WorldWideScience

Sample records for application farm pozo

  1. Hybrid Fv - Biogas/Diesel System Measuring With Homer. Case of Application: Farm Pozo Verde, Jamundi Municipality, Cauca Valley, Colombia; Dimensionado de un Sistema Hibrido Fv - Biogas/Diesel mediante el Empleo de la Herramienta Homer. Caso de Aplicacion: Granja Pozo Verde, Municipio de Jamundi, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J.; Manrique, P. A.; Pinedo, I.

    2009-11-25

    This report completes the previous one, by adding the characterization of renewable energy systems based on optimization and sizing tools. A case study has been carried out in the Valley of Cauca (Colombia) using HOMER, once the solar energy potential was defined. This work is about the production of electricity using hybrid power systems (HPS). The HPS chosen for this study is based on two of the most common energy resources in most of Colombian rural areas: solar energy and biomass waste. The biomass waste is obtained by animal manure from livestock farms, particularly from pigs, which is highly valued in terms of energy production. The breeding of pigs has a huge economic, environmental and social importance in this Colombian region. In this report, the HPS technology and the energy contribution of the biogas produced from animal manure are described. A technical and economic simulation of a HPS has been performed using the optimization tool HOMER. These reports are the result of a collaboration established between Universidad del Valle (Colombia) and CIEMAT (Spain), and have been done by the author while his staying at our center included on his PhD program. Keywords: renewable energies, hybrid systems, biogas, technology sizing, rural electrification, Latin America. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Simulation of the flow phenomena in geothermal wells: developments and applications; Simulacion de los fenomenos de flujo en pozos geotermicos: desarrollos y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    In this paper the numerical simulators and the specialized computer programs that have been developed in the Departamento de Geotermia of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for the study of mass transport phenomena, momentum and heat in geothermal wells, are delineated. The developments can be assembled in 5 types: a) Fluid circulation during geothermal well construction; b) Production; c) Construction; d) Return to the thermal equilibrium; e) Thermodynamic and fluid transport properties, cements, and rocks. The applications realized include, besides the normal flow phenomena that occur in geothermal wells, the study of special problems that have been found in several wells of the geothermal fields in the country. These developments constitute a tool of great utility for the reservoir engineer`s daily work and for the understanding of the specific phenomena of infrequent occurrence. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los simuladores numericos y programas de computo especializados que se han desarrollado en el Departamento de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para estudiar los fenomenos de transporte de masa, momentum y calor en pozos geotermicos. Los desarrollos pueden agruparse en 5 tipos: a) circulacion de fluidos durante la construccion de pozos, b) produccion, c) inyeccion, d) retorno a equilibrio termico, e) propiedades termodinamicas y de transporte de los fluidos, cementos y rocas. Las aplicaciones realizadas incluyen, ademas de los fenomenos normales de flujo que ocurren en pozos geotermicos, el estudio de problemas especiales que se han encontrado en diversos pozos de los campos geotermicos del pais. Estos desarrollos constituyen una herramienta de gran utilidad para el trabajo diario del ingeniero de yacimientos y para el entendimiento de fenomenos especificos de ocurrencia poco frecuente.

  3. POZO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Alteraciones antrópicas: hay un muro de bloques que rodea toda la estructura y maquinaria del pozo. Se localizan basuras maderas, plásticos...Destaca también la contaminación del a-gua por medio de aceite para coches. Alteraciones naturales: colonización vegetal y oxidación de los materiales metálicos. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN DE ENTORNOS Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No El agua se extrae del po...

  4. Development and application of the capacity to make tests of dynamic displacement in samples of oil well drilling cores; Desarrollo y aplicacion de la capacidad para realizar pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico en muestras de nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras L, Enrique; Garcia M, Pablo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the Laboratory of Deposits of the Gerencia de Geotermia of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the capacity has been developed to make tests of dynamic oil displacement by means of gas or brine injection in samples of oil well drilling cores. Also the methodologies to interpret the results of these tests in terms of dynamics and the efficiency of the oil recovery in terms of the relative permeability have been developed. These capacities represent a very important contribution towards the improvement of the insufficiency that exists in the country to make the large amount of tests of dynamic displacement that demand the different Actives of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), since they satisfy their necessities of data on which the activities of design and implementation of the most suitable techniques for the hydrocarbon recovery of the oil deposits lean. In the present work these capacities are described and some examples are presented of the results that have been obtained from their application in special studies of drilling cores, which have been recently made in the Laboratory of Deposits of the IIE for diverse Actives of PEP exploitation. [Spanish] En el laboratorio de yacimientos de la Gerencia de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se ha desarrollado la capacidad de realizar pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico de aceite mediante inyeccion de salmuera o de gases en muestras de nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros. Tambien se han desarrollado las metodologias para interpretar los resultados de estas pruebas en terminos de la dinamica y la eficiencia de la recuperacion de aceite y en terminos de la permeabilidades relativas. Estas capacidades representan una contribucion muy importante hacia el mejoramiento de la insuficiencia que existe en el pais para realizar la gran cantidad de pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico que demandan los diferentes activos de explotacion de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), ya

  5. POZO DEL PICO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No En las alteraciones antrópicas destaca la existencia de sa- queos de piezas del motor y de la infraestructura del pozo, ventanas taponadas con bloques, además de la boca del pozo. Entre las alteraciones naturales están la pérdida del techo, colonización vegetal y oxidación de la maquinaria. Más antiguo que los pozos de Barreto y Las Pellas, conser- vando un motor MWM, que antiguamente se usaba en barcos. ...

  6. POZO-EL BARRANQUILLO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN FORESTAL Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No EL POZO ESTA TOTALMENTE CERRADO, DEBIDO A QUE EL AGUA QUE SE EXTRAE SEGUN VECINOS DEL LUGAR, ES GASIFICADA Y LA GENTE VENIA A LLEVARSE AGUA POR ESTO SE HA CERRADO. SOLO SE HA REALIZADO UNA FOTO POR ESTAR VALLADO. EL POZO SE ENCUENTRA EN BUEN ESTADO YA QUE HA SIDO REMODELADO DEBIDO A QUE HOY EN DIA SE HACEN ESTRACCIONES. EL POZO SE HA EL...

  7. Application of SMES in wind farm to improve voltage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y. J.; Ren, L.; Li, J. D.; Chen, S. J.

    2008-09-01

    For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably.

  8. Bias in Peer Review of Organic Farming Grant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Langer, Vibeke; Alrøe, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    with experience in organic farming research; (2) scientists with no experience in organic farming research; and (3) users of organic farming research. The two groups of scientists assessed the societal relevance and scientific quality of the grant applications based on three criteria (i.e., presentation......, methodology, qualifications), whereas the user group only assessed societal relevance. The analysis showed that the two groups of scientists provided very different reviews. Scientist reviewers with experience in organic farming research agreed more with the user group on research relevance than did scientist...... reviewers without such experience, and the assessment of relevance was closely correlated to the assessment of scientific quality within both scientific groups. As both scientific groups did not clearly distinguish between societal relevance and scientific quality, the idea of an objective science...

  9. Optimization Model for Mitigating Global Warming at the Farm Scale: An Application to Japanese Rice Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Masuda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, greenhouse gas emissions from rice production, especially CH4 emissions in rice paddy fields, are the primary contributors to global warming from agriculture. When prolonged midseason drainage for mitigating CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields is practiced with environmentally friendly rice production based on reduced use of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers, Japanese rice farmers can receive an agri-environmental direct payment. This paper examines the economic and environmental effects of the agri-environmental direct payment on the adoption of a measure to mitigate global warming in Japanese rice farms using a combined application of linear programming and life cycle assessment at the farm scale. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as net farm income divided by global warming potential, is used as an integrated indicator for assessing the economic and environmental feasibilities. The results show that under the current direct payment level, the prolonged midseason drainage technique does not improve the eco-efficiency of Japanese rice farms because the practice of this technique in environmentally friendly rice production causes large economic disadvantages in exchange for small environmental advantages. The direct payment rates for agri-environmental measures should be determined based on the condition that environmentally friendly agricultural practices improve eco-efficiency compared with conventional agriculture.

  10. Economic evaluation of information technology applications on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on the economic evaluation of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms in order to support investment decisions. The evaluation included a normative (deductive) approach and an empirical (positive) approach. The normative approach predicte

  11. POZO DEL ARCO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN DE ENTORNOS Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No EL SEÑOR NOS INFORMA QUE NUNCA SE HA TRABAJADO EL POZO PORQUE SE HAN PELEADO ENTRE LOS HEREDEROS DE LOSDE LA SOCIEDAD AGRICOLA. INVASION DE PLANTAS. Nivel de protección: 7 POR UNA CARRETERA DE TASARTE DOBLAMOS EN EL CANONIGO Y VAMOS POR LA PISTA DE TIERRA QUE LLEVA A ARCO. POZO CON CASETA Y MAQUINARIA. LA MAQUINARIA COMPLETA. PAREDES ...

  12. Epidemiology and quality assurance: applications at farm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, J P; Frankena, K

    1999-03-29

    Animal production is relevant with respect to farm income and the position of the sector in the market, but also with respect to the quality and safety of products of animal origin, related to public health. Animal production is part of a chain of food production. Therefore, producers have to take consumer expectations and demands in the domains of animal health, welfare and environment into account. A different attitude for production has to be adopted; this attitude can be visualized in good farming practice, GFP, codes. Farmers who focused on quality in its broadest sense need a system supporting them in their management and control of quality risks. Generally speaking, there are three systems for that purpose: GFP, ISO and HACCP. When the hypothesis followed relates to animal health being a feature of quality, or else welfare and environmental issues, then animal health care can be executed following quality control principles. The HACCP concept is well suited for quality control at farm level, involving risk identification and risk management. The on-farm monitoring and surveillance system of critical control points in the animal production process is the most important tool in this procedure. Principles for HACCP application as well as certification fitness of HACCP are elaborated upon. They are illustrated by using salmonellosis in meat-pig farms as objective for an HACCP approach. It is further discussed that, in addition to animal health and quality, animal welfare and environmental issues could also be covered by an HACCP-like system in an integrated manner. Ultimately, the HACCP modules could end up in an overall ISO certification.

  13. Framework of Multi-objective Wind Farm Controller Applicable to Real Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Gögmen, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor;

    2016-01-01

    Optimal wind farm control can mitigate adverse wake effects that can potentially cause up to 40% power loss and 80% increased fatigue loads in wind farms. The aim of this work is to outline a methodological framework of an optimal wind farm controller, which provides improved solutions to critical......-objective optimal wind farm controller is outlined with the following key characteristics. Available control objectives are (i) to maximize the total wind farm power output or (ii) to follow a specified power reference for the wind farm’s total power output while reducing the fatigue loads of the wind turbines...... areas of optimal wind farm control research. The basis of this framework is a review of optimal wind farm control methodologies, which is presented first. It is observed that there is, at present, mainly a need for more advanced wind farm operation models. Thereafter the framework of a multi...

  14. Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing

  15. Off-farm applications of solar energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Food processing applications make up almost all present off-farm studies of solar energy in agriculture. Research, development and demonstration projects on solar food processing have shown significant progress over the past 3 years. Projects have included computer simulation and mathematical models, hardware and process development for removing moisture from horticultural or animal products, integration of energy conservation with solar energy augmentation in conventional processes, and commercial scale demonstrations. The demonstration projects include solar heated air for drying prunes and raisins, soy beans and onions/garlic; and solar generated steam for orange juice pasteurization. Several new and planned projects hold considerable promise for commerical exploitation in future food processes.

  16. Economic assessment of alternatives for glyphosate application in arable farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehlenbeck, Hella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application and sales of herbicides with glyphosate have strongly increased in Germany during the past 10 years. This has raised a number of questions and discussions concerning glyphosate use. Therefore, this paper identifies and evaluates alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate for different treatmentareas in terms of economic consequences for farms in comparison to glyphosate use by way of example. With the help of exemplary crop rotations uses in arable farming for winter wheat, winter oilseed rape, winter barley, maize and summer barley were analyzed. Within a “worst case scenario” a complete abandonment of glyphosate applications was assumed. Different tillage systems (plough, no-plough were considered. The only alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate were mechanical measures. For the analyzed treatment-areas (desiccation, pre-sowing, stubble no approved and efficient chemical alternative could be identified. The economic advantages and disadvantages of substituting glyphosate by mechanical alternatives were strongly depending on the treatment-area, the efficacy concerning yield expectations (in comparison to glyphosate use, the tillage system, the necessity of grain drying as well as further operational factors such as the availability of sufficient field work days and mechanical equipment.

  17. Mobile sensor platforms: categorisation and research applications in precision farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Zecha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The usage of mobile sensor platforms arose in research a few decades ago. Since the beginning of satellite sensing, measurement principles and analysing methods have become widely implemented for aerial and ground vehicles. Mainly in Europe, the United States and Australia, sensor platforms in precision farming are used for surveying, monitoring and scouting tasks. This review gives an overview of available sensor platforms used in recent agricultural and related research projects. A general categorisation tree for platforms is outlined in this work. Working in manual, automatic or autonomous ways, these ground platforms and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS with an agricultural scope are presented with their sensor equipment and the possible architectural models. Thanks to advances in highly powerful electronics, smaller devices mounted on platforms have become economically feasible for many applications. Designed to work automatically or autonomously, they will be able to interact in intelligent swarms. Sensor platforms can fulfil the need for developing, testing and optimising new applications in precision farming like weed control or pest management. Furthermore, commercial suppliers of platform hardware used in sensing tasks are listed.

  18. 40 CFR 408.10 - Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-raised catfish processing subcategory. 408.10 Section 408.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Farm-Raised Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.10 Applicability; description of the farm-raised catfish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. Pruebas de presión e interpretación en pozos horizontales

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Óscar; Carrillo, Luis; Miranda, Bólivar

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo revisaremos los métodos analíticos para el análisis e interpretación de pruebas de presión en pozos horizontales, con la finalidad de estimar los parámetros petrofísicos, el estado del pozo-yacimiento; presiones; potencial del pozo y modelos de flujo del reservorio y de límites. Se hace un énfasis especial en los regímenes de flujo que se presentan en este tipo de pozos y las diferencias con pruebas de presiones en pozos verticales. Al final realizamos el análisis y la in...

  20. Precision farming - Technology assessment of site-specific input application in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    About 400 Danish farmers have within the large 10 years adopted some precision farming technologies on their farms. Precision farming is a management system, in which the use of variable inputs (fertilisers, lime and pesticides) is applied according to the spatial soil and crop variation at a sub...... but it seems possible to obtain a socio-economic benefits from lime, variable rate herbicide and possibly nitrogen application • The technology may improve farm logistics, planning and crop quality (e.g. protein content) - but • The costs of implementing PF-practices are high and • Technical functionality...... and hardware-compatibility is a concern among farmers Precisions farming is primarily economic viable on relative large farm holdings and site-specific application is only economic attractive if some degree of soil texture variation is present on the field. There is a need for additional information about...

  1. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...

  2. Parámetros de diseño para perforar y revestir un pozo horizontal

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Reyes, William A.; Quicaliquín Meléndez, Adrián A.; Jara Cepeda, César A.; Malavé Tomalá, Kleber

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo recopila la información requerida para perforar y revestir un pozo tipo horizontal, incluyendo conceptos básicos, ventajas y desventajas de las técnicas, reconociendo los problemas que se pueden presentar durante las operaciones. La trayectoria del pozo se planifica utilizando información geológica de pozos vecinos y disponiendo de un survey que muestra la posible orientación del mismo a través del subsuelo. Después se diseña la sarta de perforación en base a parámet...

  3. Presencia de arsénico en pozos y en cultivos en Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Ubaldo Caballero-Guti\\u00E9rrez; Jos\\u00E9 Cruz Carrillo-Rodriguez; Rosa Mar\\u00EDa Gomez-Ugalde; Martha Patricia Jerez-Salas

    2009-01-01

    Presencia de arsénico en pozos y en cultivos en Oaxaca, México. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de arsénico en agua de pozos y en cultivos. Se muestrearon pozos noria y semip rofundos, y diferentes cultivos (tomate, lechuga, frijol y maíz), pertenecie ntes al paraje "Flor de Guayabal", en Tlacolula, Oaxaca, México, durante un periodo de 10 meses (julio 2006 a abril 2007).Hubo dos fases: la primera fue el diagnóstico que se obtuvo de la determinación mensual del arsénic...

  4. Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: an application to conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected attribute

  5. The wellbore simulator SIMU1999; El simulador de pozos SIMU1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Upton, Pedro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    into a friendly Windows 95 environment for the user. Up to date, results obtained through the application of SIMU 1999 on multiple wells, covering a broad extent of thermal conditions, have been good enough from the engineering point of view, Nevertheless, updating of the simulator performance, but also looking for extending its application field. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen brevemente las caracterIticas operacionales y algoritmicas del simulador de pozos SIMU1999. En general, la reproduccion de las condiciones termodinamicas registradas en el interior de los pozos, es su principal objetivo. El simulador utiliza un modelo de flujo homogeneo que incorpora las teorias fundamentales de la mecanica de fluidos y permite el manejo de mezclas bifasicas tricomponentes. Estas mezclas incluyen a los principales constituyentes que aparecen en la produccion de fluidos geotermicos (H{sub 2}O-NaCl-CO{sub 2}). SIMU1999 utiliza un factor de friccion para flujos bifasicos deducido a partir de 64 pruebas de produccion efectuadas en 45 pozos diferentes. Mas de 324 datos de caidas de presion y 648 valores de temperatura se obtuvieron a partir de estas pruebas. Las mediciones se tomaron principalmente con registradores del tipo mecanico (Kuster), sin embargo, algunas de ellas provinieron de registradores de tipo electronico (Hot Hole y Pruett). El factor de friccion se calcula a partir del numero de Reynolds de la presion del fluido y de la calidad del vapor, por lo que es independiente de la identificacion previa del patron de flujo. Los datos de produccion disponibles abarcaron entalpias especificas desde 650 hasta 2 780 kj/kg, presiones que van de los 0.4 a los 14 MPa, y temperaturas entre 110 y 340 grados centigrados. El codigo computacional de SIMU1999 fue escrito en Fortran 90 y genera un archivo ejecutable ligeramente mayor a 1 Mb. El programa actualmente consta de cuatro partes: el simulador de pozos; una salida grafica para analizar por pantalla los resultados de la

  6. Integrating ICT applications for farm business collaboration processes using FIspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Wolfert, J.; Goense, D.; Scholten, H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Veenstra, T.

    2014-01-01

    Agri-Food Supply Chain Networks are required to increase production and to be transparent while reducing environmental impact. This challenges farm enterprises to innovate their production processes. These processes need to be supported by advanced ICT components that are developed by multiple vendo

  7. Application of wavelets and Prony method for disturbance detection in fixed speed wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, T.; Rezmer, J.; Janik, P. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland); Amaris, H.; Alonso, M.; Alvarez, C. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica 28911, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Voltage dips and transients are the most commonly encountered power quality disturbances in wind farms. Signal parameters estimation is an important prerequisite for power quality enhancement and for improving the fault-ride capability of wind farms and consequently, the voltage stability of the whole network. This paper examines the application of advanced signal processing methodologies such as the Prony method and wavelets for disturbance detection in wind farms. Both methodologies have been effectively tested with different disturbances simulated in a dynamic power network with a large amount of wind energy and with data signals measured at wind turbine terminals. (author)

  8. Determination of the geothermal well damage from its production tests; Determinacion del dano en pozos geotermicos a partir de sus pruebas de produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo Montalvo, Georgina; Arellano Gomez, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    In this work the evolution is described that undergoes the factor of damage in a well during its productive stage, which is identifiable from the diminution in the characteristics of its production. It is mentioned that during the productive stage of wells, its declination is, in many occasions, synonymous of the damage presence. Traditionally, the damage effect is determined from the equations for analysis of the transitory tests of pressure. Nevertheless, the execution of this type of tests requires relatively long periods of time to obtain the stabilization of the well and of significant costs. By the previous facts the development of techniques to determine the damage from production tests was initiated. In this article is presented the curve-type of geothermal inflow affected by the damage, from which the value of this one in a geothermal well for the time in which its test of production is realized can be determined. A methodology is proposed to determine the damage effect in the well using the proposed curve-type and its applicability with examples of test measurements of well discharge is demonstrated in Mexican geothermal fields. From the conducted analyses it is found that the numerical value of the damage determined in selected wells increases based on the time of exploitation, which indicates a deterioration of its productive characteristics. The previous statements aid to constitute a technical endorsement for the decision making, on the pertinent actions that can be executed in the well. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la evolucion que sufre el factor de dano en un pozo durante su etapa productiva, el cual es identificable a partir de la disminucion en las caracteristicas de su produccion. Se menciona que durante la etapa productiva de los pozos, su declinacion es, en muchas ocasiones, sinonimo de la presencia de dano. Tradicionalmente, el efecto de dano se determina a partir de las ecuaciones para analisis de las pruebas transitorias de presion

  9. Mobile sensor platforms: categorisation and research applications in precision farming

    OpenAIRE

    Zecha, C. W.; Link, J; CLAUPEIN, W.

    2013-01-01

    The usage of mobile sensor platforms arose in research a few decades ago. Since the beginning of satellite sensing, measurement principles and analysing methods have become widely implemented for aerial and ground vehicles. Mainly in Europe, the United States and Australia, sensor platforms in precision farming are used for surveying, monitoring and scouting tasks. This review gives an overview of available sensor platforms used in recent agricultural and related research pr...

  10. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  11. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Pacini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  12. Luz Pozo Garza: Memoria radiante de una mujer solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, Carmen

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of Luz Poz Garza is a Platonic flashing beauty cosmos ruled by clarity, depth and harmony symbolized in the name that gave birth to it: that of a “solar woman”, fully self-assured in her life and in her work, gathered in the “heart of light” of her poetry. Memoria solar, the title of her complete poetry work, contains the radiant memory of the solar woman, a curved by plenitude cosmos that shelters a first microcosmos (that of her youth poetry, red fruit such as orange o meat apple, and a second microcosmos (that of her maturity poetry of white or blue flower of total mystic lucidity, such as solar camellia, rose o lotus.La poesía de Luz Pozo Garza es un cosmos fulgurante de belleza platónica regida por la claridad, la profundidad y la armonía simbolizadas en el nombre que lo dio a luz, el de una “mujer solar” plenamente autoafirmada en su vida y en su obra, unidas en el “corazón de Luz” de su poesía. Memoria solar, el título de su obra poética completa contiene su memoria radiante de mujer solar, un cosmos curvo de plenitud que guarda un microcosmos primero, el de su poesía de juventud, de fruto rojo, cual naranja o manzana de la carne, y un microcosmos segundo, el de su poesía de madurez, de flor blanca o azul de la total lucidez mística, cual camelia, rosa o loto solares.

  13. Improved Relay Node Placement Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Application in Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    An emergent application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology is in the area of Wind Farm Monitoring (WFM), in which relays are used to connect sensors. Key problems to solve in WFM include how to balance loads across relay nodes and how to place relay nodes for redundancy and fault-toleran...

  14. An Embedded Database Application for the Aggregation of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    be made coarse-grained while keeping the newest data fine-grained. Considering the availability of a limited amount of storage capacity on the farm machinery, an application written in C was developed to collect the data from a CAN-BUS, store it into the embedded database efficiently and perform gradual......In order to store massive amounts of data produced by the farming devices and to keep data that spans long intervals of time for analysis, reporting and maintenance purposes; it is desirable to reduce the size of the data by maintaining the data at different aggregate levels. The older data can...

  15. Wind flow conditions in offshore wind farms. Validation and application of a CFD wake model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerhellweg, Annette; Canadillas, Beatriz; Kinder, Friederike; Neumann, Thomas [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut GmbH (DEWI), Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    Since August 2009, the first German offshore wind farm 'alpha ventus' is operating close to the wind measurement platform FINO1. Within the research project RAVE-OWEA the wind flow conditions in 'alpha ventus' were assessed in detail, simulated with a CFD wake model and compared with the measurements. Wind data measured at FINO1 have been evaluated for wind speed reduction and turbulence increase in the wake. Additionally operational data were evaluated for the farm efficiency. The atmospheric stability has been evaluated by temperature measurements of air and water and the impact of atmospheric stability on the wind conditions in the wake has been assessed. As an application of CFD models the generation of power matrices is introduced. Power matrices can be used for the continual monitoring of the single wind turbines in the wind farm. A power matrix based on CFD simulations has been created for 'alpha ventus' and tested against the measured data. (orig.)

  16. [Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyun, Xing; Qiang, Yang; Jun, Ren

    2016-03-01

    CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: I, II and III, of which type II has relatively simple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important animals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  17. Fast All-Sky Radiation Model for Solar Applications (FARMS): A Brief Overview of Mechanisms, Performance, and Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit

    2016-06-01

    Solar radiation can be computed using radiative transfer models, such as the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) and its general circulation model applications, and used for various energy applications. Due to the complexity of computing radiation fields in aerosol and cloudy atmospheres, simulating solar radiation can be extremely time-consuming, but many approximations--e.g., the two-stream approach and the delta-M truncation scheme--can be utilized. To provide a new fast option for computing solar radiation, we developed the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by parameterizing the simulated diffuse horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiance for cloudy conditions from the RRTM runs using a 16-stream discrete ordinates radiative transfer method. The solar irradiance at the surface was simulated by combining the cloud irradiance parameterizations with a fast clear-sky model, REST2. To understand the accuracy and efficiency of the newly developed fast model, we analyzed FARMS runs using cloud optical and microphysical properties retrieved using GOES data from 2009-2012. The global horizontal irradiance for cloudy conditions was simulated using FARMS and RRTM for global circulation modeling with a two-stream approximation and compared to measurements taken from the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Our results indicate that the accuracy of FARMS is comparable to or better than the two-stream approach; however, FARMS is approximately 400 times more efficient because it does not explicitly solve the radiative transfer equation for each individual cloud condition. Radiative transfer model runs are computationally expensive, but this model is promising for broad applications in solar resource assessment and forecasting. It is currently being used in the National Solar Radiation Database, which is publicly available from the National Renewable Energy

  18. Drilling of bilateral wells: analysis and selection of wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Perforacion de pozos bilaterales: analisis y seleccion de pozos en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: miguel.ramirez02@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    Drilling bilateral geothermal wells has been conducted successfully in fields in the U.S., the Philippines and Japan, among other places. The reason for drilling a second leg in a well is to increase production by penetrating additional production zones. In this report, criteria are presented for selecting wells in Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field to be considered for a second leg, taking into account the mechanical condition of the wells, geological targets, distances between wells, production characteristics and thermodynamic conditions. The cases of wells H-3, H-8, H-11, H-16, H-33, H-34 and H-36, which have low production, were reviewed. Wells H-3, H-8 and H-34 were selected as the best subjects for bi-directional drilling. A design is proposed for constructing a second leg in well H-8. [Spanish] La perforacion de pozos bilaterales se ha venido realizando de manera exitosa en campos geotermicos de Estados Unidos, Filipinas y Japon, entre otros. El objetivo de perforar una segunda pierna en un mismo pozo es incrementar su produccion, ya que habran mas zonas de produccion. En este reporte se presentan los criterios para la seleccion de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., candidatos para una segunda pierna, considerando el estado mecanico de los mismos, los objetivos geologicos, la distancia entre pozos, sus caracteristicas de produccion y sus condiciones termodinamicas. Para ello se revisaron los casos de los pozos H-3, H-8, H-11, H-16, H-33, H-34 y H-36, que presentan una produccion baja. Posteriormente, aplicando los criterios de evaluacion y con la informacion obtenida de cada pozo, se seleccionaron los pozos H-3, H-8 y H-34 como los que presentan mejores condiciones para la perforacion bidireccional. Finalmente, se establecio un diseno para la construccion de una segunda pierna en el pozo H-8.

  19. Recent Advances in Application of Male Germ Cell Transplantation in Farm Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Honaramooz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of isolated germ cells from a fertile donor male into the seminiferous tubules of infertile recipients can result in donor-derived sperm production. Therefore, this system represents a major development in the study of spermatogenesis and a unique functional assay to determine the developmental potential and relative abundance of spermatogonial stem cells in a given population of testis cells. The application of this method in farm animals has been the subject of an increasing number of studies, mostly because of its potential as an alternative strategy in producing transgenic livestock with higher efficiency and less time and capital requirement than the current methods. This paper highlights the salient recent research on germ cell transplantation in farm animals. The emphasis is placed on the current status of the technique and examination of ways to increase its efficiency through improved preparation of the recipient animals as well as isolation, purification, preservation, and transgenesis of the donor germ cells.

  20. SNPs genotyping technologies and their applications in farm animals breeding programs: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Kharrati Koopaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide: adenine (A, thymine (T, cytosine (C or guanine (G in the genome sequence is altered. Traditional and high throughput methods are two main strategies for SNPs genotyping. The SNPs genotyping technologies provide powerful resources for animal breeding programs.Genomic selection using SNPs is a new tool for choosing the best breeding animals. In addition, the high density maps using SNPs can provide useful genetic tools to study quantitative traits genetic variations. There are many sources of SNPs and exhaustive numbers of methods of SNP detection to be considered. For many traits in farm animals, the rate of genetic improvement can be nearly doubled when SNPs information is used compared to the current methods of genetic evaluation. The goal of this review is to characterize the SNPs genotyping methods and their applications in farm animals breeding.

  1. Nergal and the double deity on the frieze of the Underworld feast from Pozo Moro

    OpenAIRE

    López Pardo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    An enthroned figure with human body and two identical and superposed animal heads rules the scene called Underworld Feast from Pozo Moro’s Orientalizing monument. Identification of this figure with a deity assimilated with Nergal and his twin, Erra, or their corresponding Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea, Lords of the Underworld, is proposed. Though their cult spread through Syria and the Phoenician environment, especially in Samaria, it is in the Upper Euphrates where there seems to be a concentra...

  2. Nergal y la deidad doble del friso del Banquete infernal de Pozo Moro

    OpenAIRE

    López Pardo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    An enthroned figure with human body and two identical and superposed animal heads rules the scene called Underworld Feast from Pozo Moro’s Orientalizing monument. Identification of this figure with a deity assimilated with Nergal and his twin, Erra, or their corresponding Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea, Lords of the Underworld, is proposed. Though their cult spread through Syria and the Phoenician environment, especially in Samaria, it is in the Upper Euphrates where there seems to be a concentra...

  3. Application of SPCALC for chemical and thermodynamic speciation of fluids -example for wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13, Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS; Aplicacion del SPCALC en la especiacion quimica y termodinamica de fluidos: ejemplo del caso de los pozos LV-4A, LV-11 y LV-13, del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viggiano Guerra, J.C.; Sandoval Medina, F.; Flores Armenta, M.C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx, E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx; Perez, R.J. [Universidad de Calgary (Canada); Gonzalez Partida, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Geociencias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    SPCALC is an excellent software application providing chemical and multi-phase speciation for geothermal fluids. Recently it was acquired by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) through a contract with the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the University of Calgary, Canada. Software methodology consists of calculating thermodynamic variables, such as activity (a) and fugacity (f) of chemical species, as well as the saturation indices (log Q/K) of mineral phases of the reservoir. In other words, it models the thermodynamic conditions of the reservoir (pH among other) and simulates the fluid-corrosion rate. This allows the software to foresee scaling and corrosion. In this paper, pervasive fluids in Cretaceous granitic rocks penetrated by wells LV-4A, LV-11 and LV-13 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, are modeled, starting with chemical analyses. The more important ratios among activities [those which influence the fluid-rock interaction (i.e. {sup a}K{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Ca{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Na{sup +}/{sup a}H{sup +}, {sup a}Mg{sup ++}/{sup a}H{sup +}) and whose results are the minerals visible under a microscope] are graphed in balance diagrams compatible with the pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions in the reservoir. Epidote (zoisite) is the mineral found in congruent equilibrium with the system. The main mineral association at those conditions (200-250 degrees Celsius and {approx}18 bar), as observed in the well cuttings, is calcite+illite-quartz{+-}epidote, which is explained by the hydrolithic reactions that form replacement calcite in the presence of CO{sub 2}, thus restricting the formation of epidote and eventually eliminating it. The process enhances the CO{sub 2} molarity in the residual fluid, even up to {sup m}CO{sub 2} 1, which means the CO{sub 2} can be diluted back into fluid and intervene again in the process of calcite formation (2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Ca{sup ++} = calcite + H{sub 2}O

  4. PRESENCIA DE ARSÉNICO EN POZOS Y EN CULTIVOS EN OAXACA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ubaldo Caballero-Guti\\u00E9rrez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de arsénico en agua de pozos y en cultivos. Se muestrearon pozos noria y semip rofundos, y diferentes cultivos (tomate, lechuga, frijol y maíz, pertenecie ntes al paraje "Flor de Guayabal", en Tlacolula, Oaxaca, México, durante un periodo de 10 meses (julio 2006 a abril 2007.Hubo dos fases: la primera fue el diagnóstico que se obtuvo de la determinación mensual del arsénico en los pozos, y en la segunda, el establecimie nto de cultivos y el muestreo de plantas para los análisis químicos. En los resultados del análisis de agua (julio-abril, hubo arsénico (¿=0,1 mg/l en niveles que superan lo establecido en la norma oficial mexicana (0,025 mg/l. En la segunda fase, en los órganos comestibles de jitomate, lechuga, zanahoria, maíz y frijol cultivados en el paraje, no se encontró evidencias sobre la presencia de este metal.

  5. Evaluating Multispectral Images and Vegetation Indices for Precision Farming Applications from UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Candiago

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV-based remote sensing offers great possibilities to acquire in a fast and easy way field data for precision agriculture applications. This field of study is rapidly increasing due to the benefits and advantages for farm resources management, particularly for studying crop health. This paper reports some experiences related to the analysis of cultivations (vineyards and tomatoes with Tetracam multispectral data. The Tetracam camera was mounted on a multi-rotor hexacopter. The multispectral data were processed with a photogrammetric pipeline to create triband orthoimages of the surveyed sites. Those orthoimages were employed to extract some Vegetation Indices (VI such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI, and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, examining the vegetation vigor for each crop. The paper demonstrates the great potential of high-resolution UAV data and photogrammetric techniques applied in the agriculture framework to collect multispectral images and evaluate different VI, suggesting that these instruments represent a fast, reliable, and cost-effective resource in crop assessment for precision farming applications.

  6. Nergal y la deidad doble del friso del Banquete infernal de Pozo Moro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pardo, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An enthroned figure with human body and two identical and superposed animal heads rules the scene called Underworld Feast from Pozo Moro’s Orientalizing monument. Identification of this figure with a deity assimilated with Nergal and his twin, Erra, or their corresponding Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea, Lords of the Underworld, is proposed. Though their cult spread through Syria and the Phoenician environment, especially in Samaria, it is in the Upper Euphrates where there seems to be a concentration of a surprising amount of clues that would allow us to specify that it was there that the idea or the image that we finally see shown in Pozo Moro was conceived: the implantation of Nergal’s cult in the zone; the special proximity of the iconographic elements of Neohittite origin that can be seen at the Pozo Moro friezes; the frequency of the representation of Hybrid beings devouring humans that find their reflection in the Underworld Feast; the permanence in the zone of Phoenician communities still in the 7th century B.C., etc. It is possible that the transference process took place through a Phoenician deity related to the Underworld, but we do not have enough clues to specify which one it could be.Preside la escena del Banquete infernal del monumento orientalizante de Pozo Moro una figura entronizada con cuerpo humano y dos cabezas animales idénticas y superpuestas. Se propone identificarla con una deidad asimilable a Nergal con su gemelo Erra, o sus correspondientes Lugal-irra y Meslamta-ea, señores del Inframundo. Aunque su culto se extendió por Siria y el entorno de Fenicia, especialmente en Samaria, es el Alto Éufrates donde parece concentrarse un sorprendente conjunto de indicios que permitirían precisar que fue allí donde se gestó la idea o la imagen que vemos finalmente plasmada en Pozo Moro: la implantación en la zona del culto de Nergal; especial proximidad en cuanto a los elementos iconográficos de origen neohitita que aparecen

  7. POZO Y MOTOR DE LOS UMPIÉRREZ [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CARRETERA DE LA PLAYA DE TASARTE CERCA DE COPERATIVA COPARLITA. Calificación del suelo: RÚSTICO DE PROTECCIÓN DE ENTORNOS Clasificación del suelo: RÚSTICO Declaración BIC:No EL MOTOR DEL FONDO DE POZO HA SIDO SACADO Y ARRIMADO JUNTO AL OTRO. EL TECHO DEL ALMACEN ES DE MADERA Y TEJA FRANCESA Y SE ESTA PICANDO. INSTALADO POR LOS HERMAMANOS UMPIERREZ MARTEL, EL MOTOR ES DE 1934. POSTERIORMENTE LO VINCULARON A OTROMOTOR EN SANTA BGIDA PARA ELE...

  8. Application of geographical information system for farm mechanization education and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Hudzari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Precision farming is managing each crop production input such as fertilizer, water, lime, herbicide, insecticide and seed on a site-specific basis to reduce waste, increase profit and maintain the quality of the environment. Without some remarkable enabling assisting technologies, the individual treatment of each plant is impossible and the concept of precision farming would not be feasible. Based on the trip, we can gain more information about the new technology that applies nowadays in agriculture. By using remote sensing that transmitted data from GPS, we can used to determination of generic object type, character and property as well as it’s abstract meaning. Besides, the application of remote sensing has been used in soil electrical conductivity sensor which used for show the variability of soil properties in detail and rapidly using simple equipment with less cost and labor force. Action maps will then be produced for farmers to apply fertilizers at different rates according to the delineated zones.

  9. Municipal sewage sludge application on Ohio farms: tissue metal residues and infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.S.; Dorn, C.R.; Lamphere, D.N.; Powers, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Transmission of infectious agents and translocation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from anaerobically digested sludge to the tissues of farm animals grazing on pastures to which sludge was applied (2-10 metric tons per hectare) were studied on eight farms. No significant health risk associated with the possible presence in sludge of Salmonella spp., or of common animal parasites including Nematodirus spp., Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Eimeria spp., Ascaris spp., and Ancylostomum spp. was noted. Caudal fold as well as cervical tuberculin testing indicated no conversions from negative to positive following exposure of cattle to sludge. Significantly higher fecal Cd concentrations were detected in samples collected from cattle soon after being placed on sludge-treated pastures compared to preexposure values in the same animals. Significant Cd and Pb accumulations were found in the kidneys of calves grazing sludge-treated pastures compared to control calves. Although older cows grazing sludge-treated pastures had significantly higher blood Pb levels, no metal accumulation was observed in other tissues. Statistically significant accumulations of Cd and Pb in the kidney of calves grazing these pastures for a relatively short period suggest that caution should be exercised to avoid prolonged grazing of cattle on pastures receiving heavy sludge applications, especially with sludges containing high concentrations of heavy metals.

  10. Geochemical and isotopic behavior of fluids from wells in Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico; Comportamiento geoquimico e isotopico del fluido de los pozos del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    In general the wells in Los Humeros geothermal fields produce sodium bicarbonate water with a low salinity because the fluids are produced from the shallow part of the reservoir. The fluids in wells H-33 and H-6 are sodium chloride: the first influenced by fluids from deep levels in the reservoir and the second by fluids coming only from the deeps part of the reservoir. Fluid mixture for other wells depends on operating conditions. To date, it has been difficult with the geothermetric temperatures to establish the underground flow directions and whether or not an infiltration of shallow low-temperature fluids occurs. Well H-16 has the lowest-temperature fluid in the liquid phase, which suggests infiltration of shallow local fluids-a result corroborated by an isotopic study. Using the methodology of Giggenbach and Goguel, we found that the gases are in equilibrium with the liquid phase at temperatures between 275 and 325 Celsius degrees. The maximum temperature is measured in wells H-12 and H-9, where good agreement exists between this temperature and those calculated with a geothermometer of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} . Isotopic results show, in general, that the wells with the highest levels of oxygen-18 are those with the highest geothermetric temperatures (CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2})- both in the north (H-35 and H-9) and in the south (H-6 and H-12)-results that agree with the temperatures measured in the field. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the wells show that they produce fluids from the liquid region. This fact, together with the low salinity, permit the application of the D' Amore methodology, with which the estimations of vapor fractions in the reservoir are relatively low. [Spanish] En general, los pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros producen agua del tipo bicarbonato sodico con baja salinidad. Esto se debe a que extraen fluidos de la parte somera del yacimiento. Los pozos H-33 y H-6 son clorurados sodicos; el primero por cierta influencia de la zona

  11. Flow visualization using momentum and energy transport tubes and applications to turbulent flow in wind farms

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a generalization of the mass-flux based classical stream-tube, the concept of momentum and energy transport tubes is discussed as a flow visualization tool. These transport tubes have the property, respectively, that no fluxes of momentum or energy exist over their respective tube mantles. As an example application using data from large-eddy simulation, such tubes are visualized for the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow in large wind farms, in fully developed wind-turbine-array boundary layers. The three-dimensional organization of energy transport tubes changes considerably when turbine spacings are varied, enabling the visualization of the path taken by the kinetic energy flux that is ultimately available at any given turbine within the array.

  12. Mineralogical composition of the meteorite El Pozo (Mexico): a Raman, infrared and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Hernández-Bernal, Maria del Sol

    2011-12-01

    The Raman (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of El Pozo meteorite (an ordinary chondrite L5 type; village Valle of Allende, founded in State of Chihuahua, Mexico: 26°56'N and 105°24'W, 1998). RMP measurements in the range of 100-3500 cm(-1) revealed principal characteristic bands of the major minerals: olivine, two polymorph modifications of pyroxene (OPx and CPx) and plagioclase. Some bands of the minor minerals (hematite and goethite) were also identified. All these minerals were clearly distinguished using IR and XRD techniques. XRD technique has shown the presence of some metallic phases such as kamacite and taenite as well as troilite and chromite. These minerals do not have characteristic Raman spectra because Fe-Ni metals have no active modes for Raman spectroscopy and troilite is a weak Raman scatterer. Raman mapping microspectroscopy was a key part in the investigation of El Pozo meteorite's spatial distribution of the main minerals because these samples are structurally and chemically complex and heterogeneous. The mineral mapping by Raman spectroscopy has provided information for a certain spatial region on which a spatial distribution coexists of the three typical mineral assemblages: olivine; olivine+orthopyroxene; and orthopyroxene.

  13. Processes of heat transference during the construction of oil wells: inverse problem; Procesos de transferencia de calor durante la construccion de pozos petroleros: problema inverso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea Gonzalez, Ulises

    2007-08-15

    In the oil industry and during the drilling and completion of oil wells, it is indispensable to count on reliable temperature estimations of the formation; its relevance and application are found in many areas of the geophysics, of the reservoir engineering and oil engineering. Unfortunately, the temperatures registered during the runs normally are lower than the real temperature of the formation, this is due to the fact that the times of interruption and flow circulation and circulation in the well are too short so that they do not allow the mud at the well bottom reaches the heat balance, which usually requires several days or weeks, economically non feasible situation to determine temperature profiles, since the times and costs of services of drilling would exceed the programmed technical economic limits. In order to confront this critical process a numerical code was developed, which consists of an analytical and numerical solution of the equations of heat transfer which they govern a system well-formation, which are used to model the thermal stabilization of an oil well after the drilling fluid flow has been stopped, supposing that the formation consists of an homogenous porous medium. The mathematical context is to find the initial conditions of the ensemble of partial differential equations that govern the phenomena of heat transference in the well and the formation. These equations form a bi-dimensional model in transient state. The mathematical model is established for four regions in the system well-formation and the border conditions and the initial conditions tie the partial differential equations for the well as for the formation. With the previous thing a generated methodology is obtained to determine the field of formation temperatures. Later, a particular analysis based on the thermo physical properties of the well geometry, the border conditions and the initial condition is proposed, parameter that is indeed the incognito of the problem. Ahead of

  14. El pozo: usos, seguridad y tradición en la subcuenca del río San Javier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chávez Valdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer la contribución de los pozos tradicionales en el suministro de agua a la población rural vis a vis las redes de agua potable en cinco comunidades rurales de bajos ingresos en el poniente del Estado de México. La información se obtuvo mediante trabajo de campo, entrevistas a informantes clave y usuarios. Se encontró que, en la mayoría de las localidades, los pozos tradicionales se han convertido en la principal fuente de abastecimiento para uso doméstico y que ayudan a resolver la grave crisis del agua. Si bien los pozos son un patrimonio familiar, cumplen una función social más ya que por lo regular son compartidos de manera gratuita con vecinos. La tecnología y el costo en de construcción y operación están al alcance de las familias rurales. Los pozos contribuyen a brindar seguridad en el suministro de agua durante el año.

  15. Análisis autosimilar de pozos cuánticos cuasirregulares delta dopados tipo n en GaAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraclio García-Cervantes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la esctructura electrónica de pozos cuánticos delta dopados tipo n en GaAs, en el cual el sistema de multiples pozos es construido de acuerdo a la secuencia de Fibonacci. Los bloques A y B corresponden a pozos delta dopados con una densidad de impurezas n2DA y n2DB, y el mismo ancho de los pozos. La aproximación de Thomas-Fermi, el modesemi-empírico de enlace fuerte (tight-binding sp3s* incluyendo el espín, el modelo de empalme de la función de Green y la matriz de transferencia fueron implementados para obtener el potencial de confinamiento, la estructura electrónica y la autosimilaridad del espectro. La fragmentación del espectro electrónico se presenta cada vez que los bloques A y B interaccionan, y aumenta a medida que la diferencia de impurezas entre A y B aumenta. La función de onda del primer estado de las bandas fragmentadas presenta características críticas, esto es, no es un estado localizado ni extendido, presenta características de autosimilaridad. Por lo tanto, las características cuasiregulares se conservan independientemente de la complejidad del sistema y pueden afectar el funcionamiento de los dispositivos basados a estas estructuras.

  16. La teoría del rayo paraxial en la sismica de pozo: Aproximación de segundo orden en los tiempos de tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Vides Luis Alfredo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Using the paraxial ray approximation of the named geometric optics a set of numerical expressions were found, these expressions characterize reflecting events recorded in detectors placed in a borehole. One of them is the characteristic travel time function which estimates the travel times of reflecting events in a vertical seismic profile configuration with sources placed in surface in the vicinity of the boreholes´s top. This characteristic VSP function can be numerically estimated using at least six measurements of appropriated selected travel times.

    Others expressions were deduced to allow the transformation of the VSP travel time function in the equivalent COP travel time function corresponding to reflecting events recorded in surface in a common midpoint array. The use of this result will make possible to solve the inverse problem in the neighborhood of the borehole by the application of downward continuation techniques of the travel time function. The results are valid only in the approximation of the second order of the travel times in models which consist of a pile of homogeneous and isotropic layers of any velocities and densities, separated by smooth interfaces arbitrarily curved.

    Utilizando la aproximación del rayo paraxial de la llamada óptica geométrica se encontró un conjunto de expresiones que caracterizan los eventos de reflexión que han sido registrados en detectores situados dentro de un pozo. Una de ellas es la función característica que estima

  17. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability fu

  18. Uav Multispectral Survey to Map Soil and Crop for Precision Farming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonaa, Giovanna; Passoni, Daniele; Pinto, Livio; Pagliari, Diana; Masseroni, Daniele; Ortuani, Bianca; Facchi, Arianna

    2016-06-01

    New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients). Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field), to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB) and false color (NIR-RG) images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  19. metodología para la evaluación de integridad en pozos con calentamiento eléctrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La integridad de los equipos en la Industria Petrolera, es de gran importancia por razones de seguridad, cumplimiento con regulaciones ambientales, reducción de costos de mantenimiento y prevención de paros inesperados de producción. El objetivo de este artículo es establecer una metodología para evaluar la integridad de pozos que utilicen el Calentamiento Eléctrico como método de recobro mejorado, de tal manera que se pueda definir si los pozos en estudio se encuentran en condiciones mecánico - metalúrgica adecuadas para implementar dicho método. La metodología propuesta se divide en tres etapas como son: planeación, criterios de evaluación y análisis de resultados. La planeación está dirigida hacia la elaboración de un plan de trabajo que será realizado en el sistema con el propósito de recolectar información histórica de inspección, mantenimiento y cálculos de velocidad de corrosión; para evaluar las condiciones actuales se utiliza una matriz de evaluación que determina la aplicabilidad del método de calentamiento eléctrico en los pozos en función de los parámetros que definen el ambiente del sistema y del material del revestimiento; luego de analizar los resultados el ingeniero de corrosión da su juicio determinando si el pozo es apto para la aplicación del método de recobro. Finalmente el artículo muestra dos ejemplos de aplicación de la metodología a pozos del campo La Hocha de la empresa (HOCOL S.A. que se encuentran ubicados en Huila – Colombia. El mayor aporte de este artículo a la industria petrolera, es el desarrollo de una metodología que permita evaluar en forma conjunta diferentes parámetros estructurales y de operación para dar un diagnóstico del pozo antes de diseñar e implementar el calentamiento eléctrico como método de recobro, evitando de esta forma pérdidas económicas.

  20. A Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS): Algorithm and performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit; Dudhia, Jimy

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resources for various energy applications such as operational forecasting. Due to the complexity of solving the RT equation, the computation under cloudy conditions can be extremely time-consuming, though many approximations (e.g., two-stream approach and delta-M truncation scheme) have been utilized. Thus, a more efficient RT model is crucial for model developers as a new option for approximating solar radiation at the land surface with minimal loss of accuracy. In this study, we developed a fast all-sky radiation model for solar applications (FARMS) using the simplified clear-sky RT model, REST2, and simulated cloud transmittances and reflectances from the Rapid Radiation Transfer Model (RRTM) with a 16-stream Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT). Simulated lookup tables (LUTs) of cloud transmittances and reflectances are created by varying cloud optical thicknesses, cloud particle sizes, and solar zenith angles. Equations with optimized parameters are fitted to the cloud transmittances and reflectances to develop the model. The all-sky solar irradiance at the land surface can then be computed rapidly by combining REST2 with the cloud transmittances and reflectances. This new RT model is more than 1,000 times faster than those currently utilized in solar resource assessment and forecasting because it does not explicitly solve the RT equation for each individual cloud condition. Our results indicate that the accuracy of the fast radiative transfer model is comparable to or better than two-stream approximation in term of computing cloud transmittance and solar radiation.

  1. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

  2. Application of fertilizer phosphorus to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer phosphorus that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  3. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  4. Application of routines that contribute to on-farm biosecurity as reported by Swedish livestock farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, M; Frössling, J; Lewerin, S S

    2010-08-01

    On-farm biosecurity is important for preventing the spread of several contagious animal diseases. In this study, biosecurity routines among Swedish farmers with livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep or goats) were examined through questionnaires posted by mail. Moreover, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms, such as animal transporters and veterinarians, were investigated through assessments made by the farmers. Questionnaires were completed, partly or fully, by 518 farmers (overall response rate 34%). Possible associations between biosecurity routines and livestock species, geographic location and herd size were analysed. Large variations in biosecurity routines were found, both within and between groups, and some farms appeared to have a relatively high level of biosecurity. However, biosecurity was reported by farmers with herds with only pigs, when compared to farmers with cattle, sheep/goats or mixed species. A higher level of biosecurity was also reported by larger farms compared to hobby farms. Inconsistent biosecurity routines were reported, which was interpreted as a lack of knowledge of how different infections can spread and how this can be prevented. Furthermore, some replies indicated that the farmers perceived the risk of introduction of disease as low. According to the farmers' assessments, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms varied considerably, both among different professions and within the same profession. On average, veterinarians and artificial insemination (AI) technicians got high scores in this assessment, while salesmen, repairmen and animal transporters were reported to seldom use protective clothing. Based on the findings, there is room for improvement of on-farm biosecurity. There is also a need to further investigate the motivators and constraints for altered routines among both Swedish livestock farmers and professionals visiting farms.

  5. Advanced technologies for genomic analysis in farm animals and its application for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Yu; Feng, Chungang; Liu, Qiuyue; Wang, Xiaobo; Du, Zhuo; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Rapid progress in farm animal breeding has been made in the last few decades. Advanced technologies for genomic analysis in molecular genetics have led to the identification of genes or markers associated with genes that affect economic traits. Molecular markers, large-insert libraries and RH panels have been used to build the genetic linkage maps, physical maps and comparative maps in different farm animals. Moreover, EST sequencing, genome sequencing and SNPs maps are helping us to understand how genomes function in various organisms and further areas will be studied by DNA microarray technologies and proteomics methods. Because most economically important traits in farm animals are controlled by multiple genes and the environment, the main goal of genome research in farm animals is to map and characterize genes determining QTL. There are two main strategies to identify trait loci, candidate gene association tests and genome scan approaches. In recent years, some new concepts, such as RNAi, miRNA and eQTL, have been introduced into farm animal research, especially for QTL mapping and finding QTN. Several genes that influence important traits have already been identified or are close to being identified, and some of them have been applied in farm animal breeding programs by marker-assisted selection.

  6. Observacion y anatisis de la varlacton de parametros geofisicos de un pozo ubicado en el piedemonte lIanero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano Mejia, Felix Humberto

    2001-12-01

    Este articulo presenta el desarrollo de instrumentacion especializada que se diseiio y se puso en funcionamiento con el fin de real izar la observacion y el anal isis de la variacion de parametres geofisicos de un pozo ubicado en el piedemonte llanero. La instrumentacion esta compuesta por una estacion remota para el registro multipararnetro y una estacion local en la cual se analizan los registros bajados de la estacion remota mediante la interrogacion periodica.

  7. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site.

  8. Positive indicators of cattle welfare and their applicability to on-farm protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on animal welfare has focused on the negative aspects of the matter including an array of stress categories, whereas little has been done about the positive states of well being. The present study aims to describe indicators of positive animal welfare suitable for on-farm assessment. Appropriate environmental stimulation favours good welfare and, in an adequately enriched environment, positive indicators of welfare such as play behaviour tend to be more common. In addition, animals are motivated to perform these behaviours only if their primary needs are satisfied. In cattle, beneficial effects of social licking have been observed with positive correlation between being licked vs. milk production and weight gain, respectively. Ruminants are gregarious and a high degree of synchronisation within the herd may indicate a positive welfare state, in particular for subordinate animals. They may be able to meet their basic feeding and resting requirements performing these behaviours when the competition for a particular resource is low, however their welfare state would be improved if they could choose when and where (i.e. along with the other members of the group to perform such behaviours. Due to the reduced applicability (mainly young animals, low feasibility (time consuming and lack of research on reliability, play behaviour, albeit of proven validity, does not appear to be suitable for a rapid implementation in a welfare assessment scheme. Social licking is rarely expressed and its detection may be time consuming and scarcely feasible. Although validity and reliability need more studies, behaviour synchrony seems to be a promising positive welfare indicator as the instantaneous scan sampling technique makes this indicator easily applicable. Recently, a new methodology called “qualitative assessment of animal behaviour” has been developed. The method relies on a number of terms which are freely generated by observers. Thus

  9. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Manure Application in Commercial Swine Farms on the Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Salmonella in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Land application of swine manure in commercial hog farms is an integral part of their waste management system which recycles the nutrients back to the soil. However, manure application can lead to the dissemination of bacterial pathogens in the environment and pose a serious public health threat. The aim of this study was to determine the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in the environment due to manure application in commercial swine farms in North Carolina (n = 6) and Iowa (n = 7), two leading pork producing states in the US. We collected manure and soil samples twice on day 0 (before and after manure application) from four distinct plots of lands (5 soil samples/plot) located at 20 feet away from each other in the field. Subsequent soil samples were collected again on days 7, 14, 21 from the same plots. A total of 1,300 soil samples (NC = 600; IA = 700) and 130 manure samples (NC = 60; IA = 70) were collected and analyzed in this study. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 13.22% (189/1,430), represented by 10.69% and 38.46% prevalence in soil and manure, respectively. The prevalence in NC (25.45%) was significantly higher than in IA (2.73%) (PSalmonella prevalence was detected from Day 0-Day 21 in all the farms that tested positive. Salmonella serotypes detected in NC were not detected in IA, thereby highlighting serotype association based on manure storage and soil application method used in the two regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the broth microdilution method to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. A high frequency of isolates (58.73%) were multidrug resistant (resistance to three or more class of antimicrobials) and the most frequent resistance was detected against streptomycin (88.36%), sulfisoxazole (67.2%), and tetracycline (57.67%). Genotypic characterization by pulse field gel electrophoresis revealed clonally related Salmonella in both manure and soil at multiple time points in the positive farms. Our study

  11. Effect of Organic Amendment Application Rate on Greenhouse Gas Emissions at an Organic Farm in Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, M.; King, J. Y.; Cleveland, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Though greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from mineral fertilizer application in agriculture have been well studied, the effect of organic amendment (OA) application rate on GHGEs is not yet understood. Application of multiple OAs can improve different properties that control soil fertility, including nutrient availability, aggregate stability, and water-holding capacity. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) flux at an organic farm in Goleta, CA in order to understand how OA application rate affects GHGEs and crop yield from agricultural soils. Based on management practices in the region, we asked farm managers to establish high compost (HC) and low compost (LC) treatments during the growing season of an annual crop (18.2, 9.13 Mg ha-1, respectively), and we measured GHGEs in beds and furrows using static chambers. Organic fertilizer (672 kg ha-1) was applied equally to HC and LC beds six weeks after compost application. Overall, emissions of N2O and CO2 were higher in HC than LC, but yield-scaled emissions were higher in LC. Importantly, treatment differences in both N2O and CO2 emissions were not apparent until after mid-season fertilizer application. Net CH4 uptake was higher in HC than LC in the furrows, but there was no difference in the beds. Our data suggest that high compost application rates likely increased SOM mineralization, soil water content, and nitrification and denitrification rates in HC relative to LC, which led to higher N2O emissions during the growing season. Fertilization primed SOM decomposition and increased soil respiration, which led to increased CO2 emissions. Our results suggest that improved management of application rate and timing during use of multiple OAs could reduce GHGEs while maintaining high crop yield. Understanding the mechanisms by which OA application rates alter the balance between GHGEs and yield is an important step toward reducing agriculture's contribution to climate change through

  12. Application of Static Var Compensator (SVC) With PI Controller for Grid Integration of Wind Farm Using Harmony Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshta, H. E.; Ali, A. A.; Saied, E. M.; Bendary, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale integration of wind turbine generators (WTGs) may have significant impacts on power system operation with respect to system frequency and bus voltages. This paper studies the effect of Static Var Compensator (SVC) connected to wind energy conversion system (WECS) on voltage profile and the power generated from the induction generator (IG) in wind farm. Also paper presents, a dynamic reactive power compensation using Static Var Compensator (SVC) at the a point of interconnection of wind farm while static compensation (Fixed Capacitor Bank) is unable to prevent voltage collapse. Moreover, this paper shows that using advanced optimization techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI) such as Harmony Search Algorithm (HS) and Self-Adaptive Global Harmony Search Algorithm (SGHS) instead of a Conventional Control Method to tune the parameters of PI controller for SVC and pitch angle. Also paper illustrates that the performance of the system with controllers based on AI is improved under different operating conditions. MATLAB/Simulink based simulation is utilized to demonstrate the application of SVC in wind farm integration. It is also carried out to investigate the enhancement in performance of the WECS achieved with a PI Controller tuned by Harmony Search Algorithm as compared to a Conventional Control Method.

  13. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators: an application to egg production sytems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    1. On-farm quantification of sustainability indicators (SI) is an effective way to make sustainable development measurable. The egg production sector was used as a case study to illustrate this approach. 2. The objective was to select SI for economic, ecological and societal issues, and to analyse t

  14. Semantics for big data applications in the smart dairy farming domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Spek, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Dutch SmartDairyFarming project, better decision support for the dairy farmer on daily questions around feeding, insemination, calving and milk production processes is made possible using a variety of big data sources containing static and dynamic sensor data of individual cows. This paper is

  15. Ontology Matching for Big Data Applications in the Smart Dairy Farming Domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Bekkum, M.A. van; Evert, F.K. van

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of ontologies for combining different sensor data sources to enable big data analysis in the dairy farming domain. We have made existing data sources accessible via linked data RDF mechanisms using OWL ontologies on Virtuoso and D2RQ triple stores. In addition, we have c

  16. Scenarios of long-term farm structural change for application in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Towards 2050, climate change is one of the possible drivers that will change the farming landscape, but market, policy and technological development may be at least equally important. In the last decade, many studies assessed impacts of climate change and specific adaptation strategies. However, ada

  17. Application of a visual soil examination and evaluation technique at site and farm level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Moolenaar, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual soil examination and evaluation (VSEE) techniques are semi-quantitative methods that provide rapid and cost-effective information on soil quality. These are mostly applied at site or field level, but there is an increased need for soil quality indicators at farm level to allow integration wit

  18. Sustainable Energy alternatives for the rural community "Pozo Blanco", in Jatibonico, Sancti Spíritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Iparraguirre Carbonell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Is analyzed the decisions taking for the execution of rural energización projects, it showed the ideas developed in the project "Renewable Energy for Ways of Sustainable Life" (RESURL, and the design tools based on the simplified method. Its objective was to identify alternatives to implement the cover of energy inadequacies in the community "Pozo Blanco" of the municipality of Jatibonico, by means of an integral study of selection based in the techniques of multipurpose analysis and the electric systems design, sustained in technologies with the renewable energy use, that provide a sustainable development; that generated concrete proposal. Also was executed a characterization over socioeconomic and energy diagnostic of the community, by means of the software SURE and the calculation based on the simplified method to obtain the matrix. The energy potentials were determined in terms of the indispensable demands, for the infrastructure development of the community. The originated proposal offers solution for electrification of houses in the referred community.

  19. Sedimentary petrology of oil well rock cores; Petrologia sedimentaria de nucleos de rocas de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo M, Georgina; Paredes S, Adriana [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    At the request of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), in the area of Geology of the Gerencia de Geotermia, the necessary methodology has been integrated to carry out the geologic characterization of cores obtained during the oil well drilling. The integrated studies have been of utility for PEMEX, because they provide detailed information on the processes, conditions of deposition and diagenesis that occur in sedimentary rocks. On the other hand, this geologic information contributes to the update of the geologic model of the field in study. [Spanish] A solicitud de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), en el area de Geologia de la Gerencia de Geotermia, se ha integrado la metodologia necesaria para llevar a cabo la caracterizacion geologica de nucleos obtenidos durante la perforacion de pozos petroleros. Los estudios integrados han sido de utilidad para PEMEX, pues proporcionan informacion detallada sobre los procesos, condiciones de depositacion y diagenesis que ocurren en rocas sedimentarias. Por otro lado, esta informacion geologica contribuye a la actualizacion del modelo geologico del campo en estudio.

  20. Geohydrology of the Aguirre and Pozo Hondo areas, southern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    The subsurface geology of the Aguirre and Pozo Hondo areas in southern Puerto Rico is primarily a fractured igneous volcanic rock (andesite) with three distinct zones: regolith, transition zone, and bedrock. Alluvial deposits are present, locally in each area, as well as weathered low- grade metamorphosed volcanics with a schistose texture and a vertical plane of foliation. A thin, water-table aquifer exists in the study areas. Ground water in this aquifer occurs primarily in the regolith and transition zone. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 1 foot to 75 feet below land surface. Ground- water flow out of the study areas is to the south into the southern coastal plain. The results of 2 multiple-well aquifer tests and 21 single-well slug injection and removal tests indicate that transmissivities range from 175 to 5,700 feet squared per day; hydraulic conductivities, from 0.02 to 160 feet per day; and storage coefficients from 0.02 to 0.2. The ground water in the study areas is of the calcium carbonate type. With the exception of dissolved solids, which were as much as 1,110 milligrams per liter, concentrations of common constituents in ground water did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water criteria.

  1. Gestión del conocimiento en las empresas de servicios a pozos petroleros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Prieto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos, la comunidad científica ha venido mostrando un creciente interés por la gestión del conocimiento, interés que ha ido parejo al estudio de temas tales como: la visión de las empresas como organizaciones capaces de generar ventajas competitivas mediante el conocimiento, el capital intelectual y los activos intangibles, entre otros. Este artículo tiene como objetivo determinar las características de la gestión del conocimiento presentes en las empresas de servicios a pozos ubicadas en la Sub-región Costa Oriental del Lago del Estado Zulia Venezuela, prestando especial atención al papel del capital intelectual y la subjetividad. El tipo de investigación fue descriptiva, con diseño no experimental, transeccional y de campo. La población estuvo conformada por los gerentes generales, supervisores y coordinadores de las empresas estudiadas para un total de 18 sujetos, a quienes se aplicó un cuestionario autoadministrado escala tipo likert, con 0,96 de confiabilidad. Se concluyó que las empresas en estudio presentan y aplican las características del capital intelectual y de la subjetividad en su gestión del conocimiento, dado que aprovechan ambos aspectos para el logro de sus objetivos organizacionales, sin embargo, se apreciaron amenazas relacionadas con la participación de agentes del entorno

  2. Analysis of inflow in geothermal wells to determine their maximum flow; Analisis del influjo en pozos geotermicos para la determinacion de sus flujos maximos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon-Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo-Montalvo, Georgina; Pal-Verma, Mahendra; Santoyo-Gutierrez, Socrates [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Moya-Acosta, Sara L [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    Inflow performance relationships developed for petroleum and geothermal reservoirs are presented. Four of them were selected to be used in this work. Such relationships were developed considering features of a typical geothermal system. The performance of the selected relationships was assessed using data from production tests in several wells of different fields. A methodology is presented to determine the value of the maximum flow (W{sub max}) from the inflow relationships; its application is demonstrated using the data of the 10 production tests. It was found that the calculated value of W{sub max} under stabilization conditions may be related to the reservoir response. In general, there is a good agreement between the calculated values of W{sub max} from the different methods. The differences in the W{sub max} values vary within 10%. It was found that the stability in the calculated values of W{sub max} as a response of the reservoir is a function of the flow magnitude. So, the wells with flow greater than 200 t/h reach the stability of W{sub max} at openings 50% less of their total capacity. [Spanish] Se presentan las relaciones del comportamiento de influjo desarrolladas para yacimientos petroleros y geotermicos. Se seleccionaron cuatro de ellas para usar en este trabajo. Tales relaciones fueron desarrolladas considerando condiciones de un sistema geotermico tipico. Se analizo el comportamiento de las relaciones escogidas utilizando datos de pruebas de produccion de varios pozos de diferentes campos. Se presenta una metodologia para determinar el valor del flujo maximo (W{sub max}) a partir de las relaciones de influjo; se demuestra su aplicabilidad usando los datos de diez pruebas de produccion. Se encontro que el valor de W{sub max} calculado bajo condiciones de estabilizacion se puede relacionar con la respuesta del yacimiento. En general se encuentra buena concordancia entre los valores calculados de W{sub max} usando los diferentes metodos. Las

  3. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  4. AESIS: a support tool for the evaluation of sustainability of agroecosystems. Example of applications to organic and integrated farming systems in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaio Cesare Pacini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability on the farm level. Policy makers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This paper presents the outcomes of applications to organic and integrated farming of an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems (Agro-Environmental Sustainability Information System, AESIS. The AESIS was described together with a review of applications dating from 1991 in a previous paper. The objective of the present paper is to present the AESIS application to organic and integrated farming systems in Val d’Elsa (Tuscany and discuss how it is adapted for application to ordinary farms. The AESIS is organised into a number of environmental and production systems. For each system, environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. Possible solutions to sustainability issues, and critical points of relevance to the agricultural sector of the local economic and agro-ecological zone, are formulated by including an experimental layout, identifying indicator thresholds and by defining management systems with corresponding policy measures. Alternative solutions are evaluated by calculating and measuring the relevant indicators. The outcomes of the AESIS applications are discussed with specific relevance to the operational adoptability of AESIS to ordinary, agri-touristic farms managed with the organic and the integrated production method, respectively. The AESIS framework proved to be sufficiently flexible to meet the requirements for ordinary farm applications while keeping a

  5. Control and dynamic analysis of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for DC-grid wind farm application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a control strategy and its dynamic analysis of a high-power dc-dc converter, which is constructed with the parallel-connected single active bridge (SAB) dc-dc converters for dc-grid wind farm applications. The structural and operational characteristics of the SAB dc-dc converter...... have several advantages for high-power applications, and the modular concept of the parallel-connected converter is highly beneficial especially for offshore wind farm applications in terms of maintenance cost and fault tolerance. To justify the feasibility of the parallel-connected SAB dc-dc converter...... for dc-grid wind farm applications, an input voltage control method based on the PI control will be introduced and the dynamics of the overall system will be analysed. The analysis results are to be verified by means of simulations and experiments....

  6. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  7. ALGORITMO COMPUTACIONAL PARA PREDECIR EL GRADIENTE DE PRESIÓN EN POZOS VERTICALES MEDIANTE LA CORRELACIÓN DE FLUJO MULTIFÁSICO DE HAGEDORN Y BROWN

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Luis; Duarte, María

    2015-01-01

    La precisión en la predicción de la caída de presión esperada durante el flujo multifásico de fluido en la sarta de producción de un pozo es un problema ampliamente conocido en la industria petrolera. Son muchas las correlaciones y modelos mecanísticos que permiten estimar el gradiente de presión en pozos como las correlaciones de: Duns y Ros (2008); Orkiszewski (1967); Hagedorn y Brown (1965), Beggs y Brill (1973), Govier y col. (1999), entre otras. Cada una de ellas presentan condiciones de...

  8. Development of a simple ecosystem model and its application to fish farms at Hazamaura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Joji; Hirano, Tadahiko; Horiguchi, Fumio

    Fish farms often cause environmental degradation to the surrounding aquatic areas when they operate for a long time. In this study, a simple numerical model was developed to evaluate the water quality (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved oxygen) of fish farms. This model consisted of a conventional ecosystem model with an added "cultured fish" component. This model was applied to represent the material cycling in a red sea bream culture at Hazamaura, Gokasho Bay, Japan.The analysis was carried out on the basis of field data collected from 1986-1989. In order to verify the model, the simulated concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were compared to observed concentrations. The simulated results were in good agreement with the observational data for the whole year. In the simulated nitrogen and dissolved oxygen cycle, we found that the factors causing water pollution (eutrophication, anoxia, etc.) were: excretion by the cultured fishes, river load and benthic regeneration in summer, an increase in organic substances from feed scraps and an increase in dissolved inorganic nitrogen through mineralization in winter.

  9. Analysis of superconducting magnetic energy storage applications at a proposed wind farm site near Browning, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, K. L.; Desteese, J. G.

    1993-07-01

    A computer program was developed to analyze the viability of integrating superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with proposed wind farm scenarios at a site near Browning, Montana. The program simulated an hour-by-hour account of the charge/discharge history of a SMES unit for a representative wind-speed year. Effects of power output, storage capacity, and power conditioning capability on SMES performance characteristics were analyzed on a seasonal, diurnal, and hourly basis. The SMES unit was assumed to be charged during periods when power output of the wind resource exceeded its average value. Energy was discharged from the SMES unit into the grid during periods of low wind speed to compensate for below-average output of the wind resource. The option of using SMES to provide power continuity for a wind farm supplemented by combustion turbines was also investigated. Levelizing the annual output of large wind energy systems operating in the Blackfeet area of Montana was found to require a storage capacity too large to be economically viable. However, it appears that intermediate-sized SMES economically levelize the wind energy output on a seasonal basis.

  10. Wind Power in Mexico: Simulation of a Wind Farm and Application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín del Campo–Márquez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. Inparticular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100 MWwind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysis are discussed with respect to evaluating the risks associated with events that can occur in wind parks, being especially useful for design and maintenance of the parks and the wind turbines themselves. In particular, an event tree was developed to analyze possible accident sequences that could occur when the wind speed is too great. Also, fault trees were developed for each mitigating system considered, in order to determine the relative importance of the wind generator components to the failure sequences, in order to evaluate the yield of suggested improvements and the optimization of maintenance programs.

  11. Modeling and resonance issues of wind farm integration with related facts applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auddy, Soubhik

    This thesis deals with electromechanical oscillations, torsional oscillations and resonance issues in power systems fed by conventional steam-turbine generators and emerging wind turbine generators. Solutions to several of these problems are proposed using Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Controllers. Inter-area oscillations are investigated in the IEEE 39 bus system and are damped by a novel Static VAR Compensator (SVC) control signal utilizing a weighted sum of remote generator speeds derived from bus voltage angles. The weights are calculated from participation factor analysis using commercial software Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) Power Tools and are validated by EMTDC/PSCAD simulations. Subsynchronous resonance (SSR) in steam-turbine generators has been traditionally damped with SVC using either local signals or signals derived from a combination of local signals. This thesis proposes a novel SVC controller based on remote generator speed for alleviating SSR. This controller is shown from EMTDC/PSCAD simulations to be much more effective than the previously reported controllers for the IEEE First SSR Benchmark system. The efficacy is demonstrated for all the four critical series compensation levels. With the worldwide growth of renewable energy, large wind farms are likely to be connected to series compensated networks for evacuation of bulk power. This may lead to the potential of SSR in the wind turbine generators. For the first time, a detailed electromagnetic transient study using EMTDC/PSCAD has been conducted in this thesis to demonstrate that subsynchronous resonance can be a cause of concern in series compensated wind farms at realistic levels of power flow and series compensation levels. Novel controllers for two FACTS devices - a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) and a Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) - are proposed to mitigate SSR under all realistic compensation levels in a modified IEEE First Benchmark system. It is further

  12. Detector : knowledge-based systems for dairy farm management support and policy-analysis; methods and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes new methods and knowledge-based systems for the analysis of technical and economic accounting data from the year-end records of individual dairy farms to support the management and, after adaptation, for policy analysis.A new method for farm comparison, the farm-adjusted standa

  13. Opportunities and barriers to on-farm composting and compost application: A case study from northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Van Lancker, J; Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Bijttebier, J; Ruysschaert, G; De Neve, S; Reubens, B

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining and increasing soil quality and fertility in a sustainable way is an important challenge for modern agriculture. The burgeoning bioeconomy is likely to put further pressure on soil resources unless they are managed carefully. Compost has the potential to be an effective soil improver because of its multiple beneficial effects on soil quality. Additionally, it fits within the bioeconomy vision because it can valorize biomass from prior biomass processing or valorize biomass unsuitable for other processes. However, compost is rarely used in intensive agriculture, especially in regions with high manure surpluses. The aim of this research is to identify the barriers to on-farm composting and the application of compost in agriculture, using a mixed method approach for the case of Flanders. The significance of the 28 identified barriers is analyzed and they are categorized as market and financial, policy and institutional, scientific and technological and informational and behavioral barriers. More specifically, the shortage of woody biomass, strict regulation, considerable financial and time investment, and lack of experience and knowledge are hindering on-farm composting. The complex regulation, manure surplus, variable availability and transport of compost, and variable compost quality and composition are barriers to apply compost. In conclusion, five recommendations are suggested that could alleviate certain hindering factors and thus increase attractiveness of compost use in agriculture.

  14. DHI在牛场管理系统中的应用%Application of DHI in Farm Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶; 孙珊珊; 王铁滨; 初秀娟

    2013-01-01

      In order to realize the dairy business management mode of our country culture from tradition to modernization transformation,to improve the economic benefits of the whole herds,dairy farm management system into the intelligent has become an inevitable trend. This paper introduces the application of DHI in farm management system,mainly on the DHI procedures,and explains its important role in the management of dairy cattle feeding.%  本为实现我国养殖奶牛事业管理方式从传统向现代化的转变,提高牛群整体的经济效益,引入智能的牛场管理系统已经成为必然趋势。本文介绍了DHI在牛场管理系统中的应用,主要阐述了DHI工作程序,并说明了其在奶牛饲养管理中的重要作用。

  15. A feasibility assessment for the application of biogas and wind power in the farm environment as sustainable sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Laura C.

    The depletion of energy sources and the ever-increasing energy demand---and consequently price escalation---is a problem that concerns the global population. Despite the concept of energy crisis being widely accepted nowadays, there is a lot of scepticism and misinformation on the possible alternatives to alleviate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional energy generation. Renewable energy technologies are constantly experiencing significant innovation and improvements. This thesis sought to assess the potential of small dairy farms to make an energy shift and identify the practical benefits and possible downfalls of this shift. Wind power and biogas digestion were analysed in this thesis, and a model to assess these technologies at any given farm was developed on VBA. For the case studied in this research both technologies were concluded to be feasible from an economic point of view. Although the initial investment can seem costly, considering the relatively low payback period and the currently available subsidies the economic implications are not an obstacle. The model developed on VBA is applicable to any region, given the right data is put into the programme. Considering the global energy concern, models such as the one developed in this thesis are an appropriate tool to identify potential shifts to greener solutions and prove to users that it can be economically profitable for them as well as environmentally beneficial.

  16. Matías Maestro, José del Pozo y el arte en Lima a inicios del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kusunoki Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es un acercamiento al arte limeño de inicios del siglo XIX, centrado en las figuras de Matías Maestro y José del Pozo. Se intenta ir más allá de definir este período como neoclasicismo, al centrar el análisis en las motivaciones de los comitentes y artistas. Para ello se ha recurrido a distintos tipos de documentos, sean cuentas de cofradías, sermones o periódicos, contextualizando así las piezas artísticas. En una sociedad corporativa y monárquica, el impacto de la Ilustración y el retorno a los modelos grecolatinos no generó un neoclasicismo en el sentido estricto, sino, como en toda manifestación periférica, la superposición de estratos estilísticos. El “buen gusto” impuesto por la labor de Matías Maestro y José del Pozo significó en realidad la subordinación de las manifestaciones artísticas locales a las de la Metrópoli, al imponerse dos artistas españoles y sin formación local en el gusto oficial y de élite.

  17. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer with application to wind farm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggy, Scott B.

    With the recent push for renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as a candidate to replace some of the power produced by traditional fossil fuels. Recent studies, however, have indicated that wind farms may have a direct effect on local meteorology by transporting water vapor away from the Earth's surface. Such turbulent transport could result in an increased drying of soil, and, in turn, negatively affect the productivity of land in the wind farm's immediate vicinity. This numerical study will analyze four scenarios with the goal of understanding turbulence transport in the wake of a turbine: the neutrally-stratified boundary layer with system rotation, the unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, and wind turbine simulations of these previous two cases. For this work, the Ekman layer is used as an approximation of the atmospheric boundary layer and the governing equations are solved using a fully-parallelized direct numerical simulation (DNS). The in-depth studies of the neutrally and unstably-stratified boundary layers without introducing wind farm effects will act to provide a concrete background for the final study concerning turbulent transport due to turbine wakes. Although neutral stratification rarely occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer, it is useful to study the turbulent Ekman layer under such conditions as it provides a limiting case when unstable or stable stratification are weak. In this work, a thorough analysis was completed including turbulent statistics, velocity and pressure autocorrelations, and a calculation of the full turbulent energy budget. The unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer was studied under two levels of heating: moderate and vigorous. Under moderate stratification, both buoyancy and shearing contribute significantly to the turbulent dynamics. As the level of stratification increases, the role of shearing is shown to diminish and is confined to the near-wall region only. A recent, multi

  18. FarmVille For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The only how-to, full-color book available on the game sensation FarmVille. With more than 80 million active players since the game?s release in 2009, there seems no end to the growing popularity of FarmVille. Whether accessed through the Facebook application or from the game?s Web site, this application is a worldwide phenomenon. Yet, there has been no beginner guide that offers an introduction to newcomers and updates to experienced players?until now. FarmVille For Dummies is aimed at getting novices acquainted with FarmVille rules and regulations, while more savvy players can sharpen their

  19. [Application of hyperspectral remote sensing in research on ecological boundary in north farming-pasturing transition in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Xie, Ying-Zhong

    2009-06-01

    Studies of ecological boundaries are important and have become a rapidly evolving part of contemporary ecology. The ecotones are dynamic and play several functional roles in ecosystem dynamics, and the changes in their locations can be used as an indicator of environment changes, and for these reasons, ecotones have recently become a focus of investigation of landscape ecology and global climate change. As the interest in ecotone increases, there is an increased need for formal techniques to detect it. Hence, to better study and understand the functional roles and dynamics of ecotones in ecosystem, we need quantitative methods to characterize them. In the semi-arid region of northern China, there exists a farming-pasturing transition resulting from grassland reclamation and deforestation. With the fragmentation of grassland landscape, the structure and function of the grassland ecosystem are changing. Given this perspective; new-image processing approaches are needed to focus on transition themselves. Hyperspectral remote sensing data, compared with wide-band remote sensing data, has the advantage of high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to visualize transitional zones and to detect ecotone based on surface properties (e. g. vegetation, soil type, and soil moisture etc). In this paper, the methods of hyperspectral remote sensing information processing, spectral analysis and its application in detecting the vegetation classifications, vegetation growth state, estimating the canopy biochemical characteristics, soil moisture, soil organic matter etc are reviewed in detail. Finally the paper involves further application of hyperspectral remote sensing information in research on local climate in ecological boundary in north farming-pasturing transition in China.

  20. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  1. J.I. Pozo y M. del P. Pérez: Psicología del aprendizaje universitario: La formación en competencias

    OpenAIRE

    Moreu, Àngel C.

    2010-01-01

    Ressenya de: Juan Ignacio Pozo y Mª del Puy Pérez Echeverría (coords.) Psicología del aprendizaje universitario: la formación en competencias. Ediciones Morata, Madrid, 2009, 231 págs. ISBN: 978-84-7112-598-9.

  2. Application of the Welfare Quality protocol to dairy buffalo farms: Prevalence and reliability of selected measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, G; Grasso, F; Winckler, C; Bilancione, A; Pacelli, C; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F

    2015-10-01

    Within the general aim of developing a Welfare Quality system for monitoring dairy buffalo welfare, this study focused on prevalence and interobserver reliability of the animal-related variables to be included in the scheme. As most of the measures were developed for cattle, the study also aimed to verify their prevalence for buffaloes. Thirty animal-based measures (22 clinical and 8 behavioral measurements) and 20 terms used for qualitative behavior assessment were assessed in 42 loose-housed buffalo farms. All farms were located in central-southern Italy. Two assessors were used (1 male and 1 female). The time needed to record all measures (animal-, resource-, and management-based) was 5.47 ± 0.48 h (mean ± SD). Interobserver reliability of animal-based measures was evaluated using Spearman rank correlation coefficient test (rs). If 0.7 is considered as threshold for high interobserver reliability, all animal-based measures were above this level. In particular, most of the coefficients were above 0.85, with higher values observed for prevalence of animals that can be touched (rs = 0.99) and prevalence of animals with iatrogenic abscess (rs = 0.97), whereas lower coefficients were found for the prevalence of vulvar discharge (rs = 0.74) and dewlap edema (rs = 0.73). Twelve out of the 20 terms used for the qualitative behavior assessment reached a satisfactory interobserver reliability (rs = 0.65). Principal component analysis of qualitative behavior assessment scores was conducted for each assessor. Both principal component 1 and principal component 2 showed high interobserver reliability (rs = 0.80 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, relevant proportions of animals were affected by welfare issues specific to buffaloes, such as overgrown claws (median = 34.1%), withers hygroma (median = 13.3%), and vulvar or uterine prolapse (median = 9.3%). We concluded that most of the investigated measures could be reliably included in the final scheme, which can be used as

  3. Dynamic Ecocentric Assessment Combining Emergy and Data Envelopment Analysis: Application to Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín-Gamboa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of current life-cycle approaches show an anthropocentric standpoint for the evaluation of human-dominated activities. However, this perspective is insufficient when it comes to assessing the contribution of natural resources to production processes. In this respect, emergy analysis evaluates human-driven systems from a donor-side perspective, accounting for the environmental effort performed to make the resources available. This article presents a novel methodological framework, which combines emergy analysis and dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA for the ecocentric assessment of multiple resembling entities over an extended period of time. The use of this approach is shown through a case study of wind energy farms. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared with those of previous studies from two different angles. On the one hand, a comparison with results from anthropocentric approaches (combined life cycle assessment and DEA is drawn. On the other hand, results from similar ecocentric approaches, but without a dynamic model, are also subject to comparison. The combined use of emergy analysis and dynamic DEA is found to be a valid methodological framework for the computation of resource efficiency and the valuation of ecosystem services. It complements traditional anthropocentric assessments while appropriately including relevant time effects.

  4. KNOWLEDGE AND APPLICATION OF METHODS AND SYSTEMS QUALITY ASSURANCE IN ORCHARD FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poland is significant producer of fruits in Europe. After accession to the EU, fruit producers are obligated to comply with operative rules and standards on this market which are related to ensuring commercial and healthcare products of appropriate quality. The quality of fruits available on the market is varied. This results from the fact that in the past, in domestic horticulture, more attention was paid to enlargement of the acreage, the modernization of orchards, increasing the intensity of production and productivity than on issues related to certification and quality management systems. Therefore, the aim of the work was to show the producer's opinion on methods and systems which assure quality of fruits. It was stated that producers have a good knowledge of the methods and systems of fruit quality assurance. Knowledge of these issues is significantly associated with the scale of the fruit production. The knowledge of the principles of integrated fruit production and trading standards GLOBALG.A.P. was declared most often. These methods of quality assurance were also top rated by producers and implemented mostly in farms.

  5. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    of identification of diseases occurrence in the initial stage. The vision of this paper is to provide models for the prevention and management of shrimp diseases in coastal shrimp farming of Bangladesh and other developing countries. It is expected that the proposed models could successfully help the farmers...... density usually initiate the rapid growth of virus and bacteria in a shrimp farm which in turn cause the disease and mortality of shrimp. Coastal shrimp farms are very densely located in Bangladesh and other Southeast Asian countries. As a result, the viral and bacterial diseases can be easily spread from...... an infected farm to the non-infected farms. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication of such a risk to the shrimp farmers. The risk perception concept could be adapted for the purpose...

  6. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  7. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-02-23

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials.

  8. Analysis and design of a parallel-connected single active bridge DC-DC converter for high-power wind farm applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a parallel-connected Single Active Bridge (SAB) dc-dc converter for high-power applications. Paralleling lower-power converters can lower the current rating of each modular converter and interleaving the outputs can significantly reduce the magnitudes of input and output current...... requirements, this modular converter concept is expected to be highly beneficial especially for the offshore wind farm application....

  9. NOVEL TSUNAMI BARRIERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS FOR HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE, FISH FARMING, AND FOR LAND RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Scheel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami hazard can be mitigated if the destructive waves generated from earthquakes and landslides can be reflected by a stable submerged vertical barrier before striking coastal communities or important structures. Building such deep walls by conventional submarine technology is difficult. The present study describes the principle and the erection of such submarine defensive walls by a relatively simple efficient and economic technology. This technology is based on lowering high- strength steel fences with horizontal anchors, or two parallel steel fences with distance holders, into the sea and fixing them with rocks deposited from top. Dredged material like gravel or sand can be used for additional filling. This Tsunami-Flooding Barrier (TFB extends a few meters above sea level and carries on top a concrete supply and service road protected on both sides against storm waves by concrete walls. Replaceable surge stoppers (parapets, wave return walls prevent overtopping and erosion of the seaward barrier face. The TFBs protect the coastline against tsunami and the highest storm waves from hurricanes, but also can provide protection from oil spills or other contaminations from the ocean and thus protect flora, fauna, coral reefs and beaches. Channels and gates allow navigation and can be closed quickly upon a tsunami or storm warning. The construction costs can be eventually compensated by using the reservoirs between coast and barriers for hydroelectric energy storage (using pump-turbines in the barriers or for fish-farming, or alternatively the reservoir can be filled with rocks, rubble, gravel, sand and covered with soil in order to reclaim new land. Tidal energy can be generated by installing turbines within these barriers. Also, this submarine architecture may be applied to protect pillars of bridges and offshore platforms, and for erecting “roads” into the sea to connect near-shore platforms and wind-parks with the coast and

  10. Generalized coupled wake boundary layer model: applications and comparisons with field and LES data for two wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard J.A.M.; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We describe a generalization of the coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model for wind farms that can be used to evaluate the performance of wind farms under arbitrary wind inflow directions, whereas the original CWBL model (Stevens et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 7, 023115 (2015)) focuse

  11. Strategies of ARP application (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) for viticultural precision farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Andrenelli, M. C.; Bucelli, P.; Magini, S.; Natarelli, L.; Pellegrini, S.; Perria, R.; Storchi, P.; Vignozzi, N.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Viticultural precision farming needs detailed soil information, which can be obtained by means of remote as well as proximal sensors, besides traditional invasive soil survey. Nevertheless, the use of the new technologies is still in its infancy, because of their costs and the lack of knowledge about the detail actually needed for the viticultural husbandry. The main aim of this work was to test the sensitivity of the ARP methodology (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) in supporting soil survey for viticultural precision farming. In addition, we tried to optimize the detail of geoelectrical measurements and soil sampling to reduce the cost of the integrated survey, maintaining a significant information accuracy for viticulture. Materials and methods Two vineyards in coastal Tuscany (central Italy), about 3.5 ha each, were selected. Vineyard 1 was cultivated with Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc, while vineyard 2 only had Cabernet Sauvignon. Soil survey and geoelectrical investigation were conducted in may 2007. The ARP methodology consists in the injection in soil of electric current through one pair of electrodes mounted on teeth wheels and measuring the resulting potential with other three pairs of electrodes, placed of the same mobile equipment. The electrical resistance of the soil (ER) is expressed as ohm per m. The depth of investigation is a function of the geometry of the electrodes and the soil being probed. Increasing the distance between electrodes will increase the depth while decreasing the measured potential. The innovative character of the ARP technique is represented by the passage of a mobile machinery, able to perform 30,000 measurements per hectare, with a measurement every 0.2 m. The ARP system, equipped with a digital encoder and DGPS system, is transported by a four-wheeled vehicle. It is fitted with three sensors that contemporaneously analyse three distinct levels of the soil, the values of which are represented by maps of

  12. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS IN FARM ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. EBEGBULEM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of genetic polymorphism at the DNA sequence level has been exploited as markers to explain the observed phenotypic variability in animals. Molecular markers have proven to be more reliable than other forms of genetic markers. The overview of the applications of molecular markers in the areas of genetic diversity conservation, identification of disease carriers, parentage determination, marker-assisted selection, transgenesis, sex-determination; and the enumeration of some challenges to the application of these markers in the developing countries, especially Nigeria, form the crux of this paper. Some of the challenges include economic factors, mechanical and logistics factors, lack of funding/grants for research, IPR issues and lack of adequately trained personnel in areas of molecular genetics.

  13. Analysis of the Solar Resource Information Datasets for Thermal and/or electric Generation Using a Geographical Information System. Cases of Application: Central Cafeteria - University of the Valley, Cali Municipality and Farm {sup P}ozo Verde{sup ,} Jamundi Municipality , Cauca Valley, Colombia; Analisis de las Fuentes de Informacion sobre Recurso Solar para Generacion Termica y/o Electrica Empleando un Sistema de Informacion Geografica. Casos de Aplicacion: Cafeteria Central - Universidad del Valle, Municipio de Cali y Granja {sup P}ozo Verde{sup ,} Municipio de Jamundi, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, J.; Manrique, P. A.; Pinedo, I.

    2009-10-12

    In this report, two examples of renewable energy assessments based on Geographical Information Systems are presented. Several case studies have been carried out in the Valley of Cauca (Colombia), and one on them has been used to size a hybrid system. The results of this particular case study are presented in a second report. The aim of this document is analysing the different sources of data that could be used in the characterization of solar energy for electricity and electricity-heat use. With this purpose, data of two areas in Valley of Cauca obtained from the Atlas of Solar Radiation of Colombia, SWERA project and SSE-NASA have been compared. The data coming from these sources has been analysed using a Geographical Information System, and the conclusions are described along with cartographic and numeric products. These reports are the result of a collaboration established between Universidad del Valle (Colombia) and CIEMAT (Spain), and have been done by the author while his staying at our center included on his PhD program.

  14. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  15. Evaluation of chitosan application on agronomic parameters of tomato farming in shade net house conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Jiménez Arteaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in net houses at Empresa de Servicios (ESUNI del Grupo Empresarial Cuba Níquel, in Moa municipality, Holguín. The objective was to evaluate the agronomic response of tomato cultivars to the application of chitosan, as an alternative to increase yield. Five doses of chitosan (250, 275, 300, 325, 350 mg/ha and control treatment were evaluated after transplantation. They were applied during the bloom stage in two moments, and an average of the both moments were obtained and their results were presented in tables and graphs. The main production indicators were evaluated. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey’s range test were used with p d” 0.05 and Statistica 8.0 software was used to perform the statistical analysis. According to the response of plants to the application of the polymer in the different evaluated variables of both experiments, it was confirmed that chitosan have the capacity to stimulate the processes

  16. Impacts of manure application on soil environment, rainfall use efficiency and crop biomass under dryland farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Jia, Zhikuan; Liang, Lianyou; Yang, Baoping; Ding, Ruixia; Nie, Junfeng; Wang, Junpeng

    2016-02-01

    Because of inadequate nutrient and water supply, soils are often unproductive in Northwest China. We studied the effects of manure application at low (LM 7.5  t ha–1), medium (MM 15 t ha–1), and high (HM 22.5 t ha–1) rates combined with fixed levels of chemical fertilizers on maize growth and rainfall use efficiency compared with chemical fertilizers (CK) under semi-arid conditions over a three-year period. HM and MM treatments could significantly increase soil water storage (0–120 cm) at tasseling stage of maize compared with LM treatment and CK (P efficiency increased as manure application rate increasing (P efficiency by 6.5–12.7% at big trumpeting – tasseling stage compared with LM and MM treatments. HM and MM treatments increased rainfall use efficiency by 8.6–18.1% at tasseling – grain filling stage compared with CK. There was no significant difference on biomass between HM and MM treatments at grain filling and maturity stages of maize in 2009 and 2010.

  17. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the OpenFOAM-based Flow Solver of the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA): Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Sang, L.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver such that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with somepreliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simply set of hills.

  18. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  19. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  20. Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from paddy fields adopting organic farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nungkat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to determine the effect of the use of organic manure and azolla on methane emission on paddy field of organic systems was conducted on paddy fields in the Gempol Village, Sambirejo District of Sragen Regency, Indonesia. The experimental design performed for this study was a completely randomized block design consisting of three factors; the factor I was rice cultivars (Mira-1; Mentik Wangi; Merah Putih; factor II was dose of organic manure (0 t/ha and 10 t/ha and factor III was Azolla inoculums dose (0 t/ha and 2 t/ha. Gas sampling was conducted 3 times in one growing season when the rice plants reached ages of 38, 66 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that there was no correlation between the uses of organic fertilizers for rice production on methane emission. The increase of methane emission was very much influenced by the redox potential. Methane emission from Mira-1 field was higher than that from Mentik Wangi and Merah Putih fields. Emission of methane gas from Mira-1 field ranged from -509.82 to 791.34 kg CH4/ha; that from Wangi ranged from -756.77 to d 547.50 kg CH4/ha and that from Merah Putih ranged from -399.63 to 459.94 kg CH4/ha. Application of 10 t organic manure /ha and 2 t azolla/ha in Mentik Wangi reduced methane emissions with a high rice production compared to Merah Putih and Mira-1.

  1. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...... of such a risk to the shrimp farmers. The risk perception and communication concepts could be applied to identify and to manage the disease occurrence in the initial stage. This conceptual paper provides the models to prevent and to manage shrimp diseases in coastal shrimp farming of Bangladesh and other...

  2. A game theory based framework for assessing incentives for local area collaboration with an application to Scottish salmon farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G

    2014-08-01

    Movements of water that transport pathogens mean that in net-pen aquaculture diseases are often most effectively managed collaboratively among neighbours. Such area management is widely and explicitly applied for pathogen management in marine salmon farms. Effective area management requires the active support of farm managers and a simple game-theory based framework was developed to identify the conditions required under which collaboration is perceived to be in their own best interest. The model applied is based on area management as practiced for Scottish salmon farms, but its simplicity allows it to be generalised to other area-managed net-pen aquaculture systems. In this model managers choose between purchasing tested pathogen-free fish or cheaper, untested fish that might carry pathogens. Perceived pay-off depends on degree of confidence that neighbours will not buy untested fish, risking input of pathogens that spread between farms. For a given level of risk, confidence in neighbours is most important in control of moderate-impact moderate-probability diseases. Common low-impact diseases require high confidence since there is a high probability a neighbour will import, while testing for rare high-impact diseases may be cost-effective regardless of neighbours actions. In some cases testing may be beneficial at an area level, even if all individual farms are better off not testing. Higher confidence is required for areas with many farms and so focusing management on smaller, epidemiologically imperfect, areas may be more effective. The confidence required for collaboration can be enhanced by the development of formal agreements and the involvement of outside disinterested parties such as trade bodies or government.

  3. Evaluating input- and stock-based tax incentives to reduce and reallocate phosphor application across farm types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Hasler, Berit

    2014-01-01

    addresses all P sources at the farm, including the soil P content, whereas a mineral-fertilizer P tax addresses only the fertilizer input. Taking the temporal and spatial dynamics of a catchment area into account, this paper focuses on how the two economic instruments can be used to improve the interactions...

  4. Operational nitrogen fertilizer management in dairy farming systems: identification of criteria and derivation of fertilizer application rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T.V.; Andre, G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Oenema, O.

    2004-01-01

    Fertilizer-nitrogen (N) management is a decisive factor in grass-based, intensive dairy farming, as it strongly influences economic and environmental performance but little attention has been paid to providing guidance on N-fertilizer management at an operational level to meet these criteria of perf

  5. Isotopic Behaviour of fluids from the Los Azufres, Michoacan, (Mexico) Geothermal Wells; Comportamiento isotopico de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Portugal M, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Tello L, Mirna del Rocio; Tello H, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    Isotopics data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) from production and reinjection well fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define the reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a consequence of exploitation. The study included data for 25 wells for 1994-1996. Chemical and production data were also studied in order to explain the isotopic characteristics of the fluids. General results indicated that different phenomena seem to occur for both field zones. In the southern zone (Tejamaniles), a mixture of fluids was evidenced by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency which provides a positive slope. The isotopically enriched fluid is constituted by the reinjection fluid. In the northern zone, (Maritaro) there was no evidence that the reinjection fluid is appearing in well discharges. For this zone the dominant process seems to be the reservoir vapour separation at a temperature above 220 degrees Celsius. This was suggested by the deuterium vs oxygen-18 tendency for which a negative slope was found. This trend is characteristics of a vapour separation process since for temperatures above 220 degrees Celsius deuterium behaves as a volatile component. The study of the reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time and the results obtained with a heat and fluid flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas for both zones of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta una interpretacion de datos de composicion isotopica (oxigeno-18 y deuterio) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Estos datos se obtuvieron entre 1994 y 1996 con el proposito de definir la evolucion del yacimiento e identificar los procesos dominantes surgidos como consecuencia de la explotacion del campo. El estudio comprendio un numero de 25 pozos productores y de reinyeccion. La

  6. Módulo de Visualización para el análisis petrofísico a pozos de petróleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridel Oscar García Mora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El petróleo es un recurso natural no renovable utilizado para producir un alto porcentaje de la energía que se consume en el mundo. Debido a su importancia y utilidad se extrae en casi todos los países de América. En Cuba se utilizan para la exploración de este preciado recurso, sistemas automatizados, que entre sus características permiten analizar, evaluar y modificar la información contenida en los archivos de registros de pozos de petróleo. Estos sistemas automatizados son una gran ayuda en el análisis e interpretación de la información contenida en los registros de pozos, proporcionando una mayor precisión y velocidad en el procesamiento. Pero para Cuba, el uso de estos sistemas no es factible debido al elevado costo requerido para utilizarlos, además, que sólo se pueden ejecutar en el sistema operativo Windows. El presente trabajo tiene el objetivo de permitir el análisis de la información contenida en los archivos de registros de pozo de petróleo a través de la visualización de histogramas, cross-plot y pistas. Para desarrollar este trabajo se emplearon los métodos científicos: analítico-sintético, modelado, observación y entrevista. Además, se utilizó la metodología RUP, lenguaje de modelado UML, la herramienta CASE Visual Paradigm, el lenguaje de programación C++ y el marco de desarrollo Qt, como entorno de desarrollo QT Creator y la biblioteca Qwt5. Como resultado de este trabajo, además del módulo implementado, se obtuvo la ingeniería de requisitos y análisis del modelo de negocio de la información contenida en los registros de pozos de petróleo.

  7. Paz Benito Del Pozo (dir.), 2011, Áreas empresariales, suelo industrial y logística: análisis y procesos en el territorio

    OpenAIRE

    Del Carmen Cañízares Ruiz, María

    2014-01-01

    Paz Benito del Pozo, maître de conférences en géographie humaine à l'Université de León (Castilla y León, Espagne), coordonne ce travail qui constitue une excellente mise à jour des dynamiques complexes caractérisant les secteurs d'activité dans le contexte actuel de la mondialisation. Mettant l'accent sur les liens entre le territoire et les établissements industriels, les réseaux de transport et la logistique, cette publication trouve son origine dans la IVème Conférence sur la Géographie É...

  8. Desarrollo de programas computacionales para analizar sistemas básicos de producción en pozos de petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo Alvarez, Milton Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Este reporte detalla el procedimiento seguido para desarrollar programas computacionales para analizar sistemas de producción, básicos e integrados, en pozos de petróleo. Al principio se resalta la necesidad de este tipo de investigaciones. Mediante un estudio estadístico se clasifican las condiciones técnicas bajo las que operan las compañías petroleras en el oriente ecuatoriano; con base en esto y en varios estudios comparativos presentados anteriormente, se seleccionan las correlaciones má...

  9. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  10. Metodología para identificar en tiempo real las zonas de inestabilidad geomecánica, y mitigar los riesgos durante las operaciones de perforación de pozos petroleros

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Álvarez, John Byron

    2012-01-01

    Los problemas de estabilidad geomecánica constituyen en uno de los mayores desafíos de la industria del petróleo durante la perforación de un pozo. Debido al altísimo impacto de los problemas de estabilidad en los tiempos no productivos (NPT) y por ende en el costo final de los proyectos, en este trabajo se presenta una innovadora metodología que permite identificar las zonas de alto riesgo geomecánico en la perforación de un pozo, utilizando la información convencional generada en la perfora...

  11. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  12. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  13. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  14. Chemometric data analysis application to Sparus aurata samples from two offshore farming plants along the Apulian (Italy) coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Mangiacotti, Michele; Brizzi, Giulio; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Abate, Vittorio; Cascone, Valeria; Ferri, Fabiola; Iacovella, Nicola; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The levels of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs), and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish collected from two marine offshore farming plants were determined. Each sample was constituted by specimens of the same size collected at the same time in four different seasons along the farming year. The feeds given were of industrial origin and the plants were positioned in two different sites respectively exposed to different environmental characteristics. A chemometric approach was applied to interpret the subtle differences observed in fish body burdens across the three chemical groups taken into consideration. The approach consisted in a stepwise multivariate process including a hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and a linear discriminant analysis (DA). The two main clusters determined by CA were subjected to the canonical DA, backward and forward selection procedures to select the best discriminative functions. A clear temporal and spatial discrimination was found among the samples. Across the three chemical groups, the monthly separation seemed to depend on the growth process and the main exposure was due to the feed. In addition, the two plants differed significantly from the environmental point of view and the most important discriminating group of chemicals were the NDL-PCBs. The approach resulted really effective in discriminating the subtle differences and in individuating suggestions to improve the quality of culturing conditions.

  15. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  16. Interpretación de pruebas de presión en pozos hidráulicamente fracturados parcialmente penetrados en yacimientos de gas bi-zonales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Humberto Escobar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dada la creciente demanda en el fracturamiento de formación de baja permeabilidad, la interpretación matemática de datos de pozos se ha tornado importante para la generación de modelos matemáticos que estudien el comportamiento de la presión y se formulen metodologías para una caracterización más exacta de formaciones apretadas que contienen hidrocarburos. Por ende, en este artículo se presenta una metodología para interpretar pruebas de presión en yacimientos gasíferos bi-zonales drenados por un pozo vertical hidráulicamente fracturado (penetración parcial o complete que utiliza el gráfico log-log de pseudopresión y derivada de pseudopresión. La metodología dada usa líneas y puntos característicos hallados en dicho gráfico de modo que se desarrollaron nuevas expresiones y correlaciones para longitud media de fractura, relación de penetración de la fractura, relaciones de movilidad y almacenaje, permeabilidad radial, tamaño de la zona interior, área de drenaje, permeabilidad vertical y factores de daño. Las expresiones nuevas se verificaron exitosamente mediante ejemplos sintéticos.

  17. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  18. Application of Asiatic Honey Bees (Apis cerana and Stingless Bees (Trigona laeviceps as Pollinator Agents of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at Local Indonesia Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, hot pepper (Capsicum annuum is one of the most important spices. Despite the fact that high yield cultivars and fertilizers have been applied to increase the annual production of this spice, local farming is always unable to maintain constant production. Studies to find the explanation of this problem mostly focused on pest attack while possibility of low fruit production due to lack of pollination was neglected. In this study, the effect of pollinator visitation to fruit set and quality was assessed by application of two local domesticated honey bees, Asiatic honey bees (Apis cerana and stingless bees (Trigona laeviceps as potential pollinator agents at hot pepper plantation. This study found that both bees had similar visitation rate while A. cerana spend less time in flowers. Visitation by A. cerana and Trigona laeviceps improved fruit set, fruit production per plant, average fruit weight, and fruit size. This result confirms the importance of cross pollination for hot pepper production and both species could be used as pollination agent for hot pepper. Advantages and disadvantages for each species as pollination agent for local Indonesia farm system are discussed in this paper.

  19. Application of DHI to Scale Dairy Farm%DHI在规模奶牛场中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯存丽; 张晓龙; 马继贤

    2015-01-01

    Using the DHI report data of a scale dairy farm in Helan county in Ningxia from December 2013 to November 2014, the indicators such as the milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, somatic cells, etc., are traced and analyzed. The results showed that in the dairy farm, the dairy cow diet was unreasonable, the sustainable lactation capability was poor, the somatic cells were sometimes high and sometimes low, the environmental mastitis existed, the fat to protein ratio was high, the dairy diet structure was irrational, the average number of days of lactation was too long and the reproductive problems existed in the cows. It is suggested that efforts should be made to get improvement in the production performance of the dairy cattle in the farm from the following aspects: First, adjust the diets for the lactating cows and make the diets being balanced in nu-trition and the energy to protein ratio. Second, control the environmental sanitation to reduce the incidence of environmental mastitis, the cows with too high somatic cells should be submitted to be treated by the vet. Third, strengthen reproductive management, shorten the number of days of lactation and reduce potential economic losses.%利用宁夏贺兰县某规模牛场2013年12月至2014年11月DHI报告数据,对奶牛产奶量、乳脂率、乳蛋白、体细胞等指标进行跟踪分析,结果表明:该牛场泌乳牛日粮不合理,泌乳持续力差,体细胞时高时低,存在环境性乳房炎,脂蛋比偏高,奶牛日粮结构不合理,平均泌乳天数过长,奶牛存在繁殖问题。建议牛场从以下方面改进,从而提高奶牛生产性能:①调整泌乳牛日粮,使日粮营养均衡,能蛋平衡;②控制环境卫生降低环境性乳房炎发病率,对体细胞过高的牛只报送兽医处理;③加强繁殖管理,缩短泌乳天数,减少潜在的经济损失。

  20. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity: A farm case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Imparato, Valentina; Krogh, Paul Henning; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Dolmer, Anders; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-15

    Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and winter wheat, respectively, to assess the potential effects on the soil carbon pool, soil microorganisms, earthworms, soil chemical properties and crop yields. The application of GB did not increase the soil organic carbon content significantly and had no effect on crop yields. The application of straw and GB had a positive effect on the populations of bacteria and protists, but no effect on earthworms. The high rate of GB increased soil exchangeable potassium content and soil pH indicating its potassium bioavailability and liming properties. These results suggest, that recycling GB into agricultural soils has the potential to be developed into a system combining bioenergy generation from agricultural residues and crop production, while maintaining soil quality. However, future studies should be undertaken to assess its long-term effects and to identify the optimum balance between straw removal and biochar application rate.

  1. Remediación por Contaminación con Hidrocarburos en un Acuífero Colgado, Caso del Pozo AB-1089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ramos Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre de 2004, se detecta un derrame de combustible en el pozo profundo (AB-1089, nivel de agua a 80 metros, ubicado en el Acuífero Colima Superior, fuente de importancia para el Gran Área Metropolitana, principalmente para las provincias de Heredia y San José (Costa Rica. El pozo comunica este acuífero con otro más profundo, el Colima Inferior. Se realizaron muestreos de aguas, suelos y roca iniciales en el 2004-2005 que permitieron conocer los estratos subyacentes y niveles de contaminación e identificando un acuífero colgado a 20 metros, donde se ubica la contaminación con el hidrocarburo. Datos periciales de autoridades judiciales basados en balances de inventario indican una fuga de casi 30 mil litros de hidrocarburos (diesel y gasolina, derramados durante el periodo 2003- 2004. Se cuenta con informe de geofísica del año 2006 que permitió delinear la fase libre (hidrocarburo supernatante contenida en el acuífero colgado e iniciar las labores de extracción de la fase libre. Informe de hidrogeólogos de EPA de 2007, en misión auspiciada por el OIEA, y solicitada por el gobierno local (Municipalidad de Belén, vecina al cantón afectado, indica la necesidad de clausurar el pozo AB-1089 definitivamente. La contaminación en el Acuífero Colima se ha detectado de manera clara solamente en el AB-1089, y no hay evidencia de avance de una pluma en los Acuíferos Colima, por lo que el cierre del pozo no se consideró nacionalmente como prioridad. El Gobierno costarricense solicitó la cooperación técnica de la OPS en el 2008, con el objetivo de analizar los datos hidrogeológicos y reportes existentes, para obtener recomendaciones sobre cursos de acción técnica y económicamente viables ante la incertidumbre sobre el grado de comunicación entre el acuífero colgado (20 metros y el Acuífero Colima Superior/ Inferior (por debajo de 80 metros, y el riesgo a la salud que dicha contaminación presenta. Las recomendaciones

  2. Isotopic Evolution of Wells in the Geothermal Field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; Evolucion isotopica de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Portugal Marin, Enrique; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manel; Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    Isotopic ({delta}{sup 1}8 O and {delta}D) data from production and reinjection web fluids from the Los Azufres geothermal field were interpreted in order to define reservoir evolution and the occurrence of physical processes as a result of exploitation. The study included data of 30 wells, which were sampled in September, 2000. General results indicate that different phenomena seem to occur in both zones of the field. In the southern zone there are two different trends of behavior: a mixture of fluids evidenced by the {delta}D versus {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend with a positive slope, was interpreted as the result of reservoir vapor separation at a temperature above 220 Celsius degrees, since for temperatures above 220 Celsius degrees deuterium behaves as a volatile component. No well-defined {delta}{sup D} vs {delta}{sup 1}8 O trend was found for the northern zone, but some points seem to fit the same negative slope trend found in the souther zone. The study of reservoir temperatures estimated by different approaches for particular wells through time, as well as temperature results obtained with a heat and flow well simulator, suggest that reservoir boiling occurs in localized areas in both zone of the field. This process is probably due to exploitation. [Spanish] Se interpretaron datos isotopicos ({delta}{sup 1}8 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos productores y de reinyeccion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, para definir la evolucion del yacimiento y la ocurrencia de procesos fisicos como resultado de la explotacion. En el estudio se consideran datos de treinta pozos segun el muestreo realizado en septiembre de 2000. El estudio de la evolucion en el tiempo de las estimaciones de temperatura de yacimiento mediante diferentes tecnicas, asi como la temperatura obtenida de simulacion de pozos, sugiere que ocurre ebullicion en areas localizadas en ambas zonas del campo debido a la explotacion. Los resultados generales indican la existencia de

  3. 76 FR 7589 - Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a Subsidiary of Bob Evans... Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., an Ohio Corporation, a subsidiary of Bob Evans Farms, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Galva, Illinois. The negative determination...

  4. Linear Programming in the economic estimate of livestock-crop integration: application to a Brazilian dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hauber Gameiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A linear programming mathematical model was applied to a representative dairy farm located in Brazil. The results showed that optimization models are relevant tools to assist in the planning and management of agricultural production, as well as to assist in estimating potential gains from the use of integrated systems. Diversification was a necessary condition for economic viability. A total cost reduction potential of about 30% was revealed when a scenario of lower levels of diversification was contrasted to one of higher levels. Technical complementarities proved to be important sources of economies. The possibility of reusing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium present in animal waste could be increased to 167%, while water reuse could be increased up to 150%. In addition to economic gains, integrated systems bring benefits to the environment, especially with reference to the reuse of resources. The cost dilution of fixed production factors can help economies of scope to be achieved. However, this does not seem to have been the main source of these benefits. Still, the percentage of land use could increase up to 30.7% when the lowest and the highest diversification scenarios were compared. The labor coefficient could have a 4.3 percent increase. Diversification also leads to drastic transaction cost reductions.

  5. From meso-scale to micro scale LES modelling: Application by a wake effect study for an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maché M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study is to present the first step of the development of a methodology that aims to merge the gap between meso scale and micro scale modelling. WRF simulations have been carried out in order to consider global wind conditions over a meso scale area of the future wind farm. A statistical analysis of the global wind data over several years has been carried out to initiate the work for the Saint Nazaire site. A focus was made on two wind regimes: the most common wind typical of the site's location and the extreme winds over the period. The WRF results were then used as initial conditions for a micro scale simulation carried out by a non-stationary large-eddy simulation (SOWFA tool based OpenFOAM solver that computes the flow around 2 turbines. Turbulence statistics were computed and analyzed. Fields of skewness and flatness show found that the distribution of turbulence becomes more homogeneous after the second turbine, while turbulence intensity increases.

  6. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  7. 无线以太网通信系统在风电场的应用%Application of Wireless Ethernet Communication System in Wind Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建军; 赵国群; 邵科; 蔡璐璐

    2013-01-01

    目前风电场内的监控系统是通过在风电机组间铺设光缆,机舱内安装工业以太网交换机的方式将机组运行数据上传到SCADA上位机来实现的。为了适应海上风电场的建设,文章介绍一种能在风电机组内进行快速布置、灵活组网的无线局域网技术的应用,并重点探讨了机组偏航导致天线间相对位置变化带来的天线方向图的不均匀问题和风电机组桨叶运转对无线信号的动态阻挡形成衍射效应导致的多径衰落问题及解决途径。%Nowadays, the monitoring system of wind farm is operated by the installation of optical cable among turbines and industrial Ethernet switch in cabin to upload the operation data to SCADA upper computer. In order to adapt to the construction of offshore wind farm, this paper introduced an application of wireless LAN technology which capable of rapid deployment and fexible networking among turbines. Te focus of the paper is on the problem of the unevenness of antenna patern caused by the relative position change between the antennas by unit yaw and its solution. Moreover, the multipath fading problem formed by the difraction efect because of the dynamic blocking to wireless signal by the operation of fan blade and its solution are another emphasis of the paper.

  8. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  9. Assessing farm innovations and responses to policies: a review of bio-economic farm models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.J.C.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Bio-economic farm models (BEFMs) are developed to enable assessment of policy changes and technological innovations, for specific categories of farming systems. A rapidly growing number of research projects is using these models and there is increasing interest for application. The paper critically

  10. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  11. Application of Google Earth in Standardized Fish Farming Ponds Information Management System%Google Earth在标准化渔业养殖池塘信息管理系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘付兵; 殷杰; 尤尔茂; 黄呈炜

    2012-01-01

    通过阐述Google Earth的二次开发和KML文件生成等关键技术及其实例应用,实现了基于Google Earth 的标准化渔业养殖池塘管理信息系统的构建.该方法简单、直观,可快速、准确地对标准化渔业养殖池塘信息进行浏览、查询、统计分析和辅助规划,是对标准化渔业养殖池塘信息管理新方法的一种尝试,对数字化渔业管理具有较高的研究价值和广阔的应用前景.%Elaborating on the key technique and the application thereof of secondary development of Google Earth and KML file generation , this paper realizes the construction of standardized fish farming pond management information system based on Google Earth, which is simple and illustrative and can be used to browse, query, analyze and plan standardized fish farming pond information accurately. The method is a new way of applying information management to standardized fish farming pond, and it is high in research value of digitized fish farming and has a wide application prospect.

  12. POZO MORO Y LOS CAMBIOS SOCIO-ECONÓMICOS DE LA PROTOHISTORIA IBÉRICA DURANTE LOS SIGLOS V Y IV ANTES DE NUESTRA ERA (Pozo Moro and the socio-economic changes of Iberian protohistory during the 5th and 4th centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Años atrás desarrollamos y propusimos una nueva metodología para medir estadísticamente el gasto funerario y establecer su relación con las fluctuaciones económicas de la civilización ibérica, obteniendo resultados sumamente significativos. Ahora, sin perder de vista esa columna vertebral como referente obligado, la necrópolis de Pozo Moro aporta novedades esclarecedoras sobre el pasado protohistórico de estos pueblos prerromanos durante los siglos V y IV antes de nuestra era. ENGLISH: Years ago we developed and proposed a new methodology for measuring statistically the funeral expense and establish its relationship with the economic fluctuations of Iberian civilization, getting highly significant results. Now, without losing sight the spine as a point of reference, Pozo Moro cemetery provides enlightening updates on the protohistoric past of these pre-Roman peoples during the V and IV centuries BC.

  13. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  14. 77 FR 42258 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) of Applications for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... that is constructed with FLH loans and/or grants must meet Rural Development's design and construction... checklist, certification, and signed affidavit by the project architect or engineer, as applicable, for any... materials. The housing must meet Rural Development's design and construction standards contained in 7...

  15. Sensor-based nitrogen applications out-performed producer-chosen rates for corn in on-farm demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal nitrogen fertilizer rate for corn can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine spatial scale. Our objective was...

  16. Hot-spot application of biocontrol agents to replace pesticides in large scale commercial rose farms in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications of...

  17. The Process Controller for the LHCb On-LIne Farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2007-01-01

    The Process Controller is a tool of the LHCb FMC (Farm Monitoring and Control System) in charge of keeping a list of applications up and running on the farm nodes. It tipically runs on a few control PCs each one watching ~200 farm nodes and performs its task by maintaining the list of scheduled applications for each controlled farm node and by interacting with the Task Manager Servers running on the farm nodes to start processes, to obtain the notification of process termination, to re-spawn the terminated processes (if requested) and to stop processes. Processes can be added to or removed from the scheduled application list for one or more nodes by means of DIM commands, while DIM services provide the list of scheduled applications for each controlled farm node together with their properties, the number of re-spawns and the re-spawn times.

  18. Hot-spot application of biocontrol agents to replace pesticides in large scale commercial rose farms in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications of....... persimilis hot-spot treatments in commercial cut rose production, effectively reducing pest management costs with no loss in crop yield.......Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications...... of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseidae) in large commercial rose greenhouses. Hot-spot treatments replaced acaricides except at high infestations and the two treatments were applied in seven greenhouses each. With the conventional treatment, acaricides were applied when T. urticae...

  19. Adding complex terrain and stable atmospheric condition capability to the OpenFOAM-based flow solver of the simulator for on/offshore wind farm applications (SOWFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchfield Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications contains an OpenFOAM-based flow solver for performing large-eddy simulation of flow through wind plants. The solver computes the atmospheric boundary layer flow and models turbines with actuator lines. Until recently, the solver was limited to flows over flat terrain and could only use the standard Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model. In this work, we present our improvements to the flow solver that enable us to 1 use any OpenFOAM-standard subgrid-scale model and 2 simulate flow over complex terrain. We used the flow solver to compute a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer using both the standard and the Lagrangian-averaged scale-independent dynamic Smagorinsky models. Surprisingly, the results using the standard Smagorinsky model compare well to other researchers' results of the same case, although it is often said that the standard Smagorinsky model is too dissipative for accurate stable stratification calculations. The scale-independent dynamic subgrid-scale model produced poor results, probably due to the spikes in model constant with values as high as 4.6. We applied a simple bounding of the model constant to remove these spikes, which caused the model to produce results much more in line with other researchers' results. We also computed flow over a simple hilly terrain and performed some basic qualitative analysis to verify the proper operation of the terrain-local surface stress model we employed.

  20. Analysis of production data and fluid thermodynamic conditions in wells of Los Humeros, Pue; Analisis de datos de produccion y condiciones termodinamicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: vag@iie.org.mx

    2008-07-15

    Production data from 22 wells of the Los Humeros geothermal field in Puebla, Mexico, were analyzed to estimate the thermodynamic conditions (pressure and enthalpy) of the bottom-hole fluids entering the wells and the changes to the fluids after exploitation. The bottom-well conditions were obtained by simulating the production histories of the wells, using the WELLSIM numerical simulator. The reservoir temperature was estimated by the FT-HSH2 gas-equilibrium method, which provided values matching very well the measured-well temperatures under static conditions. To estimate the rates of change of the well-bottom thermodynamic variables-pressure and enthalpy-the linear and the harmonic methods were used. According to these models, overall results indicated pressure-decline rates of between 0.92 (linear method) and 1.03 bar/year (harmonic method), average enthalpy increases of between 9.4 (linear) and 10.3 (harmonic) kJ/kg/year, and a temperature increase of about 1.2 degrees Celsius/year (linear method). These rates of parameter change were considered moderate, likely due to recharge from the deeper reservoir. The wells showing higher-pressure declines were H-35, H-1, and H-1D; and the wells showing higher-enthalpy increases were H-1D, H-3D, and H-19D. Most wells showed temperature increases, although a temperature decrease was noticed in wells H-16R and H-36, probably due to mechanical damage in the wells or weak communication with the deeper reservoir. [Spanish] Se realizo un analisis de los datos de produccion de 22 pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico, con objeto de estimar las condiciones termodinamicas (presion y entalpia) de sus fluidos de alimentacion y su evolucion en el tiempo como respuesta a la explotacion. Las condiciones a fondo de pozo se obtuvieron al simular las historias de produccion de los pozos mediante el simulador numerico WELLSIM. La temperatura de fondo se estimo mediante el metodo de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH2 ya que fue

  1. Acoplamiento de la hidráulica de pozos y la teoría de bombas para la determinación de caudales en régimen permanente

    OpenAIRE

    Espert Alemany, Vicent; Baeza Arnau, I.; López Patiño, G.; Martínez Solano, F. Javier

    2000-01-01

    En el presente artículo se estudia el punto de funcionamiento de un campo de pozos que extraen agua de un acuífero cautivo trabajando en régimen permanente. El método de cálculo propuesto es un acoplamiento entre las ecuaciones de la hidráulica de pozos y la teoría de bombas hidráulicas, teniendo en cuenta además las características de la instalación que alimenta cada una de las bombas. Se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones no lineal, a resolver por métodos numéricos, el cual proporciona el ...

  2. Diseño de estación para inyección de agua de formación a pozos petrolíferos en el yacimiento del campo ancón

    OpenAIRE

    Suntaxi Aluisa, Rene Luis; Villacis M., Edmundo

    2009-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se elabora de una manera ordenada la teoría básica y una metodología práctica para el diseño de una “ Estación para Inyección de Agua de Formación en pozos petrolíferos”, este diseño es parte del proyecto de Inyectividad de agua a pozos que se desarrolla en el Yacimiento Petrolífero del Campo Ancón en la Península de Santa Elena, como una alternativa para disminuir el grave problema de la contaminación ambiental con el agua de formación que se obtiene de la producción ...

  3. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  4. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  5. Corrosion in pipelines and well casings at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Corrosion en tuberias de linea y de revestimiento de pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A.; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Raygoza Flores, Joaquin; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    In the area called Poligono Hidalgo, inside the Cerro Prieto IV zone in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, corrosion has occurred in the last few years on well casings and pipelines used for geothermal fluids. Corrosion test results are presented here for pipes, type API L-80 and ASTM A-53 grade B, which were subjected to condensate from wells 403 and 424. These wells have thrown corroded material from their respective casings. With these data we pinpoint corrosive conditions in this field area and determine which pipes are adequate to case wells in similar chemical, production conditions to minimize adverse effects and extend the life of the well, allowing more efficient exploitation of the deepest production zones in the reservoir. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, dentro del area del Poligono Hidalgo en el sector conocido como Cerro Prieto IV, algunos pozos han presentado en los ultimos anos desgastes en sus tuberias de revestimiento y en las tuberias de linea para el transporte del fluido geotermico. Se presentan resultados de pruebas de corrosion con tuberias tipo API L-80 y ASTM A-53 grado B al ser sometidas al condensado de los pozos 403 y 424, los cuales han estado arrojando material de sus respectivas tuberias de revestimiento. Con estos datos se pretende conocer las condiciones corrosivas de esa zona del campo y determinar cual seria la tuberia ideal a utilizar en pozos con condiciones quimicas de produccion semejantes a fin de minimizar este efecto adverso y prolongar la vida de los pozos, a la vez que se permita la explotacion eficiente de las zonas productoras mas profundas del yacimiento.

  6. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaime.vaca@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  7. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  8. Application of “taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts to fish farming environmental monitoring. Comparison of BOPA index versus polychaete assemblage structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Giménez, Felipe; Gairin Deulofeu, Joan Ignasi; Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Victoria; Ballester-Moltó, Mateo; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    “Taxocene surrogation” and “taxonomic sufficiency” concepts were applied to the monitoring of soft bottoms macrobenthic assemblages influenced by fish farming following two approaches. Polychaete assemblage evaluation through multivariate analysis and the benthic index BOPA were compared. Six fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast were monitored. Polychaete assemblage provided a suitable picture of the impact gradient, being correlated with total free sulphides. BOPA did not support...

  9. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  10. The SLIMITRE system: T-P-CCL registry in high temperature oil wells; El sistema SLIMITRE: registro T-P-CCL en pozos petroleros de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo and others [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), through its Management of Well Productivity of the Subdivision of Technology and Professional Development (GTDP) and of its Active Luna, faced the problematic of carrying out simultaneous recordings of temperature and pressure in high temperature flowing wells. Capitalizing the experience and know-how of the Gerencia de Geotermia (GG) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in this field, it ordered the resolution of the described problematic, by means of the development of appropriate tools. In order to compliment this order, the GG of the IIE developed the SLIMETRE system, in close collaboration with the personnel of PEP involved in the project. This project framed in the Agreement of Collaboration for the rendering of services between PEMEX Exploration and Production and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. In the sections that follow appear the main parameters of design, the architecture of the system is explained, the tools and the subsystem of data acquisition are described; the obtained results are exposed and the conclusions appear. [Spanish] Pemex Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), a traves de su Gerencia de Productividad de Pozos de la Subdireccion de Tecnologia y Desarrollo Profesional (GTDP) y de su Activo Luna, encaro la problematica de efectuar registros simultaneos de temperatura y presion en pozos fluyentes de alta temperatura. Capitalizando la experiencia y know-how de la Gerencia de Geotermia (GG) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en dicho campo, le encargo la resolucion de la problematica descrita, mediante el desarrollo de herramientas apropiadas. Para cumplimentar dicho encargo, la GG del IIE desarrollo el sistema SLIMETRE, en estrecha colaboracion con el personal de PEP involucrado en el proyecto. Este proyecto se enmarco en el Convenio de Colaboracion para la prestacion de servicios entre Pemex Exploracion y Produccion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En

  11. Example of the application the microsatellite DNA fragments in the study of farmed European catfish (Silurus glanis, L. broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuciñski Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available European catfish, Silurus glanis L., is the second largest freshwater fish in Europe. The species is very popular among the farmers, as it is one of the most promising European aquaculture species. Despite the growing importance of European catfish in freshwater aquaculture, the genetic data available on this species are still limited. The main purpose of the present study was to develop a reliable, feasible genetic protocol for future studies on European catfish populations and broodstocks in Poland. The genetic characteristics of the tested fish group were based on genetic parameters such as the polymorphism information content (PIC, the effective population size (Ne, the inbreeding coefficient (Fis, and the Garza-Williamson index (M, among others. Additionally, the potential effects of a genetic bottleneck on the genetic variation of the broodstock were examined. The genetic analysis protocol described in this study can be used to establish genetic-based records for European catfish broodstocks, including for sperm cryobanking. This approach will be useful for elaborating the selection procedures that allow for optimal assemblages of spawning pairs in artificial reproduction. The application of the genetic analysis protocol in practice will permit maintaining high quality in European catfish broodstocks.

  12. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  13. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  14. Dairy farm methane emissions using a dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to know whole-farm methane (CH(4)) emissions since confined animal facilities such as beef cattle feedlots and dairy farms are emission "hot spots" in the landscape. However, measurements of whole-farm CH(4) emissions can differ between farms because of differences in contributing sources such as manure handling, number of lactating and nonlactating cows, and diet. Such differences may limit the usefulness of whole-farm emissions for national inventories and mitigation purposes unless the variance between farms is taken into account or a large number of farms can be examined. Our study describes the application of a dispersion model used in conjunction with field measurements of CH(4) concentration and stability of the air to calculate whole-farm emissions of CH(4) from three dairy farms in Alberta, Canada, during three sequential campaigns conducted in November 2004 and May and July 2005. The dairy farms ranged in herd size from 208 to 351 cows (102 to 196 lactating cows) and had different manure handling operations. The results indicate that the average CH(4) emission per cow (mixture of lactating and nonlactating) from the three dairy farms was 336 g d(-1), which was reduced to 271 g d(-1) when the emission (estimated) from the manure storage was removed. Further separation of source strength yielded an average CH(4) (enteric) emission of 363 g d(-1) for a lactating cow. The estimated CH(4) emission intensities were approximately 15 g CH(4) kg(-1) dry matter intake and 16.7 L CH(4) L(-1) of milk produced. The approach of understanding the farm-to-farm differences in CH(4) emissions as affected by diet, animal type, and manure management is essential when utilizing whole-farm emission measurements for mitigation and inventory applications.

  15. Studies for recovering injection capacity in wells of the Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal field; Estudios para recuperar la capacidad de aceptacion en pozos inyectores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Rosales, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: julio.alvarez@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    As in geothermal fields around the world, at Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, former exploratory and production wells are used to inject residual brine. Since the 1980s, studies and activities have been carried out to find ways to recharge the reservoir and dispose of brine without harming the environment or underground aquifers. These include infiltration and cold-and-hot injection. Some of the studies are presented here, including analyses of litho-facies; core samples; pressure, temperature and spinner logs; well tests and injection rates-plus some studies on the shallow aquifer. All have been useful in fulfilling requirements made by environmental authorities. Because injection rates constantly decrease due to formation damage, it is proposed an additional technique be used to reduce such damages and prolong the lifetime of cold-and-hot injection wells-while ensuring the environment and shallow aquifers are not affected. [Spanish] Al igual que en diversos campos geotermicos en el mundo, en el de Cerro Prieto, Baja California se han utilizado tanto pozos inyectores perforados ex profeso como antiguos pozos exploratorios y productores para inyectar el fluido residual al subsuelo. Desde la decada de los 80 se han realizado diversos estudios y acciones en ese campo geotermico para recargar al yacimiento y para disponer del fluido residual, sin ocasionar danos al ambiente ni a los cuerpos hidricos del subsuelo, que van desde la infiltracion hasta la inyeccion en frio y en caliente. Este articulo presenta los diferentes estudios realizados con ese objetivo en el campo, incluyendo el analisis de litofacies, de nucleos de formacion, de registros de presion, temperatura y spinner, las pruebas en pozos y analisis de tasas de aceptacion, asi como los efectuados en el acuifero superficial. Todos ellos han sido de utilidad para atender los requerimientos de las autoridades ambientales. Finalmente, y en virtud de que las tasas de aceptacion de los pozos

  16. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions......, upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  17. Evaluación de la calidad de datos en el muestreo hidroquímico de los pozos perforados de la ciudad de Managua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Padilla

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo está enfocado en el análisis de los datos realizados por el laboratorio de la Empresa Nicaragüense de Acueductos y Alcantarillados en el período 1993 – 2002. Se demuestra que los registros de análisis hidroquímicos de los pozos perforados de Managua, tienen calidad para establecer mejores criterios de decisión que apoyen los planes de monitoreo y reducir los costos, haciendo más óptimo la selección de los puntos de muestreo. Los registros de análisis en los años ya mencionados fueron procesados en programas estadísticos como el SPSS. El análisis estadístico se concentró en 3 analitos de interés como indicadores de contaminación debido a las actividades humanas, estos son nitratos, potasio y cloruros. Se concluye que aunque no hay evidencias de contaminación regional de origen humano, sí se justifica desarrollar muestreos estratificados, con énfasis en la zona de Ciudad Sandino.

  18. Chemical changes in well fluids from the Los Humeros geothermal field: Evidences for deep recharge; Cambios quimicos en fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros: Evidencia de recarga profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Fluid (water and steam) chemical changes over time were studied in 20 wells in the Los Humeros, Mexico, geothermal field for the purpose of correlating such changes with physical processes occurring in the reservoir due to exploitation. Most wells (except well H-1) produce high-enthalpy fluids with almost no liquid, making gas geochemistry important in this field. Liquid-phase studies include fluid classification, determination of water-rock equilibrium state, and reservoir-temperature estimates. Changes in gas composition through time were studied using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction and the combined balance pyrite-hematite-magnetite (HSH2) as the buffer controlling H{sub 2}S fluid concentration. Data for most wells from 1987-1995 and 2000-2005 indicate the presence of deeper-fluid recharge, with maximum temperatures occurring in 1994-95 and 2005. The estimated temperature in well H-1 in 1994 was 305 degrees Celsius and the estimated temperature in well H-7 was 338 degrees Celsius in 1995. Temperature estimations from 2005 data were 222 degrees Celsius in well H-1D and 350 degrees Celsius in well H-7. These results are considered caused by the entrance of deeper fluids due to the increase of secondary permeability, which in turn is related to the seismicity increase in the zone. At the same time, re-injection returns in the steam phase were identified in well discharges during 1995-2000 by means of the FT-HSH2 diagram. [Spanish] Se realizo un estudio de los cambios quimicos ocurridos en fluidos (liquido y vapor) de veinte pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico, con objeto de investigar la ocurrencia de procesos del yacimiento relacionados con la explotacion. La mayoria de los pozos (excepto el pozo H-1) se caracterizan por producir descargas de alta entalpia con escasa produccion de liquido, por lo que en este campo la geoquimica de gases juega un papel importante. El estudio de la fase liquida incluyo la clasificacion de los fluidos, la

  19. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faedo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA(r clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

  20. Possible application of a nematophagous fungus as a biological control agent of parasitic nematodes on commercial sheep farms in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedo, M; Krecek, R C

    2002-03-01

    Biological control of parasitic nematodes of livestock is currently under development and represents another tool that may be integrated into helminth parasite control strategies. This paper presents a brief introduction to commercial sheep farming in South Africa and currently available nematode parasite control methods. These include the FAMACHA clinical assay, strategies of pasture management, dilution of resistant worm species by introduction of susceptible worms, breed resistant sheep and nutritional supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to outline the principles of biological control using nematophagous fungi and how it may be applied on sheep farms in South Africa.

  1. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  2. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  3. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  4. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  5. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  6. Regressive Analysis on Leaf Nitrogen Content and Near Infrared Reflectance and Its Application for Agricultural Farm Monitoring with Helicopter Mounted Near Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Method for evaluation of nitrogen richness of tealeaves with near infrared reflectance is proposed. Also tea farm monitoring with helicopter mounted near infrared camera is proposed. Through experiments and regressive analysis, it is found that the proposed method and monitoring system is validated.

  7. Low-cost Economic and Environmental Performance Assessment of Farm Households Systems: Application to Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ruben, R.; Dixon, J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    The farm household system (FHS) is one of the main entry points for interventions for rural development. To identify appropriate interventions, it is necessary to assess a priori potential impacts of these interventions on the livelihoods and environment of rural households. This study presents an a

  8. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...... and operating expenditures, which, along with the energy produced, determine the cost of energy. A better system-level understanding of wind farms is hence of critical importance to the wind-energy industry....

  9. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just as it is ......The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure......: the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...

  10. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  11. 体细胞克隆技术在企业肉羊繁殖生产中的初步应用%Application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Techniques in Sheep Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟蝶; 白春玲; 银凤霞; 苏广华; 魏著英; 程磊; 李俊龙; 李光鹏

    2013-01-01

    Although the efficiency of somatic call nuclear transfer (SCNT),especially in farm animals is still very low,the potential applications of this technique in excellent farm animal reproduction are valued to make trials.The present study is a farm-university-research cooperation,the farm as a main body,to produce the proven excellent Dorper rams by SCNT techniques.The results show that the barn feeding recipient sheep are more suitable for cloned embryo transfer than the pastured sheep.Estrus synchronization protocols and shipment of cloned embryos affect the recipient synchronization and pregnancies.One hundred recipient ewes got pregnancy,with 13.6% pregnant rate during the last three years.Sixty-one cloned lambs are healthily survived.Most of the cloned Dorper rams are currently used in the production of sheep with local Mongolian sheep.In conclusion,this preliminary study indicates the application of SCNT techniques in sheep farm to produce the excellent sheep individuals is highly available.%虽然体细胞克隆技术(somatic cell nuclear transfer,SCNT)的总体效率不高,但其潜在的开发价值仍值得尝试.本试验与企业密切合作,并以企业为开发主体,开展优秀杜泊种公羊的克隆生产与应用研究.结果表明,舍饲条件下的受体母羊比草原放养母羊更适合于作克隆胚胎移植受体,同期发情处理方式与胚胎运输影响克隆胚胎的妊娠效率.在过去3年间,共有100只受体羊妊娠至3个月以上,妊娠率为13.6%.目前有61只健康存活.其中一部分克隆公羊作为种羊与本地蒙古羊配种,参与企业的肉羊繁殖生产.由此可以看出,以企业为主体的利用克隆技术进行优秀种羊规模化生产是可行的.

  12. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...

  13. Adoption and perspectives of precision farming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Blackmore, Simon;

    2004-01-01

    Precision farming (PF) and site-specific input application based on GPS has been a management tool and option for arable farmers for about 10 years. About 400 Danish farmers have already adopted some PF-practices on their farms. This adoption and the technical and economic perspectives of PF have...

  14. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  15. Wind tunnel measurements of a large wind farm model approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    A scaled wind farm, with 100 porous disk models of wind turbines, is used to study the effect of wind farm layout on the wind farm power output and its variability, in a wind tunnel study. The wind farm consists of 20 rows and 5 columns. The porous disk models have a diameter of 0 . 03 m and are instrumented with strain gages to measure the thrust force, as a surrogate for wind turbine power output. The frequency response of the measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the models and allows studying the spatio-temporal characteristics of the power output for different layouts. A variety of layouts are considered by shifting the individual rows in the spanwise direction. The reference layout has a regular streamwise spacing of Sx / D = 7 and a spanwise spacing of Sy / D = 5 . The parameter space is further expanded by considering layouts with an uneven streamwise spacing: Sx / D = 3 . 5 & 10 . 5 and Sx / D = 1 . 5 & 12 . 5 . We study how the mean row power changes as a function of wind farm layout and investigate the appearance of an asymptotic limiting behavior as previously described in the literature by application of the top-down model for the spatially averaged wind farm - boundary layer interaction. Work supported by ERC (Grant No. 306471, the ActiveWindFarms project) and by NSF (OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  16. El yacimiento plioceno del Pozo de Piedrabuena (Campo de Calatrava, provincia de Ciudad Real. geología, paleontología y análisis paleoambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazo, A. V.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a sedimentological palaeontological and paleontological analysis of the Piedrabuena Water Well paleontological site (Ciudad Real, Campo de Calatrava, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. The fossil mammal remains were accumulated by means of a low efficiency transport fan system, with mass transport mechanisms, which filled the whole of the Piedrabuena Depression: a circular shaped basin sorrounded by Paleozoic rocks (quartzites and shales. Neogene sedimentation evolved towards expansive palustrine carbonate sediments towards the top of the unit. The faunal assemblage composed of Rodentia indet., cf. Oryctolagus sp., Felis cf. issiodorensis, Hyaena sp., Dicerorhinus cf. etruscus, Sus minor, Cervidae indet (big sized, Cervidae Indet. (small sized, Gazella borbonica> and Hippotraginae indet. This fauna is characteristic of the Ruscinian-Villafranchian transition.En este trabajo se analizan las características geológicas y paleontológicas del yacimiento del Pozo de Piedrabuena, Ciudad Real (Castilla-La Mancha, España. Este yacimiento se localiza en materiales transportados por abanicos aluviales de pequeño desarrollo, que colmatan la Depresión de Piedrabuena, rodeada por rocas paleozoicas (cuarcitas y pizarras. A techo de los depósitos hay una expansión de carbonatos palustres. La fauna encontrada ha sido la siguiente: Rodentia indet., cf. Oryctolagus sp., Felix cf. issiodorensis, Hyaena sp., Dicerorhinus cf. etruscus, Cervidae indet. (talla grande, Cervidae indet. (talla pequeña, Gazella borbonica, Hippotraginae indet., que permite situar el yacimiento en el tránsito Rusciniense-Villafranquiense. El análisis paleoambiental muestra la coexistencia de especies de bosque y de zonas abiertas, lo que coincide bien con la estratificación de la vegetación de la zona: rala en las áreas centrales palustres y mucho más desarrollada sobre los abanicos aluviales áridos de los bordes.

  17. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  18. Construcción y empleo de los diagramas C-Q. Una vía para minimizar los costos de operación y mantenimiento de los sistemas de bombeo de pozos profundos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morales

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se plantea la necesidad de establecer un Sistema de Mantenimiento Preventivo por condición técnica para los pozos profundos de regadío del estado de Cojedes en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, debido a que el alto porcentaje de sólidos por unidad de volumen de agua provoca el desgaste acelerado de diferentes elementos de máquinas de las bombas, lo que trae consigo que se acorte la vida útil de dichas máquinas, así como se incrementen sus costos de operación. Como resultado de la investigación se hace una propuesta de procedimiento para construir los diagramas C-Q y con su uso poder determinar cuando es necesario realizar el mantenimiento de los pozos y de esa forma evitar las fallas prematuras en las bombas y minimizar los costos de la operación y mantenimiento del sistema pozo-bomba.This paper exposes the need of establishing a Preventive Maintenance System, for technical condition, for the irrigated artesian wells at Cojedes's state, in the Bolivarian Venezuelan Republic. Due to the high solids percentage per water volume unit, the wear of different hardware elements of the pumps is accelerated. This fact provokes the shortening of the service life of the aforementioned hardware and consequently the increase in operating costs. As a research result this article presents a procedure proposal to construct C-Q diagrams to determine when it will be necessary to accomplish the well maintenance. In that way one can avoid premature faults in pumps and minimize the operation and maintenance costs of the pumping system

  19. Chemical Equilibrium and Mineral Saturation in Waters from Oil Wells of the Activo Luna Field, Tabasco, Mexico; Equilibrio quimico y grado de saturacion de minerales en aguas de pozos petroleros de Activo Luna, Tabasco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M.; Portugal M, Enrique; Torres R, Vicente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Torres Alvarado, Ignacio [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ascencio C, Fernando; Martinez A; Ana E [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    Chemical equilibrium of formation waters from seven oil wells of the Activo Luna field (Tabasco, Mexico) was modelled. Saturation indices of characteristic hydrothermal minerals were calculated at ambient and reservoir conditions in order to predict scaling potential of deep and surface installations. The salinity of waters was found to be in the range from 43,000 (well Escuintle 2) to 250,000 (well Lune 3B) mg/kg as total dissolved solids. The water samples were classified as sodium-chioride type. Ionic strength for the solutions was found to be between 0.75 and 6.5. Activity coefficients were estimated by virial (Pitzer equations) methods using the GEOCHEMIST WORKENCH (GWB) software. Minerals such as anhydrite, halite, alunite, fluorite and barite were found to be supersaturated at reservoir conditions. A solid scale sample obtained from well Luna-3B was analysed. Analysis indicate the presence of calcite, anhydrite, fluorite and sphalerite which suggest the occurrence of temperatures of at least 180 Celcius degrees with acidic conditions and high chemical corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se modelo el equilibrio quimico de aguas de formacion producidas por siete pozos petroleros pertenecientes al Activo Luna, en el estado de Tabasco, Mexico, se calcularon los indices de saturacion de minerales caracteristicos tanto en las condiciones ambiente como en las de yacimiento, con el proposito de apoyar el control de incrustaciones en las instalaciones superficiales y profundas. La salinidad de las salmueras se encontro en el rango de 43,000 (pozos Escuintle 2) a 250,000 (pozos Luna 3B) mg/kg de solidos disueltos totales y las muestras se clasificaron como del tipo clorurado-sodico. La fuerza ionica de las soluciones varia entre 0.75 y 6.5 molar, por lo que los coeficientes de actividad de la modelacion de equilibrio quimico se estimaron por metodos viriales empleando las ecuaciones de Pitzer mediante el programa GEOCHEMIST WORKBENCH (GWB). Minerales como anhidrita, halita

  20. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo

  1. Construcción y empleo de los diagramas C-Q. Una vía para minimizar los costos de operación y mantenimiento de los sistemas de bombeo de pozos profundos.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    En el trabajo se plantea la necesidad de establecer un Sistema de Mantenimiento Preventivo por condición técnica para los pozos profundos de regadío del estado de Cojedes en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, debido a que el alto porcentaje de sólidos por unidad de volumen de agua provoca el desgaste acelerado de diferentes elementos de máquinas de las bombas, lo que trae consigo que se acorte la vida útil de dichas máquinas, así como se incrementen sus costos de operación. Como resultad...

  2. Opinions on biogas in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The application of biogas technologies in organic farming involves many considerations: Benefits like improved fertilizer supply and fossil fuel savings are opposed to concerns about economical risks and incompliance with organic principles. A questionnaire developed by Risø DTU gives an idea about...

  3. Application of the Matrix Management for Comprehensive Archives Web Farm%综合档案网站群矩阵式管理的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹爽英

    2013-01-01

    文章以河南档案信息网管理为例,论述了综合档案网站群实行矩阵式管理模式的优势和方法。%As an example of the management on Henan archives info network, this paper discusses the comprehensive archives Web farm to implement the advantage of matrix management mode and method.

  4. 车用空调系统在农用车辆上的应用%Application of Vehicle Air-conditioning System in Farm Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭高宏

    2011-01-01

    Aimming at the structure,principle and general requirement of air-conditioning system,the practical methods for adding air conditioner on farm vehicles are introduced.%依据车用空调系统的结构和原理,以及加装空调的一般要求,介绍了农用车辆加装空调的具体方法。

  5. Disease spread models to estimate highly uncertain emerging diseases losses for animal agriculture insurance policies: an application to the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Sempier, Stephen H; Hanson, Terril R

    2013-10-01

    Emerging diseases (ED) can have devastating effects on agriculture. Consequently, agricultural insurance for ED can develop if basic insurability criteria are met, including the capability to estimate the severity of ED outbreaks with associated uncertainty. The U.S. farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry was used to evaluate the feasibility of using a disease spread simulation modeling framework to estimate the potential losses from new ED for agricultural insurance purposes. Two stochastic models were used to simulate the spread of ED between and within channel catfish ponds in Mississippi (MS) under high, medium, and low disease impact scenarios. The mean (95% prediction interval (PI)) proportion of ponds infected within disease-impacted farms was 7.6% (3.8%, 22.8%), 24.5% (3.8%, 72.0%), and 45.6% (4.0%, 92.3%), and the mean (95% PI) proportion of fish mortalities in ponds affected by the disease was 9.8% (1.4%, 26.7%), 49.2% (4.7%, 60.7%), and 88.3% (85.9%, 90.5%) for the low, medium, and high impact scenarios, respectively. The farm-level mortality losses from an ED were up to 40.3% of the total farm inventory and can be used for insurance premium rate development. Disease spread modeling provides a systematic way to organize the current knowledge on the ED perils and, ultimately, use this information to help develop actuarially sound agricultural insurance policies and premiums. However, the estimates obtained will include a large amount of uncertainty driven by the stochastic nature of disease outbreaks, by the uncertainty in the frequency of future ED occurrences, and by the often sparse data available from past outbreaks.

  6. Application of WMS Software in Micro-Siting of Wind Farms%WMS软件在风电场微观选址中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王源; 刘玮; 王霁雪; 李伟宏

    2011-01-01

    Based on data of the first phase of Zhangbei Batou Wind Farm project, and by use of WMS, a wind site specification & wind turbine micro-siting software, this paper calculated the wind turbine micro —siting for wind farms to improve the layout program and to generate greater profits. The result suggests that applying MWS in the wind turbine micro-siting for Batou Wind Farm are both feasible and effective.%以张北坝头风电场一期工程为基础,采用WMS软件(风电场工程特性分析与微观选址软件)对风电机组进行微观选址计算,使风场有较优的布机方案和更好的经济效益,表明用WMS软件对坝头风电场进行微观选址是可行和有效的.

  7. Monitoring nutrient flows and economic performance in African farming systems (NUTMON); II. tool development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.; Jager, de A.; Vlaming, J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm-NUTMON is a research tool that integrates the assessment of stocks and flows of the macro-nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the one hand and economic farm analysis on the other. The tool is applicable at both the farm and the activity level. It includes a structured questionnaire,

  8. Repowering of wind farms - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivedh, B.S. [Quality Engineering and Software Technologies, Bangalore (India); Devi, R.P.K. [College of Engineering. Power Systems Engineering, Guindy (India); Sreevalsan, E. [Gamesa Wind Turbines India Private Limited, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to devise a method for assessing the repowering potential and to improve the energy output from the wind farms and also to understand the impact on the power quality due to repowering. With repowering, the first-generation wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. To carry-out the study an old wind farm located at Kayathar, Tamilnadu is selected. The wind farm was commissioned in 1990's with a capacity of 7.35MW, which consists of 36 Wind Turbines each with the capacity of 200kW and 225kW. The present annual energy generation of the wind farm is 7350MWhr with the plant load factor of 11.41%. The intent of this study is to predict the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering using WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis Application Program). Further this study analyses the power quality issues of the various Wind Turbines. In addition, the main feeder, in which the wind farm which is taken for the study also modeled and the impact on power quality due to repowering also studied. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB. The results are analyzed to understand the significance of repowering to overcome the energy crisis of the nation since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines. The following are the observations and conclusions from the above study. Plant load factor (PLF) increased to 24 %, Energy yield increased to more than 4 times and the capacity of the wind farm became double. And in the view of power quality, comparing to the existing Feeder, Repowered Feeder having less reactive power consumption, voltage variations and flickers except the harmonic distortion. (Author)

  9. Identificación y modelado de fracturas naturales en pozos de un yacimiento de hidrocarburos ubicado en la cuenca de Catatumbo, Departamento Norte de Santander - Colombia, utilizando registros de imágenes resistivas y datos de dimensión fractal

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Freitez, Jorge Alberto

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta investigación es identificar fracturas naturales en pozos de un yacimiento de hidrocarburos utilizando registro de imágenes resistivas y sus datos de dimensión fractal. El área donde se aplicará este estudio está ubicada en la cuenca de Catatumbo, Departamento Norte de Santander – Colombia; donde la secuencia estratigráfica atravesada por cada pozo comprende rocas cretácicas, de las formaciones Aguardiente, Cogollo y La Luna. A partir de la identificación manual ...

  10. La structuration de la marge pacifique nord-américaine et du ≪ terrane ≫ Caborca : apports de la découverte d'une faune du Jurassique inférieur et moyen dans la série de Pozos de Serna (Sonora, Mexique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmus, Thierry; Pérez Segura, Efrén; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang

    1997-08-01

    We document an Early and Middle Jurassic age for the lower part of Jurassic rocks of the Pozos de Serna area, on the basis of new datings of ammonites. These rocks are correlated with the Lower Jurassic levels of the Antimonio Formation. The angular unconformity between the Pozos de Serna unit and the Proterozoic and Palaeozoic basement of the Caborca terrane allows us to propose that, in its present position, the whole Caborca terrane, including its Proterozoic basement, is accreted to the North American craton.

  11. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded......The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...

  12. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  13. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  14. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  15. Research on the Improvement of Reproduce Performance by the Application of Type-B Ultrasonic Technology in Scaled Dairy Farms%应用B超技术提高规模奶牛场繁殖性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑博文; 王少华; 王建勇; 张勇峰; 王光文; 袁耀明; 李胜利

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted to three thousand-scale dairy farms which belongs Bright Dairy Food Co.,Ltd,for type-B ultrasonic technology practical application,for the three dairy farms of different years compare no using with using the type-B ultrasonic technology after breeding,respectively,at the 30 day for the early pregnancy diagnosis,early detection and timely processing of open cows breeding again in the pregnancy to reduce the empty cup feeding costs.Through the type-B ultrasonic technology applications and to collect breeding rate,conception rate and reproduction rate of inspection data analysis and comparison,in the production practice and achieved good results.Type-B ultrasonic technology applied to the three thousand-scale dairy farms into practical which can promote the breeding rate,the first farm is 21%(P0.01),the second is 21%(P0.01),and the third is 19 %(P0.05),respectively;promote the circumstances of the conception rate of the average monthly,the first farm is 3%(P0.05),the second is 6%(P0.05),and the third is 3%(P0.05),respectively;and promote the total fertility rate,the first farm is 5.1%,the second is 7.6%,and the third is 7.1%,respectively.Type-B ultrasonic technology for the heifers on early pregnancy diagnosis and reproductive management,the effect is not obvious(P0.05).In the case study,at the reduced breeding in the southern summer heat conditions,type-B ultrasonic technology increased average breeding rate which is 3.1% from June to November and we compared 30 days after mating pregnancy diagnosis using type-B ultrasonic technology with the retest by rectal examination by hand the 60-day,difference we can see space for 60 days until check has lower pregnancy rate,which is decreased 25.65%.Among 30-60-day embryo loss rate is 4.92%,which reflected the dairy farm's herd quality and management overall in a good condition.%本研究针对上海光明荷斯坦牧业有限公司三个千头规模牧场进行B超技

  16. Evaluación de la calidad físico-química y bacteriológica del agua subterránea en pozos criollos del municipio de Moa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Fernández-Urgellés

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los pobladores de los repartos Las Coloradas y La Playa (municipio de Moa utilizan para el consumo humano agua subterránea procedente de pozos criollos cuando falla la distribución de agua potable a través de la red hidrológica. Para conocer los componentes generales, mayoritarios y no deseables se evaluó la calidad físico-química y bacteriológica de estas aguas. Se emplearon las técnicas analíticas convencionales así como métodos gráficos. Los resultados reflejaron la presencia de elementos no deseables, indicadores de contaminación, que sobrepasan los índices establecidos para el consumo humano como agua potable. Los resultados del análisis bacteriológico evidenciaron la presencia de bacilos de colis y colifecales, siendo fundamentalmente su composición fecal lo que determina su estado sanitario. Se concluye que las aguas de los pozos criollos estudiados no responden a los requisitos establecidos en las normas para consumo humano.

  17. A novel real-time RT-PCR with TaqMan-MGB probes and its application in detecting BVDV infections in dairy farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-qiang; WANG Zhi-liang; LIU Hai-sheng; WU Xiao-dong; WANG Xiao-zhen; LI Jin-ming; ZHAO Yong-gang; L Yan; REN Wei-jie; GE Sheng-qiang

    2015-01-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay using TaqMan-MGB probes was developed to detect and type the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle. Universal primers and TaqMan-MGB probes were designed from the 5´-untranslated region of known pestiviral sequences. Prior to optimizing the assay, cRNAs were transcribed in vitro from the BVDV 1 and BVDV 2 RT-PCR products to make standard curves. The detection limit of the assay was 1.72×102 copies for BVDV 1 and 2.14×102 copies for BVDV 2. The speciifcity of the assay evaluated on several BVDV strains including bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and several classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains showed speciifc detection of the positive virus over 40 cycles. The assay was highly reproducible with the coefifcient of variance ranging from 1.04 to 1.33%for BVDV 1 and from 0.83 to 1.48%for BVDV 2, respectively. Using this method, we tested a total of 2 327 cattle from three dairy farms for the presence of BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals. In this assay, each RT-PCR template contained a mixture of ten samples from different animals. The occurrence rate of PI cattle in three farms ranging from 0.9 to 2.54%could represent partly the PI rates in cattle farm in China. In conclusion, using our real-time PCR assay, we could effectively detect and type BVDV and identify PI cattle in a rapid and cost-effective manner.

  18. Application of biofloc technology in shrimp farming ponds%生物絮凝技术在池塘养虾中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文畅; 罗国芝; 谭洪新

    2013-01-01

      Biofloc-Aquaculture System is considered as an effective measure to the intensive aquaculture industry facing natural resourse and environmental constraints , which could increase dietary protein retention ratio and improve the capacity of water quality control .This paper analyzes the differences of carbon addition between biofloc technology ( BFT) and traditional technology in shrimp farming , advantages of lower feed costs, lower water treatment costs and disease control , the limitation of large consumption of carbon resourse and power in BFT sharmp farming, and looks forward to the BFT applied to shrimp culture in China associated with the techniques of Litopenaeus vannamei farming in biofloc ponds.%  基于生物絮凝技术(Biofloc Technology, BFT)的水产养殖模式能够有效提高饲料中蛋白质的利用率,净化养殖水体,被认为是解决当前集约化水产养殖面临的资源和环境问题的有效方法之一。文章分析了碳源投加在生物絮凝养虾与传统养虾中的区别,总结了BFT 池塘养虾具有降低饲料成本、减少水处理费用和病害防治等方面的优点,指出BFT碳源消耗量大、能耗较高的局限性,并结合南美白对虾生物絮凝池塘养殖技术,对生物絮凝技术在中国虾类养殖中的应用进行了展望。

  19. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  20. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  1. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines

  2. Results of test of acid fluids neutralization in the well H-43, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla; Resultados de la prueba de neutralizacion de fluidos acidos en el pozo H-43, campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    The well H-43 was drilled in Los Humeros Geothermal Field, Pue., in 2007 and 2008. When well production was measured, it was found the well produced acid fluids with high corrosion potential. Then it was decided to try to neutralize the acidity of the H-43 fluids by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide. This is a basic substance used to neutralize mainly the acid groups H+, and the goal was to raise the pH of the fluids to minimize its corrosive features. First sodium hydroxide was injected into the well to protect the casing of 244.4 mm (9 5/8 in) against corrosion and then all the surface installations. It was possible to increase the pH of the well fluid from 5.2 up to 6.8 without altering the steam production, thus demonstrating the neutralization procedure is feasible. The approximate costs of the neutralization tests performed, including equipment for the proposed neutralization system, the neutralizer (NaOH), and drilling the well are about 71.4 million pesos (around 5.5 million USD). We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 and a return on investment in five years, considering the income from energy sales at present value. [Spanish] El pozo H-43 fue perforado en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., en 2007-2008, y al evaluar su produccion se encontro que producia fluidos acidos de alto potencial corrosivo. Se decidio por tanto realizar una prueba para neutralizar la acidez de los fluidos de este pozo, que consistio en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esta es una sustancia basica que neutraliza principalmente los grupos acidos H+, con lo que se buscaba aumentar el pH del fluido lo necesario para reducir al maximo su caracter corrosivo. La inyeccion del hidroxido de sodio se realizo dentro del pozo a fin de proteger de la corrosion a la tuberia de revestimiento de 244.4 mm (9 5/8 pulgadas), y posteriormente a todos los equipos superficiales. Como resultado de la prueba, se logro aumentar el pH del fluido producido por el pozo de 5.2 a un maximo de 6

  3. Pressure fluctuations on the bed of surge tank at the H.P. Zimapan, Hgo., with different arrangements studied on hydraulic model, with the lowest operation conditions; Fluctuaciones de presion en la base del pozo de oscilacion del P.H. Zimapan Hgo., con diferentes arreglos estudiados en modelo hidraulico ante las condiciones minimas de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo Mogollon, H. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: humberto.marengo@cfe.gob.mx; Ochoa Alvarez, F.J.; Cortes Cortes, C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: federico.ochoa@cfe.gob.mx; carlos.cortes01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, the pressure fluctuations of the surge tank in the Zimapan Hydroelectric Project are compared in a hydraulic model. The shaft is located lateral, over the conduction tunnel and in the simple form (permitting the tunnel entering the shaft); with and without orifice plates taking into account the demand and supply condition of energy with the minimum level of water of the conduction. It was determined the hydraulic efficiency and it was found that it was the best constructive option. [Spanish] En este articulo se comparan las fluctuaciones de presion en el pozo de oscilacion del P.H. Zimapan, Hgo., Mexico las cuales fueron estudiadas en modelo hidraulico al considerar dicho pozo ubicado en diferentes posiciones; lateralmente y sobre el eje de la conduccion; pozo simple y con tuberia de conexion; con y sin placa de orificio, para maniobras de rechazo y demanda de carga de las turbinas de generacion con el nivel del agua correspondiente al NAMINO. Se determino la eficiencia hidraulica comparandola con las otras opciones encontrandose que la mejor opcion para el funcionamiento hidraulico es el pozo lateral, que ademas permite optimizar el procedimiento constructivo.

  4. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...... provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model...

  5. A macro-scale perspective on within-farm management: how climate and topography alter the effect of farming practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Kusumoto, Yoshinobu; Okamura, Hiroshi; Baba, Yuki G; Hamasaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Koichi; Yamamoto, Shori

    2011-12-01

    Organic farming has the potential to reverse biodiversity loss in farmland and benefit agriculture by enhancing ecosystem services. Although the mixed success of organic farming in enhancing biodiversity has been attributed to differences in taxa and landscape context, no studies have focused on the effect of macro-scale factors such as climate and topography. This study provides the first assessment of the impact of macro-scale factors on the effectiveness of within-farm management on biodiversity, using spiders in Japan as an example. A multilevel modelling approach revealed that reducing pesticide applications increases spider abundance, particularly in areas with high precipitation, which were also associated with high potential spider abundance. Using the model we identified areas throughout Japan that can potentially benefit from organic farming. The alteration of local habitat-abundance relations by macro-scale factors could explain the reported low spatial generality in the effects of organic farming and patterns of habitat association.

  6. Uses of glyphosate in German arable farming – operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most frequently used herbicide active ingredient in Germany. Studies regarding its usage in non-GMO arable farming are still rare even though it plays an important role in several agronomic situations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive survey, which was carried out among conventional German farms in Winter 2014/2015. Based on the results of this survey we analyzed via cluster analysis how types of farms differ in terms of glyphosate usage. An illustration of seven clusters allows deep insights into arable farm structures. The farm types can be distinguished regarding their tillage system and similar to this differentiation also concerning their intensity of glyphosate application. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that farm clusters with a higher level of glyphosate usage are characterized by a lower number of labourers per hectare, more arable land and/or enhanced cover cropping. Moreover, groups of farmers who rely more on glyphosate are more likely to state that they need glyphosate for herbicide resistance management. Farmers’ assessments of the economic importance of glyphosate usage vary depending on the type of farm. By means of the farm clusters, the most important situations of glyphosate usage can be further analyzed economically and scenarios for impact assessments can be made.

  7. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  8. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  9. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  10. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  11. Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beels, Charlotte; Troch, Peter; Visch, Kenneth De;

    2010-01-01

    in a time-dependent mild-slope equation model by using numerical sponge layers. In this paper the developed WEC implementation is applied to a single Wave Dragon WEC and multiple Wave Dragon WECs. The Wave Dragon WEC is a floating offshore converter of the overtopping type. Two wave reflectors focus...... and reservoir) are simulated as porous structures, exhibiting the same reflection, respectively absorption characteristics as obtained for the prototype Wave Dragon WEC. The wake effects behind a single Wave Dragon WEC are studied in detail for uni- and multidirectional waves. The shadow zone indicating...... the wake effect is decreasing with increasing directional spreading. The wake in the lee of a farm of five Wave Dragon WECs, installed in a staggered grid (3 WECs in the first row and 2 WECs in the second row), is calculated for three in-between distances of respectively D, 2D and 3D, with D the distance...

  12. Analytical methods for wind persistence: Their application in assessing the best site for a wind farm in the State of Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo., c/ Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The properties of wind persistence are an essential parameter in carrying out a complete analysis of possible sites for a wind farm. This parameter can be defined as a measure of the mean duration of wind speed within a given interval of values for a concrete site. In this study the persistence properties are evaluated from the methods based on the autocorrelation function, conditional probability and the curves of speed duration, used satisfactorily by other authors. The statistical analysis of the series of useful persistence is also carried out to validate the results obtained. These methods have been applied to hourly data of wind speed corresponding to five Weather Stations (WS) in the State of Veracruz, Mexico in the period 1995-2006. The results obtained indicate that the coastal areas have the best properties of wind speed persistence and are, therefore, the most indicated for the generation of electricity from this renewable energy source. (author)

  13. H桥级联多电平STATCOM在风电场中的应用%Application of Cascade H-bridge Multilevel STATCOM in Wind Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培远; 王殿俊; 刘晓雷; 李静

    2011-01-01

    建立了双馈感应发电机( DFIG)的数学模型,分析了静止同步补偿器(STATCOM)的工作原理和主电路结构.针对H桥级联多电平STATCOM,提出应用错时采样空间矢量调制对其进行控制,在电网电压发生瞬时跌落的情况下对STATCOM的补偿特性进行了分析研究.结果表明,H桥级联多电平STATCOM能有效补偿风电场的无功功率,改善风电场的电压稳定性,提高了低电压穿越能力.%This paper establishes the model of doubly-fed induction generator,and the operation principle of static syn chronous compensator(STATCOM) is researched as well as the main circuit structure.According to cascade H-bridge multilevel STATCOM, sampling time staggered SVM (STS-SVM) is proposed to control the H-bridge STATCOM.When power grid voltage sags happen, simulations on compensation characteristics of STATCOM are studied.The results illus trate that the reactive power of wind farm can be compensated effectively, and the voltage stability of wind farm can be improved.At the same time,cascade H-bridge multilevel STATCOM improves the low voltage ride through capability.

  14. Application of the time-dependent mild-slope equations for the simulation of wake effects in the lee of a farm of Wave Dragon wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beels, Charlotte; Troch, Peter; De Visch, Kenneth; De Backer, Griet [Ghent University, Department of Civil Engineering, Technologiepark 904, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Kofoed, Jens Peter [Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2010-08-15

    Time-dependent mild-slope equations have been extensively used to compute wave transformations near coastal and offshore structures for more than 20 years. Recently the wave absorption characteristics of a Wave Energy Converter (abbreviated as WEC) of the overtopping type have been implemented in a time-dependent mild-slope equation model by using numerical sponge layers. In this paper the developed WEC implementation is applied to a single Wave Dragon WEC and multiple Wave Dragon WECs. The Wave Dragon WEC is a floating offshore converter of the overtopping type. Two wave reflectors focus the incident wave power towards a ramp. The focussed waves run up the ramp and overtop in a water reservoir above mean sea level. The obtained potential energy is converted into electricity when the stored water drains back to the sea through hydro turbines. The wave reflectors and the main body (ramp and reservoir) are simulated as porous structures, exhibiting the same reflection, respectively absorption characteristics as obtained for the prototype Wave Dragon WEC. The wake effects behind a single Wave Dragon WEC are studied in detail for uni- and multidirectional waves. The shadow zone indicating the wake effect is decreasing with increasing directional spreading. The wake in the lee of a farm of five Wave Dragon WECs, installed in a staggered grid (3 WECs in the first row and 2 WECs in the second row), is calculated for three in-between distances of respectively D, 2D and 3D, with D the distance between the tips of the wave reflectors of a single WEC. As a result, a farm of five Wave Dragon WECs installed in a staggered grid with an in-between distance of 2D is preferred, when taking cost and spatial considerations into account. (author)

  15. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  16. Los macroinvertebrados bentónicos de pozo azul (Cuenca del río Gaira, Colombia y su relación con la calidad del agua The Benthonic Macroinvertebrates of Pozo Azul (Gaira River Basin, Colombia and their Relationship with Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjarrés-Hernández Ana

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En julio de 2002 se realizó el estudio de algunos parámetros fisicoquímicos y la estructura de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados bentónicos asociados a cuatro coriotipos (piedra, hojarasca, sedimento y macrófitas en el sector de Pozo Azul sobre la cuenca del río Gaira (Magdalena, Colombia. Se discute la relación entre la estructura de la comunidad y la calidad del agua del sector. Los parámetros fisicoquímicos estuvieron determinados en gran medida por las características geográficas del sistema. El agua se caracterizó por estar saturada de oxígeno y por la ausencia de compuestos intermedios de la estabilización de la materia orgánica como nitritos y amonio. Se colectaron 588 individuos distribuidos en 11 órdenes y 38 familias. Los órdenes más representativos fueron Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera y Ephemeroptera, siendo el último de ellos el más abundante. Las familias más representativas fueron Baetidae, Simullidae, Perlidae, Chironomidae e Hydropsychidae, en ese mismo orden de abundancia. Para la relación de la estructura de la comunidad con la calidad del agua se calculó el índice BMWP, adaptado por la Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia, que estableció para este caso un agua de óptima calidad y oligosapróbita, según la ecología sapróbita, estado alcanzado luego de la estabilización frente a pequeñas alteraciones inducidas por las actividades del cultivo del café en la zona.On July 2002, a study of some physicochemical parameters and their relationship with the benthonic macroinvertebrates community structure on four coriotypes: stone, trash, silt and macrophytes, was carried out in Pozo Azul (Gaira River basin, Magdalena, Colombia. The physicochemical parameters were determined, to a considerable extent, by the geographic characteristics of the system. The water was found to be oxygen saturated, and intermediate compounds of the organic matter stabilization, such as nitrites and ammonium, there were

  17. The role of renewable energy on animal farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatári, Nándor; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    The recent measures in the European Union promote the usage of renewable energies and enhancing the energy efficiency. These measures also effect agriculture, on the one hand by using biofuels mixed into fuel for machinery. Besides biofuels animal farms have opportunities in using renewable energy in several other ways. There are sectors in animal farming, where the energy demand is continuously high in electricity (e.g. forage grinders, mixers, milk coolers, air ventilation systems) or in heating (e.g. stables for poultry or piglets). Beside the energy demand in agricultural sector there are several products and side products suitable for energy production. For example different kinds of organic manures and corn silage could be raw materials for biogas production; plant residues like cereal straw and corn stalk bales could be combusted in boilers. Furthermore solar cells or solar collectors can be mounted on the big roof surfaces of animal farm buildings. Among animal farming sectors, dairy farming in the most energy intensive, and uses the widest variety of energy forms. It is often mentioned as the "heavy industry" of animal farming. In this research 14 dairy farms were examined in Hajdú-Bihar County in the topic of energy demand, renewable energy usage. The questioned farms covers 35% of the dairy cow population in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect was examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. Fifty percent of farms uses at least one kind of renewable energy. Two biogas plants, 6 boilers for solid biomass, 2 solar cells. Regarding employment effect biogas plants created some full time workplaces, biomass boilers also needs some work hours to maintain, but none of the farms applied more labour. Besides renewable

  18. Peningkatan Produktivitas Domba pada Skala Peternakan Rakyat Melalui Pemberian Hormon Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL HOLDER FARMS SHEEP PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPHIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The administration of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG hormone to stimulate superovulation has been proven to improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth anddevelopment, milk production, litter size, as well as pre and post weaning growth. This study was conductedto apply the administration of PMSG hormone technology in small-holder farms. One hundred ewes weredivided into two groups. Group I (control: 50 ewes ewes without administration of PMSG and Group 2(treatment: 50 ewes ewes with administration of PMSG to stimulate super ovulation and improveendogenous secretion of pregnant hormones. The application of PMSG increased the numbers of lamb bornby 26.8% (69 vs. 87 with average litter size of 20.7% (1.38 vs. 1.74. The lamb weight at birth was alsoincreased by 25.7% (2.76 ± 0.33 vs. 3.47 ± 0.35 kg. The milk production of the dam was also increased by29.7% (0.64 ± 0.25 vs. 0.91 ± 0.22 L/ewe/day. Lambs born to ewes administered PMSG had better weaningweight 22.1% (12.32 ± 2.44 vs. 15.04 ± 1.11 kg/ewe. The number of survival lamb to reach weaning age washigher compared to the control group. The weight at weaning age was almost twice (628.4 kg vs. 1202.8 kgcompared to the control group. Using simple economic analysis calculation, the application of this hormonetechnology could increase gross revenue by Rp 294.280- per ewes. It was concluded that the administrationof PMSG is economically feasible to be applied in to the small-holder farms.

  19. Morphological Comparison and Composition Analysis of Wild and Farmed Eucheuma gelatinae in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Ping; Li Ming; Chen Dongmei; Ma Jun

    2015-01-01

    The morphology and compositions of wild and farmed Eucheuma gelatinae in Hainan Province were compared. The results showed that wild E. gelatinae had greater frond,with more and longer branches. The main compositions of wild and farmed E. gelatinae were carbohydrates composed of dietary fiber and soluble sugars. The wild E. gelatinae had higher soluble sugar content than farmed E. gelatinae,while farmed E. gelatinae had higher dietary fiber and carrageenan yield.Both of wild and farmed E. gelatinae had advantages and disadvantages,and we could choose the best raw materials according to the actual application.

  20. Investigating Navy officer retention using data farming

    OpenAIRE

    DeHollan, Aurel N.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The allocation of nearly 30% of the Navy’s budget to personnel costs, and the importance of manning fleet requirements to maintain operational readiness create a critical need for the Navy to effectively manage the size of the force. The Navy’s personnel planners use the Officer Strategic Analysis Model (OSAM) to project officer end-strength based on policies, plans, and historical loss rates. The application of data farming to this mo...

  1. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  2. Technical efficiency improvement of rice farming in southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kiatpathomchai, Sirirat; Schmitz, P. Michael; Thongrak, Sutonya

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the technical efficient frontier of rice farms using input-oriented data envelopment analysis. The frontier represents the minimum applicable level of efficiency of inputs given the current level of yields, technologies, and managerial ability among the farmers which can be used as a benchmark for efficiency improvement of rice farms. Two-stage DEA methodology of efficiency analysis was applied. The empirical results revealed that the technical efficie...

  3. AX Tank farm closure settlement estimates and soil testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECKER, D.L.

    1999-03-25

    This study provides a conservative three-dimensional settlement study of the AX Tank Farm closure with fill materials and a surface barrier. The finite element settlement model constructed included the interaction of four tanks and the surface barrier with the site soil and bedrock. Also addressed are current soil testing techniques suitable for the site soil with recommendations applicable to the AX Tank Farm and the planned cone penetration testing.

  4. Understanding crop and farm management

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Iman Raj

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture faces challenges in meeting rising demand for food, feed, fibre and fuel while coping with pressure from globalisation, limited natural resources and climate change. Farmers will choose management practices based on their goals and available resources and these practices will influence farm performance. The aim of this thesis was to understand farmers’ crop and farm management practices and their links to farm(er) characteristics, productivity, biodiversity, marketing channels and...

  5. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  6. Social Farming Rural Development Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.

  7. Simas, cavernas y pozos para ocultar cadáveres en la Guerra Civil española (1936-1939. Aportaciones desde la Antropología Forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETXEBERRIA, F., SERRULLA, F., HERRASTI, L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Son miles las víctimas de la Guerra Civil (1936-1939 que permanecen enterradas en fosas comunes repartidas por todo el territorio. Pero además de las fosas en zonas marginales o en cementerios, se emplearon también pozos artificiales y simas naturales para hacer desaparecer las evidencias de los crímenes cometidos. Este recurso ha sido utilizado a lo largo de toda la historia en situaciones de conflicto y explica algunos hallazgos que se han realizado: la ocultación de los cuerpos en espacios aparentemente imposibles para su localización y rescate posterior. Sin embargo, el avance en las técnicas arqueológicas implicadas en el ámbito de las Ciencias Forenses han posibilitado la adecuada recuperación de estos restos y su posterior análisis.

  8. Analysis of productive evolution of well M-19A, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis de la evolucion productiva del pozo M-19A del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Marco H; Romero-Rios, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-07-15

    Well M-19A has been the most productive in the Cerro Prieto field, producing around 40 million tons of fluid. The well went on line in February 1975 and was in continuous operation until June 2006. Monthly measurements for over 30 years of operating conditions and chemical and isotopic analyses of the fluids allow identification of the most significant processes occurring in the zone where the well is located. Three dominant recharge types have been identified, each lasting about 10 years. They are a) a recharge of fluids of lower temperature than the production fluids, even though the chemical and isotopic compositions are similar; b) a recharge of lower-temperature fluids with diluted chemical and isotopic compositions; and c) a progressive recharge of reinjected water with a higher chloride concentration and heavy isotopic composition. The production and reinjection rates for over 30 years of production history in the M-19A well zone allow for speculation of a reservoir pressure recovery, which is confirmed with a calculation using production data from well M-19A. The evolution of the reservoir pressure in the zone contrasts with the rest of the reservoir, where a constant pressure drop is observed, particularly toward the central and eastern parts of the field. [Spanish] El pozo M-19A ha sido el mas productivo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, alcanzando una extraccion de mas de 40 millones de toneladas de fluido. Fue integrado a produccion en febrero de 1975 y hasta junio de 2006 ha permanecido en produccion en forma continua. Las mediciones mensuales de sus condiciones operativas y los analisis quimicos e isotopicos del agua producida permiten identificar los procesos mas significativos que han ocurrido a lo largo de esos mas de 30 anos en la zona donde se localiza el pozo. Se han identificado tres tipos de recarga dominantes que se presentan durante un periodo cercano a 10 anos cada uno, los cuales son: a) una recarga de fluidos de menor temperatura

  9. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...

  10. Immigrant Workers and Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Seidelin, Claus Aastrup

    2013-01-01

    In many developed countries, the agricultural sector has experienced a significant inflow of immigrants. At the same time, agriculture is still in a process of structural transformation, resulting in fewer but larger and presumably more efficient farms. We exploit matched employer-employee data...... for Danish farms in 1980–2008 to analyze the micro-level relationship between these two developments. Farms employing immigrants tend to be both larger than and no less productive than other farms. Furthermore, an increased use of immigrants is associated with an improvement in job creation and revenue......, which at least partially seems to reflect a causal effect of immigrants....

  11. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1998-10-12

    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  12. Flowmeter logging in water wells of great diameter, methodology and applications. Testificacion de flowmeter en pozos de agua de gran diametro. Metodologia y aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Curiel, J.; Martin, D.A.; Rozycki, A.; Maldonado, A. (Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Several deep water supply wells have been carried out by the ''Canal de Isabel II'' in the western area of Madrid, within the emergency project developed in order to overcome the water shortage in the years 1992 and early 1993. The Department of Applied Geophysics and Geochemical Prospecting of the Mining Engineering School in Madrid updates and up graduates the data-acquisition methodology and interpretation of continuous spinner flowmeter data. When developing this methodology, besides the interpretation problems due to great diameter, we meet also a series of technical problems attempts and whose classical absence of divulgation has caused this technique to be scarcely used in Spain. So, in this paper we state a Glossary of Solutions to both aspects. (Author)

  13. Cyclonic multiphase flow measurement system GLCC{copyright}1 for oil well capacity evaluation; Sistema de medicion de flujo multifasico mediante tecnologia ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 para aforo de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Alcantar, J. M; Cervantes-Martinez, G; Cruz-Maya, J. A; Hernandez-Buenfil, M. A; Ramirez-Antonio, I [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mgodoy@imp.mx

    2008-10-15

    This paper shows the development of a portable multiphase flow measurement system based in cyclonic separation technology GLCC{copyright}1. This system is aimed for oil well measurement and was developed in three phases; the first devoted to the geometric design of a cyclonic separator by means of designs sofware GLCCV7.8 and the selection of measurement instrumentation and flux control valves. In the second phase, the automatic control system was designed for the implementation of four control strategies each one related with a possible scenario of the well behavior. The third constitutes the integration of the measurement and control devices through a user interface aimed for visualization, information processing and system's operation and control. Experimental results in oil well measurements show the efficiency and workability of the integrated system. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestra el desarrollo de un sistema portatil para la medicion de flujo multifasico, basado en la tecnologia de separacion ciclonica GLCC{copyright}1 y su utilizacion el aforo de pozos petroleros. El desarrollo del sistema se compone de tres fases, la primera se orienta hacia el diseno geometrico de un separador tipo ciclonico por medio del simulador GLCCV 7.8, asi como el dimensionamiento y la seleccion de los instrumentos de medicion y valvulas de control de flujo. En la segunda fase, se lleva a cabo la etapa de diseno del control automatico del sistema, el cual se fundamenta en el desarrollo e implantacion de cuatro estrategias de control basadas en el comportamiento dinamico de las variables de produccion del pozo; la tercera fase, la constituye el desarrollo de una interfaz para la integracion y operacion conjunta de los componentes de medicion y control del sistema, asi como de visualizacion, procesamiento y almacenamiento de la informacion. Se muestran los resultados experimentales de una prueba de medicion realizada en campo, las mediciones obtenidas muestran la

  14. Productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39, Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla (Mexico); Intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39 del campo geotermico Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electridad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents the results of log interpretations using the percentage method to define the productive fluid intervals in wells H-35 and H-39. These were identified with pressure, temperature and flow rate (PTS) electronic logs, used for the first time in this field. The test were carried out with the well integrated to the electrical generation units. Well H-35 fed steam to Units 1, 4, 5 and 7 through a plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 45 bars and a mass flow rate of 40 t/h. Well H-39 fed steam to Unit 3 through plate with a restriction orifice diameter of 50.8 mm (2 inches), a well head pressure of 27 bars and a mass flow rate of 30 t/h. [Spanish] Se presenta la intervencion realizada por el metodo de porcentajes para definir los intervalos productores de fluidos en los pozos H-35 y H-39. El estudio se hizo a partir de datos obtenidos con una sonda electronica de presion, temperatura y velocidad de flujo (PTS), utilizada por primera vez en este campo. En ambos casos se realizaron las pruebas con el pozo integrado a las unidades de generacion electrica, el primero suministra vapor para las Unidades 1, 4, 5 y 7 a traves de una placa de orificio de restriccion de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro, con presion de cabezal de 45 bar manometricos y un gasto de mezcla de 40 t/h. El segundo alimenta a la Unidad 3, fluye por orificio de 50.8 mm (2 pulgadas) de diametro y produce 30 t/h de mezcla con una presion en la cabeza de 27 bar.

  15. 地理信息系统在贵州省龙里林场森林资源保护中的运用探讨%Application of GIS in Forestry Resources Prote-ction in Longli Forestry Farm of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小祥

    2015-01-01

    According to the problems of deforest reclaimed on national forestry farm, taking Longli Forestry Farm of Guizhou Province for example, applica-tion of GIS in forestry resources protec-tion was put forward for protecting na-tional forestry farm resources.%针对国有林场被毁林开垦、不断蚕食的问题,以贵州省龙里林场为例,从技术的角度进行探讨,提出采用地理信息系统进行处理的工作思路和解决方法,以更好的保护国有森林资源。

  16. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  17. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Staritsky, I.G.; Andersen, E.; Heckelei, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all samp

  18. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor

    2011-01-01

    sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization...

  19. Towards a control model for the highly cybernetic farming ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Lin, W Z

    2000-11-01

    A dynamic model based on the linear systems theory is developed in designing a highly cybernetic farming strategy to efficiently manage residuals generated in farm ecosystems. A linear cybemetic model would be used to describe the dynamic behavior of resource flow in the farm ecosystem in which the state variables are resource quantities, and the control variables are residual quantities. The controlled process is defined as the controlled management strategy change. Cybemetic mechanism shows the application of residuals as control measures have determinate effects on the controlled process as along as the farming system is observable and controllable in the control sense. To illustrate the model algorithm the idea is applied to simulate the dynamic response of residual phosphorus concentrations in an integrated pig/corn farming system located in the south Taiwan region. General results show that the residual phosphorous concentration is influenced by farming activities which are controlled by a system of gross input and net output parameters. This paper demonstrates using input-output analysis technique that residuals generated in the farming system is the most important cybemetic variable,

  20. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  1. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  2. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind Farm Design and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  3. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans.

  4. Food and farm products surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  5. Strategy and risk in farming

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Issues that are relevant in current farm management are discussed. First, three basic farm management theories are presented: (1) decision-making theory; (1) system theory; and (3) theory of management by objectives. Next, two new developments are introduced, namely, strategic management and risk management.

  6. Influencing Factors on Farming System Development in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental situation of the farming system in Shandong Province is introduced.At present,Shandong Province is at the semi-intensive,semi-commercial and semi-sufficiency level of farming system.Eastern coast and central Shandong agricultural zones are moving in the direction of modern farming system,having formed a preliminary new pattern of the coordinated development of grain,feedstuff,economic and other crops.Influencing factors on the development of farming system in Shandong Province is analyzed,which are agricultural production condition and input level,population and food,policy measures,development of natural resources and regions,agricultural industrialization and urbanization level,and scientific and technological level.Total population will be within 100 million at the year 2020;per capita annual share of grain will be 475 kilograms;and there is great pressure on grain production.Therefore,we must change the pattern of agricultural development and accelerate the establishment of modern farming system.Agricultural machinery,water conservancy projects,and chemical fertilizer application have greatly affected the development of farming system.Improvement of production conditions has promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure,increased the planting ratio of winter wheat-summer maize,and improved multiple-cropping index.Development of agricultural industrialization has promoted the transfer of rural labor force and the establishment of modern farming system;while the unbalanced development of cities has restricted the establishment of modern farming system.Therefore,the appropriate policy,scientific and rational regional distribution,and advanced science and technology can help to set up the modern farming system in Shandong Province.

  7. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Torben J.;

    the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning......A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading...... of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop.. The objective function defining...

  8. Offshore wind farms: Danish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, H.; Taylor, D.; Petersen, A. [Carl Bro Group, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Denmark has extensive plans for offshore wind farms, and by 2030 parks to generate some 5,500 MW of power will be constructed. Out of this 4,000 MW will be offshore and to date 15 sites have been identified. Carl Bro Group are currently involved in the programme carrying out basic and detailed design, including EIA for 5 sites where construction is planned to take place before 2005. The first phase consists of the installation of 150MW wind farms. In Middelgrunden, off shore from Copenhagen, a scheme is well advanced to install 20 windmills generating approximately 40MW of power. This project is the largest offshore wind farm in the world and illustrates Denmark's commitment to sustainability. The paper gives an overview of the plans for offshore wind farms in Denmark and includes a detailed description of the farm at Middelgrunden, with emphasis on environmental, aesthetic, safety, design, construction and installation aspects. (Author)

  9. Characteristics of New Jersey Agritourism Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Brian J.; Sullivan, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    Agritourism is an important alternative farm enterprise strategy in the U.S., especially for farms operating under urban influence. This paper develops a logit model to identify the characteristics of farms engaged in agritourism using 2007 Census of Agriculture respondent-level records. New Jersey, which ranks first nationally in the proportion of farm income derived from agritourism, provides the geographic context. We find that fruit/vegetable farms, rural residential/retirement farms, and...

  10. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150m diameter and hub heights above 100m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer...... structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm...... design tools and meteorological models. The challenge is how to build the bridge between atmospheric and wind engineering model communities and how to establish a comprehensive evaluation process that identifies relevant physical phenomena for wind energy applications with modeling and experimental...

  11. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  12. Coupling dairy manure storage with injection to improve nitrogen management: whole-farm simulation using the integrated farm system Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of livestock manure to farm soils represents a priority nutrient management concern in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Historically strong emphasis has been placed on adding manure storage to dairy operations, and, there has been recognition that manure application methods can be improved....

  13. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术在农业动物中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸宇云; 杨强; 任军

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR(Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas(CRISPR associated proteins)是在细菌和古细菌中发现的一种用来抵御病毒或质粒入侵的获得性免疫系统.目前已发现的CRISPR/Cas系统包括Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ型,其中Ⅱ型系统的组成较简单,由其改造成的CRISPR/Cas9技术已成为一种高效的基因组编辑工具.自2013年CRISPR/Cas9技术成功用于哺乳动物基因组定点编辑以来,应用该技术进行基因组编辑的报道呈现出爆发式的增长.农业动物不仅是重要的经济动物,也是人类疾病和生物医药研究的重要模式动物.本文综述了CRISPR/Cas9技术在农业动物中的研究和应用进展,简述了该技术的脱靶效应及减少脱靶的主要方法,并展望了该技术的应用前景.%CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, of which type Ⅱ has relatively sim-ple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important ani-mals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the ap-plications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  14. The effects of straw or straw-derived gasification biochar applications on soil quality and crop productivity: a farm case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Imparato, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    content significantly and had no effect on crop yields. The application of straw and GB had a positive effect on the populations of bacteria and protists, but no effect on earthworms. The high rate of GB increased soil exchangeable potassium content and soil pH indicating its potassium bioavailability...... investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped...

  15. Polarimetric Features of Oyster Farm Observed by AIRSAR and JERS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.-K.; Hong, S.-H.; Kim, S.-W.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Won, J. -S.; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; 山口, 芳雄

    2006-01-01

    The polarimetric features of an oyster farm in a coastal area are analyzed to verify the applicability of radar polarimetry and interferometry. L-band Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data and Japan Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) data are used to examine the unique structure of an oyster farm located in South Korea. A specific feature of the oyster farm is the presence of numerous arrays of structures of various orientations that consist of exercise-bar-shaped poles protruding a...

  16. Comparison of three distinct management strategies for pig slurry applied to three groups of farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauden, A.; Teresa, M.; Siegler, C.; Bescos, B.; Burton, C.

    2009-07-01

    Poor management of pig slurry can lead to the contamination of the soil, water and air, which is mostly of the result of sur-plus nutrients. Such environmental impact from pig farming are common in areas with intensive livestock farming. The projects primary objectives is to demonstrate at farm scale the application of the three main manure management technologies deployed within structured local schemes to minimize the environmental impact. (Author)

  17. IMPACTS OF WITHIN-FARM SOIL VARIABILITY ON NITROGEN POLLUTION CONTROL COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vandyke, Laura S.; Bosch, Darrell J.; Pease, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of considering variable within-farm soil runoff and leaching potential on costs of reducing nitrogen losses are analyzed for a Virginia dairy. Manure applications may cause nitrogen losses through runoff and leaching because of factors such as uncertain nitrogen mineralization. Farmers can reduce nitrogen control costs by applying manure on soils with less nitrogen loss potential. Ignoring within-farm soil variability may result in overstating the farm's costs of reducing nitrogen...

  18. Training needs of farm women in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgga Rani V. And Subhadra M.R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Thrissur taluk of Thrissur district to assess the training needs of farm women engaged in dairy farming. It was found that out of the five major farm operations studied, the farm women needed training the most in housing. The minor operations preferred the most for knowledge need were proper design of cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, vaccination and banking and insurance. As for skill need, construction of scientific low cost cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, symptoms of common diseases and banking and insurance were preferred the most. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 221-223

  19. CDF II production farm project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan,

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  20. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FEATURES OF SMALL FARMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolmachev A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is being said, that with a large number of studies on the functioning and regulation of the growth of small agricultural farms there is remaining a number of problematic provisions research on conceptual framework of small management, forecasting, process optimization, management decision making, and innovative development of small agricultural farms. It is noted, that in processes of support and regulation of small farms today it is invested more and more of the state budget. Their use is closely tied to the definition of "small farms", the correct assignment of entities for this field. In this regard, the authors offer a definition of small agricultural businesses, which differs from the widely used in scientific and industrial practice the definition of small farms by greater brevity, and referencing to these entities all small agricultural producers, including domestic urban economy. Among the features of small agricultural entities, the authors emphasize: the independence, poly productive model orientation, low development and applicability of management techniques, economic knowledge, culture of market relations, information, consulting services, and general infrastructure of production. Strengths of small entities include small initial capital to "uplift business", high autonomy, flexibility, process management, high efficiency, low fixed costs, and possibilities of effective mobilization of material and financial resources. It is also proposed to enhance the development of relationships for IV sphere of agricultural sector: consulting, research, educational, financial, informational, and other services to improve the efficiency of functioning of small agricultural farms

  1. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  2. A survey on biosecurity and management practices in selected Belgian cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Steven; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    The shift from cure towards prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity, which includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering a herd and reducing the spread of pathogens within a herd. In Belgium no studies have considered the implementation of biosecurity measures in the daily management of cattle farms. Therefore the aim of the study was to map the current application of biosecurity measures in Belgian cattle farms in the prevention of disease transmission within and between farms. Between March 2011 and April 2013 the data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study, conducted to identify risk factors for reinfection with BVDV in cattle herds assumed free from BVDV. Questionnaire data from 33 dairy farms, 16 beef farms and 25 mixed (dairy and beef cattle) farms were analyzed using a combination of a linear scoring system, a categorical principal component analysis and a two-step cluster analysis to differentiate these farms based on their biosecurity levels and visit frequencies. Further enhancement of preventive measures considering external and internal biosecurity was still possible for each farm, as none of the farms obtained an overall high biosecurity level. Three groups of cattle farms were differentiated with a biosecurity level varying from low to high-medium, of which the group with the lowest biosecurity level mainly consisted of mixed farms. Animal-to-animal contacts with cattle from other herds were frequently possible as only 12% of the farmers purchasing cattle quarantined purchased animals at least three weeks and contacts over fences on pasture were possible in 70% of the herds. Basic biosecurity measures such as farm-specific protective clothing and boots were present in the majority of the farms, but they were insufficiently or incorrectly used. Cattle farms were very often visited by professional visitors of which the herd veterinarian, the AI technician and the cattle salesman most

  3. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  4. Push-pull farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required.

  5. Wind farm controllers with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Thomsen, Kenneth;

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes wind farm controllers and wind turbine controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind farms to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet the con...

  6. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  7. Three-fold embeddedness of farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.G.; Roep, D.; Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farm development strategy is affected by, and affects, the biophysical and socio-economic context of the farm leading to agri-environmental challenges for farm development. For effective policies and support programmes it is important to understand the drivers for choices farm development. Three-fol

  8. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  9. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  10. Roy Fuentes: Fuentes Berry Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As president of Fuentes Berry Farms, Rogelio (Roy) Fuentes is one of many independent growers producing organic berries for Driscoll’s—a company that was initiated more than a century ago by two strawberry farmers on California’s Central Coast, and has since evolved into an international concern devoted to research, breeding, production, sales and distribution of conventionally and organically farmed strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries. Driscoll’s CEO Miles Reiter and his ...

  11. Semi-continuously addition of peracetic acid to a flow-through fish farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Henriksen, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    •Demonstration of a safe and reliable practical method to reduce ectoparasites related mortality of farmed fish.•Central peracetic acid application caused even distribution to all ponds and considered suitable for organic fish farming.•Low dose and easy degradable peracetic acid is an alternative...

  12. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  13. A Novel Energy Yields Calculation Method for Irregular Wind Farm Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen;

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing size of offshore wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on energy yields become more and more evident. The Seafloor topography would limit the layout of the wind farm so that irregular layout is usually adopted inlarge scale offshore wind farm. However, the calculation...... for the energy yields in irregular wind farm considering wake effect would be difficult.In this paper, a mathematical model which includes the impacts of the variation of both wind direction and velocityon wake effect is established. Based on the wake model, a binary matrix method is proposed for the energy...... yields calculation forirregular wind farms.The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speeddeficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in irregular wind farms....

  14. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  15. Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Lula T; Veith, Tamie L; Hamlett, James M

    2013-01-15

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals, such as the total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements. Targeting critical source areas (CSAs) that generate disproportionately high pollutant loads within a watershed is a crucial step in successfully controlling nonpoint source pollution. The importance of watershed simulation models in assisting with the quantitative assessments of CSAs of pollution (relative to their magnitudes and extents) and of the effectiveness of associated BMPs has been well recognized. However, due to the distinct disconnect between the hydrological scale in which these models conduct their evaluation and the farm scale at which feasible BMPs are actually selected and implemented, and due to the difficulty and uncertainty involved in transferring watershed model data to farm fields, there are limited practical applications of these tools in the current nonpoint source pollution control efforts by conservation specialists for delineating CSAs and planning targeting measures. There are also limited approaches developed that can assess impacts of CSA-targeted BMPs on farm productivity and profitability together with the assessment of water quality improvements expected from applying these measures. This study developed a modeling framework that integrates farm economics and environmental aspects (such as identification and mitigation of CSAs) through joint use of watershed- and farm-scale models in a closed feedback loop. The integration of models in a closed feedback loop provides a way for environmental changes to be evaluated with regard to the impact on the practical aspects of farm management and economics, adjusted or reformulated as necessary, and revaluated with respect to effectiveness of

  16. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques.

  17. DISCUSSION ON THE PAPER: "THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD OF THE OLDEST HISTORICAL TSUNAMIS IN SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN" BY FRANCISCO RUIZ, MANUEL ABAD, JOAQUÍN RODRÍGUEZ VIDAL, LUIS MIGUEL CÁCERES, MARÍA LUZ GONZÁLEZ-REGALADO, MARÍA ISABEL CARRETERO, MANUEL POZO & FRANCISCO GÓMEZ TOSCANO, PUBLISHED IN RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA, 114(1: 147-156 (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO RODRÍGUEZ-RAMÍREZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Comments on the paper “The Geological record of the oldest historical tsunamis in southwestern Spain” by Francisco Ruiz, Manuel Abad, Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal, Luis Miguel Cáceres, María Luz González-Regalado, María Isabel Carretero, Manuel Pozo & Francisco Gómez Toscano.

  18. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  19. CleverFarm final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    Wind turbine technology has ventured in recent years from prototypes and first deployments towards large power plant scale projects. With this, also the ownership structure of wind farms changed: from single farmers to cooperatives, and to large multi-national developers specialised in building and running wind power projects. At the same time, the best sites for wind energy were already taken, leading to more remote sites and offshore sites being developed. Both these developments lead to an increased wish for remote monitoring of turbines. Ideally, the turbine would know on its own accord when it would need maintenance, and call the maintenance crew autonomously. The crew then would have all the information they need to have before they go out to the turbine and do the necessary tasks. Having knowledge of the type of fault that has happened would help the maintenance crew to deal with it efficiently. This also could mean to wait until the next scheduled maintenance is due. The potential savings for this alone are considerable, if you think of the plans for offshore wind farms tens of kilometres from the coast, where access would probably be by helicopter. The idea behind this project was to take the existing techniques developed for optimising and enhancing the performance of wind farms, integrate them into one system and implement the system at a number of wind farms. The techniques include remote measuring of the status and production of the wind farm, short-term prediction of the expected wind speeds at and power output from the wind farm, models for wake calculations, remote control of wind farm production and so on. (au)

  20. Information needs and information technology on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Investment in information technology (IT) enables the farmer to collect and process data at farm and animal level to be used in decision making. In order to evaluate the currently available IT applications it is essential to determine in what way IT will support information needs. A methodology was

  1. An Introduction to Biogas Production on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    This three-section report provides introductory information about biogas production and its application to farm environments. The first section discusses the various components of a biogas production system (a system that converts organic wastes into a usable form of energy), explains the system's benefits and liabilities, and provides a brief…

  2. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.; Fuglsang, P.; Larsen, Torben J.; Buhl, T.; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2011-02-15

    A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop. The objective function defining the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning the design space. The results are over all satisfying and are giving some interesting insights on the pros and cons of the design choices. They show in particular that the inclusion of the fatigue loads costs give rise to some additional details in comparison with pure power based optimization. The Middelgrunden test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 2.1 M Euro originating from a very large increase in the energy production value of 9.3 M Euro mainly counterbalanced by increased electrical grid costs. The Stags Holt/Coldham test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 3.1 M Euro. (Author)

  3. Study on Effects of Combined Organic Fertilizer Application in Rice-duck Integrated Farming Model%稻鸭共作模式有机肥组合施用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴正峰; 丁朝芳; 向敏; 林胜

    2014-01-01

    Objective to explore the effects of combined organic fertilizer application in Rice-Duck Integrated Farming System (RDIFS),in order to solve the problems of reasonable combination and application rate of organic fertilizers. Methods adopt a randomized block design and test the effects of different organic fertiliz-er combination samples. Results By using 1000kg rice straw compost plus 50kg rapeseed cake plus 50kg chicken manure or 1200kg rice straw compost plus 200kg chicken manure in every 667m2 test plot,the or-ganic rice production can reach 380kg.Conclusion RDIFS,the application of organic fertilizer with reason-able combination ratio can reach ance the soil nutrient supply and maintain the soil fertility,but also im-prove the rice yield and optimize the rice economy. However,it has no significant effect on organic rice quality improvement.%目的:探索稻鸭共作模式下有机肥组合施用效果,解决有机肥合理搭配和施用量问题。方法:采用随机区组设计,对不同有机肥组合施用效果进行抽样检测。结果:供试田块每667m2施用水稻秸秆堆肥1000kg+菜籽饼50kg+鸡粪50kg或水稻秸秆堆肥1200kg+鸡粪200kg,可获得有机稻380kg以上的产量。结论:稻鸭共作模式下,施用合理组配的有机肥不仅能够平衡土壤养分供应,维持地力,而且能够优化水稻经济性状,提高水稻产量,但对有机稻米品质的提高没有明显作用。

  4. The Hierarchy of Control in the Epidemic of Farm Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; King, Nathan; Koehncke, Niels; Kirychuk, Shelley; Trask, Catherine; Neudorf, Joshua; Day, Lesley; Voaklander, Donald; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy of control (HOC) is a well-established approach to hazard reduction in industrial workplaces. However, it has not been generally applied in farm workplaces. The objective was to determine current practices of farmers in the context of a modified HOC, and the effect of these practices on farm injury outcomes. A self-reported mail survey of 1196 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2013. Selected survey questions were used as proxy measures of the farm owner-operator's practices relevant to each of the six steps of increasing importance in a modified HOC: (1) hazard identification; (2) risk assessment; (3) personal protection; (4) administrative controls; (5) engineering controls; and (6) elimination of the hazard. Analysis used basic descriptive statistics and logistic regression to examine associations of interest. When four of the six HOC steps were adhered to, there was a significant protective effect: odds ratio (OR) = 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-0.74) for any injury and OR = 0.27 (95% CI: 0.07-0.99) for serious injury in the overall study population. For farm owner-operators utilizing four of the six steps in the modified HOC, there was a significant protective effect for any injury (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.83). Although there is a considerable absence of use of elements of the HOC among farm operators, for farmers who adhere to these steps, there is a significant reduction in their risk for injury. Prevention strategies that embrace the practice of these principles may be effective in the control of farm workplace injury.

  5. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  6. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  7. Nature Quality in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Alrøe, Hugo; Frederiksen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    . In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic...... will explore how criteria for nature quality based on the Ecologist View can be developed and thereby feed into the ongoing discussion of the development of the organic farming practices. We suggest additional criteria for nature quality based on an Ecologist View of Nature: biodiversity, habitat diversity...

  8. Succession Planning in Australian Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is that succession planning in Australian farming is under-developed.It may be linked to economic and social change which suggests that farmers need to adapt togenerational change but this is being resisted or ignored. The implications of this are the slowdecline of family farming, a poor transfer of skills and knowledge to subsequent generationsof farmers in some parts of the agricultural sector and the potential for an extension of thefinancial services industry to develop a more effective raft of succession planning measuresto mitigate the effects of a traditional approach to succession in agriculture.

  9. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter;

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validi...

  10. Modelling seabird collision risk with off-shore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Maria; Arroyo, Gonzalo Munoz; Rosario, Jose Juan Alonso del

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent concern about the adverse effects of collision mortality of avian migrants at wind farms has highlighted the need to understand bird-wind turbine interactions. Here, a stochastic collision model, based on data of seabird behaviour collected on- site, is presented, as a flexible and easy to take tool to assess the collisions probabilities of off-shore wind farms in a pre-construction phase. The collision prediction model considering the wind farm area as a risk window has been constructed as a stochastic model for avian migrants, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model calculates the probable number of birds collided per time unit. Migration volume, wind farm dimensions, vertical and horizontal distribution of the migratory passage, flight direction and avoidance rates, between other variables, are taken into account in different steps of the model as the input variables. In order to assess the weighted importance of these factors on collision probability predictions, collision probabilities obtained from the set of scenarios resulting from the different combinations of the input variables were modelled by using Generalised Additive Models. The application of this model to a hypothetical project for erecting a wind farm at the Strait of Gibraltar showed that collision probability, and consequently mortality rates, strongly depend on the values of the avoidance rates taken into account, and the distribution of birds into the different altitude layers. These parameters should be considered as priorities to be addressed in post-construction studies. (Author)

  11. Study with a steam tracer in a zone near well Az-64, in the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Estudio con un trazador de vapor en la zona aledana al pozo Az-64, en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Quijano Leon, Jose Luis; Torres Rodriguez, Marco A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J.; Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sandoval Medina, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    and 539 m from the injector. The results showed the six monitored wells are recharged from injection in Az-64 and quantified the corresponding recoveries as steam. Because only a steam-phase tracer was used, we were unable to determine liquid-recovery amounts. The work also allowed us to characterize relations between the permeability in the studied zone and the known distribution of faults. Some relationships were suggested unconsidered before. [Spanish] En el estudio con trazadores precedente a este, efectuado en la zona Maritaro-La Cumbre del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., se comprobo que la inyeccion en el pozo Az-15 recarga a un grupo de pozos situados a una distancia maxima del inyector de algo menos de 2000 m. Y se comprobo que la inyeccion en dicho pozo o bien no recarga a pozos situados a mas de 2300 m hacia el este, en las inmediaciones de la falla Laguna Verde, o lo hace muy lentamente en un largo periodo. Como es importante recargar la zona mencionada en ultimo termino, se decidio entonces explorar la posibilidad de recargarla desde el pozo Az-64, localizado en dicha area. Para ello se diseno el presente estudio. Se designaron seis pozos productores para monitorear el arribo del trazador. Debido a que todos estos pozos producen vapor (aunque varios producen tambien liquido), y por consideraciones economicas, se decidio utilizar en este caso un trazador de vapor solamente. Se utilizo hexafluoruro de azufre (SF6), un trazador utilizado con exito previamente en este campo. El 24 de octubre de 2006 se inyectaron 96.4 kg de SF6 en el pozo Az-64. El monitoreo de los pozos se realizo durante 156 dias a partir de esa fecha. El trazador se detecto en los seis pozos productores monitoreados. En todos los casos las formas de las curvas de residencia manifestaron claramente la naturaleza fracturada de la permeabilidad involucrada. En todos los casos las curvas de recuperacion del trazador indicaron claramente que la llegada del mismo se habia completado

  12. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  13. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Georg K S; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2012-01-01

    Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1) if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2) if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  14. Keeping Noise Down on the Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...

  15. Biogas and Bioethanol Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    The thesis consists of two parts. First one is an introduction providing background information on organic farming, ethanol and anaerobic digestion processes, and concept of on‐farm bioenergy production. Second part consists of 8 papers....

  16. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K S Andersson

    Full Text Available Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1 if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2 if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  17. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...

  18. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...... farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...

  19. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  20. The lack of Financial Statement Spplication in Kosovo’s Farms and its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Jehona Shkodra; Dr.Sc. Mustafe Pllana; MSc. Ekrem Gjoka

    2013-01-01

    The application of financial statement analysis in business activities is essential but this is often seen as frivolous in developing countries and in Kosovo as well . From the research conducted in hundred farms in different regions of Kosovo we understood that the application level of financial statement applied is low and in few farms it does not exist at all. The following research questions were used for this research: 1. Why does this situation happen? 2. To what extent are farmers ...

  1. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system.

  2. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  3. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...

  4. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments
    in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed
    fish products.
    Design/methodology/approach – Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category i

  5. Problems associated with shellfish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinabut, S; Somsiri, T; Limsuwan, C; Lewis, S

    2006-08-01

    Shellfish culture is a major sector of aquaculture production worldwide, and zoonoses and drug residues associated with shellfish farm practice are of concern to public health. This paper focuses on three of the most important shellfish species: molluscs, crabs and shrimp. Although many diseases can affect shellfish, they do not appear to be transmittable to humans. Rather, the main hazards are associated with the methods used to farm the different species. The risk to human health from shellfish most commonly relates to contamination by biotoxins produced by marine algae. Another well-recognised problem associated with shellfish culture is the contamination of shellfish with domestic sewage that contains human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, which causes diseases such as typhoid fever and hepatitis. In shrimp farming, the main potential food safety hazards are zoonoses, chemical contamination and veterinary drug residues. Untreated effluent from shrimp farms is a major concern to the environmental sector as it is known to promote plankton blooms if directly discharged into natural water sources.

  6. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  7. Farm size and growth in field crop and dairy farms in France, Hungary and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bakucs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between size and farm growth. The existing theories of the association between size and farm growth give mixed results by countries and over time. This paper pursues a twofold objective: on one hand, to test the validity of Gibrat’s Law for French, Hungarian and Slovenian specialized dairy and crop farms during the pre- and post-accession period to the European Union membership. Dairy and crops farms are prevailing in the farming structure of these countries. Using Farm Accountancy Data Network datasets makes it necessary to avoid biases due to heterogeneous structures across the farming systems. Thus we use quantile regressions to control for farm size related heterogeneity in the samples. On the other hand, the main novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the relationship between farm size and farm growth between transition Hungarian and Slovenian and non-transition French farming sectors, characterized by rather different farm structures. The results reject the validity of Gibrat’s Law for crop farms in Hungary and to a lesser extent in France, and for French and Slovenian dairy farms. We provide evidence that smaller farms grew faster than larger ones over the studied period 2001-2007 for France, 2001-2008 for Hungary, and 2004-2008 for Slovenia. Conversely, the results for Slovenia suggest that the rate of growth of crop farms in terms of its land is independent from its size.

  8. Farm population of the United States: 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deare, D; Kalbacher, J Z

    1987-11-01

    This report presents annual estimates of selected social and economic characteristics of the farm population in 1986. Also included are fertility characteristics from the June 1986 Current Population Survey (CPS) and data from the March 1986 CPS supplement. The Census Bureau and the Economic Research Service of the Department of Agriculture prepared the farm population estimates for 1986 from CPS data. Highlights of the data follow. 1) About 5,226,000 persons lived on farms in rural areas of the US in 1986. About 1 of 46 persons, or 2.2% of the nation's population, had a farm residence in 1986, compared to 30.2% in 1920. The farm population consists of persons living on farms in rural areas of the country; it does not include residents of the small number of farms in urban areas. 2) No statistically significant change in the number of farm residents occurred between 1985 and 1986. 3) Half of all farm residents now live in the Midwest. The Southern farm population has rapidly declined to just 29% of the national total; its 11% loss over the last year made it the only 1 of the 4 geographic regions to experience a significant change in number of farm residents. 4) About 1/4 (1.3 million) of the farm population live in metropolitan areas, while 3/4 live in non metropolitan areas. 5) In 1986, 97% of farm residents were white, 2% black, and 2% hispanic. 6) The median age of rural farm residents was 37 years in 1986, which is significantly higher than the median of 31.6 years for the non-farm production. There were 110 men/100 women living on farms in 1986, compared with just 93 men/100 women in the nonfarm population. 7) About 69% of farm residents 15+ were married and living with a spouse, compared with 56% of nonfarm residents. 8) About 87% of farm households were made up of families; the comparable proportion of nonfarm families was 72%. The average size of the farm family is 3.18 members compared to 3.21 members/nonfarm family. 9) The number of children born to ever

  9. Farming in the city of Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Mboganie-Mwangi, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes urban farming in Nairobi, Kenya: its magnitude and characteristics, its importance for those involved, the constraints faced by urban farmers, the impact of urban farming on the environment, the legal and institutional setting, and the prospects for urban farming. The paper is b

  10. Do farm audits improve milk quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Miyamoto, A.; Reij, M.W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk quality is assessed using bulk milk analysis and by farm audits in the Netherlands. However, the extent of the effect that dairy farm audits have on milk quality is unknown. Data from over 13,000 audits performed on 12,855 dairy farms from February 2006 to April 2008 were merged with laboratory

  11. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  12. Missouri Small Farm Family Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, George; And Others

    Records maintained by rural extension designees on the Missouri Small Farm Family Program, (initiated in 1972 by the cooperative extension service to help low income farm families learn to use available resources to improve their quality of life) provided data re: family characteristics, farm improvement progress, and improvement in the quality of…

  13. Roundfish monitoring Princess amalia Wind Farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). It is to realize the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind farm f

  14. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa

  15. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  16. The usability of digestate in organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L J; Salter, A M; Banks, C J; Poppy, G M

    2012-01-01

    As organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilisers, animal slurries and manures must be used. Digestate offers an alternative to these and this study reports on three experiments conducted to determine its usability in terms of: (1) the effect on earthworm populations, (2) its fertilising effects on Italian Ryegrass and wild Creeping Thistle, and (3) the suppression effects digestate has on weed emergence. The results for digestate application to field plots were intermediate between slurry and no treatment for earthworm attraction and wild thistle suppression. In glasshouse trials it led to increased ryegrass growth compared with undigested slurry. Analysis showed that the digestate had improved nitrogen availability, leading to increased plant growth, but a reduced organic matter content compared with the slurry, leading to a positive though less beneficial impact on the earthworms. Digestate therefore provides a suitable fertiliser for organic farming. This suitability could be improved by drying or separation to increase the OM content making its properties closer to those of slurry whilst still retaining the higher content of plant available nitrogen.

  17. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  18. Seismic monitoring during acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13 at the Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, BCS, Mexico; Monitoreo sismico durante la estimulacion acida de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13 del campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas Salgado, Saul; Arredondo Fragoso, Jesus; Ramirez Silva, German; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    From September through December 2004 a seismic monitoring in the Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, geothermal field was carried out simultaneously with the acid stimulation of wells LV-4 and LV-13. The seismic network had four digital seismographs and recorded 174 local seismic events, 131 regional ones and many more volcanic signals at seismic station TV20 during the acid stimulation. Additionally, 37 seismic events were located, 22 of them inside the most important geothermal zone at depths between 0.4 and 4 km with typically low magnitudes (0.7 to 2.2 Md). Two relevant zones were determined: Zone A related to the El Volcan fault system and Zone B related to injection well LV-8. In Zone A the well-induction stage and the operation start of the wells LV-4 and LV-13 after acidification on October 30 and November 17, 2004, increased seismic activity to a maximum of 12 daily events in early December. When the two wells in Zone B were cooled before the acidification, the seismic events recorded there increased to a maximum of 6 daily events on October 2, and then decreased. Also in Zone B the seismic activity increased after well-induction and the start of well production once they were acidified, recording up to 11 daily events in late November. According to the seismic distribution, we may conclude that the most active fault systems are El Volcan and El Viejo. New proposals for well locations in the field are supported by these results. [Spanish] De septiembre a diciembre de 2004 se realizo un estudio de monitoreo sismico en el campo geotermico de Las Tres Virgenes, BCS, simultaneamente con las estimulaciones acidas de los pozos LV-4 y LV-13. Se utilizo una red sismica conformada por cuatro sismografos digitales, logrando registrar en la estacion sismica TV20 un total de 174 sismos locales, 131 sismos regionales y muchas mas senales de tipo volcanico, durante el periodo del monitoreo de la estimulacion acida. Ademas, se localizaron un total de 37 sismos, de los cuales 22 se

  19. Estimación de un modelo hedónico para el precio de los predios en las áreas de Pozos Colorados, Bello Horizonte y Don Jaca de la ciudad de Santa Marta D.T.C.H, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Causado Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad identificar mediante la aplicación del método de precios hedónicos expresado en un modelo econométrico, las variables determinantes del valor de los predios de las áreas de Pozos Colorados, Bello Horizonte y Don Jaca de la ciudad de Santa Marta, incluyendo la variable ambiental en la cuantificación económica de este. Este estudio, es de gran importancia debido a que en Colombia y, sobre todo, en el departamento del Magdalena, concretamente en la ciudad de Santa Marta, no se han realizado estudios de valoración económica con inclusión de la variable ambiental y tampoco de cuantificación de impacto ambiental en el valor de un predio expuesto a una externalidad del sector productivo. A través de la metodología de precios hedónicos, se pretendió evaluar información actualizada de precios de predios para el año 2005; identificando seis variables, de las cuales sólo una resultó no tener ninguna relevancia, ni incidencia sobre el precio de los predios del área de estudio, siendo esta la de estrato. En cuanto a las cinco variables restantes; superficie del terreno (M2, área construida (M2, proximidad al puerto de PRODECO, proximidad a la playa y proximidad a vía de acceso principal y de circulación de tractomulas que transportan carbón (Troncal del Caribe, mostraron tener incidencias sobre el precio del suelo de las área de Pozos Colorados, Bello Horizonte y Don Jaca de la ciudad de Santa Marta D.T.C.H, incluyendo la variable ambiental en el precio de estos predios.Palabras Clave: Precios Hedónicos; Precio del Suelo; Valoración económica; Impacto Ambiental Carbón; Pozos Colorados; Bello Horizonte; Don Jaca. Estimate of a hedonistic model for the Price of properties in the áreas of Pozos Colorados, Bello Horizonte and Don Jaca of the city of Santa Marta D.T.C.H, Colombia.AbstractThe purpose of this article is to identify the determining variables of the price of real estate in the

  20. Evaluación de la recuperación del nitrógeno y fósforo de diferentes fuentes de fertilizantes por el cultivo de trigo irrigado con aguas residuales y de pozo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Grisell Mora Ravelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de fertilizantes nitrogenados y de aguas residuales no tratadas de origen urbano por los cultivos es una necesidad agronómica, económica y ambiental. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta del cultivo de trigo a la aplicación de diferentes fertilizantes nitrogenados, irrigado con agua residual y de pozo. Se utilizó un suelo Vertisol Háplico. Se usó como cultivo indicador trigo variedad Tlaxcala F2000. Los fertilizantes aplicados fueron: Fertilizante comercial (FC constituido por Fosfato monoamónico + urea, Fertilizante orgánico (FO Vermicomposta; y Fertilizante de lenta liberación (FL combinación de: urea, H2PO4 y arcilla. La mezcla contiene N y P, 8.08 y 6.3 % en peso, respectivamente. Los tratamientos se diseñaron para probar el efecto simple de cada uno de estos materiales y la combinación de FL+FO. La dosis de fertilización de N y P fue (280-80-0. Con los datos de los análisis de laboratorio de N y P de las plantas, se calculó la eficiencia de recuperación de estos nutrimentos. Las interacciones fechas de Muestreo por agua y fertilizante por agua, fueron significativas al (p<0.05, para la biomasa fresca y seca en el cultivo experimental, asimismo se obtuvo mayor número de granos al irrigar con agua residual.

  1. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  2. Health effects of agrochemicals among farm workers in commercial farms of Kwekwe district, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Magauzi, Regis; Mabaera, Bigboy; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Chimusoro, Anderson; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Shambira, Gerald; Chadambuka, Addmore; Gombe, Notion

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Farm workers are at a very high risk of occupational diseases due to exposure to pesticides resulting from inadequate education, training and safety systems. The farm worker spends a lot of time exposed to these harmful agrochemicals. Numerous acute cases with symptoms typical of agrochemical exposure were reported from the commercial farms. We assessed the health effects of agrochemicals in farm workers in commercial farms of Kwekwe District (Zimbabwe), in 2006. Methods An analy...

  3. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  4. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  5. Forming technology of variable-data rolling and application in manufacturing of farming taper leaf spring%变值轧制成型技术及其在农用板簧制造方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军营; 杨自栋; 李素玲

    2003-01-01

    The variable data rolling forming that is variable cross-section rolling forming, is a new technological method which has a bright future in the building technique, using the rolling method to produce work-pieces or semi-finished products. Basic principle of the variable data rolling forming technology is introduced in this paper. When variable cross-section rolling, roll gap opening changes with the preset data which is the function of the length of work-piece. The influence on precision of work-piece thickness by preset gap and rolling force as well as mill rigidity, is analyzed. The application of the variable data rolling is introduced by example of the forming theory and manufacturing process of taper leaf spring of farming machinery and vehicle and truck. The variable data rolling forming will become the major methods to produce work-piece which has variable section structure.%变值轧制成型是采用轧制的方式制造零件或毛坯的工艺方法,是一种新兴的有发展前途的制造技术.介绍了变值轧制成型工艺的基本原理和工艺方法,变值轧制成型时,辊缝跟踪设定的数值,辊缝是工件长度的函数,同时分析了设定辊缝、轧制压力、轧机刚度等因素对被成型工件厚度精度的影响.以变截面板弹簧形成理论和制造过程为例,介绍了变值轧制成型技术在农业机械和农用运输车变截面板簧制造方面的应用.变值轧制成型技术将成为制造具有变截面形状结构零件的主要方法.

  6. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new

  7. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  8. Construcción y empleo de los diagramas C-Q. Una vía para minimizar los costos de operación y mantenimiento de los sistemas de bombeo de pozos profundos. // Construction and use of diagrams C-Q. A road to minimize the operating costs and maintenance of the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morales

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se plantea la necesidad de establecer un Sistema de Mantenimiento Preventivo porcondición técnica para los pozos profundos de regadío del estado de Cojedes en la RepúblicaBolivariana de Venezuela, debido a que el alto porcentaje de sólidos por unidad de volumen deagua provoca el desgaste acelerado de diferentes elementos de máquinas de las bombas, lo quetrae consigo que se acorte la vida útil de dichas máquinas, así como se incrementen sus costos deoperación. Como resultado de la investigación se hace una propuesta de procedimiento paraconstruir los diagramas C-Q y con su uso poder determinar cuando es necesario realizar elmantenimiento de los pozos y de esa forma evitar las fallas prematuras en las bombas y minimizarlos costos de la operación y mantenimiento del sistema pozo-bomba.Palabras claves: diagnóstico, rapidez de cambio, estado técnico, mantenimiento, parámetros decondición, parámetros de salida.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper exposes the need of establishing a Preventive Maintenance System, for technicalcondition, for the irrigated artesian wells at Cojedes's state, in the Bolivarian Venezuelan Republic.Due to the high solids percentage per water volume unit, the wear of different hardware elementsof the pumps is accelerated. This fact provokes the shortening of the service life of theaforementioned hardware and consequently the increase in operating costs. As a research resultthis article presents a procedure proposal to construct C-Q diagrams to determine when it will benecessary to accomplish the well maintenance. In that way one can avoid premature faults inpumps and minimize the operation and maintenance costs of the pumping system.Key words: diagnostic, speed of change, technical status, maintenance, parameters of condition,outgoing parameters.

  9. Establishing a benchmarking for fish farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasner, Tobias; Brinker, Alexander; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of Blue Growth in aquaculture requires an understanding of the economic drivers influencing the sector at farm level, but the collection of reliable and comparable data at this level is time-consuming and expensive. This study suggests an alternative strategy for qualitative sampling...... German farms profit from local market prices and advanced farm management. Danish farms using recirculating techniques remain competitive thanks to enhanced productivity and economy of scale. However, small traditional farms in Germany and Denmark may struggle to stay competitive in the long term...

  10. Análisis comparativo técnico – económico de producción de crudos pesados en pozos horizontales y direccionales, arena “m-1 formación Napo, bloque 16, oriente ecuatoriano”

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzio Molina, Alex; Portilla Lazo, Carlos; Colmont Moncayo, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    La producción de crudo pesado en el Bloque 16 del Oriente – Ecuatoriano, ha incidido para que la compañía invierta recursos económicos en nueva tecnología. Los tipos de perforación que se han ejecutados en el campo Amo son: perforación vertical, direccional y horizontal. Puesto que existe una diferencia considerable en los costos de perforación y completación entre estos tipos de pozos, y por otro lado, tambien existe diferencias substanciales entre ellos en lo relativo a la capacidad de ...

  11. Key Succes Factors for Organic Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Ramdhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the weight from determinant factors in developing organic farming in Garut District, West Java, Indonesia. Determinant factor in the research are determined based on judgment from the respondent. Determinant factors in developing farming are classified by some aspects such as technology, social and politic, economic and environment. The weight of each factor is counted by using weight method based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model. The result of synthesis shows that respondents prefer organic farming method than conventional method. However, to implement organic farming extensively needs program or policy support from stakeholders on sub-criteria who tend to make organic farming better. The programs including orientation on quantity improvement in organic farming yield, provision of equipments, and raw materials, farmer’s performance, financial support, provision of market, and decreasing organic farming business risk.

  12. Power Performance Verification of a Wind Farm Using the Friedman’s Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of verification of the power performance of a wind farm is presented. This method is based on the Friedman’s test, which is a nonparametric statistical inference technique, and it uses the information that is collected by the SCADA system from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. Here, the guaranteed power curve of the wind turbines is used as one more wind turbine of the wind farm under assessment, and a multiple comparison method is used to investigate differences between pairs of wind turbines with respect to their power performance. The proposed method says whether the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment differs significantly from what would be expected, and it also allows wind farm owners to know whether their wind farm has either a perfect power performance or an acceptable power performance. Finally, the power performance verification of an actual wind farm is carried out. The results of the application of the proposed method showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

  13. The Economic Feasibility of Conventional and Organic Farm Production in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the comparison of economic feasibility of most common conventional and organic farm production in Slovenia. The methodology of an integrated deterministic technologic-economic simulation system KARSIM 1.0 (DSM application for cost analysis and decision-making support on farms is described in this article. The direct simulation model result is an individual conventional or organic farm product enterprise budget. The DSM consists of 148 deterministic production simulation models that enable different types of costs and financial feasibility calculations for conventional and organic production and food processing. The developed simulation model enables economical evaluation of some most important economic parameters (breakeven price, breakeven yield, financial result, total revenue and coefficient of economics. In conventional farming system the most suitable farm product is potato (Ke = 1.52, followed by milk and maize production (Ke = 1.10, wheat production (Ke = 1.06 and suckling cows production (Ke = 1.02. The husked spelt production is in conventional farming system economically infeasible (Ke= 0.82. In organic farming system the most feasible farm product is husked spelt (Ke = 1.56, followed by potato (Ke = 1.15, milk (Ke = 1.04 and suckling cows production (Ke = 1.03. Maize (Ke = 0.90 and wheat production (Ke = 0.83 are economically infeasible.

  14. Power Performance Verification of a Wind Farm Using the Friedman's Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar; López-Presa, José Luis; Maldonado-Correa, Jorge L

    2016-06-03

    In this paper, a method of verification of the power performance of a wind farm is presented. This method is based on the Friedman's test, which is a nonparametric statistical inference technique, and it uses the information that is collected by the SCADA system from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. Here, the guaranteed power curve of the wind turbines is used as one more wind turbine of the wind farm under assessment, and a multiple comparison method is used to investigate differences between pairs of wind turbines with respect to their power performance. The proposed method says whether the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment differs significantly from what would be expected, and it also allows wind farm owners to know whether their wind farm has either a perfect power performance or an acceptable power performance. Finally, the power performance verification of an actual wind farm is carried out. The results of the application of the proposed method showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

  15. Leverages for on-farm innovation from farm typologies? An illustration for family-based dairy farms in north-west Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez Arriola, J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Amendola Massiotti, R.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on farm diversity provides insight into differences among farms, enables scaling from individual farm to farm population level and vice versa, and has been used in the definition of recommendation domains for introduction of novel technologies. Farm diversity can be broadly described in te

  16. Site-Specific, Climate-Friendly Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Eitel, J.; Huggins, D. R.; Painter, K.; Rupp, R.; Smith, J. L.; Stockle, C.; Vierling, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Of the four most important atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHG) enriched through human activities, only nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are due primarily to agriculture. However, reductions in the application of synthetic N fertilizers could have significant negative consequences for a growing world population given the crucial role that these fertilizers have played in cereal yield increases since WWII. Increasing N use efficiency (NUE) through precision management of agricultural N in space and time will therefore play a central role in the reduction of agricultural N2O emissions. Precision N management requires a greater understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of factors supporting N management decisions such as crop yield, water and N availability, utilization and losses. We present an overview of a large, collaborative, multi-disciplinary project designed to improve our basic understanding of nitrogen (N), carbon (C) and water (H2O) spatio-temporal dynamics for wheat-based cropping systems on complex landscapes, and develop management tools to optimize water- and nitrogen-use efficiency for these systems and landscapes. Major components of this project include: (a) cropping systems experiments addressing nitrogen application rate and seeding density for different landscape positions; (b) GHG flux experiments and monitoring; (c) soil microbial genetics and stable isotope analyses to elucidate biochemical pathways for N2O production; (d) proximal soil sensing for construction of detailed soil maps; (e) LiDAR and optical remote sensing for crop growth monitoring; (f) hydrologic experiments, monitoring, and modeling; (g) refining the CropSyst simulation model to estimate biophysical processes and GHG emissions under a variety of management and climatic scenarios; and (h) linking farm-scale enterprise budgets to simulation modeling in order to provide growers with economically viable site-specific climate-friendly farming guidance.

  17. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; /MIT; Neubauer, M.; /UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I.; /Frascati; Weems, L.; /Fermilab; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  18. Floating VAWT wind farm concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Vita, Luca

    2008-01-01

    The report contains proposals and descriptions of VAWTs of 200kW, 1MW, 5MW and 25MW sizes in terms of dimensions, weights, loads, and power production. Additionally a proposal of the use of each of these sizes in a concept description for a 100MW wind farm. Manufacture, transportation, installation, maintenance and operation of VAWTs are considered briefly. A summary on advantages and disadvantages of floating VAWTs is given.

  19. Precipitation-runoff relations and water-quality characteristics at edge-of-field stations, Discovery Farms and Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2003-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Peppler, Marie C.; Owens, David W.; Frame, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    between January and the end of June. Event mean concentrations of suspended sediment in runoff during unfrozen-ground periods were significantly higher (p2= 0.92), indicating that the sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff were likely similar. Analysis of runoff, concentration, and yield data on annual, monthly, and seasonal time scales, when combined with precipitation, soil moisture, soil temperature, and on-farm field-activity information, revealed conditions in which runoff was most likely. The analysis also revealed the effects that field conditions and the timing of field-management activities-most notably, manure applications and tillage-had on the quantity and quality of surface runoff from agricultural fields.

  20. Farm cooperation to improve sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Hans; Larsén, Karin; Lagerkvist, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Chrisitian; Blad, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Johan; Skargren, Per

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that partnership arrangements between farmers might be a way to secure the economic viability of their farms as well as to increase profitability. The article discusses empirical analyses of three different forms of collaboration, with an emphasis on the environmental improvements associated with collaboration. Collaboration between a dairy farm and a crop farm is analyzed in the first case. The results show that potential gains from improved diversification and crop rotation are substantial, and even larger when the collaboration also involves machinery. The second analysis considers external integration between farrowing and finishing-pig operations. Gains from collaboration originate from biological and technical factors, such as improved growth rate of the pigs and better utilization of buildings. Finally, an evaluation of a group of collaborating crop farmers is performed. In this case, the benefits that arise are mainly due to reduced machinery costs and/or gains due to other factors, such as improved crop rotation and managerial/marketing strategies.

  1. Application and Exploration of Container Building in Urban Farm:Take Kunming Maple Valley Urban Farm Container Building as the Case%集装箱建筑在都市农庄中的应用与探索--以昆明金殿后山枫叶谷都市农庄集装箱建筑为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张濒予; 翟辉

    2016-01-01

    The rise of a large number of container buildings in the world makes it become a regular branch of architecture. Based on Kunming Maple Valley Urban Farm container architectural design, this paper explores the advantages of using containers as the main building material compared to general material, and analyzes the value of container construction and the practice summary, which provides inspiration for architectural design of urban farm.%集装箱建筑在世界范围内大量的兴起使其被作为一个常规建筑学的分支。以昆明枫叶谷都市农庄集装箱建筑设计为依托,探讨用集装箱作为建筑主要材料时与一般性材料的优势的比较,并浅析集装箱建筑存在的价值及实践总结,为都市农庄中建筑设计的创作提供思路和启发。

  2. Assessing a bioremediation strategy in a shallow coastal system affected by a fish farm culture--application of GIS and shellfish dynamic models in the Rio San Pedro, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Yáñez, E; Martín-Díaz, M L; DelValls, T A

    2012-04-01

    An integrated multi-trophic aquaculture assessment for Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) aquaculture as a bioremediation strategy in areas impacted by fish farm effluents in Rio San Pedro was assessed by combining geographic information system with carrying capacity models. Sites of 0.44 km(2) were evaluated considering constraints; physical factors, growth and survival factors, environmental quality factors, water and sediment quality criteria, factor suitability ranges, and Multi-Criteria Evaluation. Isleta and Flamenco are promising sites for oyster production, and Dorada is of marginal interest. Carbon and nitrogen removal from the water by algae and through detritus filtration was estimated. The biodeposition of organic material from longline leases was found to have little negative impact on sediment. The eutrophication results indicate that phytoplankton removal had a positive impact on water quality at the Dorada. This case study quantified the direct profitability and bioremediative environmental service advantages that fish-shellfish farms can have relative to fish monocultures.

  3. 75 FR 63466 - Flat Water Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Flat Water Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Flat Water Wind Farm, LLC's application for...

  4. 76 FR 72697 - Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC's application for...

  5. 76 FR 10581 - Settlers Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Settlers Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Settlers Trail Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based...

  6. Automatic Installation and Configuration for Large Scale Farms

    CERN Document Server

    Novák, J

    2005-01-01

    Since the early appearance of commodity hardware, the utilization of computers rose rapidly, and they became essential in all areas of life. Soon it was realized that nodes are able to work cooperatively, in order to solve new, more complex tasks. This conception got materialized in coherent aggregations of computers called farms and clusters. Collective application of nodes, being efficient and economical, was adopted in education, research and industry before long. But maintainance, especially in large scale, appeared as a problem to be resolved. New challenges needed new methods and tools. Development work has been started to build farm management applications and frameworks. In the first part of the thesis, these systems are introduced. After a general description of the matter, a comparative analysis of different approaches and tools illustrates the practical aspects of the theoretical discussion. CERN, the European Organization of Nuclear Research is the largest Particle Physics laboratory in the world....

  7. Aplicação do sistema de análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle em propriedade leiteira tipo A Application of hazard analysis and critical control points system in a grade A dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Alves Spexoto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle (APPCC constitui um importante método preventivo empregado na linha de produção de alimentos, tendo sido aplicado com sucesso em propriedades leiteiras para o controle de agentes patogênicos e de resíduos de medicamentos. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência e os principais problemas relacionados à aplicação do sistema APPCC em uma propriedade produtora de leite tipo A, com vistas ao controle dos níveis de células somáticas (CS e da carga microbiana no leite do rebanho, bem como do resultado do exame California Mastitis Test (CMT obtido individualmente nos animais. Após a aplicação do sistema, não houve alterações na contagem média de CS no leite e no percentual de casos de mastite, porém, observou-se uma diminuição (P0,05 antes e após a aplicação do sistema. Entretanto, os valores de coliformes fecais no leite foram reduzidos (PThe hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP system is an important preventive method used in food production process, having been applied successfully in dairy farms for the control of pathogenic organisms and veterinary drug residues. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency and the main problems related to the application of HACCP system in a grade A dairy farm, to control the levels of bulked milk somatic cell counts (SCC and microbial load, as well as the individual CMT - California Mastitis Test. The average SCC in bulked milk and the percentage of mastitis (as estimated by the CMT were not affected after the system application. However, a reduction (P0.05 before and after the application of HACCP. However, fecal coliforms values decreased (P<0.05 in milk, hence indicating the system efficiency for the improvement of sanitary conditions of milk. The importance of both farm owner and staff commitment as an essential factor for the success of HACCP system in dairy farms is stressed.

  8. Monitoring the on-farm welfare of sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for on-farm welfare assessment in sheep and goats are not yet available. Factors responsible for this lack of availability are discussed in the first part of this review. Requisites for reliable methods of welfare assessment to be used in sheep and goat farms are discussed, taking into account the peculiarities of the small ruminant production systems in terms of flock management and farm location. Some housing parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment are reviewed and could be included in schemes of welfare assessment on farm. Human-animal interaction, health status of the animals in terms of body condition scoring, skin and hair conditions, lameness and injuries, and management practices in relation to cleanliness, animal handling and moving, milking procedures and abnormal behaviours, are proposed as potential animal-based indicators. When available, validity, reliability and feasibility of the proposed parameters are discussed. The voluntary adhesion to welfare standards in Sardinia and the application of a scientifically validated protocol in Basilicata are reported as examples of practical experiences.

  9. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  10. Farming in an Agriburban Ecovillage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing desire for local food systems has increased interest in peri-urban farming, leading to the rise of agriburban landscapes, in which a desire to farm or to be near farmland is a contributing factor to development patterns. Interviews and site visits to the Yarrow Ecovillage near Vancouver, Canada, outline an example of a development that allows new farmers access to land in a setting with few tensions between farming and non-farming residents in a zone on the edge of a protected agricultural region. Although there are limitations to replication of this model, we suggest that intentional settlements with an agricultural element on the rural/urban fringe could buffer traditional tensions between farm usage and residential usage, while allowing small-scale farmers a place to farm in areas with prohibitively high land values.

  11. Antimicrobial drug use in Austrian pig farms: plausibility check of electronic on-farm records and estimation of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauffler, M; Griesbacher, A; Fuchs, K; Köfer, J

    2014-10-25

    Electronic drug application records from farmers from 75 conventional pig farms were revised and checked for their plausibility. The registered drug amounts were verified by comparing the farmers' records with veterinarians' dispensary records. The antimicrobial consumption was evaluated from 2008 to 2011 and expressed in weight of active substance(s), number of used daily doses (nUDD), number of animal daily doses (nADD) and number of product-related daily doses (nPrDD). All results were referred to one year and animal bodyweight (kg biomass). The data plausibility proof revealed about 14 per cent of unrealistic drug amount entries in the farmers' records. The annual antimicrobial consumption was 33.9 mg/kg/year, 4.9 UDDkg/kg/year, 1.9 ADDkg/kg/year and 2.5 PrDDkg/kg/year (average). Most of the antimicrobials were applied orally (86 per cent) and at group-level. Main therapy indications were metaphylactic/prophylactic measures (farrow-to-finish and fattening farms) or digestive tract diseases (breeding farms). The proportion of the 'highest priority critically important antimicrobials' was low (12 per cent). After determination of a threshold value, farms with a high antimicrobial use could be detected. Statistical tests showed that the veterinarian had an influence on the dosage, the therapy indication and the active substance. Orally administered antimicrobials were mostly underdosed, parenterally administered antimicrobials rather correctly or overdosed.

  12. Regulating the environmental impacts of factory farming in South Africa: legal perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Grobler, Ruché

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of factory farming on the environment in South Africa. It also determined whether the current existing environmental legislation in the country adequately regulates the growing industry. The various impacts that factory farms may have on the environment are discussed in detail and they include water pollution, air pollution and desertification. The applicable laws are discussed in detail and also applied to the environmental impact...

  13. Farming in the city of Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Mboganie-Mwangi, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes urban farming in Nairobi, Kenya: its magnitude and characteristics, its importance for those involved, the constraints faced by urban farmers, the impact of urban farming on the environment, the legal and institutional setting, and the prospects for urban farming. The paper is based on four studies carried out in Nairobi by Diana Lee-Smith et al. (1984-1985), Donald Freeman (1987), Alice Mboganie Mwangi (1994), and Pascale Dennery (1994)

  14. Developmental Tendency of Dry Land Farming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Lun

    2002-01-01

    The developmental tendency of dry land farming technologies in the semiarid area of China were reviewed based on the overview of recent progress in dry land farming researches from China and oversea. It was emphasized that conservation tillage, limited irrigation, genetic modification and chemical control are the important aspects for the dry land farming research and development of the future. In addition, some considerations and suggestions on above-mentioned aspects were proposed in this paper.

  15. Pressure gradient of a two-region solid-liquid flow in horizontal wells; Gradiente de presion de un flujo bifasico solido-liquido de dos regiones en pozos horizontales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Mendoza, R.; Garcia Gutierrez, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the problem of cutting transport in a two-region, slurry-flow system in horizontal pipes, with a stationary bed of drill cuttings as a porous medium (w-region) below a two-phase dispersed flow (n-region). Volume averaging was applied to derive a rigorous mathematical model where each variable is precisely defined. The model includes volume-averaged transport equations for both the two-phase dispersed flow and the porous-medium regions, and terms from a macroscopic forces balance. The solution of the two-region model allowed evaluation of the behavior of the pressure gradient as a function of velocity, total volume fraction of cuttings, and the relationship between the height of the stationary bed and pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe diameter. It is based on a backward, finite-difference explicit scheme. The simulated physical system is a pipe of 4.135 m in horizontal length and 0.0508 m in diameter. A one dimensional, mesh-centered grid is used, consisting of 10 nodes. The numerical results were compared with experimental data on slurry flows and a good agreement was found. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis teorico del problema de transporte de recortes de perforacion en pozos horizontales. Se estudia el flujo bifasico solido-liquido en dos regiones donde la region inferior es un lecho estacionario de recortes, considerado como medio poroso, mientras que la region superior es un flujo bifasico disperso solido-liquido. Se aplica el metodo de promediado en volumen para derivar de manera matematicamente rigurosa el modelo de dos regiones. El modelo incluye las ecuaciones de transporte promediadas en volumen para cada region y terminos que resultan de un balance de fuerzas macroscopico. La solucion del modelo permite evaluar el comportamiento del gradiente de presion como funcion de la velocidad, la fraccion de volumen de recortes total y la

  16. Estimación de la demanda y el costo de no tener agua potable en Nicaragua, tomando como base las diferentes alternativas de abastecimiento (puestos, ríos, manantiales, pipas, carretas y pozos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Narváez Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available EL ESTUDIO ESTIMA LA DEMANDA DE AGUA DE LAS VIVIENDAS que no cuentan con el servicio de agua potable por medio de tubería. La estimación se realiza utilizando la Encuesta de Medición de Nivel de Vida (INIDE, 2005a, donde se presenta información sobre las formas de abastecimiento de agua, el tiempo dedicado a la recolección, el costo monetario por galón, entre otras variables socioeconómicas.Se eligió el modelo teórico basado en el enfoque de producción de hogares propuesto por Bockstael y McConnell (1983 que permite estimar el excedente del consumidor como medida de beneficios potenciales del hogar por contar con agua potable dentro de sus viviendas.Los beneficios estimados se calcularon tomando en cuenta el costo de oportunidad en el tiempo dado a un proceso de búsqueda de agua por parte del hogar más el pago por el bien en las diferentes alternativas (puestos, ríos, manantiales, pipas, carretas y pozos.La investigación mira desde otra perspectiva el modelo de costo de viaje usado comúnmente en estudios de recreación ambiental y pone a disposición de los evaluadores de proyectos una herramienta alternativa de la estimación de beneficios en proyectos de abastecimiento de agua.Las personas sin acceso al agua pagan 316 córdobas por mes (C$/Mes y consumen aproximadamente 2 metros cúbicos mensuales. Un cliente con servicio de agua por medio de la red de ENACAL con un consumo de 15 metros cúbicos paga por cargo de agua potable 72.75 C$/Mes. Es importante mencionar que existen otros cargos como alcantarillado sanitario y cargo fijo que deben sumarse al cargo de agua potable enuna factura correspondiente a viviendas en los departamentos en donde el problema de falta de agua es mayor. Por tanto, el mismo consumo (15 M3/Mes por vivienda –si incluimos todos los cargos– pagaría 98.75 C$/Mes. El cargo de agua potable para consumos de 30 M3/Mes es igual a 168 C$, una cifra mucho menor a lo que pagan las personas que no cuenta con el

  17. Afvloeiing uit en aanpassing in de landbouw 1968 [Mobility in farming, parttime farming 1968

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.

    1968-01-01

    Farm and personnel / successor / attitude to change in modern times / contacts with immigrants / status of farmers / attitude to the farmer's work / motivations to leave farming / work type preferences / expectations for the future / attitude to reconstruction / re-allocations / cooperation / biogra

  18. Roads used on farm owned by Open Space Institute and leased to Roxbury Farm.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This line file represents the major roads used to access Roxbury Farm and the farm fields. This shapefile is part of a project called Biological Surveys at the...

  19. Biofilm responses to marine fish farm wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Lazaro, Carlos, E-mail: carsanz@um.es [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Navarrete-Mier, Francisco; Marin, Arnaldo [Departamento de Ecologia e Hidrologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The changes in the biofilm community due to organic matter enrichment, eutrophication and metal contamination derived from fish farming were studied. The biofilm biomass, polysaccharide content, trophic niche and element accumulation were quantified along an environmental gradient of fish farm wastes in two seasons. Biofilm structure and trophic diversity was influenced by seasonality as well as by the fish farm waste load. Fish farming enhanced the accumulation of organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals by the biofilm community. The accumulation pattern of these elements was similar regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community. This suggests that the biofilm communities can be considered a reliable tool for assessing dissolved aquaculture wastes. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms and its wide range of consumers, its role as a sink of dissolved wastes may have important implications for the transfer of aquaculture wastes to higher trophic levels in coastal systems. - Research highlights: > Biofilms can act as a trophic pathway of fish farm dissolved wastes. > Biofilms are reliable tools for monitoring fish farm dissolved wastes. > The influence of the fish farm dissolved wastes can be detected 120-350 m from farm. - Under the influence of fish farming biofilm accumulates organic carbon, nutrients, selenium and metals, regardless of the structure and trophic niche of the community.

  20. Harmonic Aspects of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the aim, the work and the findings of a PhD project entitled "Harmonics in Large Offshore Wind Farms". It focuses on the importance of harmonic analysis in order to obtain a better performance of future wind farms. The topic is investigated by the PhD project at Aalborg...... University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of the project is to improve and understand the nature of harmonic emission and propagation in wind farms (WFs), based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of the project is to obtain validated models and analysis methods...... of offshore wind farm (OWF) systems....

  1. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  2. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  3. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  5. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  6. Improving Environmental Management on Small-scale Farms: Perspectives of Extension Educators and Horse Farm Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms.

  7. Whole-Farm Evaluation of Phosphorus Crystallization as a Dairy Farm BMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently proven method for precipitating significant phosphorus from dairy lagoons was incorporated to the Integrated Farm System Model. A whole-farm analysis of this BMP, including environmental and economical effects, were evaluated for an organic dairy farm in Washington. The BMP provides a non...

  8. Farm growth and exit: consequences of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse farm growth and exit and its interaction in Dutch dairy farming as consequences of the 2003 CAP reform and 2008 CAP Health Check. Results indicate that the decision to exit dairy farming is largely determined by household characteristics as age and the size of

  9. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…

  10. Incidence of unintentional injuries in farming based on one year of weekly registration in Danish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Lauritsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, farming ranks as the industry with the highest incidence rate of fatal injuries. For nonfatal injuries, insufficient registration practices prevent valid comparisons between occupations. This study examines the occurrence of farm accidents and injuries, as well as work-specific factors......, via weekly registration in a representative sample of 393 farms in one county during 1 year....

  11. Farming with care: the evolution of care farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Hulsink, W.; Grin, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and understand the evolution of the care farming sector in one of its pioneering countries, the Netherlands. Care farms combine agricultural production with health and social services. Care farming is a phenomenon that faces specific challenges associated with co

  12. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.;

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since the...

  13. Energy use in pig farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This guide presents benchmark data on 'typical' and 'good practice' levels of energy consumption for pig farms in the UK. Benchmarks are valuable because they allow producers to compare their performance with other similar businesses. In addition, they also provide two other useful functions: They allow routine assessments to be made that show progress against a benchmark. Such appraisals are not restricted to year-on-year evaluations as they can be carried out quarterly, monthly or even weekly to track progress on a more frequent basis Opportunity assessments can be carried out. For example, if a facility is to be modified or upgraded, the effect of the change can be determined. Throughout this guide, the benchmarks and information are based on methods and techniques that minimise energy consumption whilst maintaining pig performance at an economically acceptable level. Pig farming in the UK is a complex and diverse business with a variety of facilities being used for each stage of production. Therefore, in order to give realistic guidelines, production has been broken down into several key areas to illustrate typical performance benchmarks. These production areas are: farrowing accommodation; weaning accommodation; finisher accommodation; feeding system; and waste handling. The guide has a detailed breakdown with graphs and data analysis.

  14. Off-farm work decisions on Dutch cash crop farms and the 1992 and Agenda 2000 CAP reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    A double hurdle model of off-farm work participation and off-farm labour income was derived and estimated consistent with a farm household model. It was found that rationing and unexpected transaction costs inhibit farm households from participating in off-farm work. The 1992 and the Agenda 2000 CAP

  15. Hydroacoustic registration of fish abundance of offshore wind farms. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidt, C.B.; Bruenner, L.; Reier Knudsen, F.

    2005-05-15

    Elsam Engineering AS has approved the implementation of a project concerning the registration of fish communities in Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm with use of hydroacoustic methods. In a joint effort, Bio/consult as, Carl Bro as and SIMRAD AS have monitored the fish communities at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm using a new hydroacoustic methodology. The new hydroacoustic technique combines the use of scientific sonar acoustics with GPS to determine the density, diversity and location of fish. The objectives of this project were to test the possibility of using hydroacoustic techniques as alternative methods to traditional techniques to assess the fish assemblage inhabiting offshore wind farms and to investigate the possible effect from the wind farm and hard bottom substrates (turbine foundations) on fish abundance. The field study was carried out October 9-10, 2004 and consisted of four horizontal hydroacoustic survey transects each covering impact and reference areas. Transects were surveyed in order to achieve identical impact and reference transect pairs concerning environment, topography and time correspondence. The hydroacoustic equipment consisted of a SIMRAD EK60/EY60 echo sounder with a split-beam transducer (Simrad ES 120-4x10) mounted on a pan and tilt unit, a transceiver, a laptop extended with a GPS-receiver and additional large external hard discs. The raw data files from EK60 were converted to echogram files suitable for the post processing application, Sonar5-Pro. The Sonar5-Pro software makes it possible to filter out echo detections from the surface and the bottom, as well as perform cross filter detection. The validity of the results using the hydroacoustic method is high due to the cross filtering and single target tracking technique. From the hydroacoustic results, no or very little effect from the wind farm or from hard bottom substrates was found on the fish densities at Horns Rev Wind Farm at the time of the survey. The execution of the field

  16. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  17. family farming; quantification; RENAF (registration of family farming; Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Manzanal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing research project, this paper discusses public policies that link family farming (FF and food security and sovereignty (FSS which have been promoted in Argentina since 2010.The objective of this research is to contribute to knowledge about developmental and territorial issues, based on the study of experiences located in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Misiones.The article contextualizes and analyzes the emergence of FF and FSS policies, as well as the differences in the ways in which they were managed and implemented in the cases selected. All of this raises the following questions: what role is assigned to FF in rural development policy? What conception of "food sovereignty" lies behind these policies? 

  18. Leptospirosis in a Dutch catfish farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Leur, J. van der; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    A 51-year-old farm worker presented with jaundice and fever. There had been a rat infestation around the farm ponds and in the shed. He was admitted to our hospital with acute renal and liver failure, thrombocytopenia and rhabdomyolysis. Because of the clinical clues, leptospirosis was suspected and

  19. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  20. A reference architecture for Farm Software Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruize, J.W.; Wolfert, J.; Scholten, H.; Verdouw, C.N.; Kassahun, A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Smart farming is a management style that includes smart monitoring, planning and control of agricultural processes. This management style requires the use of a wide variety of software and hardware systems from multiple vendors. Adoption of smart farming is hampered because of a poor interoperabi

  1. Bringing the Classroom to the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine if extension agents could expand their audience through a series of statewide on-farm meetings. The study also sought to determine if the on-farm approach would result in adoption of recommended mastitis control practices. Results are presented and discussed. (CT)

  2. Evaluating the Sustainable Intensification of arable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanakis, Yiorgos; Bennett, Richard; Park, Julian; Areal, Francisco Jose

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable Intensification (SI) of agriculture has recently received widespread political attention, in both the UK and internationally. The concept recognises the need to simultaneously raise yields, increase input use efficiency and reduce the negative environmental impacts of farming systems to secure future food production and to sustainably use the limited resources for agriculture. The objective of this paper is to outline a policy-making tool to assess SI at a farm level. Based on the method introduced by Kuosmanen and Kortelainen (2005), we use an adapted Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to consider the substitution possibilities between economic value and environmental pressures generated by farming systems in an aggregated index of Eco-Efficiency. Farm level data, specifically General Cropping Farms (GCFs) from the East Anglian River Basin Catchment (EARBC), UK were used as the basis for this analysis. The assignment of weights to environmental pressures through linear programming techniques, when optimising the relative Eco-Efficiency score, allows the identification of appropriate production technologies and practices (integrating pest management, conservation farming, precision agriculture, etc.) for each farm and therefore indicates specific improvements that can be undertaken towards SI. Results are used to suggest strategies for the integration of farming practices and environmental policies in the framework of SI of agriculture. Paths for improving the index of Eco-Efficiency and therefore reducing environmental pressures are also outlined.

  3. SUSTAINABILITY OF FARMING ENTERPRISE - UNDERSTANDING, GOVERNANCE, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives answers to following important questions: "what is sustainability of farming enterprises" such as individual and family farms, agri-firms of different types, agri-cooperatives, etc.", "what are the mechanisms and modes of governance of sustainability of farming enterprises", and "how to evaluate the sustainability level of farming enterprise and efficiency of its governance". First, evolution of the "concept" of sustainability of farming enterprise is discussed and more adequately defined as ability of a particular enterprise to maintain its managerial, economic, social and ecological functions in a long term. Second, institutional, market, private, public and hybrid mechanisms and modes of governance of farming enterprise's sustainability are specified. Third, a specific for the conditions of East-European agriculture framework for assessing sustainability level of farming enterprise and efficiency of its governance is suggested. Ultimate goal is to assist farming enterprises' management and strategy formation as well as improvement of public policies and forms of public intervention in agrarian sector.

  4. Organic food and farming research in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja

    2006-01-01

    In Finland we have a tendency of increasing activities in organic food and farming research during last five years. Most of the organic food and farming research i Finland is carried out at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland. The rest is done at the universities and other institutes.

  5. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunit...

  6. Farmers’ perception of opportunities for farm development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the perception of opportunities for farm development is researched in this thesis in relation to differences in the embedding of the farm in the socio-material context. This study contributes to a Sociology of Entrepreneurship in focusing on the decision-maker specific aspects using t

  7. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  8. An Overview of Offshore Wind Farm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    For offshore wind energy to be viable, the design of wind turbines is not the only important factor—rather, the design of wind farms is also crucial. The current chapter discusses the challenges of designing an optimum wind farm and identifies the various factors that need to be considered. Lastl...

  9. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  10. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  11. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  12. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  13. The Challenge of Research on Farm Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah

    1981-01-01

    Researchers studying farm women must ask if successful integration of family and farm systems in the late 20th century involves feminism and, if so, what form of feminism. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916. (NEC)

  14. Benchmarking the environmental performances of farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoo, de G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope The usual route for improvement of agricultural practice towards sustainability runs via labelling schemes for products or farm practices. In most approaches requirements are set in absolute terms, disregarding the variation in environmental performance of farms. Another ap

  15. WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afagh VEISI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the main barriers to development of organic farming system in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Statistical population in this study consisted of all farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. Applying stratified random sampling method, 137 farmers were selected as a sample. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin16 software. Principal component analysis was used as main statistical technique to analyze the data. The results of factor analysis revealed that 4 factors including “Infrastructural”, “technical-managerial”, “economic-financial” and “educational” explained 42.36 percent of the variance. Results of this study have applications for agriculture development policy- makers for development of organic farming in Iran.

  16. 75 FR 2138 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Wyoming (DOE/EIS-0438)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... 13175, Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments (65 FR 67249), the President's... FR 22951), DOE-specific guidance on tribal interactions, and applicable natural and cultural... Area Power Administration Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Wyoming...

  17. A socio-hydrologic model of coupled water-agriculture dynamics with emphasis on farm size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, D. R.; Maneta, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land cover dynamics in the U.S. are dominated by two trends: 1) total agricultural land is decreasing and 2) average farm size is increasing. These trends have important implications for the future of water resources because 1) growing more food on less land is due in large part to increased groundwater withdrawal and 2) larger farms can better afford both more efficient irrigation and more groundwater access. However, these large-scale trends are due to individual farm operators responding to many factors including climate, economics, and policy. It is therefore difficult to incorporate the trends into watershed-scale hydrologic models. Traditional scenario-based approaches are valuable for many applications, but there is typically no feedback between the hydrologic model and the agricultural dynamics and so limited insight is gained into the how agriculture co-evolves with water resources. We present a socio-hydrologic model that couples simplified hydrologic and agricultural economic dynamics, accounting for many factors that depend on farm size such as irrigation efficiency and returns to scale. We introduce an "economic memory" (EM) state variable that is driven by agricultural revenue and affects whether farms are sold when land market values exceed expected returns from agriculture. The model uses a Generalized Mixture Model of Gaussians to approximate the distribution of farm sizes in a study area, effectively lumping farms into "small," "medium," and "large" groups that have independent parameterizations. We apply the model in a semi-arid watershed in the upper Columbia River Basin, calibrating to data on streamflow, total agricultural land cover, and farm size distribution. The model is used to investigate the sensitivity of the coupled system to various hydrologic and economic scenarios such as increasing market value of land, reduced surface water availability, and increased irrigation efficiency in small farms.

  18. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  19. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue......Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  20. Growing Up on an Appalachian Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holston, Ezra C; Callen, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Background Research on centenarians to date has focused on areas with a high population of centenarians. However, there is limited literature on centenarians' perspectives about growing up on farms from the heartland of Appalachia in Eastern Tennessee. Purpose This qualitative descriptive study was designed to characterize the role of a farming childhood by exploring the viewpoints of community-dwelling centenarians who grew up on farms in south central Appalachia. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used with a convenience sample ( n = 16). Cognitive status was determined with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Demographic data were collected. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed with the Neuendorf method of content analysis. Results Main emerging themes were the farm, the family, and the environment. Conclusion The farm was at the center of these centenarians' childhood, influencing their family, community relations, and social interactions, which provided lessons that they utilized throughout their long lives.

  1. INL Wind Farm Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Siefert

    2009-07-01

    The INL Wind Farm project proposes to install a 20 MW to 40 MW wind farm on government property, consisting of approximately ten to twenty full-sized (80-meter hub height) towers with 2 MW turbines, and access roads. This includes identifying the optimal turbine locations, building access roads, and pouring the tower foundations in preparation for turbine installation. The project successfully identified a location on INL lands with commercially viable wind resources (i.e., greater than 11 mph sustained winds) for a 20 to 40 MW wind farm. Additionally, the proposed Wind Farm was evaluated against other General Plant Projects, General Purpose Capital Equipment projects, and Line Item Construction Projects at the INL to show the relative importance of the proposed Wind Farm project.

  2. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  3. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pierik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical and economic evaluation. It has been built as a Simulink Library in the graphical interface of Matlab-Simulink. EeFarm-II contains models of wind turbines, generators, transformers, AC cables, inductors, nodes, splitters, PWM converters, thyristor converters, DC cables, choppers and statcoms.

  4. Correlates of psychosomatic stress symptoms among farm women: a research note on farm and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, A D; Perkins, H W

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between self-reported psychosomatic stress symptoms and dimensions of family and farm functioning were examined in a sample of New York State dairy farm wives (N = 126). The farm women completed a questionnaire assessing home and farm task loads, farm complexity, intrapersonal role conflict, interpersonal role conflict, husband support, and marital satisfaction. The psychosomatic stress symptoms included nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, shortness-of-breath, and fainting. In general, stress symptoms showed little relationship to task loads, farm complexity, and intrapersonal role conflict. Much stronger relationships were found for interpersonal role conflict, husband support, and marital satisfaction. Thus, these findings point to the greater importance of family relationships in preventing or buffering stress in comparison with simple role-related task expectations of farm systems.

  5. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    responsibilities and inadequate procedures of implementing objectives. Planning for development in South Africa needs to take various factors into account. Economic and green economic growth is pursued, while social imbalances are addressed and the environment is protected against unreasonable exploitation. The term Sustainable Development is a neutral concept in the vision of many of the regulating authorities; however, the implementation of sustainability is difficult. This study considers an approach which aligns activities in a specified region to the vision and objectives of the applicable regulatory authorities, as an alternative to achieving objectives strictly through enforcing regulations. It was determined whether objectives of development planning were realistic in terms of water availability. It was established that the position of a farm in the landscape is a determining factor of the impact it has on the catchment area's water supply. For this purpose, hydrological modelling (SWAT and SIMGRO) was done for the Letaba catchment of the Limpopo Province, on two scales to also accommodate small-scale farming communities more accurately. Parallel to the modelling, the National Development Plan (NDP), the National Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD), the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS) and the principles of Water Allocation Reform (WAR) were regarded. For regional categorisation, the relevant municipal Integrated Development Plan (IDP), Spatial Development Framework (SDF), Local Economic Development (LED) plan and the applicable Catchment Management Strategy (CMS) were considered. The developed Integrated Evaluation Model combined all the visions and objectives of the mentioned strategic documents to specifically assess the contribution a small-scale farm makes. The evaluation results provided insight into the alignment of activities to the ideals of a region and can be useful when formulating actions to reach a common vision. Small

  6. FARM OPERATIONS FACING DEVELOPMENT: RESULTS FROM THE CENSUS LONGITUDINAL FILE

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines farms in areas undergoing development, using a longitudinal file constructed by linking several agricultural censuses. Individual farms are followed over the 1982-97 period. Survival, exit, and entrance rates are presented for three types of farms: recreational, adaptive, and traditional. The three types of farms are located where one would expect. Traditional farms are concentrated in nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) counties, while adaptive farms are concentrated in metro core...

  7. Design and Development of Decision Support System for Equipping Farm Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equipping farm machines is the key link of agricultural production process. The decision support system of equipping farm machines is able to aid managers to make scientific and effective decision. In this paper, the decision support system of equipping farm machines is designed and developed based on the related theories and the thought of prototype. The system chooses Delphi 7.0 as development language, and uses three classic equipping methods to establish system models. For the complex linear programming model, firstly it is established by M-file of Matlab, then COM components are generated; finally Delphi calls the COM components to solve. The database of the system is established and managed by SQL Server 2005. It can be seen from the result of the system application study that the system could assist users to equip farm machines more scientifically and dynamically

  8. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications.

  9. Dynamic programming to determine optimum investments in information technology on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating the information about a number of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms is gaining interest because of the potential to improve economic results. In this study optimal investment patterns involving five IT applications are evaluated: (1) automated con

  10. Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

    2010-02-01

    Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms.

  11. The sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming: an inquiry into social perceptions of dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, B K; Oosting, S J; Bock, B B; Wiskerke, J S C

    2011-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scale and intensity of livestock farming have increased significantly. At the same time, Western societies have become more urbanised and fewer people have close relatives involved in farming. As a result, most citizens have little knowledge or direct experience of what farming entails. In addition, more people are expressing concerns over issues such as farm animal welfare. This has led to increasing public demand for more sustainable ways of livestock farming. To date, little research has been carried out on the social pillar of sustainable livestock farming. The aim of this study is to provide insights into the sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming systems. This study reviews the key findings of earlier published interdisciplinary research about the social perceptions of dairy farming in the Netherlands and Norway (Boogaard et al., 2006, 2008, 2010a and 2010b) and synthesises the implications for sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming. This study argues that the (sociocultural) sustainable development of livestock farming is not an objective concept, but that it is socially and culturally constructed by people in specific contexts. It explains the social pillar of the economics/ecological/social model sustainability in terms of the fields of tensions that exist between modernity, traditions and naturality - 'the MTN knot' - each of which has positive and negative faces. All three angles of vision can be seen in people's attitudes to dairy farming, but the weight given to each differs between individuals and cultures. Hence, sociocultural sustainability is context dependent and needs to be evaluated according to its local meaning. Moreover, sociocultural sustainability is about people's perceptions of livestock farming. Lay people might perceive livestock farming differently and ascribe different meanings to it than experts do, but their 'reality' is just as real. Finally, this study calls for an ongoing

  12. Ancillary Services from Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meeting the EU objectives of sustainable energy supply in the near future involves a dramatic increase of the electricity demand covered by variable renewable sources, among which wind power holds an important role. This important role comes together with ever increasing requirements of wind powe...... plants ability of delivering ancillary services to the power system. The presentation attempts at giving an overview of the present (and future) research on the ability of large (offshore) wind farms to provide power system services.......Meeting the EU objectives of sustainable energy supply in the near future involves a dramatic increase of the electricity demand covered by variable renewable sources, among which wind power holds an important role. This important role comes together with ever increasing requirements of wind power...

  13. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  14. POZO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    ALGUNAS VENTANAS ESTAN ESTROPEADAS. UNA DE LAS PUERTAS HA SIDO CERRADA CON MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCION MODERNOS. HAY PIEDRAS Y ESCOMBROS EN EL EXTERIOR. Antiguedad: SIGLO XX CONSTRUCCION RECTANGULAR CON TECHOS A DOS AGUAS DE PLANCHAS. ESTA REALIZADO CON PIEDRA Y ARGAMASA. PUERTAS Y VENTANAS SON METALICAS. Declaración BIC:No EN EL SEGUNDO GRUPO DE CASAS DEL SALOBRE HAY QUE TOMAR LA TERCERA PISTA A LA IZQUIERDA Y BAJ...

  15. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  16. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  17. 模块标准化设计在规模化猪场猪栏制造中的应用%The Application of Modular and Standardized Design of Pigsty in Large-scale Swine Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 陈银清; 陈德勇

    2015-01-01

    根据猪场建设规模化发展的需要,将猪栏进行模块化分解,对每个模块进行标准化设计,实现猪舍产品的模块化、标准化设计制造,从而缩短猪栏设计制造周期、提高猪舍建设效率。%In order to meet the need of developing large -scale pig farms ,modular pigsty is designed by standardized methods to realize modularization and standardization of design and manufacture ,which shortens the cycle of the pigsty design and manufacture ,improving the efficiency of piggery construction .

  18. Importance of the planning activities, cutting, handling and analysis of the nuclei of oil well drilling; Importancia de las actividades de planificacion, corte, manejo y analisis de los nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras L, Enrique A; Garcia M, Pablo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    , recipientes de almacenamiento de hidrocarburos, agua y energia calorifica, asi como barreras impermeables y medios de transporte de la energia y de los fluidos. Entre las propiedades mas importantes que se utilizan para describir estas funciones se encuentran la porosidad, la permeabilidad, la compresibilidad del volumen de poros, el factor de resistividad de la formacion, el exponente de saturacion, la velocidad de las ondas acusticas P y S, las permeabilidades relativas, las presiones capilares, las constantes elasticas y otras propiedades mecanicas, el coeficiente de dilatacion termica, la conductividad termica, la difusividad termica y el calor especifico. La ejecucion de una amplia variedad de actividades relacionadas con las etapas de exploracion, localizacion, evaluacion y desarrollo de los yacimientos petroleros, depende fuertemente de que se tenga un buen conocimiento de la magnitud y de la variabilidad espacial de estas propiedades. Tanto la factibilidad tecnica como la economica de desarrollar un prospecto de yacimiento petrolero, dependen de que las rocas que intervienen exhiban una combinacion adecuada de sus propiedades, para asi constituir una estructura geologica confinante y almacenadora de hidrocarburos, que sea factible de desarrollarse tecnicamente, a la vez que tenga el potencial de redituar un beneficio economico. En este contexto, desde la plataforma de experiencia que se tiene sobre el tema en el Laboratorio de Yacimientos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En el presente articulo se aborda la relevancia que tienen las actividades de corte, manejo y analisis de laboratorio de los nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros, para la evaluacion de las formaciones geologicas, en relacion con la caracterizacion, la evaluacion y el aprovechamiento de los yacimientos petroleros.

  19. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  20. Optimized Placement of Wind Turbines in Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen;

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on wind farm energy yields become more and more evident. The arrangement of the wind turbines’ (WT) locations will influence the capital investment and contribute to the wake losses which incur the reduction of energy production....... As a consequence, the optimized placement of the wind turbines may be done by considering the wake effect as well as the components cost within the wind farm. In this paper, a mathematical model which includes the variation of both wind direction and wake deficit is proposed. The problem is formulated by using...... to find the optimized layout, which minimizes the LPC. The optimization procedure is applicable for optimized placement of wind turbines within wind farms and extendible for different wind conditions and capacity of wind farms....

  1. Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Sean L; Winqvist, Camilla; Mota, Flávia; Ahnström, Johan; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Bengtsson, Janne

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of organic farming to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes continue to be hotly debated, emphasizing the importance of precisely quantifying the effect of organic vs. conventional farming. We conducted an updated hierarchical meta-analysis of studies that compared biodiversity under organic and conventional farming methods, measured as species richness. We calculated effect sizes for 184 observations garnered from 94 studies, and for each study, we obtained three standardized measures reflecting land-use intensity. We investigated the stability of effect sizes through time, publication bias due to the 'file drawer' problem, and consider whether the current literature is representative of global organic farming patterns. On average, organic farming increased species richness by about 30%. This result has been robust over the last 30 years of published studies and shows no sign of diminishing. Organic farming had a greater effect on biodiversity as the percentage of the landscape consisting of arable fields increased, that is, it is higher in intensively farmed regions. The average effect size and the response to agricultural intensification depend on taxonomic group, functional group and crop type. There is some evidence for publication bias in the literature; however, our results are robust to its impact. Current studies are heavily biased towards northern and western Europe and North America, while other regions with large areas of organic farming remain poorly investigated. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis affirms that organic farming has large positive effects on biodiversity compared with conventional farming, but that the effect size varies with the organism group and crop studied, and is greater in landscapes with higher land-use intensity. Decisions about where to site organic farms to maximize biodiversity will, however, depend on the costs as well as the potential benefits. Current studies have been heavily biased towards

  2. Monitoring medical herbs in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    ČASTA, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Importance of utilization of medical plants in human nutrition and treatment is embedded in our minds. Growing of medical plants is the suitable supplement of an organic farm. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the situation in the growing of medical plants in the organic farming in the Czech Republic. About 18 main medical plant species is grown on 500 ha in organic farming in the Czech Republic. The growing is concentrated in the South Moravia. The organic production is mainly processed ...

  3. LHCb Off-site HLT Farm Demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) farm consists of about 1300 nodes, which are housed in the underground server room. Due to the constraints of the power supply and cooling system, it is difficult to install more servers in this room for the future. Off-site farm is a solution to enlarge the computing capacity. In this paper, we will demonstrate the concept of LHCb off-site HLT farm extension into the CERN computing center. Furthermore, the performance of the key technologies have been tested in the lab.

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven ŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aims to assess the geographical distribution of trout farming and trout fish consumption in Turkey.

  5. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  6. The modern portfolio theory applied to wind farm financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves-Schwinteck, P. [DEWI GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    An alternative to the application of the principles of the Modern Portfolio Theory as a strategy to the reduction of the risks around the energy production of wind farms was presented in the last sections. The potential of geographical diversification to reduce the risks related to the availability of wind as a primary resource was demonstrated by the results of the first case study. Furthermore, the results of the second case study have shown that, once a sufficient history of technical performance data is available, a reduction of the risks linked to the technical performance of the wind turbines can be achieved in a similar way. Nevertheless, the existence of 'non-diversifiable' risks still presents a challenge for the financing of wind farms. In this sense, it is important to point out that the financing performance of a portfolio of wind farms is extremely dependent on the individual performance of the single projects. In other words, a portfolio analysis is not a miracle. A 'bad' project remains a 'bad' project even when this project is bundled with a 'good' one. For this reason, other risk management strategies, as for example, a well performed technical due diligence should be always taken into consideration. (orig.)

  7. Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Laurenson, S; Luo, J; Sukias, J

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed.

  8. Optimising the HLT Farm at the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Neufeld, N

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN uses a server farm to filter the events consisting of up to 4400 cores, which receives events at a rate of 1MHz and filters them with a trigger application that has an output of around 2 kHz. Configuring and starting O(5000) instances of a very large trigger application, each consisting of hundreds of shared libraries is a formidable task and for the efficient operation of the experiment it is essential that this can be done very quickly and reliably. The architecture of the system and the mechanisms for distributing the software used by the trigger application affect the overall performance and the flexibility to make changes and run the applications with different trigger configurations. We analysed the performance of different alternatives for distributing the software in the farm and we evaluated them in the context of the real world tasks that are executed and also in terms of the overhead in the system, such as the network traffic and file system operations. We present the st...

  9. Unconfined Aquifer Permeability near hand-dug Wells in the Coastal and Interior dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Chile Permeabilidad de Acuíferos No-Confinados cerca de Pozos Norias en el Secano Costero e Interior, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Rupp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region in Chile, most farmers rely on wide and shallow hand-dug wells as their primary source of water during the dry summer. Few of these wells have sufficient yield for more than domestic use (human consumption, livestock, and irrigation of a subsistence garden. To more accurately assess available groundwater resources, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of aquifers in the eight counties that comprise this region’s dryland was estimated using evacuation and recovery tests in 353 hand-dug wells. K followed a log-normal distribution and ranged over nearly five orders of magnitude. County median K varied by a factor of 5 and a slight increasing K trend in the southward direction. In one northern county, less than 4% of the sites had K > 4 m d-1. In the t two southernmost counties, approximately one-quarter of the K values exceeded 4 m d-1. This is approximately the minimum K required for a typical well (1 m diameter and 3 m depth below the water table to yield 1 L s-1 of water, which is roughly the yield required to irrigate 1 ha. Aquifers located where parent material was predominantly intrusive granite had slightly higher and statistically significant K than those formed predominantly of metamorphic and sedimentary rock. A semi-variogram of K provided weak evidence of a characteristic length scale of approximately 4 km.La mayoría de los agricultores del secano de la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins depende de pozos noria, constituyendo su principal fuente de agua durante el verano. Pocos pozos tienen rendimiento suficiente para un uso mayor que el doméstico (consumo humano, ganadería y riego. A fin de evaluar con mayor precisión los recursos hídricos subterráneos disponibles, mediante pruebas de bombeo-recuperación se estimó la conductividad hidráulica saturada (K de los acuíferos en 353 pozos distribuidos en ocho comunas del área. K siguió una

  10. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...

  11. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G G Foreman

    Full Text Available Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

  12. Integrating Water Flow, Solute Transport and Crop Production Models At The Farm-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assinck, F. B. T.; de Vos, J. A.

    Minimising nitrate pollution of ground and surface water and optimising agricultural yields are problems which have to be addressed at the farm-scale. However, simulation models usually operate at the field-scale. We coupled the subsurface hydrology model SWAP with other existing deterministic (sub)models for solute transport, organic mat- ter dynamics, crop growth, and dairy farm management at the farm-scale, resulting in the model WATERPAS. The (sub)models are coupled in a Framework environment obeying the principles of object oriented modelling. Based on daily weather data, groundwater regimes, soil and farm characteristics WATERPAS is able to simulate the water and nutrient balances, grass production, economical benefits, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gas emissions at a farm. Problems of coupling, such as data-transfer, quality checks, over-parameterisation, complexity and sensitivity of the systems are discussed. Application of deducted simpler models and expert judgement can be use- ful for practical use. However, we believe that integrated models are a powerful tool to understand the complex relationships between the different processes. It also gives opportunities to perform scenario analysis for future boundary conditions, i.e. due to changing farm management, (sea) water levels and climate change.

  13. Farm, land, and soil nitrogen budgets for agriculture in Europe calculated with CAPRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Britz, Wolfgang; Weiss, Franz; de Vries, Wim

    2011-11-01

    We calculated farm, land, and soil N-budgets for countries in Europe and the EU27 as a whole using the agro-economic model CAPRI. For EU27, N-surplus is 55 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in a soil budget and 65 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) yr(-1) and 67 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in land and farm budgets, respectively. NUE is 31% for the farm budget, 60% for the land budget and 63% for the soil budget. NS values are mainly related to the excretion (farm budget) and application (soil and land budget) of manure per hectare of total agricultural land. On the other hand, NUE is best explained by the specialization of the agricultural system toward animal production (farm NUE) or the share of imported feedstuff (soil NUE). Total N input, intensive farming, and the specialization to animal production are found to be the main drivers for a high NS and low NUE.

  14. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  15. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  16. Honduras - Transport and Farm to Market

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  19. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned and built. From a fluid mechanics perspective, wind farms encompass turbulent flow phenomena occurring at many spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest to understanding mean power extraction and fluctuations in wind farms are the scales ranging from 1 to 10 m that comprise the wakes behind individual wind turbines, to motions reaching 100 m to kilometers in scale, inherently associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. In this review, we summarize current understanding of these flow phenomena (particularly mean and second-order statistics) through field studies, wind tunnel experiments, large-eddy simulations, and analytical modeling, emphasizing the most relevant features for wind farm design and operation.

  20. STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.

  1. Design tool for offshore wind farm clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Giebel, Gregor; Waldl, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Research Alliance (EERA) and a number of industrial partners. The approach has been to develop a robust, efficient, easy to use and flexible tool, which integrates software relevant for planning offshore wind farms and wind farm clusters and supports the user with a clear optimization work flow......The Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Clusters (DTOC) is a software tool to facilitate the optimised design of both, individual and clusters of offshore wind farms. DTOC is developed with the support of an EC funded FP7 project with contributions from science partners from the European Energy...... is developed within the project using open interface standards and is now available as the commercial software product Wind&Economy....

  2. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  3. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010....1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm crew leader furnishes workers to do agricultural labor for another person, usually a farm operator. If the crew leader pays the workers (the money can be the...

  4. 75 FR 15402 - Information Collection; Minority Farm Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... to be collected; (4) Minimize the burden of the collection of information on those who are to respond... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Minority Farm Register AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA... the extension of a currently approved information collection for the Minority Farm Register....

  5. 38 CFR 21.298 - Selecting a farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... training situation in that community; and (3) To employ the veteran as a manager of the farm on which he or... developed by the case manager and the veteran in collaboration with the instructor, and when appropriate...—farm manager. The farm on which a veteran trains to become a farm manager shall be of such size...

  6. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  7. 12 CFR 614.4000 - Farm Credit Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks. 614.4000 Section 614.4000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending Authorities § 614.4000 Farm Credit Banks. (a) Long-term real estate lending. Except to the extent...

  8. 12 CFR 611.505 - Farm Credit Administration review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration review. 611.505 Section 611.505 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Transfer of Authorities § 611.505 Farm Credit Administration review. (a) Upon receipt of the board of directors...

  9. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  10. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  11. Developing farm-level sustainability indicators for Ireland using the Teagasc National Farm Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an expanding, export-dependent agri-food sector, indicators of sustainable development and intensification are necessary to measure, assess and verify the comparative advantage afforded by Ireland’s natural pastoral-based food production systems. Such indicators are also necessary to ensure that we produce more food with less adverse impacts on the Irish environment, climate and society. This article outlines the development of farm-level indicators that refect the multifaceted nature of sustainability, which is encompassed in economic, environmental and social indicators. The role of innovation in farm sustainability was also examined. A comparison of indicators across Irish farm systems showed that dairy farms, followed by tillage farms, tended to be the most economically and socially sustainable farm systems. In relation to greenhouse gas emissions in particular, the top-performing dairy farms, in an economic sense, also tended to be the best-performing farms from an environmental sustainability perspective. This trend was also evident in relation to the adoption of innovative practices on farm, which was found to be strongly correlated with economic performance.

  12. Empirical investigation of wind farm blockage effects in Horn Rev 1 offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitraszewski, Karol; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Nygaard, Nicolai;

    We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds and stabi......We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds...

  13. Advisory Tools for Use in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Peers, David; van Diepen, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Advisory tools are an invaluable aid for advisers in providing farmers with the necessary information for analysis and planning of all aspects of the farm. The review of Advisory Tools provides access to and a comprehensive list of all the templates, calculators and analytical tools available to organic advisers, covering the nutrient managment, business, soils and animal husbandry. The review identifies relevant research and development, the tools developed and draws on farm and adviso...

  14. Wind farm repowering: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva, L. [Renewable Energy Eng. (Spain); Canas, M.; Gomez, E.; Pujante, A [Renewable Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Control Eng. (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Wind farm repowering involves the replacement of smaller and middle sized wind turbines, with state-of-the-art multi-megawatt turbines. In this paper, a detailed study of the repowering of a wind farm is presented, by computing the generated active power from existing wind turbines and the new ones. The active power generated with the wind turbines are totalized to obtain the yearly generated energy and analyzed, thus economic studies take the repowering cost into account too. (au)

  15. Power Quality Improvements of Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbrink, Kent H.; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1998-01-01

    The book was written at the conclusion of an EU-project to install and monitor the performance of an 8 MVar Advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) at the Rejsby Hede wind farm in Jutland, Denmark......The book was written at the conclusion of an EU-project to install and monitor the performance of an 8 MVar Advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) at the Rejsby Hede wind farm in Jutland, Denmark...

  16. Power Quality Improvements of Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbrink, Kent H.; Stöber, Ralf; Schettler, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The book was written at the conclusion of an EU-project to install and monitor the performance of an 8 MVar Advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) at the Rejsby Hede wind farm in Jutland, Denmark......The book was written at the conclusion of an EU-project to install and monitor the performance of an 8 MVar Advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) at the Rejsby Hede wind farm in Jutland, Denmark...

  17. Design and Application of Automatic Voltage Control System in Doubly-fed Induction Generator Wind Farms%双馈风电场自动电压控制系统设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔颖; 陈惠粉; 鲁宗相; 徐飞; 李兢

    2013-01-01

    A design method of the wind farm automatic voltage control (AVC) system considering the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) as reactive power resource is proposed. And its control performance is validated through field tests. This paper focuses on issues in wind farm AVC engineering, such as DFIG reactive power capacity assessment, equipment control circle matching, control dead zone setting, to solve problems of low credible reactive power capacities, poor voltage controls and quick fluctuation of control objects, respectively. Simplified strategies based on power flow sensitivity control are also studied. Field tests prove that the corresponding settings and simplification strategies work well and the AVC system can improve the voltage notably. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51077078), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2011AA05A104), and Special Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipments (No. SKLD09M08).%给出了一种考虑将双馈风电机组作为无功源的风电场自动电压控制(AVC)系统设计方法,并通过大量现场试验验证了AVC系统的控制效果.针对风电场AVC系统设备可信容量低、电压控制能力弱、控制对象波动性强的难点,重点讨论了双馈风电机组无功功率发生能力计算、多设备控制周期匹配、控制死区设定等实施过程中需关注的问题,并研究了基于潮流灵敏度控制策略的简化实施方法.现场试验证明了相关参数设定与简化方法的合理性,AVC系统可以大幅提高风电场电压一无功功率的合格率.

  18. Wind power in Mexico: simulation of a wind farm and application of probabilistic safety analysis; La energia del viento en Mexico: Simulacion de un parque eolico y aplicacion de analisis probabilistica de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo Marquez, C.; Nelson Edestein, P.F.; Garcia Vazquez, M.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.martin.del.campo@gmail.com; pnelson_007@yahoo.com; maiki27@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. In particular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100MW wind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysis are discussed with respect to evaluating the risks associated with events that can occur in wind parks, being especially useful for design and maintenance of the parks and the wind turbines themselves. In particular, an event tree was developed to analyze possible accident sequences that could occur when the wind speed is too great. Also, fault trees were developed for each mitigating system considered, in order to determine the relative importance of the wind generator components to the failure sequences, in order to evaluate the yield of suggested improvements and the optimization of maintenance programs. [Spanish] Se presentan los aspectos mas importantes referentes a la energia eolica en Mexico, su potencial de aprovechamiento y los proyectos planeados. Se comparan sus costos de generacion electrica con los de otras fuentes de energia. Se presentan los resultados de la simulacion con el programa WindPro, de un parque eolico de 100 MW localizado en el Istmo de Tehuantepec. Asimismo, se analizan algunos de los impactos ambientales relacionados con la instalacion de paquetes eolicos en la zona mencionada. Finalmente, se discuten las ventajas que pueden aportar los analisis probabilisticas de seguridad para evaluar los riesgos asociados a eventos que pueden ocurrir en los parques eolicos, sino de los resultados de este analisis de utilidad para el diseno y mantenimiento de los parques y de los propios aerogeneradores. Especificamente se desarrollo un arbol de eventos con el

  19. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  20. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  1. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  2. Potential and Challenges of Using Sentinel-2 for Smart Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, H.; Migdall, S.; Spannraft, K.; Hank, T.; Mauser, W.

    2012-04-01

    Plant parameters derived from Earth Observation data serve as important data sources for smart farming services and applications like e.g. TalkingFields. These services aim at improving site-specific crop management by retrieving different plant parameters that give information about the current biomass status as input for management measures like nitrogen fertilization, plant protection and growth regulator application. Two of the most sensitive parameters for this are the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The accuracy of the retrieval of these two parameters has been analysed for a set of multispectral sensors with respect to their spectral and radiometric properties using the radiative transfer model SLC. The Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) band proofed to be determining for the quality of the LAI retrieval. Sensors with spectral bands in the red edge performed best in the chlorophyll retrieval study. Thus, Sentinel-2 as an operational sensor with a high spatial resolution, a high recurrence rate and 13 spectral bands, covering both the red edge and the SWIR region, is expected to improve plant parameter retrieval for smart farming applications.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells: Mechanisms, achievementsand perspectives in farm animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dharmendra Kumar; Thirumala R Talluri; Taruna Anand; Wilfried A Kues

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are unspecialized cells withunlimited self-renewal, and they can be triggered todifferentiate into desired specialized cell types. Thesefeatures provide the basis for an unlimited cell sourcefor innovative cell therapies. Pluripotent cells also allowto study developmental pathways, and to employ themor their differentiated cell derivatives in pharmaceuticaltesting and biotechnological applications. Via blastocystcomplementation, pluripotent cells are a favoured toolfor the generation of genetically modified mice. Therecently established technology to generate an inducedpluripotency status by ectopic co-expression of thetranscription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc allowsto extending these applications to farm animal species,for which the derivation of genuine embryonic stemcells was not successful so far. Most induced pluripotentstem (iPS) cells are generated by retroviral or lentiviraltransduction of reprogramming factors. Multiple viralintegrations into the genome may cause insertionalmutagenesis and may increase the risk of tumourformation. Non-integration methods have been reportedto overcome the safety concerns associated withretro and lentiviral-derived iPS cells, such as transientexpression of the reprogramming factors using episomalplasmids, and direct delivery of reprogrammingmRNAs or proteins. In this review, we focus on themechanisms of cellular reprogramming and currentmethods used to induce pluripotency. We also highlightproblems associated with the generation of iPS cells. Anincreased understanding of the fundamental mechanismsunderlying pluripotency and refining the methodology ofiPS cell generation will have a profound impact on futuredevelopment and application in regenerative medicineand reproductive biotechnology of farm animals.

  4. 某风电场35kV母线电弧光保护的应用%Application of 35kV Busbar Arc Light Protection in a Wind Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧霞; 闫文吉

    2016-01-01

    文章介绍了某风电场加装电弧光工程,并分析了针对不同类型开关柜的传感器安装方法和保护配置情况,通过实际工程安装的电弧光保护装置的动作调试和带开关传动试验,证明满足保护快速性、灵敏性、选择性和可靠性的要求,能很好实现对母线的快速保护。%This paper introduces a wind farm equipped with electric arc,and analyzes sensor installation method and protec-tion configuration for different types of switchgear,which proves that meeting requirements of speediness、sensitivity、selectivity and reliability of protection can realize the fast protection for busbar through actual engineering installation of protection device of electric arc debugging and switch drive test.

  5. 工厂方法设计模式在农场系统中的应用研究%The Application of Factory Method Design Pattern in Farm System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇军; 高静

    2013-01-01

      为提高农场系统的复用性,提出一种基于设计模式的农场系统设计方案。针对农场系统中复杂的高耦合度的问题,提出应用工厂方法设计模式来降低农场园丁和水果之间耦合度的解决方法。实验证明,工厂方法设计模式降低了农场系统各模块之间的耦合度,提高了系统的可扩展性及可复用性。%  In order to improve the reusability of Farm System, a design scheme which is based on Design Pattern is proposed in this paper. Factory Method Design Pattern is applied to the system, and it can reduce the high coupling between gardener and fruit. It has been found that this method can reduce the coupling between modules and improve the system's scalability and reusability.

  6. Application Analysis of Arc-suppression Coil with Magnetic Bias of a Wind Farm%风电场偏磁式消弧线圈的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮

    2013-01-01

    电力系统运行经验表明,单相接地故障绝大多数都是瞬间性的,特别是架空线路.本文说明了偏磁式消弧线圈的工作原理及技术参数,并结合风电场的实际情况,对安装偏磁式消弧线圈前后运行状况进行对比分析,表明偏磁式消弧线圈可以进一步提高供电的可靠性.%Power system operation experience shows that single-phase grounding fault in the vast majority are transient, especially the overhead line. This paper illustrated the working principle and technical parameters of the arc -suppression coil with magnetic bias, combined with actual circumstance of a wind farm, made the contrast analysis on the running status of installation of arc-suppression coil with magnetic bias before and after, which shows that the arc-suppression coil with magnetic bias can further improve the reliability of power supply.

  7. Application of Flexible Anode to Regional Cathodic Protection of Crude Oil Tank Farm%柔性阳极在原油储备库区域阴极保护的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐公银

    2012-01-01

    The AnodeFlex 1500-01 flexible anode impressed current protection form is the most reliable protection in the complex area of cathodic protection stations. This article introduces the compostion and principle of the flexible anodic protection system, and takes Shanshan production running crude oil tank farm as an example, introducs the key construction points and matters needing attention for flexible anodes. The example may provide construction reference to the buried pipelines with cathodic protection in complex station.%采用AnodeFlex1500~01柔性阳极的强制电流的保护方式,是目前复杂站场区域阴极保护最可靠的保护方式。文章介绍了柔性阳极保护系统的组成及原理,并以都善生产运行储备库为例,详细介绍柔性阳极的施工要点及注意事项。本例可供复杂站场埋地管线阴极保护工程施工参考。

  8. Heterogeneous Economic and Behavioural Drivers of the Farm Afforestation Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Mary; O' Donoghue, Cathal; Upton, Vincent; Handgraaf, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the context of incentivising farm afforestation to provide ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration to mitigate greenhouse gas production, this paper sheds new light on the complexity of the farm afforestation decision and the characteristics of the farms and the farmers who are likely or unlikely to afforest land. Using a panel dataset of farm level micro-data, we observe whether farming intensity changes as a result of planting. We generate forest and agriculture income streams an...

  9. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  10. Animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...

  11. BUSINESS GROWTH STRATEGIES OF ILLINOIS FARMS: A QUANTILE REGRESSION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Hennings, Enrique; Katchova, Ani L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the business strategies employed by Illinois farms to maintain equity growth using quantile regression analysis. Using data from the Farm Business Farm Management system, this study finds that the effect of different business strategies on equity growth rates differs between quantiles. Financial management strategies have a positive effect for farms situated in the highest quantile of equity growth, while for farms in the lowest quantile the effect on equity growth is nega...

  12. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design - working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching.

  13. ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, W.B.; Beer, M.J.; Cukars, M.; Law, J.P.; Millet, C.B.; Murphy, J.A.; Nenni, J.A.; Park, C.V.; Pruitt, J.I.; Thiel, E.C.; Ward, F.S.; Woodard, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D&D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare.

  14. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of

  15. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Burdett

    Full Text Available Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S. can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for

  16. Precision Agriculture: Changing the Face of Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D.; Luvall, J.; Mask, P.; Shaw, J.; Kissel, D.; Sullivan, D.

    2003-01-01

    . Just a one percent increase in efficiency is a $2,000,000 change. We all depend on farmers, literally for the bread we eat. No other activity of man even has an impact on the land that farming has. If application of precision agriculture can nelp farmers manage their land better, we all may benefit.

  17. Environmental issues of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Placing wind farms offshore eliminates some of the obstacles encountered when siting wind farms on shore like visual influence on the landscape, annoyance to inhabitants from noise and flickering light, conflicts with other planning interests etc. Other challenges remain - like influence on birds - and new are added like influence on marine life, hydrography and marine traffic. While there are now 20 years of experience in assessing and meeting environmental challenges associated with land based wind installations little is known of the effects of offshore wind installations. The planning and approval procedure for each offshore wind farm installed so far has been on a case-by-case basis as have the demands for environmental surveys prior to installation and monitoring programs during construction and operation. The meeting gathered 24 people from five different countries. Participants came from government agencies, energy agencies (or suppliers) universities and research institutes (both ecological and technical). The aim of the meeting was to make an inventory of the already existing and available information on environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. Another aim was to give recommendations to the COD-project (Concerted action for Offshore wind energy Deployment) on how to proceed within the work package regarding: Collection of information on activities (projects) of participating countries, including at least birds, benthic flora and fauna, sub-sea noise, visual intrusion, and coastal impacts. The meeting mainly focused on: National programs to enforce offshore wind energy; Studies and experiences of influence on birds and sea mammals; Experience and application of Environmental Impact Assessment. One outcome of the COD-project will be a database of environmental issues. At the end of the meeting it was discussed, what kind of information this database should contain: 1. Base line data; 2. Methods for investigating biological data; 3. Methods for the

  18. Enlarging of scale in dairy farming: Consequences for farm-bound traffic flows in the countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Hermans, C.M.L.; Rienks, W.A.; Vries, de J.R.

    2013-01-01

    On average, farm units in the EU countryside are developing within the globalization process to an everincreasing physical and operational size. Within the last three decades, Dutch dairy farm holdings have increased their physical size by a factor of 3. This ongoing process can also be observed in

  19. Handing down the Farm? The Increasing Uncertainty of Irrigated Farm Succession in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, S.; Bjornlund, H.; Zuo, A.; Edwards, J.

    2012-01-01

    Farming is still primarily a family concern in Australia. Having a farm successor in place is important as it is associated with the likelihood of the current farmer adapting to external conditions and hence may have long-term implications for the structure and profitability of agriculture. We used current and historical surveys across a number of…

  20. Potential of controlled traffic farming with automatic guidance on an organic farm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera, J.; Wel, van der C.; Klooster, van der A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Some organic farms in the Netherlands use RTK-DGPS guidance of machinery over fixed traffic lanes to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimum soil structure. These lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. The potential of such a seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF)