WorldWideScience

Sample records for application reference efsa-gmo-nl-2005-15

  1. Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing trend towards miniaturization of both biological and chemical sensors and their integration with miniaturized sample pre-processing and analysis systems. These miniaturized lab-on-chip devices have several functional advantages including low cost, their ability to analyze smaller samples, faster analysis time, suitability for automation, and increased reliability and repeatability. Electrical based sensing methods that transduce biological or chemical signals into the electrical domain are a dominant part of the lab-on-chip devices. A vital part of any electrochemical sensing system is the reference electrode, which is a probe that is capable of measuring the potential on the solution side of an electrochemical interface. Research on miniaturization of this crucial component and analysis of the parameters that affect its performance, stability and lifetime, is sparse. In this paper, we present the basic electrochemistry and thermodynamics of these reference electrodes and illustrate the uses of reference electrodes in electrochemical and biological measurements. Different electrochemical systems that are used as reference electrodes will be presented, and an overview of some contemporary advances in electrode miniaturization and their performance will be provided.

  2. Old italian reference systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti

    2010-05-01

    The history of geodetic systems used in Italy from the end of the XIX century to the beginning of the XXth century is complex and, in the past, this has led some researcher to misinterpretations. For this reason an explanation of geodetic systems used in Italy in this period is reported in this paper. Towards the end of the XIXth century, the " Ufficio Tecnico del Corpo di Stato Maggiore" (first nucleus of the future IGM) was entrusted to unify the geodetic reference systems of the Italian pre-union states to produce a unique Italian Datum for the whole national territory. At the same time, the "Ufficio del Catasto" (National Cadastre Office), for its purposes, began the production of a cartography in projection Cassini-Soldner representing only the thematic layer of its interest: the delimitations of properties. Although officially the Datums used in those years are the same both for cadastre and IGM (Genoa, Monte Mario, Castanea delle Furie), in many cases temporary orientations were used on cadastral maps and the values of first, second and third order vertexes do not coincide with those definitive ones used by the IGM. This ambiguity led frequently to misinterpretation and errors to georeferenciation of present and historic Italian cartography

  3. Top-down enterprise application integration with reference models

    OpenAIRE

    Willem-Jan van den Heuvel; Wilhelm Hasselbring; Mike Papazoglou

    2000-01-01

    For Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems such as SAP R/3 or IBM SanFrancisco, the tailoring of reference models for customizing the ERP systems to specific organizational contexts is an established approach. In this paper, we present a methodology that uses such reference models as a starting point for a top-down integration of enterprise applications. The re-engineered models of legacy systems are individually linked via cross-mapping specifications to the forward-engineered reference ...

  4. Top-Down Enterprise Application Integration with Reference Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem-Jan van den Heuvel

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available For Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems such as SAP R/3 or IBM SanFrancisco, the tailoring of reference models for customizing the ERP systems to specific organizational contexts is an established approach. In this paper, we present a methodology that uses such reference models as a starting point for a top-down integration of enterprise applications. The re-engineered models of legacy systems are individually linked via cross-mapping specifications to the forward-engineered reference model's specification. The actual linking of reference and legacy models is done with a methodology for connecting (new business objects with (old legacy systems.

  5. LCCP Desktop Application v1.0 Engineering Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-04-01

    This Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Desktop Application Engineering Reference is divided into three parts. The first part of the guide, consisting of the LCCP objective, literature review, and mathematical background, is presented in Sections 2-4. The second part of the guide (given in Sections 5-10) provides a description of the input data required by the LCCP desktop application, including each of the input pages (Application Information, Load Information, and Simulation Information) and details for interfacing the LCCP Desktop Application with the VapCyc and EnergyPlus simulation programs. The third part of the guide (given in Section 11) describes the various interfaces of the LCCP code.

  6. Opportunities for ISRU Applications in the Mars Reference Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Mars Exploration Reference Mission envisions sending three crews of six astronauts to Mars, each for 500-day stays on the surface. In situ Resourse Unitlization (ISRU) has been baselined for the production of propellant for crews leaving the surface, as well as to create reservoirs of water and life-support consumables These applications improve performance (by reducing the mass of hardware and supplies that must be brought to Mars for the propulsion system) and reduce risk (by creating consumables as backups to stores brought from Earth). Similar applications of other types of ISRU-derived materials should be sought and selected if they similarly improve performance or reduce risk. Some possible concepts for consideration, based on a review of the components included in the Reference Mission, include (1) emplacement of a hardened landing pad; (2) construction of a roadway for transporting the nuclear power system to a safe distance from the habitat; (3) radiation shielding for inflatable structures; (4) tanks and plumbing for bioregenerative life-support system; (5) drilling rig; (6) additional access structures for equipment and personnel and unpressurized structures for vehicle storage; (7) utilitarian manufactured products (e.g., stools and benches) for habitat and laboratory; (8) thermal radiators; (9) photovoltaic devices and support structures; and ( 10) external structures for storage and preservation of Mars samples. These may be viewed principally as mission- enhancing concepts for the Reference Mission. Selection would require a clear rationale for performance improvement or risk reduction and a demonstration that the cost of developing and transporting the needed equipment would be recovered within the budget for the program. Additional work is also necessary to ascertain whether early applications of ISRU for these types of purposes could lead to the modification of later missions, allowing the replacement of infrastructure payloads currently

  7. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel [Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Deputy Director General, Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  8. A Reliable Reference Electrode in Molten Carbonate and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Ag|AgCl reference electrode which can be used in molten carbonate media has been described in this paper.It consists of a silver wire immersed in a solution of AgCl(1mol%) in (Li0.62,K0.38)2CO3,with a zirconia junction.The main properties of reference electrode,such as reproducibility ,stability and reversibility, were checked.The results have demonstrated that the reference electrode is reliable.With such reference electrode catalysis of various electrode materials to oxygen reduction in molten alkali carbonate media was investigated.It is found that as catalysts for oxygen reduction oxidized nickel-niobium alloy is superior to nickel oxide.

  9. CMOS bandgap references and temperature sensors and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Two main parts have been presented in this thesis: device characterization and circuit. In integrated bandgap references and temperature sensors, the IC(VBE, characteristics of bipolar transistors are used to generate the basic signals with high accuracy. To investigate the possibilities to fabricate high-precision bandgap references and temperature sensors in low-cost CMOS technology, the electrical characteristics of substrate bipolar pnp transistors have been investigated over a wide tempe...

  10. CMOS bandgap references and temperature sensors and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Two main parts have been presented in this thesis: device characterization and circuit. In integrated bandgap references and temperature sensors, the IC(VBE, characteristics of bipolar transistors are used to generate the basic signals with high accuracy. To investigate the possibilities to fabrica

  11. Reference clock parameters for digital communications systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaschoff, P.

    1981-01-01

    The basic parameters relevant to the design of network timing systems describe the random and systematic time departures of the system elements, i.e., master (or reference) clocks, transmission links, and other clocks controlled over the links. The quantitative relations between these parameters were established and illustrated by means of numerical examples based on available measured data. The examples were limited to a simple PLL control system but the analysis can eventually be applied to more sophisticated systems at the cost of increased computational effort.

  12. Neutron imaging and applications a reference for the imaging community

    CERN Document Server

    McGreevy, Robert L; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2009-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the basics of neutron beam production in addition to the wide scope of techniques that enhance imaging application capabilities. This title features a section that describes imaging single grains in polycrystalline materials, neutron imaging of geological materials and other materials science and engineering areas.

  13. Flouescence reference materials used for optical and biophotonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A.; Otterman, C.; Klahn, J.; Enseling, D.; Korb, T.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Schweizer, S.; Selling, J.; Kynast, U.; Koberling, F.; Rupertus, V.

    2007-07-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools and detection methods for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for fluorescence diagnostics having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers like absorption/excitation cross sections and quantum yield. This can be done for different types of dopands in different materials like glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Based on the optical spectroscopy data we will discuss options for characteristic doped glasses and glass ceramics with respect to scattering and absorption regime. It has shown recently for YAG:Ce glass ceramics that for a proper determination of the quantum efficiency in these highly scattering media a reference material with similar scattering and fluorescent properties is required. This may be performed using the emission decay measurement diagnostics, where the decay time is below 100 ns. In this paper we present first results of these aspects using well performing LUMOGEN RED organic pigments for a comparison of mainly transparent glass with glass ceramics doped with various amounts of dopands e.g. ions of raw earth elements and transition metals. The LUMOGEN red is embedded in silica and polyurethane matrices. Characterisations on wavelength accuracy and lifetime for different environmental conditions (temperature, UV irradiation) have been performed. Moreover intensity patterns and results for homogeneity, isotropy, photo and thermal stability will be discussed. In a next

  14. Application of Artificial Neural Network Approach for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati N. Vyas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of evapotranspiration (ET is a vital part of the water cycle. Exact estimation of the value of ET is necessary for designing irrigation systems and water resources management. Accurate estimation of ET is essential in agriculture, its over-estimation leads to cause the waste of valuable water resources and its underestimation leads to the plant moisture stress and decrease in the crop yield. The well known Penman-Monteith (PM equation always performs the highest accuracy results of estimating reference Evapotranspiration (ET0 among the existing methods is without any discussion. However, the equation requires climatic data that are not always available particularly for a developing country. ET0 is a complex process which is depending on a number of interacting meteorological factors, such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, and radiation. The lack of physical understanding of ET0 process and unavailability of all appropriate data results in imprecise estimation of ET0. Over the past two decades, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been increasingly applied in modeling of hydrological processes because of their ability in mapping the input–output relationship without any understanding of physical process. This paper investigates for the first time in the semiarid environment of Junagadh, the potential of an artificial neural network (ANN for estimating ET0 with limited climatic data set.

  15. Comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar Earth Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To finalize a comprehensive NASA Cis-Lunar / Earth-Moon Libration Orbit Reference and Web Application begun using FY13 IRAD funding approved in May 2013. This GSFC...

  16. Comparative assessment of thematic accuracy of GLC maps for specific applications using existing reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Schouten, L.; Herold, M.

    2016-02-01

    Inputs to various applications and models, current global land cover (GLC) maps are based on different data sources and methods. Therefore, comparing GLC maps is challenging. Statistical comparison of GLC maps is further complicated by the lack of a reference dataset that is suitable for validating multiple maps. This study utilizes the existing Globcover-2005 reference dataset to compare thematic accuracies of three GLC maps for the year 2005 (Globcover, LC-CCI and MODIS). We translated and reinterpreted the LCCS (land cover classification system) classifier information of the reference dataset into the different map legends. The three maps were evaluated for a variety of applications, i.e., general circulation models, dynamic global vegetation models, agriculture assessments, carbon estimation and biodiversity assessments, using weighted accuracy assessment. Based on the impact of land cover confusions on the overall weighted accuracy of the GLC maps, we identified map improvement priorities. Overall accuracies were 70.8 ± 1.4%, 71.4 ± 1.3%, and 61.3 ± 1.5% for LC-CCI, MODIS, and Globcover, respectively. Weighted accuracy assessments produced increased overall accuracies (80-93%) since not all class confusion errors are important for specific applications. As a common denominator for all applications, the classes mixed trees, shrubs, grasses, and cropland were identified as improvement priorities. The results demonstrate the necessity of accounting for dissimilarities in the importance of map classification errors for different user application. To determine the fitness of use of GLC maps, accuracy of GLC maps should be assessed per application; there is no single-figure accuracy estimate expressing map fitness for all purposes.

  17. Utility and applicability of the sharable content object reference model (SCORM) within Navy higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharopoulos, Ilias Z.; Kohistany, Mohammad B.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis critically analyzes the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) within higher education and examines SCORM's limitations within a realistic application environment versus within a theoretical/conceptual platform. The thesis also examines environments better suited for implementation of SCORM technology. In addressing the research questions, it was discovered that from the current standards set forth by Advanced Dist...

  18. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: application to a study of SERT binding in HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christopher J.; Hammoud, Dima A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2011-04-01

    When applicable, it is generally preferred to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) studies using a reference tissue-based approach as that avoids the need for invasive arterial blood sampling. However, most reference tissue methods have been shown to have a bias that is dependent on the level of tracer binding, and the variability of parameter estimates may be substantially affected by noise level. In a study of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in HIV dementia, it was determined that applying parameter coupling to the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) reduced the variability of parameter estimates and yielded the strongest between-group significant differences in SERT binding. The use of parameter coupling makes the application of SRTM more consistent with conventional blood input models and reduces the total number of fitted parameters, thus should yield more robust parameter estimates. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the application of parameter constraint and parameter coupling to [11C]DASB PET studies. Five quantitative methods, including three methods that constrain the reference tissue clearance (kr2) to a common value across regions were applied to the clinical and simulated data to compare measurement of the tracer binding potential (BPND). Compared with standard SRTM, either coupling of kr2 across regions or constraining kr2 to a first-pass estimate improved the sensitivity of SRTM to measuring a significant difference in BPND between patients and controls. Parameter coupling was particularly effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates, which was less than 50% of the variance obtained with standard SRTM. A linear approach was also improved when constraining kr2 to a first-pass estimate, although the SRTM-based methods yielded stronger significant differences when applied to the clinical study. This work shows that parameter coupling reduces the variance of parameter estimates and may better discriminate between

  19. Normalization references for Europe and North America for application with USEtox™ characterization factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In life cycle impact assessment, normalization can be a very effective tool for the life cycle assessment practitioner to interpret results and put them into perspective. The paper presents normalization references for the recently developed USEtox™ model, which aims at calculating...... globally applicable characterization factors. Normalization references for Europe and North America are determined, and guidance for expansions to other geographical regions is provided. Materials and methods The base years of the European and North American inventories are 2004 and 2002/2008, respectively......, a similar coverage of substances was obtained for both regions with relatively high representation of metals and a number of organic compounds, mainly consisting of non-methane volatile organic compounds and pesticides. The two inventory sets were eventually characterized with the characterization factors...

  20. Application of Model Reference Adaptive Control System to Instrument Pointing System /IPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, H. B.

    1979-01-01

    A Model Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC) is derived for a Shuttle payload called the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). The unique features of this MRAC design are that total state feedback is not required, that the internal structure of the model is independent of the internal structure of the IPS, and that the model input is of bounded variation and not required a priori. An application of Liapunov's stability theorems is used to synthesize a control signal which assures MRAC asymptotic stability. Exponential observers are used to obtain the necessary state information to implement the control synthesis. Results are presented which show how effectively the MRAC can maneuver the IPS.

  1. Design and Development of Hybrid Multilevel Inverter employing Dual Reference Modulation Technique for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyezhai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available MultiLevel Inverter (MLI has been recognized as an attractive topology for high voltage DC-AC conversion. This paper focuses on a new dual reference modulation technique for a hybrid multilevel inverter employing Silicon carbide (SiC switches for fuel cell applications. The proposed modulation technique employs two reference waveforms and a single inverted sine wave as the carrier waveform. This technique is compared with the conventional dual carrier waveform in terms of output voltage spectral quality and switching losses. An experimental five-level hybrid inverter test rig has been built using SiC switches to implement the proposed algorithm. Gating signals are generated using PIC microcontroller. The performance of the inverter has been analyzed and compared with the result obtained from theory and simulation. Simulation study of Proportional Integral (PI controller for the inverter employing the proposed modulation strategy has been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Keywords: Multilevel inverter, SiC , dual reference modulation, switching losses, PI

  2. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: application to a study of SERT binding in HIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Christopher J; Pomper, Martin G [Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A, E-mail: endres@jhmi.edu [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health/Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    When applicable, it is generally preferred to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) studies using a reference tissue-based approach as that avoids the need for invasive arterial blood sampling. However, most reference tissue methods have been shown to have a bias that is dependent on the level of tracer binding, and the variability of parameter estimates may be substantially affected by noise level. In a study of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in HIV dementia, it was determined that applying parameter coupling to the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) reduced the variability of parameter estimates and yielded the strongest between-group significant differences in SERT binding. The use of parameter coupling makes the application of SRTM more consistent with conventional blood input models and reduces the total number of fitted parameters, thus should yield more robust parameter estimates. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the application of parameter constraint and parameter coupling to [{sup 11}C]DASB PET studies. Five quantitative methods, including three methods that constrain the reference tissue clearance (k{sup r}{sub 2}) to a common value across regions were applied to the clinical and simulated data to compare measurement of the tracer binding potential (BP{sub ND}). Compared with standard SRTM, either coupling of k{sup r}{sub 2} across regions or constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate improved the sensitivity of SRTM to measuring a significant difference in BP{sub ND} between patients and controls. Parameter coupling was particularly effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates, which was less than 50% of the variance obtained with standard SRTM. A linear approach was also improved when constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate, although the SRTM-based methods yielded stronger significant differences when applied to the clinical study. This work shows that parameter coupling reduces the

  3. A High-voltage Reference Testbed for the Evaluation of High-voltage Dividers for Pulsed Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, M Cerqueira; Bergman, A; 10.1109/CPEM.2010.5543408

    2010-01-01

    The design, evaluation and commissioning of a high voltage reference testbed for pulsed applications to be used in the precision testing of high voltage dividers is described. The testbed is composed of a pulsed power supply, a reference divider based on compressed gas capacitor technology and an acquisition system which makes use of the fast measurement capabilities of the HP 3458 DVM. Results of the evaluation of the reference system are presented.

  4. State-specific Multi-reference Perturbation Theories with Relaxed Coefficients: Molecular Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Mukherjee

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present in this paper two new versions of Rayleigh-Schr¨odinger (RS and the Brillouin-Wigner (BW state-specific multi-reference perturbative theories (SSMRPT which stem from our state-specific multi-reference coupled-cluster formalism (SS-MRCC, developed with a complete active space (CAS. They are manifestly sizeextensive and are designed to avoid intruders. The combining coefficients cμ for the model functions φμ are completely relaxed and are obtained by diagonalizing an effective operator in the model space, one root of which is the target eigenvalue of interest. By invoking suitable partitioning of the hamiltonian, very convenient perturbative versions of the formalism in both the RS and the BW forms are developed for the second order energy. The unperturbed hamiltonians for these theories can be chosen to be of both Mφller-Plesset (MP and Epstein-Nesbet (EN type. However, we choose the corresponding Fock operator fμ for each model function φμ, whose diagonal elements are used to define the unperturbed hamiltonian in the MP partition. In the EN partition, we additionally include all the diagonal direct and exchange ladders. Our SS-MRPT thus utilizes a multi-partitioning strategy. Illustrative numerical applications are presented for potential energy surfaces (PES of the ground (1Σ+ and the first delta (1Δ states of CH+ which possess pronounced multi-reference character. Comparison of the results with the corresponding full CI values indicates the efficacy of our formalisms.

  5. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance.

  6. An Application of Fictitious Reference Iterative Tuning to State Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yoshihiro; Akamatsu, Shunichi; Kimura, Tomohiko; Nakano, Kazushi; Sakurama, Kazunori

    In this paper, an application method of Fictitious Reference Iterative Tuning (FRIT), which has been developed for controller gain tuning for single-input single-output systems, to state feedback gain tuning for single-input multivariable systems is proposed. Transient response data of a single-input multivariable plant obtained under closed-loop operation is used for model matching by the FRIT in time domain. The data is also used in frequency domain to estimate the stability and to improve the control performance of the closed-loop system with the state feedback gain tuned by the method. The method is applied to a state feedback control system for an inverted pendulum with an inertia rotor and its usefulness is illustrated through experiments.

  7. Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" approach for environmental monitoring of offshore renewable energy projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Erwan; Rey, Cibran Camba; Ferreira, Oscar; van Koningsveld, Mark

    2014-08-01

    This paper assesses the applicability of the Frame of Reference (FoR) approach for the environmental monitoring of large-scale offshore Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) projects. The focus is on projects harvesting energy from winds, waves and currents. Environmental concerns induced by MRE projects are reported based on a classification scheme identifying stressors, receptors, effects and impacts. Although the potential effects of stressors on most receptors are identified, there are large knowledge gaps regarding the corresponding (positive and negative) impacts. In that context, the development of offshore MRE requires the implementation of fit-for-purpose monitoring activities aimed at environmental protection and knowledge development. Taking European legislation as an example, it is suggested to adopt standardized monitoring protocols for the enhanced usage and utility of environmental indicators. Towards this objective, the use of the FoR approach is advocated since it provides guidance for the definition and use of coherent set of environmental state indicators. After a description of this framework, various examples of applications are provided considering a virtual MRE project located in European waters. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are provided for the successful implementation of the FoR approach and for future studies.

  8. Bayesian methods for uncertainty factor application for derivation of reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ted W; Zhu, Yiliang; Dourson, Michael L; Beck, Nancy B

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the National Research Council (NRC) published Review of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process that considers methods EPA uses for developing toxicity criteria for non-carcinogens. These criteria are the Reference Dose (RfD) for oral exposure and Reference Concentration (RfC) for inhalation exposure. The NRC Review suggested using Bayesian methods for application of uncertainty factors (UFs) to adjust the point of departure dose or concentration to a level considered to be without adverse effects for the human population. The NRC foresaw Bayesian methods would be potentially useful for combining toxicity data from disparate sources-high throughput assays, animal testing, and observational epidemiology. UFs represent five distinct areas for which both adjustment and consideration of uncertainty may be needed. NRC suggested UFs could be represented as Bayesian prior distributions, illustrated the use of a log-normal distribution to represent the composite UF, and combined this distribution with a log-normal distribution representing uncertainty in the point of departure (POD) to reflect the overall uncertainty. Here, we explore these suggestions and present a refinement of the methodology suggested by NRC that considers each individual UF as a distribution. From an examination of 24 evaluations from EPA's IRIS program, when individual UFs were represented using this approach, the geometric mean fold change in the value of the RfD or RfC increased from 3 to over 30, depending on the number of individual UFs used and the sophistication of the assessment. We present example calculations and recommendations for implementing the refined NRC methodology.

  9. A conditional bivariate reference curve with an application to human growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    conditional bivariate distribution; reference curves; percentile; non-parametric; quantile regression; non-parametric estimation......conditional bivariate distribution; reference curves; percentile; non-parametric; quantile regression; non-parametric estimation...

  10. The Command and Control Reference Model for modeling, simulations, and technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayk, Israel

    1994-01-01

    The C2RM provides a framework for the evolution of a coordinated and detailed definition of a command and control (C2) discipline. The C2RM embodies an integrated multidisciplinary approach. It is intended to be complete and self-consistent for the main levels of abstractions encountered in models, simulations, operational applications, functional descriptions, paradigms and metaphors of C2. The scope of the C2RM embraces C2 using all key physical and logical interactions associated with C2 systems. It is concerned with interactions, involving not only communications (e.g., radios), but transportations (e.g., vehicles), identifications (e.g., sensors), and inflictions (e.g., weapons), which take place between resources of the same, friendly, hostile or neutral C2 units. High levels of abstractions of user requirements for C2 across the broad spectrum of military and civil domains have led to the development of the C2RM. It applies to all phases of system acquisition from the laboratory to the field and from conceptualization to realization. The C2RM is based upon generic and analog extensions to the International Standards Organization (ISO) open system interconnection (OSI) reference model (RM) which go far beyond the scope of the ISO OSI RM. The major theme, however, of layering services is preserved to facilitate understanding, reuse of design, implementation, and interoperability to the maximum degree possible with available C2 technology.

  11. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir Jr.; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia, E-mail: veraportal.pesquisa@gmail.com [Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences: Cardiology, Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery.

  12. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery

  13. Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bueno Garofallo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe.Objective:To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP and EuroSCORE (ES in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP.Methods:Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP.Results:Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74, and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80. The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99 and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79. Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus.Conclusion:Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery.

  14. Bushland Reference ET Calculator with QA/QC capabilities and iPhone/iPad application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate daily reference evapotranspiration (ET) values are needed to estimate crop water demand for irrigation management and hydrologic modeling purposes. The USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas developed the Bushland Reference ET (BET) Calculator for calcul...

  15. CMOS compatible fabrication process of MEMS resonator for timing reference and sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duc H.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Skafidas, Stan; Evans, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Frequency reference and timing control devices are ubiquitous in electronic applications. There is at least one resonator required for each of this device. Currently electromechanical resonators such as crystal resonator, ceramic resonator are the ultimate choices. This tendency will probably keep going for many more years. However, current market demands for small size, low power consumption, cheap and reliable products, has divulged many limitations of this type of resonators. They cannot be integrated into standard CMOS (Complement metaloxide- semiconductor) IC (Integrated Circuit) due to material and fabrication process incompatibility. Currently, these devices are off-chip and they require external circuitries to interface with the ICs. This configuration significantly increases the overall size and cost of the entire electronic system. In addition, extra external connection, especially at high frequency, will potentially create negative impacts on the performance of the entire system due to signal degradation and parasitic effects. Furthermore, due to off-chip packaging nature, these devices are quite expensive, particularly for high frequency and high quality factor devices. To address these issues, researchers have been intensively studying on an alternative for type of resonator by utilizing the new emerging MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology. Recent progress in this field has demonstrated a MEMS resonator with resonant frequency of 2.97 GHz and quality factor (measured in vacuum) of 42900. Despite this great achievement, this prototype is still far from being fully integrated into CMOS system due to incompatibility in fabrication process and its high series motional impedance. On the other hand, fully integrated MEMS resonator had been demonstrated but at lower frequency and quality factor. We propose a design and fabrication process for a low cost, high frequency and a high quality MEMS resonator, which can be integrated into a standard

  16. Assessing uncertainty in reference intervals via tolerance intervals: application to a mixed model describing HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Engels, Eric A; Rosenberg, Philip S

    2005-10-30

    We define the reference interval as the range between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of a random variable. We use reference intervals to compare characteristics of a marker of disease progression between affected populations. We use a tolerance interval to assess uncertainty in the reference interval. Unlike the tolerance interval, the estimated reference interval does not contains the true reference interval with specified confidence (or credibility). The tolerance interval is easy to understand, communicate and visualize. We derive estimates of the reference interval and its tolerance interval for markers defined by features of a linear mixed model. Examples considered are reference intervals for time trends in HIV viral load, and CD4 per cent, in HIV-infected haemophiliac children and homosexual men. We estimate the intervals with likelihood methods and also develop a Bayesian model in which the parameters are estimated via Markov-chain Monte Carlo. The Bayesian formulation naturally overcomes some important limitations of the likelihood model. PMID:16189804

  17. Application of the WHO Growth Reference (2007) to Assess the Nutritional Status of Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-PING LI; XIAO-QI HU; JING-ZHAO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; GUAN-SHENG MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the nutrition status of children and adolescents in China using the WHO growth reference (2007) in comparison with that defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Methods Overweight and obesity were defined by age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by WHO (2007), IOTF (2000), and WGOC (2004), respectively. Stunting and thinness were defined as height and BMI less than two standard deviations (SD) of the WHO growth reference (2007), respectively. Data of children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years (n=54 857, 28 273 boys, 26 584 girls) from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) were used in the study. Results The prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting and thinness among Chinese children and adolescents aged 5-19 years was 5.0%, 1.2%, 13.8%, and 7.4%, respectively when the WHO growth reference (2007) was used, whereas the estimated absolute total number affected by these 4 conditions were 14.6, 3.7, 40.6, and 21.8 million, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.1% in large cities, while the stunting prevalence was 25.1% in rural 4. Obesity prevalence assessed by the WHO growth reference was higher than that as assessed by the IOTF reference, and obesity prevalence assessed by the WGOC reference was lower than that as assessed by the IOTF reference. Conclusion The nutritional status of children and adolescents is not equal in different areas of China. Stunting is still the main health problem of the poor, while overweight and obesity are the main health problems in large cities.

  18. A reference system for animal biometrics: application to the northern leopard frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska-Delacretaz, D.; Edwards, A.; Chiasson, J.; Chollet, G.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Reference systems and public databases are available for human biometrics, but to our knowledge nothing is available for animal biometrics. This is surprising because animals are not required to give their agreement to be in a database. This paper proposes a reference system and database for the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Both are available for reproducible experiments. Results of both open set and closed set experiments are given.

  19. Development and application of a multi-targeting reference plasmid as calibrator for analysis of five genetically modified soybean events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yiwei; Wang, Canhua; Pan, Liangwen; Yang, Litao

    2015-04-01

    Reference materials are important in accurate analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) contents in food/feeds, and development of novel reference plasmid is a new trend in the research of GMO reference materials. Herein, we constructed a novel multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, which contained seven event-specific sequences of five GM soybeans (MON89788-5', A2704-12-3', A5547-127-3', DP356043-5', DP305423-3', A2704-12-5', and A5547-127-5') and sequence of soybean endogenous reference gene Lectin. We evaluated the specificity, limit of detection and quantification, and applicability of pSOY in both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 20 copies in qualitative PCR, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) in quantitative PCR was 10 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and Lectin assays were higher than 90%, and the squared regression coefficients (R(2)) were more than 0.999. The quantification bias varied from 0.21% to 19.29%, and the relative standard deviations were from 1.08% to 9.84% in simulated samples analysis. All the results demonstrated that the developed multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, was a credible substitute of matrix reference materials, and could be used as a reliable reference calibrator in the identification and quantification of multiple GM soybean events.

  20. Standard digital reference images for investment steel castings for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in thin-wall steel investment castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of thin-wall steel casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 Two illustration categories are covered as follows: 1.2.1 Graded—Six common discontinuity types each illustrated in eight degrees of progressively increasing severity. 1.2.2 Ungraded—Twelve single illustrations of additional discontinuity types and of patterns and imper...

  1. A Contrastive Study of Personal Reference between Chinese and English and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to make a contrast of personal reference between Chinese and English and apply the contrastive study to Second Language(L2)teaching and learning and English-Chinese translation.Both Chinese and English have certain expressions serving as personal reference so as to achieve unity and coherence of a text.In spite of the similarity,there are differences in grammatical devices of personal reference between the two languages.Generally speaking,compared with English,there are two main differences in Chinese:A:Native Chinese speakers are prone to omit the subject and possessive determiners.B:Native Chinese speakers usually employ the device of lexical repetition to achieve the unity and coherence of a text.Both the differences will cause difficulties in L2 learning and translation.

  2. Composite iterative learning controller design for gradually varying references with applications in an AFM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方勇纯; 张玉东; 董晓坤

    2014-01-01

    Learning control for gradually varying references in iteration domain was considered in this research, and a composite iterative learning control strategy was proposed to enable a plant to track unknown iteration-dependent trajectories. Specifically, by decoupling the current reference into the desired trajectory of the last trial and a disturbance signal with small magnitude, the learning and feedback parts were designed respectively to ensure fine tracking performance. After some theoretical analysis, the judging condition on whether the composite iterative learning control approach achieves better control results than pure feedback control was obtained for varying references. The convergence property of the closed-loop system was rigorously studied and the saturation problem was also addressed in the controller. The designed composite iterative learning control strategy is successfully employed in an atomic force microscope system, with both simulation and experimental results clearly demonstrating its superior performance.

  3. Environmental Guide Value (VGE) and specific reference values (QS) for uranium. Synthesis and elements for application to French fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a synthesis of works performed to determine criteria of protection of continental aquatic ecosystems with respect to uranium. These works resulted in the determination of an environmental guide value (VGE) for the assessment of the ecological and chemical condition of waters. Other specific reference values have been determined to be used in risk assessment: average annual concentration, maximum admissible concentration. After a recall of the methodology adopted for the determination of VGE in the case of uranium, the report discusses the specific reference values in the case of uranium for different organisms, for predators, for the protection of human health against a risk of exposure by consumption of fished products or drinkable water. The determination of VGE and its application are reported, and its consistency with the criterion of radiation protection of the environment applied to water and sediments is discussed. The determination of specific reference values is then discussed

  4. Reference values and clinical application of magnetic peripheral nerve stimulation in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.; Van Ham, Luc M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of radial (RN) and sciatic (SN) nerves was performed bilaterally in 40 healthy cats. Reference values for onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) were obtained and compared with values of electric motor evoked potentials (EMEPs) in 10

  5. Breast Reference Set Application: GeorgeTuszynski-Temple (2012) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    As recommended by the review committee, we will analyze 30 invasive cancer cases and 30 benign controls from the EDRN breast reference set. Cases and controls should be selected that are Caucasian and post-menopausal. It is suggested that the Caucasian cases and controls match as closely as possible in regards to age and body mass index.

  6. VizBin - an application for reference-independent visualization and human-augmented binning of metagenomic data

    OpenAIRE

    Laczny, C.C.; Sternal, T.; Plugaru, V.; Gawron, P.; Atashpendar, A.; Margossian, H.H.; Coronado, S.; Van der Maaten, L.J.M.; Vlassis, N.; Wilmes, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metagenomics is limited in its ability to link distinct microbial populations to genetic potential due to a current lack of representative isolate genome sequences. Reference-independent approaches, which exploit for example inherent genomic signatures for the clustering of metagenomic fragments (binning), offer the prospect to resolve and reconstruct population-level genomic complements without the need for prior knowledge. Results We present VizBin, a Java™-based application whic...

  7. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy (Finland); Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems.

  8. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part...) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions Pt. 53, Subpt. A, Table A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 53—Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and...

  9. Analytically continued Fock space multi-reference coupled-cluster theory: Application to the shape resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sourav; Sajeev, Y.; Vaval, Nayana

    2006-10-01

    The Fock space multi-reference coupled-cluster (FSMRCC) method is used for the study of the shape resonance energy and width in an electron-atom/molecule collision. The procedure is based upon combining a complex absorbing potential (CAP) with FSMRCC theory. Accurate resonance parameters are obtained by solving a small non-Hermitian eigen-value problem. We study the shape resonances in e --C 2H 4 and e --Mg.

  10. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  11. Proposal for Reference Soil Concentrations of Radiocesium Applicable to Accidentally Contaminated Rice and Soybean Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radionuclides in arable soil can be transferred to food plants via root uptake. If radionuclide concentrations in food plants to be grown in contaminated soil are estimated to be higher than the authorized food standards, their culture needs to be cancelled or ameliorating practices need to be taken. Therefore, it is necessary to establish soil concentration limits or reference soil concentrations of radiocesium standing with the food standards in preparation for potential severe NPP accidents in this and adjacent countries. In the present study, reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean, two of the most important food plants in Korea, were provisionally established using all relevant domestic data of soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). The reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean were calculated using available domestic TF data, and were proposed for provisional use at the time of a severe NPP accident. The present RSCs are based on limited numbers of {sup 137}Cs TF values. More amounts of relevant TF data should be produced to have more reliable RSCs. For other staple-food plants such as Chinese cabbage and radish, RSCs of radiocesium should also be established. However, only a couple of relevant domestic TF values are available for these vegetables.

  12. Reference Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  13. Reference Standardization for Mass Spectrometry and High-resolution Metabolomics Applications to Exposome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Walker, Douglas I; Liang, Yongliang; Uppal, Karan; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Tran, ViLinh; Strobel, Frederick; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Ziegler, Thomas R; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W; Jones, Dean P

    2015-12-01

    The exposome is the cumulative measure of environmental influences and associated biological responses throughout the lifespan, including exposures from the environment, diet, behavior, and endogenous processes. A major challenge for exposome research lies in the development of robust and affordable analytic procedures to measure the broad range of exposures and associated biologic impacts occurring over a lifetime. Biomonitoring is an established approach to evaluate internal body burden of environmental exposures, but use of biomonitoring for exposome research is often limited by the high costs associated with quantification of individual chemicals. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) uses ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry with minimal sample preparation to support high-throughput relative quantification of thousands of environmental, dietary, and microbial chemicals. HRM also measures metabolites in most endogenous metabolic pathways, thereby providing simultaneous measurement of biologic responses to environmental exposures. The present research examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of HRM data for cumulative exposome research. The results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations in unknown samples are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. The approach was tested using blinded analyses of amino acids in human samples and was found to be comparable to independent laboratory results based on surrogate standardization or internal standardization. Quantification was reproducible over a 13-month period and extrapolated to thousands of chemicals. The results show that reference standardization protocol provides an effective strategy that will enhance data collection for cumulative exposome research. In principle, the approach can be extended to other types of mass spectrometry and other analytical methods. PMID

  14. [Good medical practice for drugs. Definition, guidelines, references, field of action and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Proper use of drugs can be defined as the use of the right product, in a correct dosage, during an adequate length of time, for a given patient and provided he has no serious side effects.It is virtually impossible, with such a number of drugs, such a number of clinical situations to prescribe adequately without using references or guidelines. References may lead to a unique choice, when the diagnosis is certain and the drug to be given is unique. With a good initial and continuous medical education, doctors can take easily this type of decision. The Summary of Products Characteristics (SPC) helps them; by sticking to this fundamental reference, prescription might be more precise and safe. In a lot of clinical situations the choice between a large numbers of therapeutic strategies necessitates use of a guideline based on scientific knowledge. Finally, a given therapeutic strategy can be as effective as and considerably less expensive than another. In such cases, payers can drive doctors to the prescription of the less expensive strategy.Some difficulties are common to all references and guidelines: 1. A lot of clinical situations are not covered by guidelines. 2. Guidelines should be updated each time there is a modification of knowledge: it is extremely difficult to do. 3. A great number of guidelines exist, issued by scientific community, health authorities or the payers. Sometime you can find a proposition in a guideline and the reverse in another guideline. It could be confusing. 4. Guidelines should be evaluated rigorously to know if they fulfil their goals. 5. Some of those guidelines simply cannot help doctors. They are too complex or do not take into account practical situations.We have made an inventory of those various guidelines and their weaknesses and we propose some solutions to increase their utility. We propose an analysis of the situation and some solutions to improve the quality and the relevance of the guidelines: to create groups of coordination

  15. Characterization of bandgap reference circuits designed for high energy physics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, G.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Riceputi, E.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to design a high performance bandgap voltage reference circuit in a standard commercial 65 nm CMOS technology capable of operating in harsh radiation environments. A prototype circuit based on three different devices (diode, bipolar transistor and MOSFET) was fabricated and tested. Measurement results show a temperature variation as low as ±3.4 mV over a temperature range of 170 ° C (-30 °C to 140 °C) and a line regulation at room temperature of 5.2%/V. Measured VREF is 690 mV±15 mV (3σ) for 26 samples on the same wafer. Circuits correctly operate with supply voltages in the range from 1.32 V down to 0.78 V. A reference voltage shift of only 7.6 mV (around 1.1%) was measured after irradiation with 10 keV X-rays up to an integrated dose of 225 Mrad (SiO2).

  16. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B 3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. {sup 14}C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of {sup 14}C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, {sup 14}C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using {sup 210}Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak {sup 137}Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Application of complete space multireference many-body perturbation theory to N2: Dependence on reference space and H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, James P.; Freed, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    and, thus, appear to be beyond the range of applicability of the forced degeneracy Heff method. Novel techniques are employed for properly treating some of these cases, including the use of orbitals which optimize the quasidegeneracy of the reference space and minimize energy denominator problems. By considering reference spaces of varying sizes, we describe the tradeoff between employing large reference spaces, which provide excellent first order descriptions, and the difficulties imposed by the fact that larger reference spaces severely violate the quasidegeneracy constraints of the Heff method. The same tradeoff exists when the optimal first order CASSCF orbitals are compared with orbitals generated by a VN-1 potential. The VN-1 potential orbitals, which produce relatively quasidegenerate reference spaces, are equivalent to the sequential SCF orbitals used in previous Heff computations, but are more simply obtained by a unitary transformation. The forced degenerate valence orbital energy ɛv¯ is computed from an averaging scheme for the valence orbital energies. The ground state N2 computations contrast two averaging schemes—populational and democratic. Democratic averaging weighs all valence orbitals equally, while populational averaging weighs valence orbitals in proportion to their ground state populations. Populational averaging is determined to be useful only in situations where core-core and core-valence correlation are unimportant. A Fock-type operator used by Roos and co-workers is employed to uniquely define CASSCF orbitals within their invariant subspaces. This operator is found to be more compatible with populational than democratic averaging, especially when the reference space contains high lying orbitals.

  18. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell’s viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  19. The characterization of uranium and plutonium reference materials by the (100-X) route; basic principle and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and plutonium reference materials are produced to calibrate reagents used in titrimetric methods or to check instrumental techniques like electrochemical methods. For this purpose, the most commonly prepared reference materials are high-purity uranium metal pieces and uranium dioxide pellets, respectively plutonium metal pieces and plutonium dioxide powders. Two different routes can be followed to certify the element content: a direct or an indirect route. With the direct route the main element is assayed using appropriate redox titration methods. The overall uncertainty on the main element is limited by both the precision of the titration methods used and the uncertainty of the reference materials. The indirect route is applicable only for high purity base material. It requires the measurement of the sum of impurities (X) in the material and the substraction of this sum from hundred per cent (100-X). Since the (100-X) route requires the measurement of a large number of elements, a variety of analytical methods has to be used, and a contribution by different specialized laboratories is requested. The uncertainty of the total of impurities is calculated from the respective uncertainties of the determination of each specific element. If the total of impurities is sufficiently small and even if it is determined with a rather large uncertainty, the (100-X) route leads nevertheless to a low uncertainty on the main element content. The application of the (100-X) route is illustrated for the case of uranium dioxide pellets certified as an European Community Nuclear Reference Material. The (100-X) route is recommended as a very accurate one for high purity material characterization and certification purposes

  20. A RISK-AWARE BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT REFERENCE MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN AN EGYPTIAN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Haggag

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental pressures on organizations, the demand on Business Process Management (BPM automation suites has increased. This led to the arising need for managing process-related risks. Therefore the management of risks in business processes has been the subject of many researches during the past few years. However, most of these researches focused mainly on one or two stages of the BPM life cycle and introduced a support for it. This paper aims to provide a reference model for Risk-Aware BPM which addresses the whole stages of the BPM life cycle, as well as some current techniques are listed for the implementation of this model. Additionally, a case study for a business process in an Egyptian university is introduced, in order to apply this model in real-world environment. The results will be analyzed and concluded.

  1. Application of the limit analysis and of the reference stress method to stiffened welded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global method for the analysis of the failure of non elementary structures is examined. The type of failure are: instantaneous or delayed deformation, plastic instability of the material and delayed rupture. The steel structure studied is the lower support of a reactor core composed of two concentric rings, a bottom plate, a top plate and 15 stiffening radial plates. For calculation an annular sector representing 1/30 of this structure is modelized. The behaviour of the structure is examined for the following conditions: an instantaneous temperature rise from 4000C to 6500C, then the temperature is maintained for 400 hours and decreased from 6500 to 4000 at a rate of 0.2 degree/hour. The results obtained by elastic analysis, limit analysis and viscoplastic analysis are compared. The reference stress methods is reliable for the determination of structure dimensioning and is less expensive than the viscoplastic analysis. 35 drawings and 19 tables are given

  2. Determination of reference data of REB diodes by using a numerical method for different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, some reference data of a REB diode are presented functionally. These given characteristics are consisted of the computational results. Generally the numerical scheme depends upon the essential parameters of the charged transmission line and Child-Langmuir's diode model. By this system, further the correlation functions, some other definite functions such as the voltage of transmission line Vsub(L)(t), the diode voltage Vsub(d)(t), the diode current Isub(d)(t), the diode impedance Rsub(d)(t), the diode input power Wsub(d)(t), the dissipated energy Usub(d)(t), the efficiency phi, the beam density nsub(b)(t), the relativistic beam energy Usub(b)(t), and the intrinsic impedance Zsub(int)(t) have also been investigated. (author)

  3. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application: Hemken - Abbott (2015) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim for this testing is to find a small panel of biomarkers (n=2-5) that can be tested on the Abbott ARCHITECT automated immunoassay platform for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This panel of biomarkers should perform significantly better than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) alone based on multivariate statistical analysis. This testing of the EDRN reference set will help expedite the selection of a small panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. The panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers Abbott plans to test include: AFP, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), golgi protein 73 (GP73), hepatocellular growth factor (HGF), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4/seprase (surface expressed protease) heterodimer hybrid. PIVKA-II is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin (DCP) present in vitamin K deficiency.

  4. Liver Full Reference Set Application :Timothy Block - Drexel Univ (2010) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this application is to determine if the levels of serum GP73 and fucosylated kininogen/acute phase proteins can be used to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the background of liver cirrhosis. The use of the validation set would allow us to directly compare GP73 and fucosylated markers against AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP as well as test them in combination with these markers

  5. Bumpy Application of Utility Code for Genomic Inventions: With Special Reference to Express Sequence Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sreenivasa Murthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomics, a new bough of biotechnology responsible for gene mapping has acquired a rapid significance in the field of patents. Brisk growth of patent filing in genomic subject matter is raising serious concerns about their utility from the perspective of societal benefit. Though the genomic related patent application qualifies the criterion of invention and non-obviousness in major instances, the inventors are unable to satisfy the utility criterion. Some instances such as patent application for ESTs have no utility at all. The patent regulators constructed various tests to deal with the situation such as specificity, substantiality (real world credibility tests etc. Hoverer, it is noteworthy that an attempt to uniform the standard of utility test for genomic inventions especially in the field of ESTs, cloning and creation of chimeras, has been made by America and Europe through specific regulations. Thus, the objective of this paper is firstly, to explain the importance of biotechnology and genomic inventions for mankind and significance of ESTs for future research. Secondly, to analyze the application of Utility code prior to the emergence of Utility code in America and Europe. Thirdly to scrutinize the Utility code in both countries and their implication on aftermath cases, and. fourthly and finally, to critically evaluate the both countries utility pathways in the light of societal benefit.

  6. Reference database of hypervariable genetic markers of Argentina: application for molecular anthropology and forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, A; Penacino, G; Carnese, R; Corach, D

    1999-06-01

    The population of Argentina is mostly composed of people of European ancestry. Aboriginal communities are at present very reduced in number and restricted to small geographically isolated patches. Three aboriginal communities, the Mapuche, Tehuelche and Wichi, were selected for short tandem repeat (STR) investigation. The metropolitan population of the city of Buenos Aires was analyzed, with both micro- and minisatellites. The minisatellite loci D1S7, D2S44, D4S139, D5S110, D8S358, D10S28, and D17S26 were typed on HaeIII-digested DNA obtained from unrelated individuals. D1S80 was typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The autosomal STRs THO1, FABP, D6S366, CSF1PO, TPOX, F13A1, FES/FPS, vWA, MBPA/B, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, and RENA4 and the sex chromosome STRs HPRTB, DYS385, DYS3891, DYS38911, DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and YCAII were also investigated. As a by-product of our investigations, a reference database was created that is routinely used in forensic casework and paternity testing. STR allele frequency distributions are characterized by significant differences within and also between different populations. In contrast, the minisatellite bin distribution of the metropolitan population is not significantly different from other Caucasian populations.

  7. MSA Bladder Reference Set Application: Charles Rosser-Hawaii (2014) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this proposal is straightforward. We wish to assay in a discovery set, reference set from EDRN, both PAI-1 and ANG promoters and genes for mutations. Then the results will be confirmed in a test cohort comprised of DNA extracted from fresh frozen tissue (n = 80 BCa patients). DNA from matching buffy coat from these 80 patients will serve as control. Extracted RNA can be assessed for difference in transcription. Furthermore, matched voided urine samples from these 80 patients are available to assess protein levels of PAI-1 and ANG by ELISA in addition to assessing activity of PAI-1 and ANG. At the end, we will link any genetic alteration with changes in RNA, protein and protein activity level as well as clinical features (e.g., age, race, tobacco history, grade, stage and outcomes). This comprehensive study will allow us with certainty to state if there are mutations in the promoters and genes of PAI-1 and ANG that are functional and thus may lead to the growth advantage that we previously demonstrated in our experiments.

  8. Liver Full Reference Set Application: Hiro Yamada - Wako (2011) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako has received new 510(k) clearance for Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) tests on an innovative μTASWako i30 analyzer from FDA. The AFP-L3 and DCP assayed on an older platform LiBASys have been cleared with indication of use for risk assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patient at risk for the liver malignancy. Wako believes that early detection of HCC is critical for improving HCC patient outcome. Therefore, Wako is currently seeking collaborative opportunities to retrospectively measure clinical samples using the AFP-L3 and DCP for further determining of effectiveness of the HCC biomarkers in early detection which are collected prospectively during HCC surveillance. The Reference Sample Set in the EDRN biorepository are well characterized and studied. Access to these samples would allow Wako to quickly determine the clinical effectiveness of AFP-L3 and DCP in detecting early HCC

  9. TELEPERM XS: I and C systems for safety application in NPP's - features, developments, references and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of digital I and C AREVA NP is focused on concepts that on the one hand make allowance for development cycles getting shorter in the technology competition and on the other hand assure a long-term system support with the ability to deliver spare parts in the long run. The system platform TELEPERM XS, which was developed especially for safety I and C application of nuclear power plants, meets requirements effectively and thus provides a great benefit for the customer. The typical applications of TELEPERM XS are in the field of Reactor Protection and ESFAS functions (Engineered Safety Features Actuation System). High demands are defined for system reliability and availability, as well as for failure prevention and tolerance. The requirements of corresponding international codes and standards of nuclear installations are also implemented in the development and engineering processes of TELEPERM XS. The system platform is integrated into a sustainable program for service life management of electronic systems and equipment. Its ongoing future-oriented development ensures the long-term availability of hardware and software components for installed TELEPERM XS applications already installed in the plants. The further development of platform and components continues to be based on the robust, service-proven TELEPERM XS architecture, with the aim of minimizing the risks associated with equipment qualification and project licensing. A further development feature is the completion and extension of TELEPERM XS applications. This continuous innovation process, combined with maximized compatibility, makes TELEPERM XS unique, and provides the basis for a sustainable system with a service life guaranteed for the long term. Within the past 10 years, the majority of all comprehensive modernization projects worldwide were implemented or are contracted using TELEPERM XS. TELEPERM XS has been implemented in two new nuclear power plants and there are orders for four more

  10. Teledetection passive et processus decisionnel a reference spatiale: Application a l'aquaculture en milieu marin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbane, Mohamed

    L'objectif de cette etude est d'elaborer un processus decisionnel a reference spatiale (PDRS) pour la mariculture. Le PDRS est applique aux eaux cotieres de la baie des Chaleurs, dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent (Canada). Une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole, d'une limite de resolution spatiale de 1 kmsp2, est produite avec des parametres du niveau 1. Ces parametres englobent la temperature de l'eau de surface, extraite des images AVHRR, la salinite, les courants ainsi que les pigments chlorophylliens, quantifies a l'aide de mesures in situ. Les images AVHRR, prises en 1994, ont ete utiliees comme reference primaire pour selectionner des aires pouvant supporter une activite maricole sur la cote nord de la baie des Chaleurs. La temperature de surface extraite de ces images permet une analyse mesoechelle a la fois qualitative et quantitative des processus cotiers observes pendant la periode d'acquisition des donnees. Les autres donnees, soit la salinite, les courants et les concentrations en pigments chlorophylliens, sont analysees de facon a identifier la variabilite spatio-temporelle des caracteristiques des eaux de surface. L'ensemble des informations permet de produire une carte preliminaire regionale d'indices du potentiel maricole de la partie centrale de la baie des Chaleurs. Selon cet indice (defini entre 0 et 1), le secteur de potentiel aquicole de 0,5 a 0,75 s'etend sur une superficie d'environ 300 kmsp2. La localisation de cette aire potentielle est en accord avec les fortes concentrations en pigments chlrophylliens, presentant des conditions environnementales ideales a une haute productivite biologique. Par la suite la carte preliminaire est modifiee en tenant compte des parametres du niveau 2. Ces parametres sont la geomorphologie littorale, la bathymetrie, les sediments en suspension, les vents, les vagues, le debit d'eau douce, la glace marine, le carbone organique dissous, les aires de peche et les sources de pollution. Ces

  11. A first reference dataset for the evaluation of geometric correction methods under the scope of remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Teodoro, Ana C.; Gonçalves, José A.; Corte Real, Luís

    2011-11-01

    The geometric correction of images under the scope of remote sensing applications is still mostly a manual work. This is a time and effort consuming task associated with an intra- and inter-operator subjectivity. One of the main reasons may be the lack of a proper evaluation of the different available automatic image registration (AIR) methods, since some of them are only adequate for certain types of applications/data. In order to fulfill a gap in this context, a first reference dataset of pairs of images comprising some types of geometric distortions was created, different spatial and spectral resolutions, and divided according to the Level 1 of CORINE Land Cover nomenclature (European Environment Agency). This dataset will allow for gaining perception of the abilities and limitations of some AIR methods. Some AIR methods were evaluated in this work, including the traditional correlation-based method and the SIFT approach, for which a set of measures for an objective evaluation of the geometric correction process quality was computed for every combination of pair of images/AIR method. The reference dataset is available from an internet address, being expected that it becomes a channel of interaction among the remote sensing community interested in this field.

  12. Superconductors, analysis and applications, with special reference to the utilisation of bulk (Re)BCO materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, T. A.

    2010-11-01

    The Electrical Power and Energy Conversion (EPEC) superconductivity group at Cambridge University has been working on the application of superconductivity to large scale devices. This work is taking place over a range of areas which cover FCLs, motors and generators, SMES, accelerator magnets and MRI. The research is underpinned by advanced modelling techniques using both pure Critical State models and E- J models to analyse the behaviour of the superconductors. As part of the device design we are concentrating on the analysis of AC losses in complicated geometries such as are found in motor windings and the magnetisation of bulk superconductors to enable their full potential to be realised. We are interested in the full range of high-temperature superconductors and have measured and predicted the performance of YBCO, MgB 2 and BSCCO at a range of temperatures and in wire, tape and bulk forms. This paper concentrates on recent work which includes: modelling of coils using formulations based on H and A. A critical state model for the analysis of coils in SMES; crossed field effects in bulk superconductors; a magnetic model together with experimental results which explain and describe the method of flux pumping whereby a bulk superconductor can be magnetised to a high flux density using a repeatedly applied field of low flux density and finally a new configuration for MRI magnets

  13. Superconductors, analysis and applications, with special reference to the utilisation of bulk (Re)BCO materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.u [University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    The Electrical Power and Energy Conversion (EPEC) superconductivity group at Cambridge University has been working on the application of superconductivity to large scale devices. This work is taking place over a range of areas which cover FCLs, motors and generators, SMES, accelerator magnets and MRI. The research is underpinned by advanced modelling techniques using both pure Critical State models and E-J models to analyse the behaviour of the superconductors. As part of the device design we are concentrating on the analysis of AC losses in complicated geometries such as are found in motor windings and the magnetisation of bulk superconductors to enable their full potential to be realised. We are interested in the full range of high-temperature superconductors and have measured and predicted the performance of YBCO, MgB{sub 2} and BSCCO at a range of temperatures and in wire, tape and bulk forms. This paper concentrates on recent work which includes: modelling of coils using formulations based on H and A. A critical state model for the analysis of coils in SMES; crossed field effects in bulk superconductors; a magnetic model together with experimental results which explain and describe the method of flux pumping whereby a bulk superconductor can be magnetised to a high flux density using a repeatedly applied field of low flux density and finally a new configuration for MRI magnets

  14. Application of fundamental aquatic chemistry to the safety case and the role of thermodynamic reference data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Marcus; Gaona, Xavier; Fellhauer, David; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2015-07-01

    All national and international programs developing a Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety Case have recognized the essential requirement of assessing aqueous (radionuclide) chemistry and establishing reliable thermodynamic databases. Long-term disposal of nuclear waste in deep underground repositories is the safest option to separate highly hazardous radionuclides from the environment. In order to predict the long-term performance of a repository for different evolution scenarios, the potentially relevant specific (geo)chemical systems are analyzed. This requires a detailed understanding of solubility, speciation and thermodynamics for all relevant components including radionuclides, and the availability of reliable thermodynamic data and databases as fundamental input for integral geochemical model calculations and hence PA. Radionuclide solubility and speciation strongly depend on chemical conditions (pH, E{sub h}, matrix electrolyte system and ionic strength) with additional factors like the presence of complexing ligands or temperature further impacting solution chemistry. As the fundamental chemical key processes are known and convincingly described by general laws of nature (→ solution thermodynamics), the long-term behavior of a repository system can be analyzed over geological timescales using geochemical tools. A key application of fundamental aquatic chemistry in the Safety Case is the determination of solubility limits (radionuclide source terms). Based upon fundamental chemical information (on solid phases, complexation reactions, activity coefficients, etc.), the maximum amount of radionuclides potentially dissolved in a given volume of solution and transported away from the repository, are quantified. A detailed understanding of radionuclide chemistry is also crucial for neighboring fields. For example, advanced mechanistic understanding and modeling of sorption processes at the solid liquid interphase, waste dissolution processes, secondary phase and

  15. Application of fundamental aquatic chemistry to the safety case and the role of thermodynamic reference data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All national and international programs developing a Nuclear Waste Disposal Safety Case have recognized the essential requirement of assessing aqueous (radionuclide) chemistry and establishing reliable thermodynamic databases. Long-term disposal of nuclear waste in deep underground repositories is the safest option to separate highly hazardous radionuclides from the environment. In order to predict the long-term performance of a repository for different evolution scenarios, the potentially relevant specific (geo)chemical systems are analyzed. This requires a detailed understanding of solubility, speciation and thermodynamics for all relevant components including radionuclides, and the availability of reliable thermodynamic data and databases as fundamental input for integral geochemical model calculations and hence PA. Radionuclide solubility and speciation strongly depend on chemical conditions (pH, Eh, matrix electrolyte system and ionic strength) with additional factors like the presence of complexing ligands or temperature further impacting solution chemistry. As the fundamental chemical key processes are known and convincingly described by general laws of nature (→ solution thermodynamics), the long-term behavior of a repository system can be analyzed over geological timescales using geochemical tools. A key application of fundamental aquatic chemistry in the Safety Case is the determination of solubility limits (radionuclide source terms). Based upon fundamental chemical information (on solid phases, complexation reactions, activity coefficients, etc.), the maximum amount of radionuclides potentially dissolved in a given volume of solution and transported away from the repository, are quantified. A detailed understanding of radionuclide chemistry is also crucial for neighboring fields. For example, advanced mechanistic understanding and modeling of sorption processes at the solid liquid interphase, waste dissolution processes, secondary phase and solid

  16. Applications of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Supporting Mission Site Selection for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. One new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005 is the 'auxiliary profile' option. In this option, an input file of temperature and density versus altitude is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5)model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer(TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components,averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree L(s) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  17. APPLICABILITY OF kDNA-PCR FOR ROUTINE DIAGNOSIS OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN A TERTIARY REFERENCE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela M. Satow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study evaluated the applicability of kDNA-PCR as a prospective routine diagnosis method for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in patients from the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas (IIER, a reference center for infectious diseases in São Paulo - SP, Brazil. The kDNA-PCR method detected Leishmania DNA in 87.5% (112/128 of the clinically suspected ATL patients, while the traditional methods demonstrated the following percentages of positivity: 62.8% (49/78 for the Montenegro skin test, 61.8% (47/76 for direct investigation, and 19.3% (22/114 for in vitro culture. The molecular method was able to confirm the disease in samples considered negative or inconclusive by traditional laboratory methods, contributing to the final clinical diagnosis and therapy of ATL in this hospital. Thus, we strongly recommend the inclusion of kDNA-PCR amplification as an alternative diagnostic method for ATL, suggesting a new algorithm routine to be followed to help the diagnosis and treatment of ATL in IIER.

  18. Applicability of kDNA-PCR for routine diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a tertiary reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, Marcela M; Yamashiro-Kanashiro, Edite H; Rocha, Mussya C; Oyafuso, Luiza K; Soler, Rita C; Cotrim, Paulo C; Lindoso, José Angelo L

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of kDNA-PCR as a prospective routine diagnosis method for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in patients from the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas (IIER), a reference center for infectious diseases in São Paulo - SP, Brazil. The kDNA-PCR method detected Leishmania DNA in 87.5% (112/128) of the clinically suspected ATL patients, while the traditional methods demonstrated the following percentages of positivity: 62.8% (49/78) for the Montenegro skin test, 61.8% (47/76) for direct investigation, and 19.3% (22/114) for in vitro culture. The molecular method was able to confirm the disease in samples considered negative or inconclusive by traditional laboratory methods, contributing to the final clinical diagnosis and therapy of ATL in this hospital. Thus, we strongly recommend the inclusion of kDNA-PCR amplification as an alternative diagnostic method for ATL, suggesting a new algorithm routine to be followed to help the diagnosis and treatment of ATL in IIER.

  19. Application of reference point indentation for micro-mechanical surface characterization of calcium silicate based dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijević, Djordje; Milovanović, Petar; Riedel, Christoph; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Busse, Björn; Djurić, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate micromechanical properties of Biodentine and two experimental calcium silicate cements (CSCs) using Reference Point Indentation (RPI). Biomechanical characteristics of the cement type and the effects of a radiopacifier, liquid components, acid etching treatment and bioactivation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated by measuring the microhardness, average unloading slope (Avg US) and indentation distance increase (IDI). Biodentine had a greater microhardness than the experimental CSCs, while the Avg US and IDI values were not significantly different among investigated materials. There was a statistically significant difference in microhardness and IDI values between pure CSCs and radiopacified cements (p < 0.05). Micromechanical properties were not affected by different liquid components used. Acid-etching treatment reduced Biodentine's microhardness while cements' immersion in SBF resulted in greater microhardness and higher IDI values compared to the control group. Clearly, the physiological environment and the cements' composition affect their surface micromechanical properties. The addition of calcium chloride and CSCs' immersion in SBF are beneficial for CSCs' micromechanical performance, while the addition of radiopacifiers and acid etching treatment weaken the CSCs' surface. Application of RPI aids with the characterization of micromechanical properties of synthetic materials' surfaces. PMID:26888441

  20. Development of high temperature reference electrodes for in-pile application: Part I. Feasibility study of the external pressure balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode (EPBRE) and the cathodically charged Palladium hydrogen electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.W.; Van Nieuwenhove, R

    1998-10-01

    The main problems connected with corrosion potential measurements at elevated temperatures and pressures are related to the stability and lifetime of the reference electrode and the correct estimation of the potential related to the Standard Hydrogen Scale (SHE). Under Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) conditions of 300 degrees Celsius and 150 bar, the choice of materials is also a limiting factor due to the influence of radiation. Investigations on two reference electrodes that can be used under PWR conditions are reported: the cathodically charged palladium hydrogen electrode, and the external pressure balanced silver/silver chloride electrode. Preliminary investigations with the Pd-electrode were focused on the calculation of the required charging time and the influence of dissolved oxygen. High temperature applications are discussed on the basis of results reported in the literature. Investigations with the silver/silver chloride reference electrode mainly dealt with the salt bridge which is necessary to connect the reference electrode with the testing solution. It is shown that the thermal junction potential is independent of the length of the salt bridge. In addition, the high temperature contributes to an increase of the conductivity of the solution, which is beneficial for the salt bridge connection.

  1. Development of high temperature reference electrodes for in-pile application: Part I. Feasibility study of the external pressure balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode (EPBRE) and the cathodically charged Palladium hydrogen electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problems connected with corrosion potential measurements at elevated temperatures and pressures are related to the stability and lifetime of the reference electrode and the correct estimation of the potential related to the Standard Hydrogen Scale (SHE). Under Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) conditions of 300 degrees Celsius and 150 bar, the choice of materials is also a limiting factor due to the influence of radiation. Investigations on two reference electrodes that can be used under PWR conditions are reported: the cathodically charged palladium hydrogen electrode, and the external pressure balanced silver/silver chloride electrode. Preliminary investigations with the Pd-electrode were focused on the calculation of the required charging time and the influence of dissolved oxygen. High temperature applications are discussed on the basis of results reported in the literature. Investigations with the silver/silver chloride reference electrode mainly dealt with the salt bridge which is necessary to connect the reference electrode with the testing solution. It is shown that the thermal junction potential is independent of the length of the salt bridge. In addition, the high temperature contributes to an increase of the conductivity of the solution, which is beneficial for the salt bridge connection

  2. Real-time virtual reference service based on applicable artificial intelligence technologies:The début of the robot Xiaotu at Tsinghua University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; YAO; Lei; JI; Chengyu; ZHANG; Wu; CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of applicable artificial intelligence technologies to library real-time virtual reference services is an innovative experimentation in one of the key areas of library services.Based on the open source software Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity(A.L.I.C.E.)and a combined application of several other relevant supporting technologies for facilitating the use of the current existing library resources,Tsinghua University Library has recently developed a real-time smart talking robot,named Xiaotu,for the enhancement of its various service functions,such as reference services,book searching,Baidu Baike searching,self-directed learning,etc.The operation of Xiaotu is programmed into Renren website(a social networking website),which adds significantly an innovative feature to the modus operandi of the real-time virtual reference service at Tsinghua University Library.

  3. Implicit reference-based group-wise image registration and its application to structural and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Christensen, Gary E; Gu, Hong; Ross, Thomas J; Yang, Yihong

    2009-10-01

    In this study, an implicit reference group-wise (IRG) registration with a small deformation, linear elastic model was used to jointly estimate correspondences between a set of MRI images. The performance of pair-wise and group-wise registration algorithms was evaluated for spatial normalization of structural and functional MRI data. Traditional spatial normalization is accomplished by group-to-reference (G2R) registration in which a group of images are registered pair-wise to a reference image. G2R registration is limited due to bias associated with selecting a reference image. In contrast, implicit reference group-wise (IRG) registration estimates correspondences between a group of images by jointly registering the images to an implicit reference corresponding to the group average. The implicit reference is estimated during IRG registration eliminating the bias associated with selecting a specific reference image. Registration performance was evaluated using segmented T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from the Nonrigid Image Registration Evaluation Project (NIREP), DTI and fMRI images. Implicit reference pair-wise (IRP) registration-a special case of IRG registration for two images-is shown to produce better relative overlap than IRG for pair-wise registration using the same small deformation, linear elastic registration model. However, IRP-G2R registration is shown to have significant transitivity error, i.e., significant inconsistencies between correspondences defined by different pair-wise transformations. In contrast, IRG registration produces consistent correspondence between images in a group at the cost of slightly reduced pair-wise RO accuracy compared to IRP-G2R. IRG spatial normalization of the fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of DTI is shown to have smaller FA variance compared with G2R methods using the same elastic registration model. Analyses of fMRI data sets with sensorimotor and visual tasks show that IRG registration, on average, increases the

  4. 37 CFR 1.78 - Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-filed application must name as an inventor at least one inventor named in the later-filed application and disclose the named inventor's invention claimed in at least one claim of the later-filed... provisional applications, each prior-filed provisional application must name as an inventor at least...

  5. Reference Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  6. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  7. VizBin: an application for reference-independent visualization and human-augmented binning of metagenomic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laczny, C.C.; Sternal, T.; Plugaru, V.; Gawron, P.; Atashpendar, A.; Margossian, H.H.; Coronado, S.; Van der Maaten, L.J.M.; Vlassis, N.; Wilmes, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metagenomics is limited in its ability to link distinct microbial populations to genetic potential due to a current lack of representative isolate genome sequences. Reference-independent approaches, which exploit for example inherent genomic signatures for the clustering of metagenomic f

  8. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    OpenAIRE

    F. C. Sperna Weiland; C. Tisseuil; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time se...

  9. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Eckerman, Keith F; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on `Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures', provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantit...

  10. Reference signal extraction from corrupted ECG using wavelet decomposition for MRI sequence triggering: application to small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataillard Alain

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Present developments in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR imaging techniques strive for improved spatial and temporal resolution performances. However, trying to achieve the shortest gradient rising time with high intensity gradients has its drawbacks: It generates high amplitude noises that get superimposed on the simultaneously recorded electrophysiological signals, needed to synchronize moving organ images. Consequently, new strategies have to be developed for processing these collected signals during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI examinations. The aim of this work is to extract an efficient reference signal, from an electrocardiogram (ECG that was contaminated by the NMR artefacts. This may be used for image triggering and/or cardiac rhythm monitoring. Methods Our method, based on sub-band decomposition using wavelet filters, is tested on various ECG signals recorded during three imaging sequences: Gradient Echo (GE, Fast Spin Echo (FSE and Inversion Recovery with Spin Echo (IRSE. In order to define the most adapted wavelet functions to use according to the excitation protocols, noise generated by each imaging sequence is recorded and analysed. After exploring noise models along with information found in the literature, a group of 14 wavelets, members of three families (Daubechies, Coiflets, Symlets, is selected for the study. The extraction process is carried out by decomposing the contaminated ECG signals into 8 scales using a given wavelet function, then combining the sub-bands necessary for cardiac synchronization, i.e. those containing the essential part of the QRS energy, to construct a reference signal. Results The efficiency of the presented method has been tested on a group of quite representative signals containing: highly contaminated (mean SNR Conclusion Sub-band decomposition proved to be very suitable for extracting a reference signal from a corrupted ECG for MRI triggering. An appropriate choice of the

  11. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry. (paper)

  12. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D.; Wang, M.; Liu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  13. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on host-parasite relationships, with special reference to larval trematodes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on various host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and their intermediate and definite hosts is reviewed. Such studies comprise, for example, the reproduction and nutrition of various developmental stages of trematodes in relation to host and environment. The preparation and application of radiolabelled larvae are also discussed with special emphasis on their use in studies on free-living ecology and migration in hosts. (author)

  14. A Survey of Noncooperative Game Theory with Reference to Agricultural Markets: Part 2. Potential Applications in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part survey on noncooperative game theory relevant to agricultural markets. Part 1 of the survey focused on important game theory concepts, while this paper illustrates applications of the theory to agricultural markets. Game theory is relevant when markets are imperfectly competitive, and this paper argues that this condition is commonly met in agriculture. Specific topics of application include principal-agent models, auctions, and bargaining.

  15. Application of the Böhm chamber for reference beta dose measurements and the calibration of personal dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubacz Krystian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs currently used in personal and area dosimetry are often utilized to measure doses of ionizing radiation in fields with a more complex structure and therefore they should be calibrated in relation to different radiation types. The results of such calibration presented for UD-813 TLDs allowed for evaluation of their capability in relation to different radiation types like the beta and photon radiation of different energies and neutron radiation generated by the 241Am-Be source. The detector response for 60 keV photons was 10% higher than for the 662 keV gamma radiation of 137Cs. There were also response differences in relation to photon and beta radiation between detectors with an enhanced concentration of lithium 6Li and boron 10B and detectors containing a natural level of these isotopes. Measurements of the reference beta doses were performed with the help of the Böhm chamber. This method is relatively more complicated compared to determining the reference photon and neutron doses and is described thoroughly in this paper. The corrected current measured by the Böhm chamber for the chosen parameters was a linear function for an entire available range of the chamber depths. The percentage of errors related to the evaluated reference beta doses were below 2% despite a rather large number of corrections that should be taken into account. The calibration distances varied from 11 cm to 50 cm. For this range and beta particle energy, the absorption of radiation in the air was negligible and their attenuation had a predominantly geometric character.

  16. Effects of re-application of nitrogen fertilizer on forest soil-water chemistry, with special reference to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greatly increased concentration of cadmium was found in soil water following the application of nitrogen fertilizer. Our study was conducted at an experimental site in the western part of central Sweden. Prior to this, the area had been used to study the effects of the repeated application of fertilizer, under different regimes, on forest production. In this experiment, we examined the residual effects of previous nitrogen fertilizer application regimes on soil-water chemistry, following a final, additional fertilizer application. Soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at a depth of 50 cm. However, due to the failure of the lysimeters at two of the study plots, the differences between fertilizer regimes could not be evaluated. Instead, we focused on changes in the solubility of cadmium and aluminium caused by soil-water acidification due to the re-application of nitrogen fertilizer. Every fourth or eighth year, between 1981 and 1997, the study plots received 150 kg N ha-1, in the form of ammonium nitrate (AN) and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). The effects of the final fertilizer application (CAN) were studied. Application of nitrogen fertilizer resulted in a rapid increase in NO3- concentration in soil-water, and a decrease in pH. The increased soil-water acidity resulted in some metals becoming more soluble and occurring in higher concentrations within the soil water. The increase in concentration of some toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, was of concern. The highest measured cadmium concentration was 2.7 μg l-1, compared to the government health limit of 5 μg l-1 for drinking water. The cadmium detected must originate from the soil since it was not present in the nitrogen fertilizer. Cadmium is highly toxic to both animals and plants, and knowledge of its occurrence, in relation to various silvicultural operations, is of great importance

  17. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  18. MEMS based reference oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Hedestig, Joel

    2005-01-01

    The interest in tiny wireless applications raises the demand for an integrated reference oscillator with the same performance as the macroscopic quartz crystal reference oscillators. The main challenge of the thesis is to prove that it is possible to build a MEMS based oscillator that approaches the accuracy level of existing quartz crystal oscillators. The MEMS resonator samples which Philips provides are measured and an equivalent electrical model is designed for them. This model is used in...

  19. ICRP Publication 116—the first ICRP/ICRU application of the male and female adult reference computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Bolch, Wesley E.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Endo, Akira; Hertel, Nolan; Hunt, John; Menzel, Hans G.; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Zankl, Maria

    2014-09-01

    ICRP Publication 116 on ‘Conversion coefficients for radiological protection quantities for external radiation exposures’, provides fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for organ-absorbed doses and effective dose for various types of external exposures (ICRP 2010 ICRP Publication 116). The publication supersedes the ICRP Publication 74 (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74, ICRU 1998 ICRU Report 57), including new particle types and expanding the energy ranges considered. The coefficients were calculated using the ICRP/ICRU computational phantoms (ICRP 2009 ICRP Publication 110) representing the reference adult male and reference adult female (ICRP 2002 ICRP Publication 89), together with a variety of Monte Carlo codes simulating the radiation transport in the body. Idealized whole-body irradiation from unidirectional and rotational parallel beams as well as isotropic irradiation was considered for a large variety of incident radiations and energy ranges. Comparison of the effective doses with operational quantities revealed that the latter quantities continue to provide a good approximation of effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons for the ‘conventional’ energy ranges considered previously (ICRP 1996, ICRU 1998), but not at the higher energies of ICRP Publication 116.

  20. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  1. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  2. Laser Frequency Stabilization for Coherent Lidar Applications using Novel All-Fiber Gas Reference Cell Fabrication Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meras, Patrick, Jr.; Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Chang, Daniel H.; Levin, Jason; Spiers, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Compact hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF)gas frequency reference cell was constructed using a novel packaging technique that relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to a mechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers. The use of this gas cell for laser frequency stabilization was demonstrated by locking a tunable diode laser to the center of the P9 line from the (nu)1+(nu)3 band of acetylene with RMS frequency error of 2.06 MHz over 2 hours. This effort was performed in support of a task to miniaturize the laser frequency stabilization subsystem of JPL/LMCT Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS) instrument.

  3. Analysis of laser shock experiments on precompressed samples using a quartz reference and application to warm dense hydrogen and helium

    CERN Document Server

    Brygoo, Stephanie; Loubeyre, Paul; Lazicki, Amy E; Hamel, Sebastien; Qi, Tingting; Celliers, Peter M; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H; Fratanduono, Dayne E; Hicks, Damien G; Rygg, J Ryan; Smith, Raymond F; Swift, Damian C; Collins, Gilbert W; Jeanloz, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Megabar (1 Mbar = 100 GPa) laser shocks on precompressed samples allow reaching unprecedented high densities and moderately high 10000-100000K temperatures. We describe here a complete analysis framework for the velocimetry (VISAR) and pyrometry (SOP) data produced in these experiments. Since the precompression increases the initial density of both the sample of interest and the quartz reference for pressure-density, reflectivity and temperature measurements, we describe analytical corrections based on available experimental data on warm dense silica and density-functional-theory based molecular dynamics computer simulations. Using our improved analysis framework we report a re-analysis of previously published data on warm dense hydrogen and helium, compare the newly inferred pressure, density and temperature data with most advanced equation of state models and provide updated reflectivity values.

  4. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  5. Arsenic fractionation by sequential extractions in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples: Applicability and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreweghe, S. van; Swennen, R. [Fysico-Chemische Geologie, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Availability mobility (phyto)toxycity and potential risk of contaminants is strongly affected by the manner of appearance of elements, the so-called speciation. Operational fractionation methods like sequential extractions have been applied for a long time to determine the solid phase speciation of heavy metals since direct determination of specific chemical compounds can not always be easily achieved. The aim of this research was to assess the applicability of sequential extractions on highly contaminated soils where arsenic is also present as discrete As-bearing minerals. Sequential extractions are mostly developed to fractionate heavy metals occurring in trace amounts and their applicability on highly contaminated samples remains insufficiently studied. There was, furthermore, a need to evaluate sequential extraction schemes specifically focussing on metalloid element extraction such as arsenic. (orig.)

  6. Relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method using open-shell reference wavefunction: Application to ionization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Himadri; Sasmal, Sudip; Nayak, Malaya K; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2016-08-21

    The open-shell reference relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method within its four-component description is successfully implemented with the consideration of single- and double- excitation approximations using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. At the first attempt, the implemented method is employed to calculate ionization potential value of heavy atomic (Ag, Cs, Au, Fr, and Lr) and molecular (HgH and PbF) systems, where the effect of relativity does really matter to obtain highly accurate results. Not only the relativistic effect but also the effect of electron correlation is crucial in these heavy atomic and molecular systems. To justify the fact, we have taken two further approximations in the four-component relativistic equation-of-motion framework to quantify how the effect of electron correlation plays a role in the calculated values at different levels of theory. All these calculated results are compared with the available experimental data as well as with other theoretically calculated values to judge the extent of accuracy obtained in our calculations. PMID:27544090

  7. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  8. Surface and bulk characterization of an ultrafine South African coal fly ash with reference to polymer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, E. M.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Mathebula, C. L.; Swart, H. C.; Coetsee, E.; Doucet, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    South African coal-fired power stations produce about 25 million tons of fly ash per annum, of which only approximately 5% is currently reused. A growing concern about pollution and increasing landfill costs stimulates research into new ways to utilize coal fly ash for economically beneficial applications. Fly ash particles may be used as inorganic filler in polymers, an application which generally requires the modification of their surface properties. In order to design experiments that will result in controlled changes in surface chemistry and morphology, a detailed knowledge of the bulk chemical and mineralogical compositions of untreated fly ash particles, as well as their morphology and surface properties, is needed. In this paper, a combination of complementary bulk and surface techniques was explored to assess the physicochemical properties of a classified, ultrafine coal fly ash sample, and the findings were discussed in the context of polymer application as fillers. The sample was categorized as a Class F fly ash (XRF). Sixty-two percent of the sample was an amorphous glass phase, with mullite and quartz being the main identified crystalline phases (XRD, FTIR). Quantitative carbon and sulfur analysis reported a total bulk carbon and sulfur content of 0.37% and 0.16% respectively. The spatial distribution of the phases was determined by 2D mapping of Raman spectra, while TGA showed a very low weight loss for temperatures ranging between 25 and 1000 °C. Individual fly ash particles were characterized by a monomodal size distribution (PSD) of spherical particles with smooth surfaces (SEM, TEM, AFM), and a mean particle size of 4.6 μm (PSD). The BET active surface area of this sample was 1.52 m2/g and the chemical composition of the fly ash surface (AES, XPS) was significantly different from the bulk composition and varied considerably between spheres. Many properties of the sample (e.g. spherical morphology, small particle size, thermal stability) appeared

  9. Summary report of second research coordination meeting on parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear application (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a review of the various work undertaken by participants. The new RIPL-3 library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Significant progress was achieved in defining the contents of the RIPL-3 library. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' summary reports at the RCM are also included in this report. (author)

  10. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, G. van

    1995-01-01

    Python is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not describe the

  11. Simultaneous determination of Si, Al and Na concentrations by particle induced gamma-ray emission and applications to reference materials and ceramic archaeological artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, K.B. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam 530045 (India); Chhillar, S. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Acharya, R., E-mail: racharya@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ray, D.K.; Behera, A. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Lakshmana Das, N. [GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam 530045 (India); Pujari, P.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-11-15

    A particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) method using 4 MeV proton beam was standardized for simultaneous determination of Si, Al and Na concentrations and has been applied for non-destructive analysis of several reference materials and archaeological clay pottery samples. Current normalized count rates of gamma-rays for the three elements listed above were obtained by an in situ method using Li as internal standard. The paper presents application of the in situ current normalized PIGE method for grouping study of 39 clay potteries, obtained from Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh states of India. Grouping of artifacts was carried out using the ratios of SiO{sub 2} to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, due to their non volatile nature. Powder samples and elemental standards in pellet forms (cellulose matrix) were irradiated using the 4 MeV proton beam (∼10 nA) from the 3 MV tandem accelerator at IOP Bhubaneswar, and assay of prompt gamma rays was carried out using a 60% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. The concentration ratio values of SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicated that pottery samples fell into two major groups, which are in good agreement with their collection areas. Reference materials from IAEA and NIST were analyzed for quantification of Si, Al and Na concentrations as a part of validation as well as application of PIGE method.

  12. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  13. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: a comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mascher

    Full Text Available The rapid development of next-generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach for whole-genome marker profiling in many species. With quickly developing sequencing technologies, adapting current GBS methodologies to new platforms will leverage these advancements for future studies. To test new semiconductor sequencing platforms for GBS, we genotyped a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Based on a previous GBS approach, we designed bar code and adapter sets for the Ion Torrent platforms. Four sets of 24-plex libraries were constructed consisting of 94 RILs and the two parents and sequenced on two Ion platforms. In parallel, a 96-plex library of the same RILs was sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We applied two different computational pipelines to analyze sequencing data; the reference-independent TASSEL pipeline and a reference-based pipeline using SAMtools. Sequence contigs positioned on the integrated physical and genetic map were used for read mapping and variant calling. We found high agreement in genotype calls between the different platforms and high concordance between genetic and reference-based marker order. There was, however, paucity in the number of SNP that were jointly discovered by the different pipelines indicating a strong effect of alignment and filtering parameters on SNP discovery. We show the utility of the current barley genome assembly as a framework for developing very low-cost genetic maps, facilitating high resolution genetic mapping and negating the need for developing de novo genetic maps for future studies in barley. Through demonstration of GBS on semiconductor sequencing platforms, we conclude that the GBS approach is amenable to a range of platforms and can easily be modified as new

  14. Development and field application of a nonlinear ultrasonic modulation technique for fatigue crack detection without reference data from an intact condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yongtak; Koo, Gunhee; Yang, Suyoung; Sohn, Hoon; Bae, In-hwan; Jang, Jeong-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a fatigue crack detection technique, which detects a fatigue crack without relying on any reference data obtained from the intact condition of a target structure, is developed using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation and applied to a real bridge structure. Using two wafer-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers, ultrasonic excitations at two distinctive frequencies are applied to a target inspection spot and the corresponding ultrasonic response is measured by another PZT transducer. Then, the nonlinear modulation components produced by a breathing-crack are extracted from the measured ultrasonic response, and a statistical classifier, which can determine if the nonlinear modulation components are statistically significant in comparison with the background noise level, is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed fatigue crack detection technique is experimentally validated using the data obtained from aluminum plates and aircraft fitting-lug specimens under varying temperature and loading conditions, and through a field testing of Yeongjong Grand Bridge in South Korea. The uniqueness of this study lies in that (1) detection of a micro fatigue crack with less than 1 μm width and fatigue cracks in the range of 10-20 μm in width using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation, (2) automated detection of fatigue crack formation without using reference data obtained from an intact condition, (3) reliable and robust diagnosis under varying temperature and loading conditions, (4) application of a local fatigue crack detection technique to online monitoring of a real bridge.

  15. Aplicação das Dietary Reference Intakes na avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes para indivíduos Application of Dietary Reference Intakes for assessment of individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do estado nutricional é uma das práticas clínicas fundamentais para tomar-se a decisão quanto ao diagnóstico nutricional de um indivíduo e à conduta dietética a ser-lhe prescrita. A adequação da ingestão de nutrientes é um dos componentes da avaliação nutricional e é feita a partir de valores de referência que se constituem em estimativas das necessidades fisiológicas desses nutrientes e metas de ingestão dos mesmos. Colocam-se hoje à disposição dos profissionais um novo conjunto de valores de referência que constituem um avanço importante no modo de interpretar a adequação dietética: as Dietary Reference Intakes. Este artigo aborda os métodos propostos para avaliação da adequação da ingestão de nutriente às necessidades do indivíduo, utilizando os novos valores de referências.The nutritional status assessment is one of the fundamental clinical approaches in making a decision about nutritional diagnosis and dietetic behavior, in order to prescribe an adequate diet therapy. The evaluation of nutrient intakes is a component of the nutritional assessment and it is made from estimates of nutrient physiological needs and goals for good nutrition, known as reference values. A new group of reference values is recently available for health professionals: the Dietary Reference Intakes, which represent an important progress in the field of dietary assessment interpretation. This paper discusses the proposed methods for the individual nutrient intake assessment, using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

  16. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  17. Nuclear Science References Database

    OpenAIRE

    PRITYCHENKO B.; Běták, E.; B. Singh; Totans, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance...

  18. Python library reference

    OpenAIRE

    Rossum, van, M.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Python is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not describe the standard library that is distributed with the language, and which greatly enhances its immediate usability. This library contains built-in modules (written in C) that provide access to system funct...

  19. Reference to Galery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is told about some aspects of the application of military rowing vessels, composition and rules the formation of the command of rowers, special features of the organization of their work on bringing of ship into the motion, is analyzed the influence of the practice of use reference to gallery of the condemned criminals to entire legislation of this country.

  20. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  1. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  2. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2012-03-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and

  3. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  4. Development of molecular closures for the reference interaction site model theory with application to square-well and Lennard-Jones homonuclear diatomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaò, Gianmarco; Costa, Dino; Caccamo, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by significant improvements obtained for the performances of the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory of the fluid phase when coupled with ‘molecular closures’ (Schweizer and Yethiraj 1993 J. Chem. Phys. 98 9053), we exploit a matrix generalization of this concept, suitable for the more general RISM framework. We report a preliminary test of the formalism, as applied to prototype square-well homonuclear diatomics. As for the structure, comparison with Monte Carlo shows that molecular closures are slightly more predictive than their ‘atomic’ counterparts, and thermodynamic properties are equally accurate. We also devise an application of molecular closures to models interacting via continuous, soft-core potentials, by using well established prescriptions in liquid state perturbation theories. In the case of Lennard-Jones dimers, our scheme definitely improves over the atomic one, providing semi-quantitative structural results, and quite good estimates of internal energy, pressure and phase coexistence. Our finding paves the way to a systematic employment of molecular closures within the RISM framework to be applied to more complex systems, such as molecules constituted by several non-equivalent interaction sites.

  5. Development of molecular closures for the reference interaction site model theory with application to square-well and Lennard-Jones homonuclear diatomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaò, Gianmarco; Costa, Dino; Caccamo, Carlo

    2016-10-19

    Inspired by significant improvements obtained for the performances of the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory of the fluid phase when coupled with 'molecular closures' (Schweizer and Yethiraj 1993 J. Chem. Phys. 98 9053), we exploit a matrix generalization of this concept, suitable for the more general RISM framework. We report a preliminary test of the formalism, as applied to prototype square-well homonuclear diatomics. As for the structure, comparison with Monte Carlo shows that molecular closures are slightly more predictive than their 'atomic' counterparts, and thermodynamic properties are equally accurate. We also devise an application of molecular closures to models interacting via continuous, soft-core potentials, by using well established prescriptions in liquid state perturbation theories. In the case of Lennard-Jones dimers, our scheme definitely improves over the atomic one, providing semi-quantitative structural results, and quite good estimates of internal energy, pressure and phase coexistence. Our finding paves the way to a systematic employment of molecular closures within the RISM framework to be applied to more complex systems, such as molecules constituted by several non-equivalent interaction sites. PMID:27548461

  6. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  7. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  8. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data for application in a hydrological model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e

  9. Transuranium reference measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 30 years of its existence, the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements has been involved in numerous high-accuracy investigations of mainly nuclear properties of elements important for the nuclear fuel cycle and for application of relevant radionuclides. This paper reports that these studies were made possible by the availability of particle accelerators (150-MeV electron linear accelerator; 3.7- and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerators) as neutron sources and the use of specialized laboratories for the preparation, characterization, and manipulation of radioactive samples. Examples of investigations with plutonium and neptunium are capture and fission cross sections of 239Pu at very low energies, spontaneous fission fragment mass and energy distributions of 242Pu at very low energies, spontaneous fission fragment mass and energy distributions of 242Pu, alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectra of 237Np, half-life of 241Pu, use of 237Np in reactor neutron dosimetry, preparation and characterization of plutonium oxide reference materials for nondestructive analysis, and demonstration of the potential of synthetic isotope mixtures for analytical control of the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Virtual reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Márdero Arellano, Miguel Ángel

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of virtual reference services, their standandars and new technologies that have changed the tradicional practice at the library’s reference desk. Major American virtual reference services initiatives and their characteristics are described.

  11. 标准物质在科研设备质量控制体系中的使用和管理%Application and Management of Reference Materials in Quality Assurance System for the Equipment of Scientific Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳艳; 何春泽; 张春霞; 程环

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the application and management of reference materials in the whole quality assurance system for the equipment of scientific research was described. The problems at the present stage of the reference materials for the equipment of scientific research were pointed out, and the corresponding solutions were proposed.%阐述了标准物质的应用和管理在科研设备质量控制体系中的重要性,指出了现阶段科研设备用标准物质存在的问题,并提出了对策.

  12. National Nutrition Education Clearing House Reference List, General Teacher References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.

    References applicable to both elementary and secondary levels, as well as background information of importance to teachers in the field of nutrition and nutrition education, are included in this bibliography. Although not a comprehensive list, resources include books, pamphlets, curriculum guides, bibliographies, newsletters, article reprints, and…

  13. Application of new reference materials for the quality control of water; Aplicaciones de nuevos materiales de referencia microbiologicos al control de la calidad del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, A.; Soria, E.; Murtula, R.; Catalan, V.

    2007-07-01

    In laboratories dedicated to the quality control of water, as it occurs in the rest of assay laboratories, it is important to guarantee de validity and traceability of the generated results, and for this reason there is an increasing interest in introducing standards such as UNE-EN ISO/ICI 17025. Therefore, it is important and necessary the use of reference materials for different purposes, such as methods validation or the performance of actions based on the systematic contrast of all the activities involves in the quality control. Nevertheless, in microbiology the present offer of reference materials in very low mainly because they are very difficult to be prepared, and for this reason in this work we show our experience in the development of a new microbiological quantitative reference material, that will improve the use of microbial strains in the assay laboratories. (Author)

  14. Rational Application and Reflection of References in Thesis Writing%参考文献在论文写作中的合理应用及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆遐

    2014-01-01

    The quotations should be identified correctly by standard, scientific and reasonable method in the use of the references. This paper analyzes how to use references rationally in thesis writing, elaborates the meaning and inspection methods of the references, and provides help for thesis writing.%在参考文献的使用上,需以规范、科学、合理的方式,正确地进行引文标识。本文就在论文的写作中如何合理运用参考文献的问题进行分析,对参考文献的意义、查阅方法等问题进行阐述,为论文的写作提供一定帮助。

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic inertial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelkamp-Baker, Dan; Sebesta, Henry R.; Burkhard, Kevin

    2000-07-01

    Optical platforms increasingly require attitude knowledge and optical instrument pointing at sub-microradian accuracy. No low-cost commercial system exists to provide this level of accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control. The need for small, inexpensive inertial sensors, which may be employed in pointing control systems that are required to satisfy angular line-of-sight stabilization jitter error budgets to levels of 1-3 microradian rms and less, has existed for at least two decades. Innovations and evolutions in small, low-noise inertial angular motion sensor technology and advances in the applications of the global positioning system have converged to allow improvement in acquisition, tracking and pointing solutions for a wide variety of payloads. We are developing a small, inexpensive, and high-performance inertial attitude reference system that uses our innovative magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensor technology.

  16. Live, Digital Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  17. Fundamentals of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  18. Reference Models for Virtual Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter; Vesterager, Johan

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses different types of Reference Models (RMs) applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of virtual enterprises (VEs). RMs are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE towards a configuration task, and hence reduce the time...... needed for VE creation. The RMs are analysed through a mapping onto the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) created in the IMS GLOBEMEN project based upon GERAM.......This paper analyses different types of Reference Models (RMs) applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of virtual enterprises (VEs). RMs are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE towards a configuration task, and hence reduce the time...

  19. Numerical investigation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines: methodology development for single turbine and small array simulation, and application to flume and full-scale reference models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherchi Mozafari, Amir Teymour

    A hierarchy of numerical models, Single Rotating Reference Frame (SRF) and Blade Element Model (BEM), were used for numerical investigation of horizontal axis Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines. In the initial stage the SRF and BEM were used to simulate the performance and turbulent wake of a flume- and a full-scale MHK turbine reference model. A significant level of understanding and confidence was developed in the implementation of numerical models for simulation of a MHK turbine. This was achieved by simulation of the flume-scale turbine experiments and comparison between numerical and experimental results. Then the developed numerical methodology was applied to simulate the performance and wake of the full-scale MHK reference model (DOE Reference Model 1). In the second stage the BEM was used to simulate the experimental study of two different MHK turbine array configurations (i.e. two and three coaxial turbines). After developing a numerical methodology using the experimental comparison to simulate the flow field of a turbine array, this methodology was applied toward array optimization study of a full-scale model with the goal of proposing an optimized MHK turbine configuration with minimal computational cost and time. In the last stage the BEM was used to investigate one of the potential environmental effects of MHK turbine. A general methodological approach was developed and experimentally validated to investigate the effect of MHK turbine wake on the sedimentation process of suspended particles in a tidal channel.

  20. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Application of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry for Reference Measurements of Cadmium. Copper, Mercury, Lead, Zinc and Methyl Mercury in Marine Sediment Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileva E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediment was selected as a test sample for the laboratory inter-comparison studies organized by the Environment Laboratoryes of the International Atomic Energy. The analytical procedure to establish the reference values for the Cd, Cu, Hg, Methyl Hg, Pb and Zn amount contents was based on Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ID ICP-MS applied as a primary method of measurement..The Hg and Methyl Hg determination will be detailed more specifically because of the problems encountered with this element, including sample homogeneity issues, memory effects and possible matrix effects during the ICP- MS measurement stage. Reference values, traceable to the SI, with total uncertainties of less than 2% relative expanded uncertainty (k=2 were obtained for Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb and around 5% for Hg and CH3Hg.

  2. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  3. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices. PMID:23052591

  4. Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

    2014-07-01

    Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C. PMID:24518317

  5. Empirical Bayes accomodation of batch-effects in microarray data using identical replicate reference samples: application to RNA expression profiling of blood from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Charles E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-biological experimental error routinely occurs in microarray data collected in different batches. It is often impossible to compare groups of samples from independent experiments because batch effects confound true gene expression differences. Existing methods can correct for batch effects only when samples from all biological groups are represented in every batch. Results In this report we describe a generalized empirical Bayes approach to correct for cross-experimental batch effects, allowing direct comparisons of gene expression between biological groups from independent experiments. The proposed experimental design uses identical reference samples in each batch in every experiment. These reference samples are from the same tissue as the experimental samples. This design with tissue matched reference samples allows a gene-by-gene correction to be performed using fewer arrays than currently available methods. We examine the effects of non-biological variation within a single experiment and between experiments. Conclusion Batch correction has a significant impact on which genes are identified as differentially regulated. Using this method, gene expression in the blood of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is shown to differ for hundreds of genes when compared to controls. The numbers of specific genes differ depending upon whether between experiment and/or between batch corrections are performed.

  6. Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

    2014-07-01

    Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C.

  7. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  8. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  9. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  10. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Afsarmanesh; L.M. Camarinha-Matos; E. Ermilova

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models" fo

  11. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  12. Electrical engineering a pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This essential reference offers you a well-organized resource for accessing the basic electrical engineering knowledge you need for your work. Whether you're an experienced engineer who appreciates an occasional refresher in key areas, or a student preparing to enter the field, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference provides quick and easy access to fundamental principles and their applications. You also find an extensive collection of time-saving equations that help simplify your daily projects.Supported with more than 500 diagrams and figures, 60 tables, and an extensive index, this uniq

  13. Reference frames and refbits

    CERN Document Server

    Van Enk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.

  14. A reference-modified density functional theory: An application to solvation free-energy calculations for a Lennard-Jones solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Tomonari; Maruyama, Yutaka; Mitsutake, Ayori; Koga, Kenichiro

    2016-06-01

    In the conventional classical density functional theory (DFT) for simple fluids, an ideal gas is usually chosen as the reference system because there is a one-to-one correspondence between the external field and the density distribution function, and the exact intrinsic free-energy functional is available for the ideal gas. In this case, the second-order density functional Taylor series expansion of the excess intrinsic free-energy functional provides the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation. Recently, it has been shown that the HNC approximation significantly overestimates the solvation free energy (SFE) for an infinitely dilute Lennard-Jones (LJ) solution, especially when the solute particles are several times larger than the solvent particles [T. Miyata and J. Thapa, Chem. Phys. Lett. 604, 122 (2014)]. In the present study, we propose a reference-modified density functional theory as a systematic approach to improve the SFE functional as well as the pair distribution functions. The second-order density functional Taylor series expansion for the excess part of the intrinsic free-energy functional in which a hard-sphere fluid is introduced as the reference system instead of an ideal gas is applied to the LJ pure and infinitely dilute solution systems and is proved to remarkably improve the drawbacks of the HNC approximation. Furthermore, the third-order density functional expansion approximation in which a factorization approximation is applied to the triplet direct correlation function is examined for the LJ systems. We also show that the third-order contribution can yield further refinements for both the pair distribution function and the excess chemical potential for the pure LJ liquids.

  15. Study on the Preparation and Application of Cannabis Fructus TLC Reference Extract%火麻仁薄层色谱鉴别用对照提取物的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仕任; 蔡明宸; 夏林波; 王鑫; 朱夏敏

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis fructus TLC reference extract was prepared and its application in the quality control of Cannabis fructus and preparations as a reference drug was explored.Cannabis fructus TLC reference extract was prepared by opting processing route and investigating stability influencing factors.The application to TLC identification items of Cannabis fructus was performed according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition.Results showed that Cannabis fructus TLC reference extract can play the same role as Cannabis fructus reference drug with the same quantity and quality.Cannabis fructus TLC reference extract for TLC identification can be used for quality control analysis of Cannabis fructus and preparations.The research provided a foundation for further development of TCM reference extracts.%研制被薄层色谱鉴别用火麻仁对照提取物,以替代对照药材用于火麻仁的薄层鉴别。从制备工艺考察、提取物稳定性影响因素考察以及提取物性状等方面制订薄层色谱鉴别用火麻仁对照提取物的制备和保存方法,并比较对照药材与对照提取物在薄层鉴别中的应用结果。结果表明:制备方法为:火麻仁药材粉末(过二号筛)加25倍乙醚脱脂后,药渣加10倍甲醇加热回流提取1 h,滤过,减压蒸去甲醇,所得浸膏用10倍甲醇复溶,加入与浸膏等重量的柱层析硅胶(200~300目),混匀,减压蒸干甲醇,过九号筛即得。该对照提取物与火麻仁药材的薄层鉴别效果一致。本研究制备的火麻仁薄层鉴别用对照提取物稳定可靠,可以替代火麻仁对照药材用于火麻仁及其成方制剂的质量控制分析。

  16. Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c application: a step forward for functional groups, the formula and reference condition values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ORFANIDIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c was designed to estimate the habitat- based ecological status of rocky coastal and sedimentary transitional waters using shallow benthic macrophyte communities as bioindicators. This study aimed to remedy the weaknesses of the currently used EEI methodology in: (1 ecological status groups (ESG, (2 the formula, and (3 reference condition values. A cluster analysis of twelve species traits was used to delineate ESGs. Two main clusters (ESG I, late-successional; ESG II, opportunistic were identified that were hierarchically divided into three and two sub-clusters, respectively: ESG I comprised thick perennial (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC coastal water species, and angiosperm plastic (IA, thick plastic (IB and shade-adapted plastic (IC transitional water species. ESG II comprised fleshy opportunistic (IIB and filamentous sheet-like opportunistic (IIA species both in coastal and transitional waters. To avoid discrete jumps at the boundaries between predefined ecological categories, a hyperbolic model that approximates the index values and expresses the ecosystem status in continuous numbers was developed. Seventy-four quantitative and destructive samples of the upper infralittoralCystoseira crinita and coastal lagoonRuppia cirrhosa communities from tentative pristine to less impacted sites in Greece verified 10 as an ‘ideal’ EEI-c reference condition value.

  17. CONSTRUCTION OF THE REFERENCE DATABASE IN GBDB AND ITS APPLICATION%GBDB的在线文献数据库及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊隽轩; 侯旭东; 陈清; 张琳娜; 陈中阳

    2012-01-01

    The Geobiodiversity Database (GBDB, ht-tp://www. geobiodiversity. com) is a unique, section-based online database system for palaeontolo-gical and stratigraphic research. Various kinds of data sources can be integrated into it, including geographic, lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic, taxonomic and related bibliographic reference data. Data sources are mostly taken from the published literature. The reference database is therefore an important data source in GBDB. Through the reference database users can track the source of the data, check and verify its quality, and even attach their own opinions, as an important comparison with the initiator' s thoughts. To achieve a comprehensive reference database is a long-term and time-consuming job. As more people become involved, the less time will be consumed per person and the more rapidly data quality will increase. After four years' development, the present reference database is well integrated in GBDB, and eight major reference types are recognized. Both DOI (Digital Object unique Identifier) and URL (Uniform / Universal Resource Locator) automatic conversion to full-text database are supported. Users can upload their Endnote files to the GBDB reference database through the database administrator (fanjunxuan@ gmail. com). A new export function to 12 common journals such as Palaeontology , Journal of Paleontology, Palaeo3, and Acta Palaeontologica Sinica , has recently become available online. By Feb. 15, 2012, 44 310 literature records related to palaeontology and stratigraphy had been compiled into the GBDB. Amongst them, 4 321 were based on material from China, which, according to our preliminary estimation, comprises about one third of the total literature on Chinese material. Simple counting of literature published in each decade since 1900 indicates a slow increase from 1910-1919 to 1950-1959, except for a slight decrease probably resulting from the 2nd World War. Then there was a rapid

  18. Application of genotyping-by-sequencing on semiconductor sequencing platforms: A comparison of genetic and reference-based marker ordering in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has enabled the use of sequencing for routine genotyping across a range of genetics studies and breeding applications. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a low-cost, reduced representation sequencing method, is becoming a common approach fo...

  19. [Application and case analysis on the problem-based teaching of Jingluo Shuxue Xue (Science of Meridian and Acupoint) in reference to the team oriented learning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijie; Lin, Xianming

    2015-12-01

    The problem based teaching (PBT) has been the main approach to the training in the universities o the world. Combined with the team oriented learning method, PBT will become the method available to the education in medical universities. In the paper, based on the common questions in teaching Jingluo Shuxue Xue (Science of Meridian and Acupoint), the concepts and characters of PBT and the team oriented learning method were analyzed. The implementation steps of PBT were set up in reference to the team oriented learning method. By quoting the original text in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang (Essential recipes for emergent use worth a thousand gold), the case analysis on "the thirteen devil points" was established with PBT.

  20. Dynamic modeling of breast tissue with application of model reference adaptive system identification technique based on clinical robot-assisted palpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, M; Mojra, A

    2015-11-01

    Accurate identification of breast tissue's dynamic behavior in physical examination is critical to successful diagnosis and treatment. In this study a model reference adaptive system identification (MRAS) algorithm is utilized to estimate the dynamic behavior of breast tissue from mechanical stress-strain datasets. A robot-assisted device (Robo-Tac-BMI) is going to mimic physical palpation on a 45 year old woman having a benign mass in the left breast. Stress-strain datasets will be collected over 14 regions of both breasts in a specific period of time. Then, a 2nd order linear model is adapted to the experimental datasets. It was confirmed that a unique dynamic model with maximum error about 0.89% is descriptive of the breast tissue behavior meanwhile mass detection may be achieved by 56.1% difference from the normal tissue.

  1. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  2. Dynamic HTML The Definitive Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    Packed with information on the latest web specifications and browser features, this new edition is your ultimate one-stop resource for HTML, XHTML, CSS, Document Object Model (DOM), and JavaScript development. Here is the comprehensive reference for designers of Rich Internet Applications who need to operate in all modern browsers, including Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2, Safari, and Opera. With this book, you can instantly see browser support for the latest standards-based technologies, including CSS Level 3, DOM Level 3, Web Forms 2.0, XMLHttpRequest for AJAX applications, JavaScript 1.7

  3. JavaScript Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1998-01-01

    JavaScript is a powerful, object-based scripting language that can be embedded directly in HTML pages. It allows you to create dynamic, interactive Web-based applications that run completely within a Web browser -- JavaScript is the language of choice for developing Dynamic HTML (DHTML) content. JavaScript can be integrated effectively with CGI and Java to produce sophisticated Web applications, although, in many cases, JavaScript eliminates the need for complex CGI scripts and Java applets altogether. The JavaScript Pocket Reference is a companion volume to JavaScript: The Definitive Guide

  4. The first customer reference

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokolainen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and sales have generally been recognized as typical bottlenecks for start-up technology companies which produce complex products for corporate customers. Start-up technology companies often need a customer reference to support their efforts in entering the market. Without a real-world assessment that the first customer reference represents, it is difficult to convince the next potential customer to buy. The first customer reference, the topic of this study, has not been widely ...

  5. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  6. Application of OSI Reference Model in New Rural Cooperative Medical Care%OSI参考模型在新型农村合作医疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚玲

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the concept of new rural cooperative medical care, introduces OSI reference model, and elaborates the advantages and disadvantages of OSI in application of the new rural cooperative medical care.%本文在介绍新型农村合作医疗概念的基础上,引入了OSI参考模型,同时阐述了OSI参考模型在合作医疗中的优缺点,以及OSI在新型农村合作医疗中的应用.

  7. Application of the ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms to internal dosimetry: calculation of specific absorbed fractions of energy for photons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadid, L; Desbree, A; Franck, D; Blanchardon, E [IRSN, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, IRSN/DRPH/SDI, BP 17, F-92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Schlattl, H; Zankl, M, E-mail: lama.hadid@irsn.f [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-07-07

    The emission of radiation from a contaminated body region is connected with the dose received by radiosensitive tissue through the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of emitted energy, which is therefore an essential quantity for internal dose assessment. A set of SAFs were calculated using the new adult reference computational phantoms, released by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) together with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Part of these results has been recently published in ICRP Publication 110 (2009 Adult reference computational phantoms (Oxford: Elsevier)). In this paper, we mainly discuss the results and also present them in numeric form. The emission of monoenergetic photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV was simulated for three source organs: lungs, thyroid and liver. SAFs were calculated for four target regions in the body: lungs, colon wall, breasts and stomach wall. For quality assurance purposes, the simulations were performed simultaneously at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU, Germany) and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France), using the Monte Carlo transport codes EGSnrc and MCNPX, respectively. The comparison of results shows overall agreement for photons and high-energy electrons with differences lower than 8%. Nevertheless, significant differences were found for electrons at lower energy for distant source/target organ pairs. Finally, the results for photons were compared to the SAF values derived using mathematical phantoms. Significant variations that can amount to 200% were found. The main reason for these differences is the change of geometry in the more realistic voxel body models. For electrons, no SAFs have been computed with the mathematical phantoms; instead, approximate formulae have been used by both the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee (MIRD) and the ICRP due to the limitations imposed

  8. Application of the ICRP/ICRU reference computational phantoms to internal dosimetry: calculation of specific absorbed fractions of energy for photons and electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, L.; Desbrée, A.; Schlattl, H.; Franck, D.; Blanchardon, E.; Zankl, M.

    2010-07-01

    The emission of radiation from a contaminated body region is connected with the dose received by radiosensitive tissue through the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of emitted energy, which is therefore an essential quantity for internal dose assessment. A set of SAFs were calculated using the new adult reference computational phantoms, released by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) together with the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Part of these results has been recently published in ICRP Publication 110 (2009 Adult reference computational phantoms (Oxford: Elsevier)). In this paper, we mainly discuss the results and also present them in numeric form. The emission of monoenergetic photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV was simulated for three source organs: lungs, thyroid and liver. SAFs were calculated for four target regions in the body: lungs, colon wall, breasts and stomach wall. For quality assurance purposes, the simulations were performed simultaneously at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU, Germany) and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France), using the Monte Carlo transport codes EGSnrc and MCNPX, respectively. The comparison of results shows overall agreement for photons and high-energy electrons with differences lower than 8%. Nevertheless, significant differences were found for electrons at lower energy for distant source/target organ pairs. Finally, the results for photons were compared to the SAF values derived using mathematical phantoms. Significant variations that can amount to 200% were found. The main reason for these differences is the change of geometry in the more realistic voxel body models. For electrons, no SAFs have been computed with the mathematical phantoms; instead, approximate formulae have been used by both the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee (MIRD) and the ICRP due to the limitations imposed

  9. 32 CFR 516.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 516.2 Section 516.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.2 References. Applicable publications and forms are listed in appendix A to...

  10. Application of USCRN Station Density Strategy to China Climate Reference Network%USCRN气候基准站网布局理论在我国的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷; 周江兴; 代刊

    2012-01-01

    基于美国气候基准站网(USCRN,US Climate Reference Network)的均匀正三角网格布局模式,以站网对我国平均降水量和气温的方差解释量分别能够达到95%和98%为标准,利用我国2416个观测站的降水量和气温数据研究了我国气候观测站网的布局设计,得到能反映我国整体气候特征的站网最少台站数.结果表明:为显著减少全国尺度上的气候不确定性,需要新建边长为3°纬距的正三角均匀网格(103个站点)站网,并在全国范围内开展站址考察、总结评估和运行检验工作,才能得到新的气候基准站网;在已有气候观测系统基础上改进完善而不新建系统,则改进的气候基准站网为最接近边长为2°纬距的正三角网格分布(229个站点),其中199个预期位置或其附近已建有观测站点,没有对应实际站点的30个预期位置主要分布在青藏高原西南大部,这些地区将是未来建站的重点.%The US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) consists of 114 stations developed, deployed, managed, and maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the continental United States for the express purpose of detecting the national signal of climate change, focusing solely on precipitation and temperature. The vision of the USCRN program is to reduce uncertainty and error range envelopes in producing the most precise in situ precipitation and temperature records possible, and to do it with the fewest possible stations located in areas of minimal human disturbance and with the least likelihood of human development over the coming 50-100 years. And the key goal of USCRN is to reduce cli-mate uncertainty at the national level to a statistically insignificant level. That is, for precipitation climate uncertainty should be reduced by 95% and for temperature climate uncertainty at the national level should be reduced by 98%.China is in great need of a sustainable high-quality and long

  11. Application of the optimized decoupling methodology for the construction of a skeletal primary reference fuel (PRF mechanism focusing on engine-relevant conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachao eChang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the multi-dimensional simulation of the engines with advanced compression-ignition combustion strategies, a practical and robust chemical kinetic mechanism is highly demanded. Decoupling methodology is effective for the construction of skeletal mechanisms for long-chain alkanes. To improve the performance of the decoupling methodology, further improvements are introduced based on recent theoretical and experimental works. The improvements include: (1 updating the H2/O2 sub-mechanism; (2 refining the rate constants in the HCO/CH3/CH2O sub-mechanism; (3 building a new reduced C2 sub-mechanism; and (4 improving the large-molecule sub-mechanism. With the improved decoupling methodology, a skeletal primary reference fuel (PRF mechanism is developed. The mechanism is validated against the experimental data in shock tubes, jet-stirred reactors, premixed and counterflow flames for various PRF fuels covering the temperature range of 500–1450 K, the pressure range of 1–55 atm, and the equivalence ratio range of 0.25¬–1.0. Finally, the skeletal mechanism is coupled with a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the combustion and emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engines fueled with iso-octane and PRF. Overall, the agreements between the experiment and prediction are satisfactory.

  12. Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System Sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s coastal wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the coastal restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.

  13. Evaluation of the Penman-Monteith (FAO 56 PM Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration Using Limited Data: Application to the Wet Páramo of Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Córdova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETo is often calculated using the Penman-Monteith (FAO 56 PM; Allen et al 1998 method, which requires data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation. But in high-mountain environments, such as the Andean páramo, meteorological monitoring is limited and high-quality data are scarce. Therefore, the FAO 56 PM equation can be applied only through the use of an alternative method suggested by the same authors that substitutes estimates for missing data. This study evaluated whether the FAO 56 PM method for estimating missing data can be effectively used for páramo landscapes in the high Andes of southern Ecuador. Our investigation was based on data from 2 automatic weather stations at elevations of 3780 m and 3979 m. We found that using estimated wind speed data has no major effect on calculated ETo but that if solar radiation data are estimated, ETo calculations may be erroneous by as much as 24%; if relative humidity data are estimated, the error may be as high as 14%; and if all data except temperature are estimated, errors higher than 30% may result. Our study demonstrates the importance of using high-quality meteorological data for calculating ETo in the wet páramo landscapes of southern Ecuador.

  14. Application of radcal gamma thermometer assemblies for core coolant monitoring in ASEA ATOM reactors with particular reference to the Barsebaeck plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study reference designs for instrument assemblies containing RGT rods to monitor the core coolant conditions in the Barsebaeck reactors have been worked out. Four such strings would be required to satisfy the Reg. Guide 1.97 reqiurements. The signal transmission to the control room and the presentation of information to the operators have been addressed. Downcomer water level measurement is considered important in order to get an early warning about leakages. Possible ways of diversifying the existing measurement method using RGTs are mentioned, and the design of a downcomer RGT rod has been suggested. To fully comply with Reg. Guide 1.97, water level measurements above core would be required. In a conceptual way it has been shown how an RGT rod could be extended up into this region, if so required. The possibility of making an ideal core coolant monitoring system by replacing one of the structural rods (water rods) in the fuel bundle by an RGT rod is pointed out. There are foreseen, however, several practical obstacles in pursuing the idea. The present state of RGT development and further work required to get the intrument licensed as a coolant monitoring device, has been defined. (Author)

  15. Organomercury determination in biological reference materials: application to a study on mercury speciation in marine mammals off the Faröe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintu, M; Jean-Caurant, F; Amiard, J C

    1992-08-01

    The potential use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) for the organic mercury determination in marine biological tissues was evaluated. Following its isolation by acid extraction in toluene, organic mercury was recovered in aqueous thiosulfate and measured by GF-AAS. The detection limit was 0.01 microgram Hg/g (as methyl mercury). Analyses were conducted on three reference standard materials certified for their methyl mercury content, DOLT-1, DORM-1, and TORT-1, provided by the National Research Council of Canada. The method resulted in very good recovery and reproducibility, indicating that GF-AAS can provide results comparable to those obtained by using more expensive and time consuming analytical techniques. The method was applied to the analysis of liver tissues of pilot whale specimens (Globicephala melas) from the drive fishery of the Faröe Islands (northeast Atlantic). The results provided useful information on the proportion of different mercury forms in the liver of these marine mammals.

  16. Library Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippleck, Suzanne

    The Inglewood, California, public library provides a manual on reference service. The theory, purpose, and objectives of reference are noted, and goals and activities are described in terms of budget, personnel, resources, and services. A chapter on organization covers service structure, information services, relationships with other library…

  17. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  18. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  19. Radar rainfall estimation for the post-event analysis of a Slovenian flash-flood case: application of the mountain reference technique at C-band frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bouilloud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to radar rainfall estimation for the post-event analysis of a Slovenian flash flood that occurred on 18 September 2007. The utility of the Mountain Reference Technique is demonstrated to quantify rain attenuation effects that affect C-band radar measurements in heavy rain. Maximum path-integrated attenuation between 15 and 20 dB were measured thanks to mountain returns for path-averaged rain rates between 10 and 15 mm h−1 over a 120-km path. The proposed technique allowed estimation of an effective radar calibration correction factor, assuming the reflectivity-attenuation relationship to be known. Screening effects were quantified using a geometrical calculation based on a digitized terrain model of the region. The vertical structure of the reflectivity was modelled with a normalized apparent vertical profile of reflectivity. Implementation of the radar data processing indicated that: (1 attenuation correction using the Hitschfeld Bordan algorithm allowed obtaining satisfactory radar rain estimates (Nash criterion of 0.8 at the event time scale; (2 due to the attenuation equation instability, it is however compulsory to limit the maximum path-integrated attenuation to be corrected to about 10 dB; (3 the results also proved to be sensitive on the parameterization of reflectivity-attenuation-rainrate relationships. The convective nature of the precipitation explains the rather good performance obtained. For more contrasted rainy systems with convective and stratiform regions, the combination of the vertical (VPR and radial (attenuation, screening sources of heterogeneity yields a still very challenging problem for radar quantitative precipitation estimation at C-band.

  20. Revisions of the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) for its application in warmer climatic zones, with particular reference to peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Larry L; Hill, Jeffrey E; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Hardin, Scott; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The initial version (v1) of the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) was adapted from the Weed Risk Assessment of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy to assess the potential invasiveness of nonnative freshwater fishes in the United Kingdom. Published applications of FISK v1 have been primarily in temperate-zone countries (Belgium, Belarus, and Japan), so the specificity of this screening tool to that climatic zone was not noted until attempts were made to apply it in peninsular Florida. To remedy this shortcoming, the questions and guidance notes of FISK v1 were reviewed and revised to improve clarity and extend its applicability to broader climatic regions, resulting in changes to 36 of the 49 questions. In addition, upgrades were made to the software architecture of FISK to improve overall computational speed as well as graphical user interface flexibility and friendliness. We demonstrate the process of screening a fish species using FISK v2 in a realistic management scenario by assessing the Barcoo grunter Scortum barcoo (Terapontidae), a species whose management concerns are related to its potential use for aquaponics in Florida. The FISK v2 screening of Barcoo grunter placed the species into the lower range of medium risk (score = 5), suggesting it is a permissible species for use in Florida under current nonnative species regulations. Screening of the Barcoo grunter illustrates the usefulness of FISK v2 as a proactive tool serving to inform risk management decisions, but the low level of confidence associated with the assessment highlighted a dearth of critical information on this species.

  1. Revisions of the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) for its application in warmer climatic zones, with particular reference to peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Larry L; Hill, Jeffrey E; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Hardin, Scott; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The initial version (v1) of the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) was adapted from the Weed Risk Assessment of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy to assess the potential invasiveness of nonnative freshwater fishes in the United Kingdom. Published applications of FISK v1 have been primarily in temperate-zone countries (Belgium, Belarus, and Japan), so the specificity of this screening tool to that climatic zone was not noted until attempts were made to apply it in peninsular Florida. To remedy this shortcoming, the questions and guidance notes of FISK v1 were reviewed and revised to improve clarity and extend its applicability to broader climatic regions, resulting in changes to 36 of the 49 questions. In addition, upgrades were made to the software architecture of FISK to improve overall computational speed as well as graphical user interface flexibility and friendliness. We demonstrate the process of screening a fish species using FISK v2 in a realistic management scenario by assessing the Barcoo grunter Scortum barcoo (Terapontidae), a species whose management concerns are related to its potential use for aquaponics in Florida. The FISK v2 screening of Barcoo grunter placed the species into the lower range of medium risk (score = 5), suggesting it is a permissible species for use in Florida under current nonnative species regulations. Screening of the Barcoo grunter illustrates the usefulness of FISK v2 as a proactive tool serving to inform risk management decisions, but the low level of confidence associated with the assessment highlighted a dearth of critical information on this species. PMID:23035930

  2. Selection of a marker gene to construct a reference library for wetland plants, and the application of metabarcoding to analyze the diet of wintering herbivorous waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhan; Zhan, Aibin; Cao, Lei; Meng, Fanjuan; Xu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and diet selection are important factors influencing the abundance and distribution of wild waterbirds. In order to better understand changes in waterbird population, it is essential to figure out what they feed on. However, analyzing their diet could be difficult and inefficient using traditional methods such as microhistologic observation. Here, we addressed this gap of knowledge by investigating the diet of greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis, which are obligate herbivores wintering in China, mostly in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River floodplain. First, we selected a suitable and high-resolution marker gene for wetland plants that these geese would consume during the wintering period. Eight candidate genes were included: rbcL, rpoC1, rpoB, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL (UAA), atpF-atpH, and psbK-psbI. The selection was performed via analysis of representative sequences from NCBI and comparison of amplification efficiency and resolution power of plant samples collected from the wintering area. The trnL gene was chosen at last with c/h primers, and a local plant reference library was constructed with this gene. Then, utilizing DNA metabarcoding, we discovered 15 food items in total from the feces of these birds. Of the 15 unique dietary sequences, 10 could be identified at specie level. As for greater white-fronted goose, 73% of sequences belonged to Poaceae spp., and 26% belonged to Carex spp. In contrast, almost all sequences of bean goose belonged to Carex spp. (99%). Using the same samples, microhistology provided consistent food composition with metabarcoding results for greater white-fronted goose, while 13% of Poaceae was recovered for bean goose. In addition, two other taxa were discovered only through microhistologic analysis. Although most of the identified taxa matched relatively well between the two methods, DNA metabarcoding gave taxonomically more detailed information. Discrepancies were likely due to

  3. Collaborating on Referring Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter A.; Hirst, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model of how conversational participants collaborate in order to make a referring action successful. The model is based on the view of language as goal-directed behavior. We propose that the content of a referring expression can be accounted for by the planning paradigm. Not only does this approach allow the processes of building referring expressions and identifying their referents to be captured by plan construction and plan inference, it also allows us to account for how participants clarify a referring expression by using meta-actions that reason about and manipulate the plan derivation that corresponds to the referring expression. To account for how clarification goals arise and how inferred clarification plans affect the agent, we propose that the agents are in a certain state of mind, and that this state includes an intention to achieve the goal of referring and a plan that the agents are currently considering. It is this mental state that sanctions the adoption of g...

  4. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  5. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  6. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  7. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  8. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  9. First-person reference.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. E. V.

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that reference in first-person thought is distinct from reference in other thoughts about objects. This difference is located in the lack of acquaintance required for first-person thought. In order to be in the position to think about and refer to other objects, a subject must be acquainted with them. It is this acquaintance relation which enables him to think about a particular object. In contrast, a subject can think about himself without being acquainted with himself because h...

  10. Review: Satellite-based remote sensing and geographic information systems and their application in the assessment of groundwater potential, with particular reference to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Ismail; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2011-06-01

    Various hydrological, geological and geomorphological factors play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in different terrains. With advances in space technology and the advent of powerful personal computers, techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential have evolved, of which remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are of great significance. The application of these methods is comprehensively reviewed with respect to the exploration and assessment of groundwater potential in consolidated and unconsolidated formations in semi-arid regions, and specifically in India. The process of such assessment includes the collection of remotely sensed data from suitable sensors and the selection of thematic maps on rainfall, geology, lithology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, drainage patterns, slope and lineaments. The data are handled according to their significance with the assignment of appropriate weights and integrated into a sophisticated GIS environment. The requisite remote sensing and GIS data, in conjunction with necessary field investigations, help to identify the groundwater potential zones effectively.

  11. The effect of 10 : 1 compression and soft copy interpretation on the chest radiographs of premature neonates with reference to their possible application in teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to assess the potential application of teleradiology in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by ascertaining whether any decrease in conspicuity of anatomic detail or interventional devices in the chest radiographs of premature infants is caused by picture archiving and communication system (PACS)-based soft copy interpretation of 10 : 1 compressed images. One hundred digital chest radiographs of low-birthweight infants were obtained in the NICU using a storage phosphor system. Laser-printed images were interpreted and the data set for each radiograph was then irreversibly compressed by a 10 : 1 ratio. Four radiologists with extensive PACS experience used a five-point grading system to score laser-printed hard copy images for the visibility of six parameters of anatomic landmarks and interventional devices in the chest. Compressed soft copy images displayed on 2K PACS workstation were subsequently scored using the same approach. Statistical manipulation demonstrated no loss of anatomic detail in five of the six parameters scored, with minimal difference in one landmark, the retrocardiac lung assessment. While further study is required to assess the clinical impact of the variance noted when evaluating lung parameters, the preservation or improvement of information in the remaining parameters following irreversible compression and soft copy interpretation is promising for the potential use of teleradiology in this population. (orig.)

  12. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in...

  13. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  14. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Camarinha-Matos; H. Afsarmanesh

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  15. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  16. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: cystinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Page Claes DJ, Jackson E. Cystinuria: mechanisms and management. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012 Nov;27(11): ... with a qualified healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links ...

  18. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  19. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  20. The Calibration Reference Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a software architecture and implementation for using rules to determine which calibration files are appropriate for calibrating a given observation. This new system, the Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS), replaces what had been previously used for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) calibration pipelines, the Calibration Database System (CDBS). CRDS will be used for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) calibration pipelines, and is currently being used for HST calibration pipelines. CRDS can be easily generalized for use in similar applications that need a rules-based system for selecting the appropriate item for a given dataset; we give some examples of such generalizations that will likely be used for JWST. The core functionality of the Calibration Reference Data System is available under an Open Source license. CRDS is briefly contrasted with a sampling of other similar systems used at other observatories.

  1. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  2. X Python reference manual

    OpenAIRE

    Mullender, Sjoerd

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manual gives a more formal definition of the language. The Python Library Reference describes the built-in and standard modules of Python. This document can be seen as en extension to that document.

  3. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),

  4. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),2011,205:88–92.

  5. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  6. Progress report on research project [Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uncertainties of the KD03 global optical model parameters. An estimate of the uncertainties of the parameters of the KD03 global optical model potential has been given. A Monte Carlo method for generating uncertainties of the final cross sections and angular distributions is used. The approach is pragmatic: The parameter uncertainties are adjusted such that the resulting calculated uncertainties account for the difference between the global prediction and the experimental data. At this stage, no OMP parameter correlations have been taken into account. We think however that the present results (summarized in a table), allow for adjustment of OMP parameters for data evaluation purposes. The presented uncertainties give a measure of the allowed deviation from the average parameters. Phenomenological level density parameters A computational set up for a consistent parameterization of three level density models has been built. This includes the Back-shifted Fermi gas Model, the Constant Temperature Model and the Generalized Superfluid Model, each without and with explicit collective enhancement. The resulting level densities should be applicable over a large energy range, taking into account experimental information from both discrete levels and mean resonance spacing. For each of the three models, we have produced local level density parameters, i.e. parameters that are adjusted per nucleus, which give the best average description of all observables (discrete levels, mean resonance spacing) for that nucleus. We have also produced a global level density parameterization for all models, i.e. formulae for the global expressions that enter the level density formula, to be used for any nucleus. A few remaining deficiencies in the procedure need to be removed before the parameter collection can be delivered to RIPL-3)

  7. Establishing ecological reference conditions and tracking post-application effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (Phoslock®) for reducing phosphorus in aquatic systems: an applied paleolimnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, M T; Taffs, K H; Longstaff, B J; Ginn, B K

    2014-08-01

    Innovative management strategies for nutrient enrichment of freshwater are important in the face of this increasing global problem, however many strategies are not assessed over long enough time periods to establish effectiveness. Paleolimnological techniques using diatoms as biological indicators were utilized to establish ecological reference conditions, environmental variation, and the effectiveness of lanthanum-saturated bentonite clay (brand name: Phoslock(®)) applied to reduce water column phosphorus (P) concentrations in four waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and eastern Australia. In sediment cores from the two Canadian sites, there were short-lived changes to diatom assemblages, relative to inferred background conditions, and a temporary reduction in both measured and diatom-inferred total phosphorus (TP) before returning to pre-application conditions (particularly in the urban stormwater management pond which has a high flushing rate and responds rapidly to precipitation and surface run-off). The two Australian sites (a sewage treatment pond and a shallow recreational lake), recorded no reduction in diatom-inferred TP. Based on our pre-application environmental reconstruction, changes to the diatom assemblages and diatom-inferred TP appeared to be driven by larger, climatic factors. While laboratory tests involving this product showed sharp reductions in water column TP, management strategies require detailed information on pre-application environmental conditions and variations in order to accurately assess the effectiveness of new technologies for lake management.

  8. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  9. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  10. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  11. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  12. Language Reference Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Coca-Cola HBC Hrvatska Language Reference Book (Jezični priručnik Coca-Cole HBC Hrvatska initially conceived as a practical reference book intended for use within the company is nowadays available to everyone at http://www.prirucnik.hr. The book was prepared by Lana Hudeček and Maja Matković in collaboration with Igor Čutuk and was printed in May 2011 (2nd edition in February 2012 with 274 pages.

  13. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  14. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  15. SNAP operating system reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories

  16. A STUDY ON THE APPLICATION OF MUTUAL REFERENCE TECHNIQUE IN MAGNETOTELLURIC SOUNDING DATA%大地电磁测深数据互参考处理的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴前伟; 陈勇雄; 侯智超

    2013-01-01

    Magnetotelluric sounding exploration vulnerable to the interference of radio stations, power grids, industrial free current and other human factors, resulting data features large deviation, distorted curve shape and low reliability. In this paper, based on the estimation formula of magnetotelluric impedance tensor, the degree of deviation of impedance tensor due to cultural noises is discussed. When there are uncorrelated noises in the electromagnetic components, a higher precise estimation of impedance tensor is obtained. As we known, the magnetic component of MT will not change too much in a certain distance, and if this distance is longer enough, the cultural noise at one site will not related to the other. This is the reason why we use the magnetic mutual reference method to improve the quality of field data. In this paper, a compromise scenario of the remote reference technique, the so-called mutual reference technique is expounded. The effect of application of this method is analyzed. The results show that this method is effective, and some problems in application are summarized.%大地电磁测深勘探方法易受电台、电网、工业游离电流等人为因素干扰,致使资料数据离差大、曲线形态畸变、可信度差.根据噪声对大地电磁测深张量阻抗估算值的影响规律和大地电磁测深远参考技术的应用效果,阐述了远参考技术的一种折中方案,即互参考道方法.选取不同参考距离、不同质量的大地电磁实测数据作为互参考点,通过计算经互参考处理后的大地电磁测深数据得出相干度、信噪比以及卡尼亚电阻率~相位曲线,分析了经互参考道处理后MT资料的效果.结果表明,该方法是有效的,并总结了应用此方法的一些问题.

  17. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  18. Reference Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  19. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  20. Role and Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  1. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  2. Generating Multimodal References

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions, based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer et al. (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing.

  3. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  4. Reference Sources for Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursing Outlook, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The ninth revision (including a Canadian supplement) of a list of nursing reference works lists items in the following sections: abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, drug lists and pharmacologies, educational programs, histories, indexes, legal guides, library administration and organization, research grants,…

  5. X Python reference manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manu

  6. The Reference Encounter Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  7. Treasury Reference Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Ali; Allan, Bill

    2001-01-01

    The Treasury Reference Model (TRM) gives guidelines for the design of automated treasury systems for government aiming at a) authorities within government and their advisors who are engaged in planning and implementing such systems; and b) software designers and suppliers from the private sector - or even in-house developers of treasury software. The paper starts in Part I with a discussion of ...

  8. The Unreliability of References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  9. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.;

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  10. Calling SNPs without a reference sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster Stephan C; Hayes Vanessa M; Zhang Yu; Ratan Aakrosh; Miller Webb

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The most common application for the next-generation sequencing technologies is resequencing, where short reads from the genome of an individual are aligned to a reference genome sequence for the same species. These mappings can then be used to identify genetic differences among individuals in a population, and perhaps ultimately to explain phenotypic variation. Many algorithms capable of aligning short reads to the reference, and determining differences between them have b...

  11. Calling SNPs without a reference sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Ratan, Aakrosh; Zhang, Yu; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Stephan C Schuster; Miller, Webb

    2010-01-01

    Background The most common application for the next-generation sequencing technologies is resequencing, where short reads from the genome of an individual are aligned to a reference genome sequence for the same species. These mappings can then be used to identify genetic differences among individuals in a population, and perhaps ultimately to explain phenotypic variation. Many algorithms capable of aligning short reads to the reference, and determining differences between them have been repor...

  12. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  13. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  14. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  15. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  16. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  17. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  18. MR pelvimetric reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete pelvimetry can be easily performed via MR. As shown by comparing the measurements of 4 observers its reproducibility is acceptable. The reference diameters obtained on 53 patients by MR are in 7 out of 9 dimensions larger than those of anatomical and obstetrical textbooks, which have not changed in the last 100 years. Hence, with the general increase in population size an increase in pelvic diameters has taken place. (orig.)

  19. GDB Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  20. Alignment reference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  1. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  2. Reference structure tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David J.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai

    2004-07-01

    Reference structure tomography (RST) uses multidimensional modulations to encode mappings between radiating objects and measurements. RST may be used to image source-density distributions, estimate source parameters, or classify sources. The RST paradigm permits scan-free multidimensional imaging, data-efficient and computation-efficient source analysis, and direct abstraction of physical features. We introduce the basic concepts of RST and illustrate the use of RST for multidimensional imaging based on a geometric radiation model.

  3. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  4. Is anaphoric reference cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, Leila; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the choice of anaphoric expression is affected by the presence of an addressee. Following a context sentence and visual scene, participants described a target scene that required anaphoric reference. They described the scene either to an addressee (Experiment 1) or without an addressee (Experiment 2). When an addressee was present in the task, participants used more pronouns and fewer repeated noun phrases when the referent was the grammatical subject in the context sentence than when it was the grammatical object and they used more pronouns when there was no competitor than when there was. They used fewer pronouns and more repeated noun phrases when a visual competitor was present in the scene than when there was no visual competitor. In the absence of an addressee, linguistic context effects were the same as those when an addressee was present, but the visual effect of the competitor disappeared. We conclude that visual salience effects are due to adjustments that speakers make when they produce reference for an addressee, whereas linguistic salience effects appear whether or not speakers have addressees. PMID:26165163

  5. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  6. Celestial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  7. Celestial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  8. 40 CFR 53.16 - Supersession of reference methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supersession of reference methods. 53... (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions § 53.16 Supersession of reference methods. (a) This section prescribes procedures and criteria applicable to requests...

  9. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  10. Optomechanical reference accelerometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gerberding, Oliver; Melcher, John; Pratt, Jon; Taylor, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We present an optomechanical accelerometer with high dynamic range, high bandwidth and read-out noise levels below 8 {\\mu}g/$\\sqrt{\\mathrm{Hz}}$. The straightforward assembly and low cost of our device make it a prime candidate for on-site reference calibrations and autonomous navigation. We present experimental data taken with a vacuum sealed, portable prototype and deduce the achieved bias stability and scale factor accuracy. Additionally, we present a comprehensive model of the device physics that we use to analyze the fundamental noise sources and accuracy limitations of such devices.

  11. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing

  12. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Manage-

  13. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5th Ed.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.

  14. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez.M

  15. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  16. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  17. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  18. Inertial pseudo star reference unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luniewicz, Michael F.; Woodbury, Dale T.; Gilmore, Jerold P.; Chien, Tze T.

    1994-05-01

    Advanced space systems for earth observation sensing and defense applications share a common objective: high-resolution monitoring. They require subsystems that accurately provide precise line-of-sight (LOS) pointing of the monitoring sensor with extreme jitter suppression and a precision attitude control system. To address this objective, Draper has developed a pointing system, the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit (IPSRU). The IPSRU effort is a DARPA and SDI sponsored program at Draper under contract with the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The IPSRU implements a collimated light source mounted on a wide-band, extremely low-noise inertially stabilized platform. The collimated light beam becomes, in effect, a jitter-stabilized pseudo star. In addition, its direction in inertial space can be pointed at a precise rate by commands applied to the platform.

  19. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  20. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  1. Antares Reference Telescope System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  2. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  3. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  4. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10-6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  5. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  6. Reference dosimetry and measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of absorbed dose made by a reference dosimetry system, such as alanine, have been suggested for achieving quality assurance through traceability to primary standards. Such traceability can assist users of radiation worldwide in enhancing quality control in medicine, agriculture, and industry. International and national standards of absorbed dose are still needed for applications of γ-ray and electron dosimetry at high doses (e.g. radiation therapy, food irradiation and industrial radiation processing). Reference systems, such as ferrous sulfate dosimeters measured by spectrophotometry and alanine measured by electron spin resonance spectrometry are already well established. Another useful reference system for high doses is supplied as dichromate solutions measured by spectrophotometry. Reference dosimetry, particularly for electron beams, can be accomplished with thin alanine or radiochromic dye film dosemeters. (author)

  7. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  8. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  9. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  10. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  11. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  12. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  13. Areva reference document 2007; Areva document de reference 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of

  14. Areva, reference document 2006; Areva, document de reference 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance.

  15. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kealin M. McCabe; James R.W. MacDonald

    2011-01-01

    Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology), location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget). Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153) of whic...

  16. Synthetic growth reference charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Burmeister, J

    1999-08-01

    to generate distance standards for height (synthetic growth reference charts). Synthetic growth reference charts can help to actualize current growth charts without much additional effort, and they may also be used for populations for which autochthonous growth standards are not available. PMID:10503677

  17. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  18. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  19. The Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Bendo, G; Chanial, P; Buat, V; Davies, J; Auld, R; Rigby, E; Baes, M; Barlow, M; Bock, J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Charlot, S; Clements, D; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Zeilinger, W

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a guaranteed time Herschel key project and will be a benchmark study of dust in the nearby universe. The survey will complement a number of other Herschel key projects including large cosmological surveys that trace dust in the distant universe. We will use Herschel to produce images of a statistically-complete sample of 323 galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 micron. The sample is volume-limited, containing sources with distances between 15 and 25 Mpc and flux limits in the K-band to minimize the selection effects associated with dust and with young high-mass stars and to introduce a selection in stellar mass. The sample spans the whole range of morphological types (ellipticals to late-type spirals) and environments (from the field to the centre of the Virgo Cluster) and as such will be useful for other purposes than our own. We plan to use the survey to investigate (i) the dust content of galaxies as a function of Hubble type, stellar mass and environment, (ii) the connection betwe...

  20. Jakarta Struts Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaness, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    Web tier frameworks have soared in popularity over the past year or so due to the increasing complexity of Java itself, and the need to get more work done with fewer resources. Developers who used to spend hours and hours writing low-level features can use a well-written framework to build the presentation tier so they start coding the "good stuff" sooner--the business logic at the core of the program. The Jakarta Struts Framework is one of the most popular presentation frameworks for building web applications with Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technologies. If you work with the St

  1. Reference blindness: the influence of references on trust in Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, Teun; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten

    2011-01-01

    In this study we show the influence of references on trust in information. We changed the contents of reference lists of Wikipedia articles in such a way that the new references were no longer in any sense related to the topic of the article. Furthermore, the length of the reference list was varied. College students were asked to evaluate the credibility of these articles. Only 6 out of 23 students noticed the manipulation of the references; 9 out of 23 students noticed the variations in leng...

  2. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  3. Fingerprint Reference-Point Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Manhua; Jiang Xudong; Kot Alex Chichung

    2005-01-01

    A robust fingerprint recognition algorithm should tolerate the rotation and translation of the fingerprint image. One popular solution is to consistently detect a unique reference point and compute a unique reference orientation for translational and rotational alignment. This paper develops an effective algorithm to locate a reference point and compute the corresponding reference orientation consistently and accurately for all types of fingerprints. To compute the reliable orientation field...

  4. Gestural Viewpoint Signals Referent Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreslioska, Sandra; Özyürek, Asli; Gullberg, Marianne; Perniss, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The tracking of entities in discourse is known to be a bimodal phenomenon. Speakers achieve cohesion in speech by alternating between full lexical forms, pronouns, and zero anaphora as they track referents. They also track referents in co-speech gestures. In this study, we explored how viewpoint is deployed in reference tracking, focusing on…

  5. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,3He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10-5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  6. Co-reference and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare R; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2004-01-01

    Co-reference occurs when two or more noun phrases refer to the same individual, as in the following inferential problem: Mark is kneeling by the fire or he is looking at the TV but not both. / Mark is kneeling by the fire. / Is he looking at the TV? In three experiments, we compared co-referential reasoning problems with problems referring to different individuals. Experiment 1 showed that co-reference improves accuracy. In Experiment 2, we replicated that finding and showed that co-reference speeds up both reading and inference. Experiment 3 showed that the effects of co-reference are greatest when the premises and the conclusion share co-referents. These effects led the participants to make illusory inferences--that is, to draw systematically invalid conclusions. The results are discussed in terms of the mental model theory of reasoning.

  7. A reference model for database security proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮; 杨小虎; 董金祥

    2002-01-01

    How to protect the database, the kernel resources of information warfare, is becoming more and more important since the rapid development of computer and communication technology. As an application-level firewall, database security proxy can successfully repulse attacks originated from outside the network, reduce to zerolevel damage from foreign DBMS products. We enhanced the capability of the COAST' s firewall reference model by adding a transmission unit modification function and an attribute value mapping function,describes the schematic and semantic layer reference model, and finally forms a reference model for DBMS security proxy which greatly helps in the design and implementation of database security proxies. This modeling process can clearly separate the system functionality into three layers, define the possible security functions for each layer, and estimate the computational cost for each layer.

  8. A reference model for database security proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    How to protect the database, the kernel resources of information warfare, is becoming more and more important since the rapid development of computer and communication technology. As an application-level firewall, database security proxy can successfully repulse attacks originated from outside the network, reduce to zerolevel damage from foreign DBMS products. We enhanced the capability of the COAST's firewall reference model by adding a transmission unit modification function and an attribute value mapping function, describes the schematic and semantic layer reference model, and finally forms a reference model for DBMS security proxy which greatly helps in the design and implementation of database security proxies. This modeling process can clearly separate the system functionality into three layers, define the possible security functions for each layer, and estimate the computational cost for each layer.

  9. Development and application of reference extract used for TLC identifi-cation of Morinda officinalis How%巴戟天薄层色谱鉴别用对照提取物的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锦锋; 杨志业; 李曼莎; 宋力飞; 魏锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:研制薄层色谱鉴别用巴戟天对照提取物,以解决对照药材的局限性。方法从原料选定、制备工艺研究、稳定性影响因素考察等方面探讨薄层色谱鉴别用巴戟天对照提取物的研究思路,并比较巴戟天对照药材与对照提取物在薄层鉴别中的应用结果。结果巴戟天薄层鉴别用对照提取物的提取条件:巴戟天粗粉加20倍70%乙醇,加热回流提取,提取2次,每次1 h。该对照提取物替代对照药材应用于巴戟天及其成方制剂中的薄层鉴别效果一致。结论本研究制备的巴戟天薄层鉴别用对照提取物,可以替代巴戟天对照药材用于巴戟天及其成方制剂的质量控制分析。%Objective To develop Morinda offic inalis How reference extract for TLC to solve the limitation of reference crude herb. Methods The research strategy of Morinda officinalis How reference extract for TLC was discussed from raw material selected, preparation technology and stability influence factors. Practical results between Morinda offici-nalis How reference crude drug and reference extract in TLC were compared. Results The extract condition of refer-ence extract used for TLC of Morinda offic inalis How was as follows: Morindae offic inalis How thick powder was heat-ing reflux extracted with 20 flods of 70% ethanol for two times, 1 hour each time. The reference extract instead of ref-erence crude drug used for TLC of Morindae offic inalis How and its historical preparations gained the same effect. Conclusion The reference extract of Morindae offic inalis How for TLC prepared by this study can replace Morindae offic inalis How reference crude herb to be used for quality control analysis of Morindae offic inalis How and its histori-cal preparation.

  10. Relativistic physics in arbitrary reference frames

    CERN Document Server

    Mitskievich, N V

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we give a review of the most general approach to description of reference frames, the monad formalism. This approach is explicitly general covariant at each step, permitting to use abstract representation of tensor quantities; it is applicable also to special relativity when non-inertial effects are considered in its context; moreover, it involves no hypotheses whatsoever thus being a completely natural one. For the sake of the reader's convenience, a synopsis of tensor calculus in pseudo-Riemannian space-time precedes discussion of the subject, containing expressions rarely encountered in literature but essentially facilitating the consideration. We give also a comparison of the monad formalism with the other approaches to description of reference frames in general relativity. In three chapters we consider applications of the monad formalism to general relativistic mechanics, electromagnetic and gravitational fields theory. Alongside of the general theory, which includes the monad representatio...

  11. Reference models supporting enterprise networks and virtual enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses different types of reference models applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of Virtual Enterprises (VEs). Reference models are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE into a configuration task, and hence reducing ...... the time needed for VE creation. The reference models are analysed through a mapping onto the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (VERA) based upon GERAM and created in the IMS GLOBEMEN project.......This article analyses different types of reference models applicable to support the set up and (re)configuration of Virtual Enterprises (VEs). Reference models are models capturing concepts common to VEs aiming to convert the task of setting up of VE into a configuration task, and hence reducing...

  12. Relativistic Physics in Arbitrary Reference Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Mitskievich, Nikolai V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we give a review of the most general approach to description of reference frames, the monad formalism. This approach is explicitly general covariant at each step, permitting to use abstract representation of tensor quantities; it is applicable also to special relativity when non-inertial effects are considered in its context; moreover, it involves no hypotheses whatsoever thus being a completely natural one. For the sake of the reader's convenience, a synopsis of tensor calculus...

  13. Nitrogen-15 reference book: medicine and biosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive bibliography on the application of the stable nitrogen isotope 15N in medicine, animal nutrition and physiology, biosciences, and related disciplines is presented. The literature pertaining to this paper covers the period from 1977 to 1981. The references are completed by an index of all authors and a subject index with special emphasis to the used organisms, labelled compounds, and tracer techniques, respectively. (author)

  14. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoungwoo Nam; Heesu Jeong; Jin-Wu Nam

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA) that reconstr...

  15. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  16. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  17. Validation of reference transcripts in strawberry (Fragaria spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Maureen A; Rosli, Hernan G; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W Brad; Civello, P Marcos; Folta, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary methods to assay gene expression depend on a stable set of reference transcripts for accurate quantitation. A lack of well-tested reference genes slows progress in characterizing gene expression in high-value specialty crops. In this study, a set of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) constitutively expressed reference genes has been identified by merging digital gene expression data with expression profiling. Constitutive reference candidates were validated using quantitative PCR and hybridization. Several transcripts have been identified that show improved stability across tissues relative to traditional reference transcripts. Results are similar between commercial octoploid strawberry and the diploid model. Our findings also show that while some never-before-used references are appropriate for most applications, even the most stable reference transcripts require careful assessment across the diverse tissues and fruit developmental states before being adopted as controls.

  18. Elektronik Danışma Hizmeti / Digital Reference Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Uçak

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly related to digital reference services. Evaluation of these services, their difference from the traditional reference services, factors which cause their emergence, related technical and quantitative standards are presented. Additionaly, projects which are developed in this area, the importance of cooperation activities, application problems and how librarians approach to these issues are examined.

  19. Reference vectors in economic choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teycir Abdelghani GOUCHA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the introduction of notion of reference vector paves the way for a combination of classical and social approaches in the framework of referential preferences given by matrix groups. It is shown that individual demand issue from rational decision does not depend on that reference.

  20. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  1. Queuing Theory and Reference Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbille, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of applying the queuing theory to three different reference situations: (1) random patron arrivals; (2) random durations of transactions; and (3) use of two librarians. Tables and figures represent results from spreadsheet calculations of queues for each reference situation. (JMV)

  2. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  3. Calling SNPs without a reference sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster Stephan C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common application for the next-generation sequencing technologies is resequencing, where short reads from the genome of an individual are aligned to a reference genome sequence for the same species. These mappings can then be used to identify genetic differences among individuals in a population, and perhaps ultimately to explain phenotypic variation. Many algorithms capable of aligning short reads to the reference, and determining differences between them have been reported. Much less has been reported on how to use these technologies to determine genetic differences among individuals of a species for which a reference sequence is not available, which drastically limits the number of species that can easily benefit from these new technologies. Results We describe a computational pipeline, called DIAL (De novo Identification of Alleles, for identifying single-base substitutions between two closely related genomes without the help of a reference genome. The method works even when the depth of coverage is insufficient for de novo assembly, and it can be extended to determine small insertions/deletions. We evaluate the software's effectiveness using published Roche/454 sequence data from the genome of Dr. James Watson (to detect heterozygous positions and recent Illumina data from orangutan, in each case comparing our results to those from computational analysis that uses a reference genome assembly. We also illustrate the use of DIAL to identify nucleotide differences among transcriptome sequences. Conclusions DIAL can be used for identification of nucleotide differences in species for which no reference sequence is available. Our main motivation is to use this tool to survey the genetic diversity of endangered species as the identified sequence differences can be used to design genotyping arrays to assist in the species' management. The DIAL source code is freely available at http://www.bx.psu.edu/miller_lab/.

  4. Reference analysis of the signal + background model in counting experiments II. Approximate reference prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, D.

    2014-10-01

    The objective Bayesian treatment of a model representing two independent Poisson processes, labelled as ``signal'' and ``background'' and both contributing additively to the total number of counted events, is considered. It is shown that the reference prior for the parameter of interest (the signal intensity) can be well approximated by the widely (ab)used flat prior only when the expected background is very high. On the other hand, a very simple approximation (the limiting form of the reference prior for perfect prior background knowledge) can be safely used over a large portion of the background parameters space. The resulting approximate reference posterior is a Gamma density whose parameters are related to the observed counts. This limiting form is simpler than the result obtained with a flat prior, with the additional advantage of representing a much closer approximation to the reference posterior in all cases. Hence such limiting prior should be considered a better default or conventional prior than the uniform prior. On the computing side, it is shown that a 2-parameter fitting function is able to reproduce extremely well the reference prior for any background prior. Thus, it can be useful in applications requiring the evaluation of the reference prior for a very large number of times.

  5. Avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes de crianças de uma creche filantrópica: aplicação do Consumo Dietético de Referência Assessment of nutrients intake of children in a charity daycare center: application of Dietary Reference Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira Sampaio Barbosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar a adequação aparente da ingestão dos nutrientes utilizando os valores de referência "Consumo Dietético de Referência" (Dietary Reference Intake-DRIs de 35 crianças de uma creche filantrópica, em dois momentos, no ato da matrícula (momento 1 e após seis meses de freqüência na creche (momento 2. MÉTODOS: A avaliação sócio-demográfica foi realizada através de questionário abordando renda, escolaridade, condições de moradia e saneamento básico. Para avaliação do consumo alimentar, no ato da matrícula, a história dietética foi determinada em entrevista com o responsável, com o propósito de obter informações sobre consumo habitual da criança na sua residência. Após o período de seis meses foi utilizado o método de pesagem direta de alimentos (na creche complementando com o consumo alimentar da criança na residência. A análise dos nutrientes como proteínas, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C, além das fibras alimentares, foi realizada através um programa computacional. Para comparar a adequação dos nutrientes nos dois momentos do estudo utilizou-se o teste t de Student para dados pareados (p OBJECTIVES: to compare nutrients intake apparent adequacy through reference values of Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs of 35 children of a charity daycare center in two instances, when they enrolled (instance 1 and six months after (instance 2. METHODS: socio-demographic assessment was performed through a questionnaire collecting information pertaining to income, school level, living conditions and basic sanitation. To assess food consumption at enrollment, dietary history was informed through an interview with the parent, family member or guardian on the usual intake of the child at home. Following a six month period the weighed food record method (in the daycare center was performed complemented by the food intake of the child at home. Nutrient analysis such as proteins, iron, calcium and vitamin C in

  6. References

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aarseth, Espen J. 1997. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Andrén, Anders. 1998. Between Artifacts and Texts: Historical Archaeology in Global Perspective. Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology. Trans. Alan Crozier. New York: Plenum Press. Anon. 1911. ’The New York Public Library: How the Readers and the Books Are Distributed in the New Building’. Scientific American 104.21 (27 May): 527. Anon. 1971. ’Keepers of Rules Versus Play...

  7. References

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2005) The Ethics of Identity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ______ (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, Norton, New York. Clarke, Charles (2006) ‛Global Citizens and Quality International Education: Enlarging the Role of the Commonwealth’. Speech delivered to the Royal Commonwealth Society, 15 November, 2006, London. Estlund, Cynthia (2003) Working Together: How Workplace Bonds Strengthen a Diverse Democracy, Oxford University Press, New...

  8. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu02 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  9. Selected Reference Books of 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    Presents annotated bibliographies of a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of publishing, periodical indexes, philosophy and religion, literature, music, art, photography, social sciences, business, history, and new editions. (LRW)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: genitopatellar syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome have distinct clinical features reflecting distinct molecular mechanisms. Hum Mutat. 2012 Nov;33(11):1520-5. ... with a qualified healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cicardi M. C1-inhibitor deficiency and angioedema: molecular mechanisms and clinical progress. Trends Mol Med. 2009 Feb; ... with a qualified healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Huntington disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Citation on PubMed Jones L, Hughes A. Pathogenic mechanisms in Huntington's disease. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;98: ... with a qualified healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links ...

  13. Reference values for nematode communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waarde, J. van der; Wagelmans, M. [Bioclear bv, Groningen (Netherlands); Keidel, H. [Blgg bv (Netherlands); Knoben, R. [Royal Haskoning (Netherlands); Schouten, T.; Bogte, J. [RIVM (Netherlands); Goede, R. de; Bongers, T. [Wageningen Univerity and Research Centre (Netherlands); Didden, W.; Doelman, P. [Advies (Netherlands); Kerkum, F.; Jonge, J. de [RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    The TRIAD approach is increasingly used for the assessment of ecological risks of soil and sediment contamination. The interpretation of the results form this TRIAD are however hampered by a lack of reference values. These reference values ideally reflect the ecological situation in non-contaminated but comparable ecosystems. As a part of the TRIAD approach nematodes are routinely used as indicators of soil quality but clear reference values are not available. The aim of the project was to develop a reference system for nematode fauna to facilitate assessment of ecological risks. All available data on nematodes in Dutch soil and sediments were collected and put together in one database: the first complete Dutch nematode database. After a quality check, a total of approximately 1600 samples was selected for further analysis. (orig.)

  14. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a reference frame for configuration. The reference frame is established by review of existing literature, and consequently it is a theoretical frame of reference. The review of literature shows a deterioration of the understanding of configuration. Most recent literature reports...... on configuration systems in the shape of anecdotal reporting on the development of information systems that perhaps support the configuration task – perhaps not. Consequently, the definition of configuration has become ambiguous as different research groups defines configuration differently. This paper propose...... a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  15. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe...... and total protein S was stable. Gestational age-specific reference values are essential for the accurate interpretation of a subset of haemostatic tests during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium....

  16. Space Station reference configuration description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  17. Virtual reference: chat with us!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Mariana; Bond, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Virtual chat services represent an exciting way to provide patrons of medical libraries with instant reference help in an academic environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the implementation, marketing process, use, and development of a virtual reference service initiated at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and its three-campus libraries. In addition, this paper will discuss practical recommendations for the future improvement of the service. PMID:19384714

  18. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  19. Referring Expressions: A Unified Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.M. Jaszczolt

    2001-01-01

    @@ 0. Introduction Expressions used by speakers to refer are commonly divided into two categories: that of directly referring expressions and that of expressions whose referring function is secured by the context of utterance. Directly referring expressions are normally said to include proper names, some pronouns including demonstrative, and demonstrative phrases. The other category comprises mainly definite and indefinite descriptions, the first being their most acclaimed representative. Definite descriptions are widely acknowledged to have referential uses. They are not referring expressions, so to speak, by default,but rather as a result of a contextually determined interpretation. As a category, they are frequently said to belong with quantifiers (Neale 1990; Recanati 1993). However, the arguments for classifying them with referring expressions are ample (Bach 1987a; Larson & Segal 1995; Brown 1995; Jaszczolt 1997a,1997b, 1999b). It is argued in Part I of this paper that although definite descriptions exhibit an ambiguity of use between the referential and the attributive reading, they also exhibit the property of having an unmarked, salient interpretation which makes them akin to directly referential terms. This salient reading is the referential interpretation, arrived at with the help of the hearer′s presumption of the presence of strong referential intention that supports the speaker′s utterance.

  20. Computational phantoms of the ICRP reference male and reference female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational models of the human body - together with radiation transport codes - have been used for the evaluation of organ dose conversion coefficients in occupational, medical and environmental radiation protection. During the last two decades, it has become common practice to use voxel models that are derived mostly from (whole body) medical image data of real persons instead of the older mathematical MIRD-type body models. It was shown that the schematic organ shapes of the MIRD-type phantoms presented an over- simplification, having an influence on the resulting dose coefficients, which may deviate systematically from those calculated for voxel models. In its recent recommendations, the ICRP adopted a couple of voxel phantoms for future calculations of organ dose coefficients. The phantoms are based on medical image data of real persons and are consistent with the information given in ICRP Publication 89 on the reference anatomical and physiological parameters for both male and female subjects. The reference voxel models were constructed by modifying the voxel models 'Golem' and 'Laura' developed in our working group of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled the reference data. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP data on the Reference Male and Reference Female, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. This paper describes the methods used for this process and the characteristics of the resulting voxel models. Furthermore, to illustrate the uses of these phantoms, conversion coefficients for some external exposures are also presented. (author)

  1. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

  2. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  3. Fast Reference-Based MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Weizman, Lior; Ben-Basaht, Dafna

    2015-01-01

    In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In some cases, a previously acquired image can serve as a reference image, that may exhibit similarity to the image being acquired. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient. In this paper we present a general framework for utilizing reference images for fast MRI. We take into account that the reference image may exhibit low similarity with the acquired image and develop an iterative weighted approach for reconstruction, which tunes the weights according to the degree of similarity. Experiments demonstrate the performance of the method in three different clinical MRI scenarios: SNR improvement in high resolution brain MRI, utilizing similarity between T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)...

  4. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  5. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    or survival of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of maize MON 88017 x MON 810 viable grains during transportation and processing. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicant is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 88017 x MON....... Further information from applications for placing the single insert lines MON 88017 and MON 810 on the market under EU regulatory procedures was taken into account where appropriate. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of genetically modified maize...... MON 88017 x MON 810 and all derived products, but excluding cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed maize MON 88017 x MON 810 with reference to the intended uses and the appropriate principles described in the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms...

  6. Calibration of {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y chemical applicators using a mini extrapolation chamber as reference system;Calibracao de aplicadores clinicos de {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y utilizando uma mini-camera de extrapolacao como sistema de referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Mercia L. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y clinical applicators are beta radiation sources utilized in several radiotherapy Brazilian clinics, although don't be more manufactured. These sources are employed in brachytherapy procedures for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and eyes. International recommendations and previous works determine that dermatological and ophthalmic applicators shall be calibrated periodically, and one of the methods for their calibration consists of the use of an extrapolation chamber. In this work, a method of calibration of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y clinical applicators was applied using a mini-extrapolation chamber of plane window, developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN, as a reference system. The results obtained were considered satisfactory, when compared with the results given in the calibration certificates of the sources. (author)

  7. Mixed quantum/classical theory for inelastic scattering of asymmetric-top-rotor + atom in the body-fixed reference frame and application to the H2O + He system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for inelastic molecule-atom scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is extended to treat a general case of an asymmetric-top-rotor molecule in the body-fixed reference frame. This complements a similar theory formulated in the space-fixed reference-frame [M. Ivanov, M.-L. Dubernet, and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 134301 (2014)]. Here, the goal was to develop an approximate computationally affordable treatment of the rotationally inelastic scattering and apply it to H2O + He. We found that MQCT is somewhat less accurate at lower scattering energies. For example, below E = 1000 cm−1 the typical errors in the values of inelastic scattering cross sections are on the order of 10%. However, at higher scattering energies MQCT method appears to be rather accurate. Thus, at scattering energies above 2000 cm−1 the errors are consistently in the range of 1%–2%, which is basically our convergence criterion with respect to the number of trajectories. At these conditions our MQCT method remains computationally affordable. We found that computational cost of the fully-coupled MQCT calculations scales as n2, where n is the number of channels. This is more favorable than the full-quantum inelastic scattering calculations that scale as n3. Our conclusion is that for complex systems (heavy collision partners with many internal states) and at higher scattering energies MQCT may offer significant computational advantages

  8. Mixed quantum/classical theory for inelastic scattering of asymmetric-top-rotor + atom in the body-fixed reference frame and application to the H2O + He system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Alexander; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Babikov, Dmitri

    2014-09-01

    The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for inelastic molecule-atom scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is extended to treat a general case of an asymmetric-top-rotor molecule in the body-fixed reference frame. This complements a similar theory formulated in the space-fixed reference-frame [M. Ivanov, M.-L. Dubernet, and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 134301 (2014)]. Here, the goal was to develop an approximate computationally affordable treatment of the rotationally inelastic scattering and apply it to H2O + He. We found that MQCT is somewhat less accurate at lower scattering energies. For example, below E = 1000 cm-1 the typical errors in the values of inelastic scattering cross sections are on the order of 10%. However, at higher scattering energies MQCT method appears to be rather accurate. Thus, at scattering energies above 2000 cm-1 the errors are consistently in the range of 1%-2%, which is basically our convergence criterion with respect to the number of trajectories. At these conditions our MQCT method remains computationally affordable. We found that computational cost of the fully-coupled MQCT calculations scales as n2, where n is the number of channels. This is more favorable than the full-quantum inelastic scattering calculations that scale as n3. Our conclusion is that for complex systems (heavy collision partners with many internal states) and at higher scattering energies MQCT may offer significant computational advantages.

  9. Sizewell 'B' PWR reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reference design for a PWR power station to be constructed as Sizewell 'B' is presented in 3 volumes containing 14 chapters and in a volume of drawings. The report describes the proposed design and provides the basis upon which the safety case and the Pre-Construction Safety Report have been prepared. The station is based on a 3425MWt Westinghouse PWR providing steam to two turbine generators each of 600 MW. The layout and many of the systems are based on the SNUPPS design for Callaway which has been chosen as the US reference plant for the project. (U.K.)

  10. A deflationary theory of reference

    OpenAIRE

    Båve, Arvid

    2009-01-01

    The article first rehearses three deflationary theories of reference, (1) disquotationalism, (2) propositionalism (Horwich), and (3) the anaphoric theory (Brandom), and raises a number of objections against them. It turns out that each corresponds to a closely related theory of truth, and that these are subject to analogous criticisms to a surprisingly high extent. I then present a theory of my own, according to which the schema “That S(t) is about t” and the biconditional “S refers to x iff ...

  11. Social reference: Toward a unifying theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shachaf, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the need for a theoretical approach to reference research and specifically concentrates on a lacuna in conceptual research on social reference. Social reference refers to online question answering services that are provided by communities of volunteers on question and answer (Q&A) sites. Social reference is similar to library reference, but at the same time, it differs significantly from the traditional (and digital) dyadic reference encounter; it involves a collaborati...

  12. Application of improved particle-swarm-optimization in stabilized platform based on multiple reference frame model%改进粒子群优化在稳定平台多空间分析模型的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新明; 曹剑中; 杨洪涛; 王华伟; 杨磊; 廖加文; 王华; 雷杨杰

    2015-01-01

    常规伺服系统根据电机轴系转动进行模型分析,以轴系所在的基座空间作为参照系。稳定平台的被控量以惯性空间作为参照系,因此不适合用常规伺服系统模型来建模。针对稳定平台的多参照系问题,文章采用以惯性空间作为电机轴系转动参照系的多空间分析模型,并将改进粒子群算法应用于该模型。粒子群算法作为一种群智能算法,广泛应用于参数优化。文中通过惯性权重改进和越界改进,利用改进后的粒子群算法进行稳定平台PID参数的优化和整定。通过仿真和硬件实验平台验证,结果表明:在稳定平台多空间分析模型基础之上,采用改进粒子群算法优化后的PID控制器可以使稳定平台有更高的稳定精度、更好的鲁棒性,有效地隔离了外部的震动和干扰。%In the conventional servo system, model analysis according to motor axis and base space is used as a reference. However, when analyzing the stabilized platform, it is not compatible due to in which exists inertial space and base space. In order to solve this problem, the multiple reference frame model was proposed, where direct-current motor model was based on inertial space. On the basis of the multiple reference frame model, an improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm was also proposed. As a kind of swarm intelligence algorithm, PSO was widely used in parameters optimization. The traditional PSO on inertial weight and slopping-over borders were improved, and then, it was adopted in tuning and optimization of PID parameters. The simulation and experiments results indicate that the improved PSO (IPSO) PID controller can obviously enhance the static precision and effectively isolate the vibration and disturbance of carrier.

  13. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between

  14. Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

  15. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  16. Space Station reference configuration update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Tom F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reference configuration of the NASA Space Station as of November 1985 is presented in a series of diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables. The configurations for components to be contributed by ESA, Canada, and Japan are included. Brief captions are provided, along with answers to questions raised at the conference.

  17. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  18. Reference Values of Skin Autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Lutgers, H. L.; de Jonge, C.; Links, T. P.; Smit, A. J.; Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (AF) as measured with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies, Groningen, The Netherlands) is a noninvasive prognostic marker in diabetes mellitus and other diseases with increased cardiovascular risk. This study provides reference values of healthy Caucasian contr

  19. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  20. Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

  1. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  2. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  3. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  4. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.;

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  5. Crowdsourcing Application of Virtual Reference Service in University Libraries%众包在高校图书馆虚拟参考咨询服务中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced crowdsourcing and its advantages. Human resource shortage is one of the bottlenecks for the development of virtual reference service in university libraries, crowdsourcing model will contribute to further enhancing its service level and service quality.%众包借助互联网的优势,低成本汇聚各地的人力资源,解决原本需要高昂费用才能解决甚至不能解决的问题。人力资源不足是影响高校虚拟参考咨询服务健康发展的瓶颈之一,学习、借鉴和引进众包模式,将有助于进一步提高其服务水平和服务质量。

  6. Application of reference method in the standardization for the determination of alanine aminotransferase%参考方法在丙氨酸氨基转移酶测定标准化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑松柏; 王建兵; 黄宪章; 马艳; 庄俊华; 徐宁; 周华友; 陈茶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy and comparability of alanine aminotransferase(ALT) measurement results in human serum samples and commercial materials before and after calibration with frozen human serum calibrator assigned by reference method. Methods Five frozen human-pooled serum samples were assigned values by the reference method without pyridoxal 5-phosphate for ALT in four candidate reference laboratories, which were used to evaluate the results of ALT catalytic activity detected by ten testing systems in Guangzhou. One of the serum sample was used as the common calibrator. The results of serum samples and commercial materials from different systems before and after calibration were analyzed for biases and intersystem variations. Results After calibration,the variance of the systems for the results of serum samples decreased from between 11. 90% and 8. 60% to between 6. 78% and 2. 30% ,and the bias decreased dramatically from between - 12. 52% and - 8. 44 % to between - 3. 36% and -0. 08%. Slopes of the regression lines of ALT results of serum samples between reference systems and routine systems after calibration were closer to 1 and intercepts closer to 0 than those obtained before calibration. Conclusion Accuracy and comparability of ALT measurements could be improved by using a common human serum calibrator. But commercial materials might not be commutable for human serum in ALT measurements.%目的 调查不同检测系统使用经参考方法赋值的冰冻人血清样本作为校准品进行校准后,不同来源样本丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)测定结果的可比性与准确性的改变程度.方法 5份经4家候选参考实验室应用不含磷酸吡哆醛的ALT参考方法定值的冰冻人混合血清样本用于评价广州地区10个不同检测系统ALT催化活性结果的可比性与准确性.其中一个样本用作校准品校准各系统.比较校准前后各系统间新鲜血清样本与商品制备物测定

  7. OpenGIS参考模型ORM及地理信息服务应用模式%OpenGIS Reference Model(ORM)and Application Schema for Geographic Information Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海龙; 邬伦

    2004-01-01

    地理信息语义互操作是地理信息共享应用的基础,为解决OpenGIS抽象规范与实施规范在地理信息语义描述上的不足,OGC建立了OpenGIS参考模型(OpenGIS Reference Model,ORM),旨在通过ORM实现地理信息共享与互操作.该文从空间信息应用政策、空间信息语义描述、空间信息服务定义与分类、多网络服务配置、共享开发标准五个层面介绍ORM,并分析基于ORM的地理信息服务应用模式.

  8. References for Haplotype Imputation in the Big Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Li, Qiling; Ma, Li; Song, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Imputation is a powerful in silico approach to fill in those missing values in the big datasets. This process requires a reference panel, which is a collection of big data from which the missing information can be extracted and imputed. Haplotype imputation requires ethnicity-matched references; a mismatched reference panel will significantly reduce the quality of imputation. However, currently existing big datasets cover only a small number of ethnicities, there is a lack of ethnicity-matched references for many ethnic populations in the world, which has hampered the data imputation of haplotypes and its downstream applications. To solve this issue, several approaches have been proposed and explored, including the mixed reference panel, the internal reference panel and genotype-converted reference panel. This review article provides the information and comparison between these approaches. Increasing evidence showed that not just one or two genetic elements dictate the gene activity and functions; instead, cis-interactions of multiple elements dictate gene activity. Cis-interactions require the interacting elements to be on the same chromosome molecule, therefore, haplotype analysis is essential for the investigation of cis-interactions among multiple genetic variants at different loci, and appears to be especially important for studying the common diseases. It will be valuable in a wide spectrum of applications from academic research, to clinical diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27274952

  9. Project X: Accelerator Reference Design

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, S D; Chase, B; Gollwitzer, K; Johnson, D; Kaducak, M; Klebaner, A; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Leveling, A; Li, D; Nagaitsev, S; Ostroumov, P; Pasquinelli, R; Patrick, J; Prost, L; Scarpine, V; Shemyakin, A; Solyak, N; Steimel, J; Yakovlev, V; Zwaska, R

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". Part 1 contains the volume Preface and a description of the conceptual design for a high-intensity proton accelerator facility being developed to support a world-leading program of Intensity Frontier physics over the next two decades at Fermilab. Subjects covered include performance goals, the accelerator physics design, and the technological basis for such a facility.

  10. Reference Electrodes in Metal Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    S. Szabó; Bakos, I.

    2010-01-01

    With especial regard to hydrogen electrode, the theoretical fundamentals of electrode potential, the most important reference electrodes and the electrode potential measurement have been discussed. In the case of the hydrogen electrode, it have been emphasised that there is no equilibrium between the hydrogen molecule (H2) and the hydrogen (H+), hydronium (H3O+) ion in the absence of a suitable catalyst. Taking into account the practical aspects as well, the theorectical basis of working of h...

  11. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  12. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    OpenAIRE

    Macmillan, Susan; Finlay, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is an internationally agreed and widely used mathematical model of the Earth’s magnetic field of internal origin. We describe its inception in the 1960s and how it has developed since. We also describe the current generation of the IGRF and potential future developments. Maps of the geomagnetic field derived from the IGRF and valid for 2010-2015 are also included.

  13. Hanford Waste Mineralogy Reference Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  14. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  15. Tv & video engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, K G

    1991-01-01

    TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten

  16. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  17. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  18. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  19. Research and Application of Reference Information Model in Digital Medical Service Pattern%RIM模型在数字医疗服务模式中的研究应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔欣; 谢桦; 陈春妍; 孟群; 胡建平

    2016-01-01

    近年来,以物联网、移动互联网、云计算、大数据为代表的数字化技术为医疗服务创新提供了强大的技术保障,促使医疗服务从传统医疗业向医疗服务创新的新兴医疗服务转型。本文旨在应用参考信息模型(RIM)的框架,深入分析数字化技术对医疗服务模式的影响,并对传统模式改为存在的问题提出解决技术建议。%In recent years, the digital technology(such as the Internet, mobile Internet, cloud computing, big data) provides powerful technical guarantee for medical service innovation, and promotes the traditional medical service industry transformation. The purpose of this paper is to use the framework of reference information model (RIM), for analyzing the influence of digital technology on the medical service pattern in-depth, and puts forward suggestions on the solution of the problems for traditional pattern in technology.

  20. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for β2-MG was 3.5 μg/g creatinine in men and 3.7 μg/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  1. Future National Reference Frames for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." NSRS is the nation's system of latitude, longitude, elevation, and related geophysical and geodetic models and tools, which provides a consistent spatial reference framework for the broad spectrum of geoscientific applications and other positioning-related requirements. Technological developments - notably Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - and user accuracy requirements necessitate that NGS endeavor to modernize the NSRS. Preparations are underway by NGS for a comprehensive NSRS makeover, to be completed in 2022 and delivered through a new generation of horizontal and vertical datums (reference frames), featuring unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency of access. This evolution is outlined in the "National Geodetic Survey Ten-Year Strategic Plan, 2013-2023." This presentation will outline the motivation for this effort and the history, current status and planned evolution of NSRS. Fundamental to the delivery of the future reference frame paradigm are new geometric and geopotential (elevation) frameworks. The new geometric reference frame, realized through GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), will replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and will provide the nationwide framework for determination of latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height. Designed to complement the new geometric reference frame, a corresponding geopotential reference frame - based on a national gravimetric geoid and replacing the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) - will be developed and co-released. The gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential reference frame will be built in part from airborne gravimetric data collected in

  2. An Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on Virtual Horizontal Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The output of the attitude determination systems suffers from large errors in case of accelerometer malfunctions. In this paper, an attitude estimator, based on Virtual Horizontal Reference (VHR), is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) to cope with this problem. The VHR...... makes it possible to correct the output of roll and pitch of the attitude estimator in the situations without accelerometer measurements, which cannot be achieved by the conventional nonlinear attitude estimator. The performance of VHR is tested both in simulation and hardware environment to validate...... their estimation performance. Moreover, the hardware test results are compared with that of a high-precision commercial AHRS to verify the estimation results. The implemented algorithm has shown high accuracy of attitude estimation that makes the system suitable for many applications....

  3. Programming Windows® Embedded CE 60 Developer Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Boling, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Get the popular, practical reference to developing small footprint applications-now updated for the Windows Embedded CE 6.0 kernel. Written by an authority on embedded application development, this book focuses in on core operating concepts and the Win32 API. It delivers extensive code samples and sample projects-helping you build proficiency creating innovative Windows applications for a new generation of devices. Discover how to: Create complex applications designed for the unique requirements of embedded devicesManage virtual memory, heaps, and the stack to minimize your memory footprintC

  4. VERA: Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan; Tølle, Martin; Bernus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    . To prepare for this is a complex task, in fact all business, management and planning views, and related subject areas and activities, may be involved. In order to deal with this complexity in a systematic way and secure global understanding Globemen has developed a Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture......Globalisation, outsourcing and customisation are main challenges of today not least for one-of-a-kind producers. A crucial competitive factor will be the ability rapidly to form customer focused virtual enterprises comprised of competencies from different partners by taking full advantage of ICT...

  5. Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Kreines, David

    2003-01-01

    If you work with Oracle, then you don't need to be told that the data dictionary is large and complex, and grows larger with each new Oracle release. It's one of the basic elements of the Oracle database you interact with regularly, but the sheer number of tables and views makes it difficult to remember which view you need, much less the name of the specific column. Want to make it simpler? The Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference puts all the information you need right at your fingertips. Its handy and compact format lets you locate the table and view you need effortlessly without stoppin

  6. Nuclear power a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Harry R

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, nuclear power has been identified as a viable alternative to traditional energy sources to stem global climate change, and condemned as risky to human health and environmentally irresponsible. Do the advantages of nuclear energy outweigh the risks, especially in light of the meltdown at the Fukushima plant in 2011? This guide provides both a comprehensive overview of this critical and controversial technology, presenting reference tools that include important facts and statistics, biographical profiles, a chronology, and a glossary. It covers major controversies and proposed solutions in detail and contains contributions by experts and important stakeholders that provide invaluable perspective on the topic.

  7. Energy reference forecast for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has commissioned three reputed institutions to prepare an energy reference forecast as well as a target scenario up to the year 2050. The results of this survey evidence a substantial need for political action if the goals of the Federal Government's energy concept are to be achieved as planned. In view of the wide range of interests among the players involved as well as the complexity of the demands facing the political leadership from diverse areas of life it appears unlikely that the targets laid down in the energy concept can be realised.

  8. Reference atmospheres: VIRA II -Venus International Reference Atmosphere update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, Ludmila

    2012-07-01

    VIRA I was started in 1982 (30 years ago) and published in1985 (ASR,v5,n11, 1985) by G. Keating, A. Kliore, and V. Moroz. The purpose was to produce a concise, descriptive model summarizing the physical properties of the atmosphere of Venus, which by then had been extensively observed by instruments on board the Venera and Pioneer space probes. VIRA was used by many scientists and engineers in their studies as referent standard of atmospheric data. Afterwards several missions have obtained new data. In particular the experiments on late Veneras and Venus Express. Experiments on board of VEX, working on the orbit for 6 years, provide new high quality data on atmospheric structure, clouds properties, dynamics, composition of the atmosphere, thermal balance, ionosphere. These new data will be used for VIRA update. Original data consists of 7 Chapters.(1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude, (2) Circulation of the atmosphere from surface to 100 km, (3) Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere, (4) Models of Venus neutral upper atmosphere: structure and composition, (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude, (6) Solar and thermal radiation in the Venus atmosphere, (7) The Venus ionosphere. By 2002 Gerry Keating collected materials to update VIRA. But only two chapter were published: (1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude (Zasova et al, 2006, Cosmic Research, 44, N4), (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude (De Bergh et al. 2006, PSS). Both these chapters were based on the data, obtained before VEX. At the moment the structure of the original VIRA looks acceptable for VIRA II also, however, new Chapters may be added. At COSPAR 2014 in Moscow the session on Reference atmospheres (RAPS), may be proposed to continue discussion on VIRA, and start working on MIRA, and complete VIRA and publish (including CD) after COSPAR 2016 (or may be even

  9. Portals Reference Implementation v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-15

    The Portals reference implementation is based on the Portals 4.X API, published by Sandia National Laboratories as a freely available public document. It is designed to be an implementation of the Portals Networking Application Programming Interface and is used by several other upper layer protocols like SHMEM, GASNet and MPI. It is implemented over existing networks, specifically Ethernet and InfiniBand networks. This implementation provides Portals networks functionality and serves as a software emulation of Portals compliant networking hardware. It can be used to develop software using the Portals API prior to the debut of Portals networking hardware, such as Bull’s BXI interconnect, as well as a substitute for portals hardware on development platforms that do not have Portals compliant hardware. The reference implementation provides new capabilities beyond that of a typical network, namely the ability to have messages matched in hardware in a way compatible with upper layer software such as MPI or SHMEM. It also offers methods of offloading network operations via triggered operations, which can be used to create offloaded collective operations. Specific details on the Portals API can be found at http://portals4.org.

  10. User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service Virtual reference services, Reference services, Referrals, User satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Nahyun Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnai...

  11. Application of reference gene for real-time RT-PCR%内参照基因在实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑾歆; 陈建业; 李云祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立测定内参照β-actin表达量的实时荧光定量RT-PCR两步法检测方法.方法 根据Genbank 中人β-actin保守区域序列设计荧光PCR适用的引物和探针,构建质粒标准品建立标准曲线用于荧光PCR相对定量,检测荧光PCR方法的特异性和重复性.结果 建立了人β-actin实时荧光RT-PCR检测方法.结论 本实验建立的人β-actin表达实时荧光RT-PCR两步法检测方法特异性和重复性较好,为β-actin作为定量RT-PCR中内参照基因进行人其他功能基因和病原基因表达的定量分析奠定了基础.%Objective To establish a Taqman real-time RT-PCR 2-step assay for quantitative detection of the expression of human β-actin. Methods Specific primers and probes were designed for real-time RT-PCR according to β-actin cDNA sequence. Plasmid standard preparations were constructed by T-A clone, extracted and prepared for establishing standard curve used for relative quantification real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of β-actin were measured by real-time RT-PCR in HepG2 cells to detect the specificity and reproducibility of real-time RT-PCR assay. Results An effective real-time RT-PCR assay was established for detecting β-actin mRNA expression levels.Conclusions The real-time PCR assay for the expression of β-actin is a sensitive, specific tool for quantitative assay of mRNA expression levels of other gene when using β-actin as reference genes.

  12. Semantic Features for Classifying Referring Search Terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Chandler J.; Henry, Michael J.; McGrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.; Marshall, Eric J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-05-11

    When an internet user clicks on a result in a search engine, a request is submitted to the destination web server that includes a referrer field containing the search terms given by the user. Using this information, website owners can analyze the search terms leading to their websites to better understand their visitors needs. This work explores some of the features that can be used for classification-based analysis of such referring search terms. We present initial results for the example task of classifying HTTP requests countries of origin. A system that can accurately predict the country of origin from query text may be a valuable complement to IP lookup methods which are susceptible to the obfuscation of dereferrers or proxies. We suggest that the addition of semantic features improves classifier performance in this example application. We begin by looking at related work and presenting our approach. After describing initial experiments and results, we discuss paths forward for this work.

  13. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  14. Shock wave science and technology reference library

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book, as a volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library, is primarily concerned with detonation waves or compression shock waves in reactive heterogeneous media, including mixtures of solid, liquid and gas phases. The topics involve a variety of energy release and control processes in such media - a contemporary research field that has found wide applications in propulsion and power, hazard prevention as well as military engineering. The six extensive chapters contained in this volume are: - Spray Detonation (SB Murray and PA Thibault) - Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow (F Zhang) - Slurry Detonation (DL Frost and F Zhang) - Detonation of Metalized Composite Explosives (MF Gogulya and MA Brazhnikov) - Shock-Induced Solid-Solid Reactions and Detonations (YA Gordopolov, SS Batsanov, and VS Trofimov) - Shock Ignition of Particles (SM Frolov and AV Fedorov) Each chapter is self-contained and can be read independently of the others, though, they are thematically interrelated. They offer a t...

  15. On combining reference data to improve imputation accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is an important tool in human genetics studies, which uses reference sets with known genotypes and prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium and recombination rates to infer un-typed alleles for human genetic variations at a low cost. The reference sets used by current imputation approaches are based on HapMap data, and/or based on recently available next-generation sequencing (NGS data such as data generated by the 1000 Genomes Project. However, with different coverage and call rates for different NGS data sets, how to integrate NGS data sets of different accuracy as well as previously available reference data as references in imputation is not an easy task and has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of three strategies on using NGS data and previously available reference data in genotype imputation for both simulated data and empirical data, in order to obtain guidelines for optimal reference set construction. Briefly, we considered three strategies: strategy 1 uses one NGS data as a reference; strategy 2 imputes samples by using multiple individual data sets of different accuracy as independent references and then combines the imputed samples with samples based on the high accuracy reference selected when overlapping occurs; and strategy 3 combines multiple available data sets as a single reference after imputing each other. We used three software (MACH, IMPUTE2 and BEAGLE for assessing the performances of these three strategies. Our results show that strategy 2 and strategy 3 have higher imputation accuracy than strategy 1. Particularly, strategy 2 is the best strategy across all the conditions that we have investigated, producing the best accuracy of imputation for rare variant. Our study is helpful in guiding application of imputation methods in next generation association analyses.

  16. New SCIAMACHY Solar Reference Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Tina; Bramstedt, Klaus; Weber, Mark; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    The Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard ESA's ENVISAT satellite platform was operating from 2002 until 2012. It was designed to measure the radiance backscattered from the Earth and hence determine total columns and vertical profiles of atmospheric trace gas species. Furthermore SCIAMACHY performed daily sun observations via a diffuser. Solar spectra in the wavelength range from 212 nm to 1760 nm and two narrow bands from 1930 to 2040 nm and 2260 to 2380 nm are measured with a spectral resolution of 0,2 to 1,5 nm in the different channels. Recent developments in the SCIAMACHY calibration (e.g. a physical model of the scanner unit including degradation effects, and an on-ground to in-flight correction using the on-board white light source (WLS)) are used for the generation of a new SCIAMACHY solar reference spectrum as a first step towards a 10 years time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) data. For validation comparisons with other solar reference spectra are performed.

  17. The soil reference shrinkage curve

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

  18. Reference ballistic imaging database performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kinder, Jan; Tulleners, Frederic; Thiebaut, Hugues

    2004-03-10

    Ballistic imaging databases allow law enforcement to link recovered cartridge cases to other crime scenes and to firearms. The success of these databases has led many to propose that all firearms in circulation be entered into a reference ballistic image database (RBID). To assess the performance of an RBID, we fired 4200 cartridge cases from 600 9mm Para Sig Sauer model P226 series pistols. Each pistol fired two Remington cartridges, one of which was imaged in the RBID, and five additional cartridges, consisting of Federal, Speer, Winchester, Wolf, and CCI brands. Randomly selected samples from the second series of Remington cartridge cases and from the five additional brands were then correlated against the RBID. Of the 32 cartridges of the same make correlated against the RBID, 72% ranked in the top 10 positions. Likewise, of the 160 cartridges of the five different brands correlated against the database, 21% ranked in the top 10 positions. Generally, the ranking position increased as the size of the RBID increased. We obtained similar results when we expanded the RBID to include firearms with the same class characteristics for breech face marks, firing pin impressions, and extractor marks. The results of our six queries against the RBID indicate that a reference ballistics image database of new guns is currently fraught with too many difficulties to be an effective and efficient law enforcement tool.

  19. Nuclear science references coding manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1996-08-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices.

  20. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition. PMID:26452376

  1. Instant Messaging Reference: How Does It Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    Compares a digital reference service that uses instant messaging with traditional, face-to-face reference based on experiences at the Southern Illinois University library. Addresses differences in reference questions asked, changes in the reference transaction, student expectations, bibliographic instruction, and librarian attitudes and procedures…

  2. Bibliographic databases: help in preparing reference lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancuzzo, M

    1995-01-01

    Typing bibliography references is time consuming. It is also frustrating to have to retype references when you submit a manuscript to journals using different reference styles. Now you don't need to retype them. Computer programs have been developed which help you reorganize your references to many different styles. This experienced nurse author compares several of these programs for you. PMID:7613563

  3. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  4. The Digital Reference Collection in Academic Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Nestor L.

    2012-01-01

    Reference services and reference collections in academic libraries are going through significant changes. In this paper, some of the issues prevalent today in building and maintaining digital reference collections will be discussed, such as: presentation and organization, marketing, use, and selection of digital reference resources.

  5. 33 CFR 241.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 241.3 Section 241.3... CONTROL COST-SHARING REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE ABILITY TO PAY PROVISION § 241.3 References. References cited..., Hyattsville, MD 20781-1102. References cited in paragraphs (d) and (e) may be obtained from the...

  6. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  7. Management Models and Considerations for Virtual Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Joe

    2008-01-01

    This column (from the ongoing column “Better Practices From the Field” in Science & Technology Libraries), explores the major management considerations for developing and maintaining virtual reference services. Topics include staffing models, choosing technologies, training staff, and workflows for diffuse reference services including text messaging reference, instant messaging reference, and reference via emerging library 2.0 and 3.0 venues. Lessons learned and suggested best practices are s...

  8. An overview of digital reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Hemnani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Digital reference service is an emerging trend of traditional reference service. Easily accessible digital reference service has become one of the hallmark of the library and information services. The paper highlights how new visage of traditional reference service is developing as a natural solution to keep pace with comprehensive technological environment. It discusses about the basic concepts, elements of digital reference service and give in detail modes, the advantages, limitations, and...

  9. 46 CFR 27.102 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Director of the Federal Register—in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce... reference in this part and the sections affected are: American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC), 613 Third... Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 SAE J1475-1984—Hydraulic Hose Fitting for Marine Applications...

  10. CrocoPat 2.1 Introduction and Reference Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, Dirk; Noack, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    CrocoPat is an efficient, powerful and easy-to-use tool for manipulating relations of arbitrary arity, including directed graphs. This manual provides an introduction to and a reference for CrocoPat and its programming language RML. It includes several application examples, in particular from the analysis of structural models of software systems.

  11. 29 CFR 507.1 - Cross-reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONS AND AS FASHION MODELS § 507.1 Cross-reference. Regulations governing labor condition applications requirements for employers using nonimmigrants on H-1B specialty visas in specialty occupations and as fashion models are found at 20 CFR part 655, subparts H and I....

  12. The Micropaleontological Reference Centers Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Micropaleontological Reference Centers (MRCscomprise large microfossil slide collections prepared from core samples obtained through the Deep Sea Drilling Project(DSDP and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP. The MRCs have been maintained for three decades, largely as a volunteer effort by a global network of curators at more than a dozen institutions (Fig.1, Table 1. They were originallyintended to provide a permanent micropaleontological archive for the DSDP; however, as their geographic and stratigraphic coverage has increased they have become increasingly valuable for research and teaching. This article describes the MRCs and their current usage, identifi es the need to maintain and improve the accuracy of the microfossil taxonomy upon which most DSDP and ODP geochronologyis based, and cites the potential for the future use of the MRCs by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP.

  13. New Concepts in Digital Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lankes, R David

    2009-01-01

    Let us start with a simple scenario: a man asks a woman 'how high is Mount Everest?' The woman replies '29,029 feet'. Nothing could be simpler. Now let us suppose that rather than standing in a room, or sitting on a bus, the man is at his desk and the woman is 300 miles away with the conversation taking place using e-mail. Still simple? Certainly - it happens every day. So why all the bother about digital (virtual, electronic, chat, etc.) reference? If the man is a pilot flying over Mount Everest, the answer matters. If you are a lawyer going to court, the identity of the woman is very importa

  14. Gender agreement and multiple referents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana ‘the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem’) than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro ‘the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas’). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.* PMID:21037930

  15. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

  16. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  17. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebben, G., E-mail: gert.roebben@ec.europa.eu [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Rasmussen, K. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy); Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Rauscher, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy); Emons, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium); Stamm, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term 'representative test material' is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  18. Determination of Reference Catalogs for Meridian Observations Using Statistical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The meridian observational data are useful for developing high-precision planetary ephemerides of the solar system. These historical data are provided by the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) or the Institut De Mecanique Celeste Et De Calcul Des Ephemerides (IMCCE). However, we find that the reference systems (realized by the fundamental catalogs FK3 (Third Fundamental Catalogue), FK4 (Fourth Fundamental Catalogue), and FK5 (Fifth Fundamental Catalogue), or Hipparcos), to which the observations are referred, are not given explicitly for some sets of data. The incompleteness of information prevents us from eliminating the systematic effects due to the different fundamental catalogs. The purpose of this paper is to specify clearly the reference catalogs of these observations with the problems in their records by using the JPL DE421 ephemeris. The data for the corresponding planets in the geocentric celestial reference system (GCRS) obtained from the DE421 are transformed to the apparent places with different hypothesis regarding the reference catalogs. Then the validations of the hypothesis are tested by two kinds of statistical quantities which are used to indicate the significance of difference between the original and transformed data series. As a result, this method is proved to be effective for specifying the reference catalogs, and the missed information is determined unambiguously. Finally these meridian data are transformed to the GCRS for further applications in the development of planetary ephemerides.

  19. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term ‘representative test material’ is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  20. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course: References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is a collection of reference materials to be used with the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course textbooks. This collection consists of information on romanization systems, indexes for reading and writing characters, and other tables for quick reference. (NCR)

  1. CA Wellness Plan Data Reference Guide

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The purpose of the California Wellness Plan (CWP) Data Reference Guide (Reference Guide) is to provide access to the lowest-level data for each CWP Objective;...

  2. Medical reference dosimetry using EPR measurements of alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Rosendal, F.; Kofoed, I.M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Electron spin resonance (EPR) is used to determine the absorbed dose of alanine dosimeters exposed to clinical photon beams in a solid-water phantom. Alanine is potentially suitable for medical reference dosimetry, because of its near water equivalence over a wide energy spectrum, low...... methods the proposed algorithm can be applied without normalisation of phase shifts caused by changes in the g-value of the cavity. The study shows that alanine dosimetry is a suitable candidate for medical reference dosimetry especially for quality control applications....

  3. Java Foundation Classes in a Nutshell Desktop Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1999-01-01

    Java Foundation Classes in a Nutshell is an indispensable quick reference for Java programmers who are writing applications that use graphics or graphical user interfaces. The author of the bestsellingJava in a Nutshell has written fast-paced introductions to the Java APIs that comprise the Java Foundation Classes (JFC), such as the Swing GUI components and Java 2D, so that you can start using these exciting new technologies right away. This book also includes O'Reilly's classic-style, quick-reference material for all of the classes in the javax.swing and java.awt packages and their numerous

  4. New trends of library reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, W.M.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Reference service is considered as the heart of the library services. It is a service, facilitated by a reference librarian, which meets the information needs of users with desired information. Like many other library services, library reference service also has changed with the impact of emerging technologies and in par with changing social needs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these new trends of library reference services. These new trends are divided into four main areas name...

  5. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  6. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 242.3 Section 242.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references...

  7. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1954, as amended by the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (24 CFR 600.72). (12) Executive... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false References. 59.4 Section 59.4... References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under...

  8. 33 CFR 277.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 277.3 Section 277.3... References. (a) Section 6, Pub. L. 647, 67th Congress, 21 June 1940, as amended (33 U.S.C. 516). (Appendix A...) Coast Guard reference: COMDT (G-OPT-3), Exemplification-Principles of Apportionment of Cost...

  9. 5 CFR 294.401 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 294.401 Section 294.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION Cross References § 294.401 References. The table below provides assistance in locating other...

  10. 40 CFR 312.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 312.11 Section 312.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Definitions and References § 312.11 References. The following industry standards may be used to comply...

  11. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 861.1 Section 861.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References. The following references apply to this...

  12. Inertial reference frames and gravitational forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connection between different definitions of inertial, i.e. fundamental, reference frames and the corresponding characterisation of gravitational fields by gravitational forces are considered from the point of view of their possible interpretation in university introductory courses. The introduction of a special class of reference frames, denoted 'mixed reference frames' is proposed and discussed. (author)

  13. jQuery Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2010-01-01

    "As someone who uses jQuery on a regular basis, it was surprising to discover how much of the library I'm not using. This book is indispensable for anyone who is serious about using jQuery for non-trivial applications."-- Raffaele Cecco, longtime developer of video games, including Cybernoid, Exolon, and Stormlord jQuery is the "write less, do more" JavaScript library. Its powerful features and ease of use have made it the most popular client-side JavaScript framework for the Web. This book is jQuery's trusty companion: the definitive "read less, learn more" guide to the library. jQuery P

  14. User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service Virtual reference services, Reference services, Referrals, User satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.

  15. FENDL: International reference nuclear data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA nuclear data section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an internationally available fusion evaluated nuclear data library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron-photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon-atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2 million blocks or about 1 Gigabyte (1 block=512 bytes) of numerical data is currently available on-line. (orig.)

  16. Reference data sets for testing metrology software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, G. J. P.; Harris, P. M.; Smith, I. M.; Forbes, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Many fields of metrology rely on calculations that are implemented in software. When such software is used to provide a measurement result, which is required to be traceable, it is necessary to recognise explicitly the software and show it to be operating correctly. An approach to testing the performance of calculation software is based on using reference pairs each of which comprises reference input data applied as input to the software and corresponding reference output data against which the output data of the software is compared. However, to make the reference pair useful for verifying and validating calculation software, information is needed about the numerical accuracy of the reference pair, the numerical sensitivity of the reference output data to perturbations in the reference input data, and the measurement uncertainty associated with the reference output data arising from simulated measurement uncertainty associated with the reference input data. Such information is important as a means to express quantitatively the quality of the reference pair as a numerical artefact to test calculation software, and as a basis for performance metrics to express quantitatively the numerical performance of software. In this paper these additional components of a reference data set are described, and various approaches to calculating them are discussed. An example, concerned with the calculation of the Gaussian (least-squares) best-fit plane to measured data, which is typical of calculations undertaken in coordinate metrology, is used to illustrate the ideas presented.

  17. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs

  18. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs.

  19. Design Reference Missions for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, J.; Abraham, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential, but uncertain, NASA mission portfolio out to a time horizon of 20 years, to identify mission concepts that potentially could benefit from optical communication, considering their communications needs, the environments in which they would operate, and their notional size, weight, and power constraints. A set of 12 design reference missions was selected to represent the full range of potential missions. These design reference missions span the space of potential customer requirements, and encompass the wide range of applications that an optical ground segment might eventually be called upon to serve. The design reference missions encompass a range of orbit types, terminal sizes, and positions in the solar system that reveal the chief system performance variables of an optical ground segment, and may be used to enable assessments of the ability of alternative systems to meet various types of customer needs.

  20. Emmetropic eyes: objective performance and clinical reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepichín-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Cruz Felix, Angel S.; López-Olazagasti, Estela; Balderas-Mata, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    The application of the wavefront sensors to measuring the monochromatic aberrations of the normal human eyes has given a new insight in the objective understanding of its performance. The resultant wavefront aberration function can be applied to evaluate the image quality on the retina, which includes the analysis of the higher-order aberrations. Among others, and due to their well-known mathematical properties for circular apertures, the wavefront aberration function is most commonly represented in terms of the Zernike polynomials. The main idea is to have a clinical reference of the objective performance of a set of normal human eyes. However, the high-order aberrations in normal human eyes are different for each persoņ that can be interpreted as that there are many possible solutions for the objective performance of emmetropic eyes. When dealing with the Zernike coefficients and excluding the spherical aberration, higher-order aberrations have a tendency to have a zero mean value. Different proposals have been suggested in the literature to deal with this feature. Moreover, it has been also shown that there is an ethnic dependency in the magnitude of the aberrations. We present in this work the objective performance of a set of uncorrected Mexican eyes, and compare them with other ethnic results published in the literature.

  1. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  2. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material

  3. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO2) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods. Two

  4. Charging circuit for a reference capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, C.R.

    1987-04-14

    In a circuit adapted for use with a capacitor for storing a reference voltage supplied by a reference source, the improvement is described comprising: comparison means for comparing the voltage across the capacitor and the voltage of the reference source, and providing an output when the difference in the capacitor voltage and the voltage of the reference source exceeds a predetermined maximum; charge means responsive to the comparison means, for charging the capacitor when the difference in the capacitor voltage and the voltage of the reference source exceeds the predetermined maximum so as to reduce the difference, and switch means responsive to the comparison means output, for coupling the reference source to the capacitor to enable the reference source to directly charge the capacitor to a voltage equal to the reference voltage. The switch means is also for uncoupling the reference source from the capacitor while the capacitor comparison means compares the reference source and capacitor voltages and while the charge means is charging the capacitor.

  5. Reference Signal Reconstruction and Its Impact on Detection Performance of WiFi-based Passive Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Yunhua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While Wireless Fidelity (WiFi-based passive radar can achieve high detection resolution in both the range and Doppler domain, it is difficult to extract the reference signal because of the complexities of its signal format and application scenarios. In this study, we analyze a typical application of WiFi-based passive radar and discuss different methods for reference signal extraction. Based on the format and features of WiFi signals, we propose a method for reference signal reconstruction, and analyze the influence of the reconstructed reference signal’s performance on detection. The results show that higher reference SNRs generate lower decoding bit rate errors and better clutter suppression with the reconstructed reference signal. Moreover, we propose a method for removing irrelevant signals to avoid the impact on target detection of a non-direct path signal in the receiving signal. The experimental results validate the efficacy of the proposed signal processing method.

  6. Blood plasma reference material: a global resource for proteomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Johan; Danmyr, Pia; Nilsson, Rolf; Appelqvist, Roger; Végvári, Akos; Marko-Varga, György

    2013-07-01

    There is an ever-increasing awareness and interest within the clinical research field, creating a large demand for blood fraction samples as well as other clinical samples. The translational research area is another field that is demanding for blood samples, used widely in proteomics, genomics, as well as metabolomics. Blood samples are globally the most common biological samples that are used in a broad variety of applications in life science. We hereby introduce a new reference blood plasma standard (heparin) that is aimed as a global resource for the proteomics community. We have developed these reference plasma standards by defining the Control group as those with C-reactive protein levels 30 mg/L. In these references we have used both newborn children 1-2 weeks, as well as youngsters 15-30 years, and middle aged 30-50 years, and elderly patients at the ages of 65+. In total, there were 80 patients in each group in the reference plasma pools. We provide data on the developments and characteristics of the reference blood plasma standards, as well as what is used by the team members at the respective laboratories. The standards have been evaluated by pilot sample processing in biobanking operations and are currently a resource that allows the Proteomic society to perform quantitative proteomic studies. By the use of high quality reference plasma samples, global initiatives, such as the Chromosome Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), will benefit as one scientific program when the entire human proteome is mapped and linked to human diseases. The plasma reference standards are a global resource and can be accessed upon request. PMID:23701512

  7. Reference View Selection in DIBR-Based Multiview Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugey, Thomas; Petrazzuoli, Giovanni; Frossard, Pascal; Cagnazzo, Marco; Pesquet-Popescu, Beatrice

    2016-04-01

    Augmented reality, interactive navigation in 3D scenes, multiview video, and other emerging multimedia applications require large sets of images, hence larger data volumes and increased resources compared with traditional video services. The significant increase in the number of images in multiview systems leads to new challenging problems in data representation and data transmission to provide high quality of experience on resource-constrained environments. In order to reduce the size of the data, different multiview video compression strategies have been proposed recently. Most of them use the concept of reference or key views that are used to estimate other images when there is high correlation in the data set. In such coding schemes, the two following questions become fundamental: 1) how many reference views have to be chosen for keeping a good reconstruction quality under coding cost constraints? And 2) where to place these key views in the multiview data set? As these questions are largely overlooked in the literature, we study the reference view selection problem and propose an algorithm for the optimal selection of reference views in multiview coding systems. Based on a novel metric that measures the similarity between the views, we formulate an optimization problem for the positioning of the reference views, such that both the distortion of the view reconstruction and the coding rate cost are minimized. We solve this new problem with a shortest path algorithm that determines both the optimal number of reference views and their positions in the image set. We experimentally validate our solution in a practical multiview distributed coding system and in the standardized 3D-HEVC multiview coding scheme. We show that considering the 3D scene geometry in the reference view, positioning problem brings significant rate-distortion improvements and outperforms the traditional coding strategy that simply selects key frames based on the distance between cameras. PMID

  8. Reference frames in virtual spatial navigation are viewpoint dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágoston eTörök

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation in the mammalian brain relies on a cognitive map of the environment. Such cognitive maps enable us, for example, to take the optimal route from a given location to a known target. The formation of these maps is naturally influenced by our perception of the environment, meaning it is dependent on factors such as our viewpoint and choice of reference frame. Yet, it is unknown how these factors influence the construction of cognitive maps. Here, we evaluated how various combinations of viewpoints and reference frames affect subjects’ performance when they navigated in a bounded virtual environment without landmarks. We measured both their path length and time efficiency and found that (i ground perspective was associated with egocentric frame of reference, (ii aerial perspective was associated with allocentric frame of reference, (iii there was no appreciable performance difference between first and third person egocentric viewing positions and (iv while none of these effects were dependent on gender, males tended to perform better in general. Our study provides evidence that there are inherent associations between visual perspectives and cognitive reference frames. This result has implications about the mechanisms of path integration in the human brain and may also inspire designs of virtual reality applications. Lastly, we demonstrated the effective use of a tablet PC and spatial navigation tasks for studying spatial and cognitive aspects of human memory.

  9. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITOUS PARTNERSHIP PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Kosson, D.; Garrabrants, A.

    2010-08-31

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Project (CBP) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institution cross cutting collaborative effort supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (i) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (ii) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (iii) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, (iv) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (v) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (i) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (ii) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (iii) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

  10. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2009-01-06

    The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

  11. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungwoo Nam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA that reconstructs a transcriptome based on a linear regression function of the optimized mapping parameters and genetic distances of the closest species. Using the linear model, we reconstructed transcriptomes of four different aves, the white leg horn, turkey, duck, and zebra finch, with the Gallus gallus genome as a pseudo-reference, and of three primates, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque, with the human genome as a pseudo-reference. The resulting transcriptomes show that the PRAs outperformed the de novo approach for species with within about 10% mutation rate among orthologous transcriptomes, enough to cover distantly related species as far as chicken and duck. Taken together, we suggest that the PRA method can be used as a tool for reconstructing transcriptome maps of vertebrates whose genomes have not yet been sequenced.

  12. Pseudo-Reference-Based Assembly of Vertebrate Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoungwoo; Jeong, Heesu; Nam, Jin-Wu

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a comprehensive picture of the transcriptome, including the identity, structure, quantity, and variability of expressed transcripts in cells, through the assembly of sequenced short RNA-seq reads. Although the reference-based approach guarantees the high quality of the resulting transcriptome, this approach is only applicable when the relevant reference genome is present. Here, we developed a pseudo-reference-based assembly (PRA) that reconstructs a transcriptome based on a linear regression function of the optimized mapping parameters and genetic distances of the closest species. Using the linear model, we reconstructed transcriptomes of four different aves, the white leg horn, turkey, duck, and zebra finch, with the Gallus gallus genome as a pseudo-reference, and of three primates, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and macaque, with the human genome as a pseudo-reference. The resulting transcriptomes show that the PRAs outperformed the de novo approach for species with within about 10% mutation rate among orthologous transcriptomes, enough to cover distantly related species as far as chicken and duck. Taken together, we suggest that the PRA method can be used as a tool for reconstructing transcriptome maps of vertebrates whose genomes have not yet been sequenced. PMID:26927182

  13. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations

  14. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  15. A transcriptional reference map of defence hormone responses in potato

    OpenAIRE

    Lea Wiesel; Davis, Jayne L.; Linda Milne; Vanesa Redondo Fernandez; Herold, Miriam B.; Jill Middlefell Williams; Jenny Morris; Hedley, Pete E; Brian Harrower; Newton, Adrian C.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Ingo Hein

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones are involved in diverse aspects of plant life including the regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as governing biotic and abiotic stress responses. We have generated a comprehensive transcriptional reference map of the early potato responses to exogenous application of the defence hormones abscisic acid, brassinolides (applied as epibrassinolide), ethylene (applied as the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid), salicylic acid and jasmoni...

  16. MPEG2 video parameter and no reference PSNR estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    to the MPEG stream. This may be used in systems and applications where the coded stream is not accessible. Detection of MPEG I-frames and DCT (discrete cosine transform) block size is presented. For the I-frames, the quantization parameters are estimated. Combining these with statistics of the reconstructed...... DCT coefficients, the PSNR is estimated from the decoded video without reference images. Tests on decoded fixed rate MPEG2 sequences demonstrate perfect detection rates and good performance of the PSNR estimation....

  17. The Nuclear Science References (NSR) Database and Web Retrieval System

    OpenAIRE

    PRITYCHENKO B.; Betak, E.; Kellett, M. A.; B. Singh; Totans, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 200,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance...

  18. Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

  19. A periodic pricing model considering reference effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Hui; Zhang Chen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal pricing strategies with reference effects in revenue management settings. We firstly propose a static pricing model with the properties of stochastic demand, finite horizon and fixed capacity, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. Secondly, we extend the fixed pricing model to a periodic pricing model and incorporate a memory-based reference price in the demand function to investigate how the reference effect impacts on...

  20. Reference group influence on digital advertising effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Taube, Valtteri

    2015-01-01

    Reference groups have been researched solely based on laboratory experiments. Also there has been multiple demands in the field of marketing research for replication studies. This thesis will be answering the need and simultaneously making use of new advertisement tech-nologies. Purpose of the thesis is to increase external validity of reference group research by making conceptual replication of White & Dahl's (2006) study in field setting. Reference groups are groups that consumers use t...

  1. Reference-Dependent Preferences : Models and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Tenberge, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    In economic situations people form expectations prior to their decisions. These expectations represent a reference point and exert a strong influence on decision making and preferences. This paper surveys the theory of reference-dependent preferences. I will summarize the theoretical framework and present experimental evidence in support of preferences being reference-dependent. Additionally, I will address the still open and fundamental questions of how expectations are formed. That is: How ...

  2. Phase-sensitive multiple reference optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsouza, Roshan I.; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Multiple reference OCT (MR-OCT) is a recently developed novel time-domain OCT platform based on a miniature reference arm optical delay, which utilizes a single miniature actuator and a partial mirror to generate recirculating optical delay for extended axial-scan range. MR-OCT technology promises to fit into a robust and cost-effective design, compatible with integration into consumer-level devices for addressing wide applications in mobile healthcare and biometry applications. Using conventional intensity based OCT processing techniques, the high-resolution structural imaging capability of MR-OCT has been recently demonstrated for various applications including in vivo human samples. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phase based processing with MR-OCT for various functional applications such as Doppler imaging and sensing of blood vessels, and for tissue vibrography applications. The MR-OCT system operates at 1310nm with a spatial resolution of ~26 µm and an axial scan rate of 600Hz. Initial studies show a displacement-sensitivity of ~20 nm to ~120 nm for the first 1 to 9 orders of reflections, respectively with a mirror as test-sample. The corresponding minimum resolvable velocity for these orders are ~2.3 µm/sec and ~15 µm/sec respectively. Data from a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model will be shown to demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for imaging in-vivo blood flow.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high levels of chloride (hyperchloremia) and acid (metabolic acidosis) in their blood (together, referred to as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis). People with hyperkalemia, hyperchloremia, and metabolic acidosis can ...

  4. 76 FR 53492 - South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper); Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper); Combined Licenses for... as Santee Cooper), for two Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) part 52 combined... Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper) Application for the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear...

  5. BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

  6. 40 CFR 260.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 260.11 Section 260.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Definitions § 260.11 References. (a) When used in parts 260 through...

  7. Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents…

  8. Empiricist Semantics and Indeterminacies of Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, I.

    2008-01-01

    In concert with his overall empiricist outlook, Quine urges 'to approach semantical matters in the empirical spirit of natural science' ([21,p.8]). Among many other things this means that theories of reference, or interpretations-i.e.,joint ascriptions of referents to the words a certain speaker or

  9. Writing references and using citation management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  10. Writing references and using citation management software

    OpenAIRE

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  11. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs

  12. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  13. 23 CFR 650.317 - Reference manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of the approval... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reference manuals. 650.317 Section 650.317 Highways..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.317 Reference manuals. (a)...

  14. Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Poss; C. Grelck; S. Herhut; S.-B. Scholz

    2012-01-01

    This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter

  15. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA Air and Radiation... 19103. Document number and name 40 CFR part 90 reference ASTM D86-93: Standard Test Method for...., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 90 reference SAE J1930 September...

  16. 47 CFR 15.605 - Cross reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.605 Section 15.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.605 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A and B of this part apply to...

  17. Spatial reference in multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Georg; Papenmeier, Frank; Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Spatial reference in multiple object tracking is available from configurations of dynamic objects and static reference objects. In three experiments, we studied the use of spatial reference in tracking and in relocating targets after abrupt scene rotations. Observers tracked 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 targets in 3D scenes, in which white balls moved on a square floor plane. The floor plane was either visible thus providing static spatial reference or it was invisible. Without scene rotations, the configuration of dynamic objects provided sufficient spatial reference and static spatial reference was not advantageous. In contrast, with abrupt scene rotations of 20°, static spatial reference supported in relocating targets. A wireframe floor plane lacking local visual detail was as effective as a checkerboard. Individually colored geometric forms as static reference objects provided no additional benefit either, even if targets were centered on these forms at the abrupt scene rotation. Individualizing the dynamic objects themselves by color for a brief interval around the abrupt scene rotation, however, did improve performance. We conclude that attentional tracking of moving targets proceeds within dynamic configurations but detached from static local background.

  18. Bonus payments and reference point violations

    OpenAIRE

    Ockenfels, Axel; Sliwka, Dirk; Werner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how bonus payments affect satisfaction and performance of managers in a large, multinational company. We find that falling behind a naturally occurring reference point for bonus comparisons reduces satisfaction and subsequent performance. The effects tend to be mitigated if information about one's relative standing towards the reference point is withheld.

  19. 16 CFR 1207.11 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.11 References. (a) “Statistical Abstract of the United States...

  20. 33 CFR 279.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (33 CFR part 290). ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 279.3 Section 279.3... USE: ESTABLISHMENT OF OBJECTIVES § 279.3 References. (a) Pub. L. 89-72, “Federal Water...

  1. 32 CFR 552.107 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.107 Section 552.107 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... References. (a) AR 190-5 (Motor Vehicle Traffic Supervision) (b) AR 190-52 (Countering Terrorism and...

  2. 32 CFR 2700.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 2700.1 Section 2700.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Introduction § 2700.1 References. (a) Executive Order 12065, “National...

  3. 33 CFR 274.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 274.3 Section 274.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.3 References. (a) Pub. L. 92-516,...

  4. 32 CFR 634.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 634.2 Section 634.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.2 References. Required and...

  5. 33 CFR 236.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 236.3 Section 236.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.3 References. (a) PL 89-72 (b) ER 1105-2-10 (c) ER 1105-2-200...

  6. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.86 References. (a)...

  7. 32 CFR 552.182 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.182 Section 552.182 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... Facilities § 552.182 References. Publications referenced in this section may be reviewed in the...

  8. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  9. 33 CFR 238.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 238.3 Section 238.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS § 238.3 References....

  10. 32 CFR 552.113 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.113 Section 552.113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.113 References. This regulation is to be used in conjunction with...

  11. 32 CFR 2103.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 2103.1 Section 2103.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT... § 2103.1 References. (a) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information,” dated June 28, 1978....

  12. 15 CFR 2008.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2008.1 Section 2008.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES... REPRESENTATIVE General Provisions § 2008.1 References. (a) Executive Order 12065, “National Security...

  13. 40 CFR 270.6 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of approval and a notice... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 270.6 Section 270.6... ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM General Information § 270.6 References....

  14. 33 CFR 239.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 239.3 Section 239.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... References. (a) Executive Order 11988, Floodplain Management, 24 May 1977. (b) ER 1105-2-200. (c) ER...

  15. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.142 Section 552.142 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are...

  16. 32 CFR 518.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 518.2 Section 518.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and...

  17. 28 CFR 63.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....) and NFIP criteria (44 CFR part 59 et seq.). (d) Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 63.3 Section 63.3 Judicial... References. (a) Unified National Program for Floodplain Management, Water Resources Council, which...

  18. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING... References. (a) DLAR 5720.1/AR 190-5/OPNAVINST 11200.5B/AFR 125-14/MCO 5110.1B, Motor Vehicle...

  19. 24 CFR 35.1310 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by EPA under 40 CFR 745.324 to administer and enforce lead-based paint programs. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false References. 35.1310 Section 35.1310... Hazard Evaluation and Hazard Reduction Activities § 35.1310 References. Further guidance...

  20. 32 CFR 651.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 651.2 Section 651.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.2 References. Required and related publications...

  1. 32 CFR 625.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 625.3 Section 625.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT SURFACE TRANSPORTATION-ADMINISTRATIVE VEHICLE MANAGEMENT § 625.3 References. (a) Title 31, U.S. Code, section 638. (b)...

  2. 36 CFR 328.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS § 328.3 References. (a) Title 36 CFR, part 327, Rules and Regulations Governing Public Use of... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 328.3 Section 328.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATION...

  3. 32 CFR 552.161 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.161 Section 552.161 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL..., and Camp Bonneville § 552.161 References. See appendix E to this subpart....

  4. 32 CFR 865.101 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 865.101 Section 865.101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.101 References. (a) Title 10 U.S.C.,...

  5. Anaphoric Reference in Creoles and Noncreoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escure, Genevieve

    1993-01-01

    Three categories of topic referents (nominal, pronominal, and periphrastic) are identified in 27 Belizean texts and 12 American texts, and the effects of referent choice of two variables (topic number and stylistic/lectal context) are investigated. One finding is that Belizean lects are strikingly similar to spontaneous styles of American English.…

  6. Uncertainty in Reference and Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanScoy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking process, but it has not been explored as a component of reference and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of reference and information service for eight academic research…

  7. Grouping in Primary Schools and Reference Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijnen, G. W.; Guldemond, H.

    2002-01-01

    Studied reference processes in within-class grouping for elementary school students in the Netherlands in homogeneous (n=16) and heterogeneous (n=14) classes. Findings indicate that homogeneous grouping sets strong reference processes in motion, and processes of comparison have considerably greater effects in homogeneous groups, with negative…

  8. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  9. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  10. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use. PMID:21406490

  11. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  12. Establishment of reference man in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the physical standards of the Reference Korean, research has been initiated in Korea within the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme ''Compilation of Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics for a Reference Asian Man''. The physical data of 21,406 Koreans, corresponding to 0.05% of the total Korean population, were compiled. All the data were divided into small groups according to age and sex. Data on the mass of internal organs from 1,921 Koreans (1,344 male and 577 female) were collected. All the data are given in a tabulated form. It was shown that the anatomical parameters of Reference Korean were, as usual, similar to those of Reference Japanese but different from those of ICRP Reference Man from Publication 23. However, the weights of several internal organs (liver, pancreas) were different from those of Japanese. 11 refs, 4 figs, 24 tabs

  13. SYSTEMATIC ERROR REDUCTION: NON-TILTED REFERENCE BEAM METHOD FOR LONG TRACE PROFILER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN,S.; QIAN, K.; HONG, Y.; SENG, L.; HO, T.; TAKACS, P.

    2007-08-25

    Systematic error in the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) has become the major error source as measurement accuracy enters the nanoradian and nanometer regime. Great efforts have been made to reduce the systematic error at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. Generally, the LTP reference beam has to be tilted away from the optical axis in order to avoid fringe overlap between the sample and reference beams. However, a tilted reference beam will result in considerable systematic error due to optical system imperfections, which is difficult to correct. Six methods of implementing a non-tilted reference beam in the LTP are introduced: (1) application of an external precision angle device to measure and remove slide pitch error without a reference beam, (2) independent slide pitch test by use of not tilted reference beam, (3) non-tilted reference test combined with tilted sample, (4) penta-prism scanning mode without a reference beam correction, (5) non-tilted reference using a second optical head, and (6) alternate switching of data acquisition between the sample and reference beams. With a non-tilted reference method, the measurement accuracy can be improved significantly. Some measurement results are presented. Systematic error in the sample beam arm is not addressed in this paper and should be treated separately.

  14. Reference design description for a geologic repository: Revision 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the current design expectations for a potential geologic repository that could be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This Reference Design Description (RDD) looks at the surface and subsurface repository and disposal container design. Additionally, it reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. In accordance with current legislation, the reference design for the potential repository does not include an interim storage option. The reference design presented allows the disposal of highly radioactive material received from government-owned spent fuel custodian sites; produces high-level waste sites, and commercial spent fuel sites. All design elements meet current federal, state, and local regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and protection of the public and the environment. Due to the complex nature of developing a repository, the design will be created in three phases to support Viability Assessment, License Application, and construction. This document presents the current reference design. It will be updated periodically as the design progresses. Some of the details presented here may change significantly as more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements are identified

  15. Systematic evaluation of reference protein normalization (RPN in proteomic experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eZauber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative comparative analyses of protein abundances and their modifications have become a widely used technique in studying various biological questions. In the past years, several methods for quantitative proteomics were established using stable-isotope labeling and label-free approaches. We systematically evaluated the application of reference protein normalization (RPN for proteomic experiments using a high mass accuracy LC-MS/MS platform. In RPN each peptide intensity is normalized to an average protein intensity of a spiked-in reference protein per sample. The main advantage of this method, compared to other label-free normalization strategies, is to avoid fraction of total based relative analysis of proteomic data, which is often very much dependent on sample complexity. We could show that reference protein ion intensity sums are reproducible enough to ensure reliable normalization. We validated the RPN strategy by analyzing changes in protein abundances induced by nutrient starvation in Arabidopsis. Beyond that, we provide a principle guideline for determining optimal combination of sample protein and reference protein load on individual LC-MS/MS systems.

  16. Development and characterisation of a new line width reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Zhu, Fan; Heidelmann, Markus; Fritz, Georg; Bayer, Thomas; Kalt, Samuel; Fluegge, Jens

    2015-11-01

    A new critical dimension (CD, often synonymously used for line width) reference material with improved vertical parallel sidewalls (IVPSs) has been developed and characterised. The sample has a size of 6 mm  ×  6 mm, consisting of 4 groups of 5  ×  5 feature patterns. Each feature pattern has a group of five reference line features with a nominal CD of 50 nm, 70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm and 130 nm, respectively. Each feature pattern includes a pair of triangular alignment marks, applicable for precisely identifying the target measurement position, e.g. for comparison or calibration between different tools. The geometry of line features has been investigated thoroughly using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and a CD atomic force microscope (CD-AFM). Their results indicate the high quality of the line features: the top corner radius of  strategy for the non-destructive calibration of the developed sample is introduced, which enables the application of the reference material in practice.

  17. Reference Desk Consultation Assignment: An Exploratory Study of Students' Perceptions of Reference Service

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Pamela N; Park, Lezlie

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of three sophomore English composition classes that were required to visit the reference desk for class credit. Student perceptions of reference consultations are analyzed to gain a clearer understanding of the students’ attitudes towards reference services. Findings of this exploratory study indicate that students still suffer from library anxiety and are much more likely to seek out reference help if they are convinced that a consultation will save them ...

  18. Geographical origin: meaningful reference or marketing tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    collected in France where geographical origin is perceived as indicator of quality. A possible explanation resides in the double standards rendered possible by the European labels as they refer to provenance as well as geographical origin. Provenance means to issue from a place in the sense that the place...... constitutes a meaningful reference to a link between food and place that represents expectations of taste and quality. In Denmark, this link is not attributed similar meaning and, hence, the difference between meaningful references and images formed through the language of marketing is less discernible...

  19. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    evaluation of certification data. The plots illustrate consistency between replicate measurements on samples from a batch of reference material, carried out in a number of laboratories according to a staggered nested design. The development of a reference material is illustrated by a series of experiments......This thesis introduces the reader to the concept of chemical environmental reference materials and their role in traceability and chemical analyses of the environment. A number of models and principles from the literature are described. Some suggestions are made as to how stability studies can...

  20. Reference and information services an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bopp, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting the dramatic changes shaped by rapidly developing technologies over the past six years, this new fourth edition of Reference and Information Services takes the introduction to reference sources and services significantly beyond the content of the first three editions. In Part I, Concepts and Processes, chapters have been revised and updated to reflect new ideas and methods in the provision of reference service in an era when many users have access to the Web. In Part II, Information Sources and Their Use, discussion of each source type has been updated to encompass key resources in