhong plaster, while the patients in the control group were given vaselinum ribbon gauze. The patients in the two groups were given 3-week treatment. The wound area, granulation form, healing rate, healing time, and adverse reactions 1, 2, 3 weeks after operation in the two groups were compared.Results:The wound area 1, 2, 4 weeks after operation in the observation group was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.05). The granulation form score was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The wound repairing rate and the total effective rate were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the average healing time was significantly faster than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Shengji Yuhong plaster can significantly shorten the wound healing time in patients after anal fistula surgery and is beneficial for the postoperative rehabilitation.

  2. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses. (United States)

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia


    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.

  3. Topical simvastatin accelerates wound healing in diabetes by enhancing angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. (United States)

    Asai, Jun; Takenaka, Hideya; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Jun-ichi; Hagura, Asami; Kishimoto, Saburo; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kajiya, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Tokura, Yoshiki; Katoh, Norito


    Impaired wound healing is a major complication of diabetes. Recent studies have reported reduced lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis during diabetic wound healing, which are thought to be new therapeutic targets. Statins have effects beyond cholesterol reduction and can stimulate angiogenesis when used systemically. However, the effects of topically applied statins on wound healing have not been well investigated. The present study tested the hypothesis that topical application of simvastatin would promote lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis during wound healing in genetically diabetic mice. A full-thickness skin wound was generated on the back of the diabetic mice and treated with simvastatin or vehicle topically. Simvastatin administration resulted in significant acceleration of wound recovery, which was notable for increases in both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, simvastatin promoted infiltration of macrophages, which produced vascular endothelial growth factor C in granulation tissues. In vitro, simvastatin directly promoted capillary morphogenesis and exerted an antiapoptotic effect on lymphatic endothelial cells. These results suggest that the favorable effects of simvastatin on lymphangiogenesis are due to both a direct influence on lymphatics and indirect effects via macrophages homing to the wound. In conclusion, a simple strategy of topically applied simvastatin may have significant therapeutic potential for enhanced wound healing in patients with impaired microcirculation such as that in diabetes.

  4. Hierarchical system for autonomous sensing-healing of delamination in large-scale composite structures (United States)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sun, Denghao; Takeda, Nobuo


    This study combines our hierarchical fiber-optic-based delamination detection system with a microvascular self-healing material to develop the first autonomous sensing-healing system applicable to large-scale composite structures. In this combined system, embedded vascular modules are connected through check valves to a surface-mounted supply tube of a pressurized healing agent while fiber-optic-based sensors monitor the internal pressure of these vascular modules. When delamination occurs, the healing agent flows into the vascular modules breached by the delamination and infiltrates the damage for healing. At the same time, the pressure sensors identify the damaged modules by detecting internal pressure changes. This paper begins by describing the basic concept of the combined system and by discussing the advantages that arise from its hierarchical nature. The feasibility of the system is then confirmed through delamination infiltration tests. Finally, the hierarchical system is validated in a plate specimen by focusing on the detection and infiltration of the damage. Its self-diagnostic function is also demonstrated.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats. (United States)

    Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Heidari, A H


    Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian folk medicine as a wound-healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v/w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P<0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml/Kg) revealed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects.

  6. Collagen scaffolds loaded with collagen-binding NGF-beta accelerate ulcer healing. (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Lin, Hang; Chen, Bing; Zhao, Wenxue; Zhao, Yannan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Dai, Jianwu


    Studies have shown that exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) accelerates ulcer healing, but the inefficient growth factor delivery system limits its clinical application. In this report, we found that the native human NGF-beta fused with a collagen-binding domain (CBD) could form a collagen-based NGF targeting delivery system, and the CBD-fused NGF-beta could bind to collagen membranes efficiently. Using the rabbit dermal ischemic ulcer model, we have found that this targeting delivery system maintains a higher concentration and stronger bioactivity of NGF-beta on the collagen membranes by promoting peripheral nerve growth. Furthermore, it enhances the rate of ulcer healing through accelerating the re-epithelialization of dermal ulcer wounds and the formation of capillary lumens within the newly formed tissue area. Thus, collagen membranes loaded with collagen-targeting human NGF-beta accelerate ulcer healing efficiently.

  7. Conditional repair by locally switching the thermal healing capability of dynamic covalent polymers with light (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Anne; Göstl, Robert; Wendt, Robert; Kötteritzsch, Julia; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Brademann-Jock, Kerstin; Thünemann, Andreas F.; Nöchel, Ulrich; Behl, Marc; Hecht, Stefan


    Healable materials could play an important role in reducing the environmental footprint of our modern technological society through extending the life cycles of consumer products and constructions. However, as most healing processes are carried out by heat alone, the ability to heal damage generally kills the parent material's thermal and mechanical properties. Here we present a dynamic covalent polymer network whose thermal healing ability can be switched `on' and `off' on demand by light, thereby providing local control over repair while retaining the advantageous macroscopic properties of static polymer networks. We employ a photoswitchable furan-based crosslinker, which reacts with short and mobile maleimide-substituted poly(lauryl methacrylate) chains forming strong covalent bonds while simultaneously allowing the reversible, spatiotemporally resolved control over thermally induced de- and re-crosslinking. We reason that our system can be adapted to more complex materials and has the potential to impact applications in responsive coatings, photolithography and microfabrication.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Enhancing Biologic Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. (United States)

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon


    Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using tendon grafts is the current gold standard for the treatment of ACL tears in active patients. However, many patients still experience residual knee instability, knee pain and progressive cartilage degeneration following ACL reconstruction. Recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based approaches for treating musculoskeletal injuries have led to the application of MSCs for enhancing healing after ACL injuries. The purpose of this article is to review recent pre-clinical and clinical studies using MSCs for the enhancement of biologic healing of ACL injuries. Because of the success of pre-clinical studies, MSC-based approaches are now thought to be promising treatment options for enhancing biologic healing of ACL grafts and restoring the functional properties to the levels of the native ACL, and ultimately improving clinical outcomes.

  9. Turing Systems, Entropy, and Kinetic Models for Self-Healing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Kagan


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the methods of description of friction-induced self-healing at the interface between two solid bodies. A macroscopic description of self-healing is based on a Turing system for the transfer of matter that leads to self-organization at the interface in the case of an unstable state. A microscopic description deals with a kinetic model of the process and entropy production during self-organization. The paper provides a brief overview of the Turing system approach and statistical kinetic models. The relation between these methods and the description of the self-healing surfaces is discussed, as well as results of their application. The analytical considerations are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  10. Comparison of efifcacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed


    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods:Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results:The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions:The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  11. Quantitative study on propagation and healing of Airy beams under experimental conditions. (United States)

    Zhuang, Fei; Zhu, Ziyi; Margiewicz, Jessica; Shi, Zhimin


    We investigate the propagation and healing of Airy beams in two dimensions that are obtainable under practical experimental conditions. We introduce an intensity similarity factor to quantitatively describe how an Airy beam retains its original shape. Based on such a figure of merit, we define a shape-retaining distance to quantify how far an Airy beam can keep the shape of its main lobe upon propagation and a healing distance to quantify how soon an initially partially blocked Airy beam can restore its main lobe profile. We perform an analysis on how these two distances scale with experimental parameters. We further use an interference picture to interpret the healing phenomenon of an Airy beam. Our work can serve as a guideline for quantitative performance analysis for applications of Airy beams and can be extended to other special beams in a straightforward fashion.

  12. Clinical and morphological evaluation of snake venom derived fibrin glue on the tendon healing in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Ferraro


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of snake venom derived fibrin glue on the healing of the deep digital flexor tendon, during three periods. The tendon of the 2nd digit of 30 thoracic limbs of dogs was partially sectioned for glue application. Biopsies were performed 7, 15, and 30 days post surgery for the clinical and morphological study of tendons. Analysis of the results showed that 73.3% of the tendons showed stump retraction and 16.6% moderate to excessive adherence, which affected sliding. There was a significant difference in the number of inflammatory cells among the three studied periods, being the highest on day 15. The morphological analysis revealed a typical tendon healing process with a lower level of inflammation in the acute phase, facilitating the cicatricial maturation phase. Snake venom derived fibrin glue promotes the healing in dog flexor tendon.

  13. HEALing Higher Education: An Innovative Approach to Preparing HSI Leaders (United States)

    Freeman, Melissa L.


    This chapter is a case study of the Higher Education Administration and Leadership (HEAL) program at Adams State University. HEAL focuses on preparing the next generation of leaders at the nation's Hispanic-serving institutions.

  14. [Physiology and pathophysiology of wound healing of wound defects]. (United States)

    Mutschler, W


    Understanding wound healing involves more than simply stating that there are the three phases of inflammation, proliferation and maturation. Wound healing is a complex series of actions, reactions and interactions among cells and mediators in a sequential and simultaneously ongoing temporal process within a spatial frame. At first this article will attempt to provide a concise summary of the events, cellular components and main influential mediators of wound healing over time. Secondly, the pathophysiology of chronic non-healing wounds is described where an imbalance of stimulating and inhibiting factors causes failure of healing. The most relevant extrinsic and intrinsic determinants are described and related to the cellular and molecular level of disturbed wound healing. A basic understanding of wound healing is a prerequisite for any prophylactic or therapeutic maneuver to maintain or re-establish wound equilibrium to give a satisfactory healing trajectory.

  15. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  16. Moving to different streams of healing praxis: A reformed missionary approach of healing in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha D. Mashau


    Full Text Available There are different streams of healing praxis in Africa today, namely African traditional healing, biomedical healing and spiritual healing (which includes the more recent �touch your TV screen� healing method among others. These streams offer contemporary African people diverse alternatives with regard to healing. As much as the hegemony of Western biomedicine, as endorsed by missionaries in the past, can no longer serve as a norm in the area of healing, we can also not use the African traditional healing methods and or any other alternative presented to Africa without discernment. This suggests therefore that Reformed mission ecclesiology and missionary practitioners should critically engage the African context, worldview and culture on the matter of healing. It should also engage other forms of spiritual healing methods on offer in the African soil.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The use of an indigenous knowledge system when coming to healing in the African context, alongside Western biomedicine and other forms of spiritual healing practices, provides African people with diverse alternatives. It also poses a missiological question regarding the acceptability of such a practice within the framework of the Reformed Missionary Paradigm.Keywords: healing; praxis; Reformed; Missionary; Africa

  17. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings


    Abdolah Zadeh, M.


    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic healing approaches. The employed approaches aim at extending the service life of the coating and the underlying substrate by multiple damage closure/sealing and metal surface protection through incorpor...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhan Pathapati


    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder mainly impairs the body glucose utilization capacity due to this perforcely repressing the immuno-dysfunction (decreases chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing actions and collagen synthesis which are essential in wound debridement management of diabetic patients. Delayed wound healing is considered as one of the most repulsive disabling and costly complication of diabetes. People with diabetes have extenuated circulation, poor resistance to infection and mitigate local nutrition, thus their wounds are meticulously susceptible to infection. Moreover diabetes agonizes the equilibrium exists between accumulation of extra-cellular matrix components and their re-modeling by matrix metallo-proteinases (meltrin, due to this extenuated proliferation action of fibroblasts and finally freezes the progress of wound healing frequency in hyper glycemics. However in diabetic persons the nervous system becomes numb and all feasible actions of neurons are skipped, that condition is called as diabetic neuropathy. In that situation patient body features elevated a glucose level which stiffens the arteries and lack of pain sensation in foot resulting in commencement of new wounds. Conclusion: Consider all problems associated with wound healing in diabetic persons, a proper wound healing management which includes controlling measures like optimized systemic and local factors as well as implement suitable wound dressing for necessary wound in diabeties patients.

  19. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth V.


    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  20. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing. (United States)

    Majtan, Juraj


    Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds.

  1. Using behavior modification to promote wound healing. (United States)

    Rivera, E; Walsh, A; Bradley, M


    Successfully caring for patients with wounds under PPS demands that current practice approaches must change. Instead of focusing on dressings and techniques alone, this article describes how first addressing patients' psychological readiness for change can move them quickly to self-care and enhance wound healing, which results in cost savings and better outcomes.

  2. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy


    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...

  3. The Oneness of Humankind: Healing Racism Today (United States)

    Davis, Sharon E.


    The guiding principle behind the healing of racism is the Oneness of Humankind. This is not an old concept warmed over. It is knowledge about our collective capacity to reach deep into the human spirit and solve the most complex challenges of our time. The compound problem of race and other issues such as poverty only can be resolved with the…

  4. Healing Classrooms: Therapeutic Possibilities in Academic Writing (United States)

    Batzer, Benjamin


    This article asks us to consider what the process of healing and composition pedagogy have to learn from each other. More specifically, it identifies how the therapeutic potential of writing, which has been largely neglected in the academy in recent years, can influence the ways we teach transferable writing skills. The article considers how…

  5. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time. (United States)

    Ashman, Julann


    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included.

  6. Electrospun N-Substituted Polyurethane Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Self-Cleaning and Oil/Water Separation. (United States)

    Fang, Wenyuan; Liu, Libin; Li, Ting; Dang, Zhao; Qiao, Congde; Xu, Jinku; Wang, Yanyan


    Membranes with special functionalities, such as self-cleaning, especially those for oil/water separation, have attracted much attention due to their wide applications. However, they are difficult to recycle and reuse after being damaged. Herein, we put forward a new N-substituted polyurethane membrane concept with self-healing ability to address this challenge. The membrane obtained by electrospinning has a self-cleaning surface with an excellent self-healing ability. Importantly, by tuning the membrane composition, the membrane exhibits different wettability for effective separation of oil/water mixtures and water-in-oil emulsions, whilst still displaying a self-healing ability and durability against damage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate a self-healing membrane for oil/water separation, which provides the fundamental research for the development of advanced oil/water separation materials.

  7. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots (United States)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  8. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdolah Zadeh, M.


    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic heali

  9. An Assessment of Self-Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.


    Several reviews and books have been written concerning self-healing polymers over the last few years. These have focused primarily on the types of self-healing materials being studied, with minor emphasis given to composite properties. The purpose of this review is to assess the self-healing ability of these materials when utilized in fiber reinforced composites

  10. Spirituality and healing. Impacts on the Akan of Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opoku, J.K.


    Spirituality and healing are two distinct realities in form and nature. While healing deals practically with physical bodily disorders, spirituality concerns the sacred and the supernatural aspects of human life. The study is devoted to the uncommon relationship between spirituality and healing and

  11. Self-healing flexible laminates for resealing of puncture damage (United States)

    Beiermann, B. A.; Keller, M. W.; Sottos, N. R.


    A flexible self-healing system capable of healing puncture damage has been manufactured. Our material consists of three layers: a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) composite, embedded with a self-healing microcapsule system, sandwiched between two layers of poly(urethane) coated nylon. The total structure thickness ranges between 0.84 and 1.5 mm. A protocol is established in which samples are damaged using a hypodermic needle or a razor blade, and a successful heal is defined as the ability to reseal the damage to withstand a pressure differential across the laminate of 103 kPa (~1 atm). Trends in healing success are analyzed as a function of microcapsule size, self-healing layer thickness, and puncture diameter. Healing varied significantly with microcapsule size, with the maximum healing success rate (100% successfully healed) occurring in samples with 220 µm microcapsules and a puncture diameter of 0.49 mm. For this puncture size, an increase in microcapsule diameter corresponds to a decrease in healing efficiency. However, samples with larger microcapsules (up to 500 µm avg.) demonstrate more effective healing for larger puncture diameters, up to 1.61 mm. Additionally, healing increased with composite layer thickness, and decreased with increasing puncture hole size.

  12. Functional tissue engineering of ligament healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Shan-Ling


    Full Text Available Abstract Ligaments and tendons are dense connective tissues that are important in transmitting forces and facilitate joint articulation in the musculoskeletal system. Their injury frequency is high especially for those that are functional important, like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and medial collateral ligament (MCL of the knee as well as the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder. Because the healing responses are different in these ligaments and tendons after injury, the consequences and treatments are tissue- and site-specific. In this review, we will elaborate on the injuries of the knee ligaments as well as using functional tissue engineering (FTE approaches to improve their healing. Specifically, the ACL of knee has limited capability to heal, and results of non-surgical management of its midsubstance rupture have been poor. Consequently, surgical reconstruction of the ACL is regularly performed to gain knee stability. However, the long-term results are not satisfactory besides the numerous complications accompanied with the surgeries. With the rapid development of FTE, there is a renewed interest in revisiting ACL healing. Approaches such as using growth factors, stem cells and scaffolds have been widely investigated. In this article, the biology of normal and healing ligaments is first reviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues related to the treatment of ACL injuries. Afterwards, current promising FTE methods are presented for the treatment of ligament injuries, including the use of growth factors, gene delivery, and cell therapy with a particular emphasis on the use of ECM bioscaffolds. The challenging areas are listed in the future direction that suggests where collection of energy could be placed in order to restore the injured ligaments and tendons structurally and functionally.

  13. Acceleration of diabetic-wound healing with PEGylated rhaFGF in healing-impaired streptozocin diabetic rats. (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Lu, Meifei; Zhu, Guanghui; Gao, Hongchang; Xie, Liyun; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Ye, Chaohui; Wang, Yan; Sun, Chuanchuan; Li, Xiaokun


    Molecular modification with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) is an effective approach to improve protein biostability, in vivo lifetime and therapeutic potency. In the present study, the recombinant human acid fibroblast growth factor (rhaFGF) was site-selectively PEGylated with 20 kDa mPEG-butyraldehyde. Mono-PEGylated rhaFGF was purified to near homogeneity by Sephadex G 25-gel filtration followed by a Heparin Sepharose TM CL-6B affinity chromatography. PEGylated rhaFGF has less effect than the native rhaFGF on the stimulation of 3T3 cell proliferation in vitro; however, its relative thermal stability at normal physiological temperature and structural stability were significantly enhanced, and its half-life time in vivo was significantly extended. Then, the physiological function of PEGylated rhaFGF on diabetic-wound healing was evaluated in type 1 diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that, compared with the group of animal treated with native rhaFGF, the group treated with PEGylated rhaFGF exhibited better therapeutic efficacy with shorter healing time, quicker tissue collagen generation, earlier and higher transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression, and dermal cell proliferation. In addition, in vivo analysis showed that both native and PEGylated rhaFGF were more effective in the wound healing in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic one. Taken together, these results suggest that PEGylation of rhaFGF could be a more effective approach to the pharmacological and therapeutic application of native rhaFGF.

  14. A model for roll stall and the inherent stability modes of low aspect ratio wings at low Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Shields, Matt

    variation in the Cl ,beta derivative. These are purely aerodynamic modes which are demonstrated to be inherently present in LAR wings. To compare the impact of the roll stability derivative at high and low aspect ratios, a model for roll stall is developed which represents the tip vortices as infinite line vortices and estimates their influence on the surface pressure distribution of the wing; results for the roll moment coefficient are favorably compared with experimental data, and are used to compute Cl ,beta. By estimating the induced spanwise lift acting on a rolling wing, the roll damping derivative may also be computed and, along with the roll stability derivative, used to populate a simplified stability matrix for LAR wings. Solving for the eigenvalues of this system of equations at aspect ratios ranging from the near-unity values applicable to MAVs to high aspect ratio configurations reveals fundamentally different stability regimes. At cruise conditions, aspect ratios below 3.3 do not experience significant roll damping and the large magnitudes of roll stall instigate the divergent Dutch roll mode described by an unstable, complex eigenvalue. At higher aspect ratios above AR = 4.6, the eigenvalues cross into the left side of the complex plane and the lateral mode becomes stable, causing the wing to behave in a conventional, high aspect ratio manner. The disparity in lateral stability regimes between high and low aspect ratios at this Reynolds number suggests a potential explanation for why MAVs are prone to lateral instabilities, as their wings are inherently affected by unique flow physics which are not experienced by more conventional aircraft with a longer span.

  15. Effects of mouse genotype on bone wound healing and irradiation-induced delay of healing. (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kung, Jason; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S


    We tested the effects of mouse genotype (C57BL/6NHsd, NOD/SCID, SAMR1, and SAMP6) and ionizing irradiation on bone wound healing. Unicortical wounds were made in the proximal tibiae, and the time course of spontaneous healing and effects of irradiation were monitored radiographically and histologically. There was reproducible healing beginning with intramedullary osteogenesis, subsequent bone resorption by osteoclasts, gradual bridging of the cortical wound, and re-population of medullary hematopoietic cells. The most rapid wound closure was noted in SAMR1 mice, followed by SAMP6, C57BL/6NHsd, and NOD/SCID. Ionizing irradiation (20 Gy) to the leg significantly delayed bone wound healing in mice of all four genotypes. Mice with genetically-determined predisposition to early osteopenia (SAMP6) or with immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) had impairments in bone wound healing. These mouse models should be valuable for determining the effects of irradiation on bone healing and also for the design and testing of novel bone growth-enhancing drugs and mitigators of ionizing irradiation.

  16. Look Up for Healing: Embodiment of the Heal Concept in Looking Upward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Leitan

    Full Text Available Conceptual processing may not be restricted to the mind. The heal concept has been metaphorically associated with an "up" bodily posture. Perceptual Symbol Systems (PSS theory suggests that this association is underpinned by bodily states which occur during learning and become instantiated as the concept. Thus the aim of this study was to examine whether processing related to the heal concept is promoted by priming the bodily state of looking upwards.We used a mixed 2x2 priming paradigm in which 58 participants were asked to evaluate words as either related to the heal concept or not after being primed to trigger the concept of looking up versus down (Direction--within subjects. A possible dose-response effect of priming was investigated via allocating participants to two 'strengths' of prime, observing an image of someone whose gaze was upward/downward (low strength and observing an image of someone whose gaze was upward/downward while physically tilting their head upwards or downwards in accord with the image (high strength (Strength--between subjects.Participants responded to words related to heal faster than words unrelated to heal across both "Strength" conditions. There was no evidence that priming was stronger in the high strength condition.The present study found that, consistent with a PSS view of cognition, the heal concept is embodied in looking upward, which has important implications for cognition, general health, health psychology, health promotion and therapy.

  17. Enhancement of wound healing by shikonin analogue 93/637 in normal and impaired healing. (United States)

    Mani, H; Sidhu, G S; Singh, A K; Gaddipati, J; Banaudha, K K; Raj, K; Maheshwari, R K


    Wound healing is a complicated biological process, which involves interactions of multiple cell types, various growth factors, their mediators and the extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, we evaluated the effects of shikonin analogue 93/637 (SA), derived from the plant Arnebia nobilis, on normal and hydrocortisone-induced impaired healing in full thickness cutaneous punch wounds in rats. SA (0.1%) was applied topically daily as an ointment in polyethylene glycol base on wounds. SA treatment significantly accelerated healing of wounds, as measured by wound contraction compared to controls in hydrocortisone-impaired animals. SA treatment promoted formation of granulation tissue including cell migration and neovascularization, collagenization and reepithelialization. The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was higher as revealed by immunohistochemistry in treated wounds compared to controls. However, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1) was not affected by SA treatment. Since bFGF is known to accelerate wound healing, the increased expression of bFGF by SA may be partly responsible for the enhancement of wound healing. These studies suggest that SA could be further studied for clinical use to enhance wound healing.

  18. Spirit-body healing II: a nursing intervention model for spiritual/creative healing. (United States)

    Lane, Mary Rockwood


    This article describes an advanced intervention for spiritual healing that evolved from spirit-body healing, a hermeneutic phenomenological research study. The research study examined the lived experience of art and healing with cancer patients in the Arts in Medicine program at Shands Hospital, University of Florida. Max Van Manen's method of researching the lived experience was used in 63 patients over a 4-year period. Healing themes that emerged from the research were (1) go into darkness, (2) go elsewhere, (3) art becomes the turning point, (4) slip through the veil, (5) know the truth and trust the process, (6) embody your spirit, (7) feel the healing energy of love and compassion, and (8) experience transcendence. The intervention we offer allows nurses to apply creativity and guided imagery as advanced therapeutics and to continue to provide the leadership needed for integrating spiritual healing into patient care. It is one that personifies the nursing mission formalized by many hospitals: a commitment to treat the bodies, minds, and spirits of patients to the best of our ability as part of our routine care.

  19. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.


    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  20. Effects of erythropoietin in skin wound healing are dose related. (United States)

    Sorg, Heiko; Krueger, Christian; Schulz, Torsten; Menger, Michael D; Schmitz, Frank; Vollmar, Brigitte


    The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) attracts attention due to its all-tissue-protective pleiotropic properties. We studied the effect of EPO on dermal regeneration using intravital microscopy in a model of full dermal thickness wounds in the skin-fold chamber of hairless mice. Animals received repetitive low doses or high doses of EPO (RLD-EPO or RHD-EPO) or a single high dose of EPO (SHD-EPO). SHD-EPO accelerated wound epithelialization, reduced wound cellularity, and induced maturation of newly formed microvascular networks. In contrast, RHD-EPO impaired the healing process, as indicated by delayed epithelialization, high wound cellularity, and lack of maturation of microvascular networks. Also, RHD-EPO caused an excessive erythrocyte mass and rheological malfunction, further deteriorating vessel and tissue maturation. Moreover, RHD-EPO altered fibroblast and keratinocyte migration in vitro, while both cell types exposed to RLD-EPO, and, in particular, to SHD-EPO showed accelerated wound scratch closure. In summary, our data show that a single application of a high dose of EPO accelerates and improves skin wound healing.