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Sample records for application des techniques

  1. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux systèmes concentrés pour lesquels les entités diffusantes sont en interaction. Les milieux dispersés montrent souvent une certaine polydispersité que l'on cherche à mesurer; les techniques de diffusion permettent cette mesure. Nous terminerons cette revue par une description des appareillages utilisés. La deuxième partie de cet article concernera une large illustration des possibilités de ces méthodes d'analyse à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux, sur la base de travaux effectués à I'IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole ou dans de nombreux laboratoires de recherche extérieurs. This article aims to describe X-ray, neutron and light scattering techniques with emphasis on their specific nature and their scope of application. Indeed, whereas light diffusion has been used for a long time in research laboratories, in particular for characterizing polymers in solution, small angle X-ray scattering has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years. Neutron scattering, which is obviously more difficultly accessible, has proven to be extremely useful for studying various systems for which light and X-ray scattering remain relatively powerless. Whereas there is an abundant literature concerning various applications of the three methods, it should be noted that only a few articles have attempted to describe all three techniques at the same time. In this article we have tried to make up for this lack, and as such it was

  2. The thin layer technique and its application to electron microscopy; La technique des couches minces et son application a la microscopie electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranc, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-10-15

    This work deals with the technique of thin layers obtained by evaporation under vacuum, in the thickness range extending from a few monoatomic layers to several hundred angstroms. The great theoretical and practical interest of these layers has, it is well known, given rise to many investigations from Faraday onwards. Within the necessarily restricted limits of this study, we shall approach the problem more particularly from the point of view of: - their production; - their use in electron microscopy. A critical appraisal is made, in the light of present-day knowledge, based on our personal experience and on an extensive bibliography which we have collected on the subject. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne la technique des couches minces obtenues par evaporation sous vide, dans le domaine d'epaisseur qui s'etend de quelques couches monoatomiques a plusieurs centaines d'angstroms. L'interet theorique et pratique considerable de ces couches a suscite, comme on sait, de nombreux travaux depuis Faraday. Dans le cadre necessairement restreint de cette these, nous aborderons plus particulierement le point de vue de: - leur obtention; - leur utilisation en microscopie electronique. Il s'agit d'une mise au point critique, a la lumiere des connaissances actuelles, appuyee sur notre experience personnelle et sur une importante bibliographie, qu'il nous a ete donne de reunir a ce sujet. (auteur)

  3. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Première partie : Présentation théorique des trois techniques Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part One : Theoretical Description of Three Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Espinat D.

    2006-01-01

    Les techniques de diffusion, des rayons X, des neutrons et de la lumière, jouent un rôle très important pour la compréhension des milieux colloïdaux. Peu d'articles de la littérature s'attachent à présenter conjointement les trois méthodes. Nous avons, dans la première partie de cet article, détaillé les principes théoriques en insistent tout particulièrement sur les spécificités de chacune. Après les rappels concernant la diffusion par les systèmes dilués, nous nous sommes intéressés aux sys...

  4. Applications des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons a l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Troisième partie : caractérisation des microémulsions et des composés solides. Étude de différents systèmes d'intérêt industriel Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Three: Microemulsions, Solid Materials, Liquids and Miscellaneous Systems with Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette troisième partie clôt une revue bibliographique concernant la caractérisation des systèmes colloïdaux par les techniques de diffusion (lumière, rayons X, neutrons (Rev. Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, Vol. 45, No 6, novembre-décembre 1990. Nous poursuivrons cette présentation en nous intéressant aux microémulsions. Après la présentation des informations que l'on peut obtenir sur les systèmes polymériques, les solutions micellaires ou les systèmes fractals, qui ont fait l'objet de multiples travaux, nous reviendrons sur les applications plus restreintes à des systèmes colloïdaux parfois moins bien définis et d'origine industrielle, telles les fractions lourdes des pétroles, les asphaltènes ou encore les additifs de lubrification. Les possibilités de la diffusion des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude de matériaux solides seront présentées à travers la caractérisation des solides poreux et en particulier des catalyseurs. Nous terminerons cette présentation par les liquides purs ou les mélanges; les techniques de diffusion ont contribué fortement à la description des structures des phases liquides. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, November-December 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this article takes up polymer and colloidal solutions. Particular attention is paid to the importance of scattering techniques for characterizing polymers in solution and micellar solutions. A

  5. Vélocimétrie Doppler sous champ électrique : technique et application à l'étude de la mobilité électrophorétique des colloïdes et des polyélectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Dalbiez, J.P.; Tabti, K.; Derian, P.J.; Drifford, M.

    1987-01-01

    La diffusion de la lumière sous champ électrique est une technique importante pour caractériser la charge et l'hydrodynamique des colloïdes, macromolécules, et polyélectrolytes. Nous avons construit un appareil pour la mesure de la mobilité électrophorétique en utilisant une technique différentielle Doppler sous champ électrique. Le système d'optique de base employé est dérivé de la vélocimétrie Doppler laser. Deux faisceaux parallèles, polarisés dans le même sens, sont focalisés dans une cel...

  6. Evolution of thermal micro-measurement technique for various applications; Evolution des techniques de micromesures thermiques au travers de quelques applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, L.; Bailly, Y.; Lanzetta, F.; Gualous, H.; Gavignet, E. [Institut de genie energetique (ICE), Institut des microtechniques de Franche-Comte (IMFC), Universite de Franche-Comte, 90 - Belfort (France)

    1998-01-01

    The thermoelectric sensors made at present in our laboratory have junction dimensions from e few micrometers to 0.5 {mu}m. Two techniques are used: welding of ultra-thin wires and vacuum deposition (PVD). Two applications related to the first one will be presented: the detection of periodic field of temperature for photothermal microscopy and acoustic resonator characterization. In the latter, the comparison of simultaneous pressure and temperature will lead us to improve the knowledge of thermo-acoustic phenomena. The deposition technique allows us to create either simple thermoelectric couples, multiple as thermopiles; or heat (and light) flow sensors. Our work is presented in that field, with the development of a laser light sensor designed to image its light profile for large emission bandwidth and power densities. Finally, the description followed by an example of application is shown in the case of the heat flow measurement between a laminar gaseous flow and a wall. By comparison, we show that the use of such sensors could be worthwhile to replace the usual temperature sensors in the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient at the gas-wall boundary. (authors) 27 refs.

  7. Applications des techniques de l'IRM sur les matériaux du génie civil

    OpenAIRE

    Derkx, F.; Coussot, P.; Moucheront, P.

    2001-01-01

    L'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) donne des images en 2D et 3D de la structure interne d'un matériau sensible à l'influence hydrique. Ainsi, au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, le dispositif "imageur" récemment installé, assorti de dispositifs d'essais adaptés donne la possibilité de visualiser des transformations au sein des matériaux poreux soumis à des sollicitations extérieures. C'est là une innovation majeure dans le domaine du génie civil. A Magnetic Resonance Imag...

  8. Le management des risques de l'entreprise cadre de référence, techniques d'application

    CERN Document Server

    Committee of sponsoring organizations of the Treadway commission (Etats-Unis)

    2005-01-01

    Traduction en français du second rapport COSO, ce livre est un véritable outil pour les dirigeants confrontés à la complexité opérationnelle du management des risques. Adaptable à toutes les organisations, il constitue un socle méthodologique indispensable pour tous les professionnels de la gestion des risques ainsi que pour les auditeurs et consultants internes et externes. Il est également un manuel incontournable pour les étudiants et les enseignants. Dans un environnement économique fortement concurrentiel et en constante évolution, cet ouvrage ne s'intéresse pas uniquement à la gestion des risques mais contribue aussi à identifier puis exploiter les opportunités nouvelles, source d'avantages concurrentiels.

  9. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons x et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Deuxième partie : étude des différents systèmes : polymères en solution à l'état solide, solutions micellaires, systèmes fractals Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Two: Research on Different Systems: Polymers in Solution in the Solid State, Micellar Solutions, Fractals Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait suite à la première partie (Revue Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, vol. 45, n°6, novembre-décembre 1990 concernant l'application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux et plus précisément à la présentation théorique des trois méthodes. L'objet de cette deuxième partie est la présentation non exhaustive de quelques domaines d'applications. Nous nous attacherons tout particulièrement à présenter les potentialités des méthodes pour la caractérisation de systèmes colloïdaux ou divisés rencontrés dans de nombreuses branches d'activité de l'industrie pétrolière. Nous aborderons dans une première partie les solutions polymériques et colloïdales. En particulier nous nous attarderons sur l'importance des techniques de diffusion pour la caractérisation des polymères en solution et des solutions micellaires. Nous verrons également quelles informations la diffusion centrale peut apporter sur la macrostructure des polymères cristallisés ou amorphes à l'état solide. De nombreux systèmes présentent une structure de type fractal ; après présentation de quelques exemples, nous montrerons que les méthodes de diffusion peuvent apporter certaines informations sur ces matériaux, notamment la dimension fractale. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, NovemberDecember 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this

  10. Application des techniques de contrôle des écoulements au pilotage des projectiles : Contrôle fluidique d'un projectile gyrostabilisé de 155 mm par effet Coanda

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidler, M

    2015-01-01

    Afin d'améliorer les performances des systèmes d'armes, les industriels de l'armement envisagent la mise en service de projectiles intégrant une capacité de correction de trajectoires. Le principal objectif consiste à proposer de nouveaux dispositifs de correction permettant de réduire l'erreur de dispersion de l'engin. Dans le cadre de projectiles aérostabilisés, le contrôle de leurs trajectoires est assuré à l'aide de surfaces portantes, technologie éprouvée depuis de nombreuses décennies. ...

  11. Application of oxy-combustion techniques in art glass industry; Application des technologies d'oxycombustion en verrerie d'art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieville, G.; Choquenet, L. [Aga, France (France)

    2000-10-01

    Two innovating techniques of fusion and preheating based on oxy-combustion have recently been developed by the Linde group (industrial gas supplier: AGA) with glassmakers partners, with the aim to better product (energy conservation, lower cost) while respecting the new environmental standards. Concrete applications examples at the Biot glassmaking and at the Baccarat crystal manufacture have allowed to validate their performances at an industrial scale. (O.M.)

  12. Technique de mesure temporelle des pertes fer en régime symétrique et asymétrique : application à l'optimisation des régulateurs magnétiques

    OpenAIRE

    Schwander, Denis

    2014-01-01

    L'étude expérimentale des pertes et du comportement des circuits magnétiques se heurte au caractère non linéaire de ces composants. Si des mesures petit signal restent adaptées à l'évaluation des pertes cuivre, dont les caractéristiques restent indépendantes du niveau de courant, le comportement des noyaux magnétiques en dépend fortement en plus des formes des courants et tensions appliqués. Souvent suspectées d'un manque de précision, les mesures temporelles présentent un grand intérêt lorsq...

  13. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  14. Application de la technique de thermodésorption pour l'analyse de 93 COV et le screening des COV dans l'air des lieux de travail

    OpenAIRE

    Maret, Laure,

    2013-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, la gestion du risque en milieu profesionnel ainsi que l'évaluation de l'exposition aux polluants, tels que les Composés Organiques Volatils (COV) présents dans l'air deviennent une nécessité tant la qualité de l'air des lieux de travail peut être à l'origine de problèmes de santé ou de maladies professionnelles reconnues. Dans le but de répondre à ces exigences de sécurité, l'Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 a institutionnalisé et développé une Cellule Analyse Hygiène Sécurité et...

  15. Impact des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols sur le rendement du sorgho au centre-nord du Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Constant Évariste Dapola

    2011-01-01

    Face à la dégradation de leurs espaces vitaux, les populations du Burkina Faso en général, de la région de Dem en particulier, ont pris conscience de la nécessité d’enrayer ce fléau. Elles ont, seules ou avec l’appui des moyens techniques et financiers de l’État, des projets et des ONG, entrepris des travaux de conservation des eaux et des sols ainsi que d’agroforesterie. Après plus de deux décennies de pratiques, le paysage agraire de la région de Dem est aménagé en partie suivant différente...

  16. Application des ultrasons aux procédés de transformation des produits agroalimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Pingret de Sousa, Daniella,

    2012-01-01

    L’utilisation des ultrasons dans l’industrie agro-alimentaire présente de nombreux avantages, tels que l’augmentation de la productivité et la diminution des coûts et des impacts environnementaux. Dans la première partie de ce travail, une brève introduction sur la théorie des ultrasons et ses applications en agro-alimentaire et l’utilisation de ces derniers pour l’extraction des polyphénols de marc de pomme en solution aqueuse seront présentés. Cette étude a été optimisée et présente d’excel...

  17. Gestion efficace de s\\'eries temporelles en P2P: Application \\`a l'analyse technique et l'\\'etude des objets mobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Gardarin, Georges; Yeh, Laurent; Zeitouni, Karine; Butnaru, Bogdan; Sandu-Popa, Iulian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple generic model to manage time series. A time series is composed of a calendar with a typed value for each calendar entry. Although the model could support any kind of XML typed values, in this paper we focus on real numbers, which are the usual application. We define basic vector space operations (plus, minus, scale), and also relational-like and application oriented operators to manage time series. We show the interest of this generic model on two applications: (i) a stock investment helper; (ii) an ecological transport management system. Stock investment requires window-based operations while trip management requires complex queries. The model has been implemented and tested in PHP, Java, and XQuery. We show benchmark results illustrating that the computing of 5000 series of over 100.000 entries in length - common requirements for both applications - is difficult on classical centralized PCs. In order to serve a community of users sharing time series, we propose a P2P imple...

  18. Application des techniques multiporteuses de type OFDM pour les futurs systèmes de télécommunications par satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Anh Tai

    2009-01-01

    Cette thèse étudie la possibilité d'appliquer les techniques de modulations multiporteuses de type OFDM dans les futurs systèmes de communications par satellite. Elle traite notamment du problème de synchronisation au niveau récepteur pour les systèmes de diffusion par satellite en bande Ka. L'objectif est de proposer une structure de réception ayant besoin du moins de ressources possibles pour synchroniser afin d'optimiser l'efficacité spectrale du système et obtenir un gain par rapport à un...

  19. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-05-01

    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  20. ASPECT DE MODELISATION DES PROPRIETES PHYSIQUES DES ALLIAGES SEMICONDUCTEURS II-VI A APPLICATION PHOTOVOLTAIQUE.

    OpenAIRE

    KHEDIM-ep-BOUAYED, SIHAM

    2014-01-01

    Les propriétés de transport des électrons dans ZnSe, ZnTe et ZnS sont d'un grand intérêt en raison de leurs nombreuses applications technologiques notamment en application photovoltaïque. Dans ce travail, nous étudions les résultats des calculs de simulation de Monte Carlo. Les quantités moyennes directement accessibles par la simulation sont la vitesse de dérive, l'énergie et la diffusion des porteurs. La méthode que nous avons choisi pour l’étude des phénomènes de transport u...

  1. Méthodes de suivi dimensionnel et de suivi de la fissuration des structures : Avec application aux structures atteintes de réaction de gonflement interne du béton : Guide technique

    OpenAIRE

    GODART, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Le présent guide technique est un recueil de cinq méthodes de mesures utilisées pour effectuer le suivi des déformations locales ou globales des structures, le suivi de leur déformée ou de leur fissuration : la mesure de l'ouverture de fissures par macrophotographie numérique, la mesure de déformation à l'aide de l'extensomètre type LCPC de base 400 mm, le suivi dimensionnel à l'aide du distancemètre orientable à fil d'invar, le suivi dimensionnel par distancemétrie infrarouge et le suivi dim...

  2. MUP, CEC-DES, STRADE. Codes for uncertainty propagation, experimental design and stratified random sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the how-to-use of the codes: MUP (Monte Carlo Uncertainty Propagation) for uncertainty analysis by Monte Carlo simulation, including correlation analysis, extreme value identification and study of selected ranges of the variable space; CEC-DES (Central Composite Design) for building experimental matrices according to the requirements of Central Composite and Factorial Experimental Designs; and, STRADE (Stratified Random Design) for experimental designs based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling Techniques. Application fields, of the codes are probabilistic risk assessment, experimental design, sensitivity analysis and system identification problems

  3. Les frameworks au coeur des applications web

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Arielle; Daehne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, Internet est vraiment entré dans les mœurs : tant dans les entreprises qu’au sein de chaque foyer. En effet, Internet permet de communiquer à travers le monde en quelques secondes, de vendre toute sorte de produits en déployant des solutions e-commerce facilement et bien d’autres choses. Internet est donc un véritable vecteur de communication, de commerce et à présent, avec le Web 2.0, un vrai berceau d’informations (tant des informations personnelles que des informati...

  4. Application des polymeres a la protection des surfaces metalliques et a la retention des colorants.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHED, Kouider

    2014-01-01

    Après une brevet présentation des travaux envisagés le premier objectif est consacré à la synthèse et la caractérisation des copolymères à bas de poli(4-vinylpyridine) 5P4VP)cette partie de synthèse se compose de trois Étapes

  5. Geophysical Well Logs Applied to Geothermal Resource Evaluation Application des diagraphies à l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fertl W. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Well logging in the petroleum industry has been developed over five decades into a mature industry, whereas geothermal well logging is a relatively new enterprise. Fundamental differences also occur in the geologic environments and key objectives of both logging applications. Geothermal reservoirs are frequently in fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks, which contain hot water or stem at temperature exceeding 150°C. The discussion focuses on present day logging technology, geologic and reservoir engineering objectives, and qualitive and quantitative formation interpretation techniques for geothermal resource evaluation. Specific field case studies illustrate the interpretive state-of-the-art, including examples from the Geysers dry steam field in the Imperial Valley of California, hot water fields in California, Nevada, and Idaho, and the LASL Hot Dry Rock test project in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico. Les diagraphies dans les forages pétroliers ont atteint leur maturité, alors que le contrôle diagraphique des sondages géothermiques est une entreprise relativement nouvelle. Des différences fondamentales apparaissent aussi dans les environnements géologiques et dans les objectifs clés des deux types d'applications des diagraphies. Les réservoirs géothermiques se situent souvent dans les roches ignées ou métamorphiques fracturées qui contiennent de l'eau chaude ou de la vapeur à des températures dépassant 150 °C. L'exposé sera concentré sur les techniques actuelles d'enregistrements, les objectifs géologiques et liés à l'exploitation des réserves et sur les techniques qualitatives et quantitatives d'interprétation des formations pour l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques. Quelques cas particuliers illustrent l'état actuel des techniques d'interprétation avec des exemples pris dans le champ de vapeur sèche des geysers dans Imperial Valley de Californie, des champs d'eau chaude en Californie, Nevada et Idaho et

  6. Faciliter le développement des applications de robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Kchir, Selma

    2014-01-01

    L'un des challenges des roboticiens consiste à gérer un grand nombre de variabilités. Ces dernières concernent les concepts liés au matériel et aux logiciels du domaine de la robotique. Par conséquent, le développement des applications de robotique est une tâche complexe. Non seulement, elle requiert la maîtrise des détails de bas niveau du matériel et du logiciel mais aussi le changement du matériel utilisé dans une application entraînerait la réécriture du code de celle-ci. L'utilisation de...

  7. Une maison des sciences et des techniques au CERN, Genève-Meyrin

    OpenAIRE

    Piquerez, Valérie

    1997-01-01

    Perpendiculairement à la route de Meyrin, un grand mur est le guide de la promenade initiatique au monde de la physique des particules étudié au CERN. La maison est un accueil pour les différents publics. Elle comprend notamment des salles d'exposition, d

  8. Study of the texture of porous solids using a technique of {gamma} ray absorption; Application de l'absorption du rayonnement {gamma} a l'etude de la texture des solides poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    avec une erreur maximale {delta}{rho} {<=} 0,005 g/cm{sup 3}. La porosite ouverte a ete evaluee par la methode d'absorption apres impregnation au bromoforme. Un nouveau porosimetre au mercure a ete realise en utilisant la sonde d'absorption pour la mesure du mercure infiltre dans l'echantillon poreux. Grace au caractere localise de l'exploration on etudie, par cette technique, les variations de texture poreuse dans un echantillon heterogene. Utilise comme porosimetre classique dans le cas d'echantillons homogenes, cet appareil est capable d'explorer des diametres equivalents de pores compris entre 500 et 0,14 {mu} avec une erreur maximale, {delta}P {<=} 0,002. La possibilite d'exploration d'echantillons heterogenes jointe a la facilite de determination des porosites dues aux macropores et au caractere non limitatif de la methode dans le domaine des hautes pressions, differencient cet appareil de tous les porosimetres de conception anterieure. On presente des exemples d'utilisation de cette technique dans les cas de reactions graphite-gaz. (auteur)

  9. Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandin J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour répondre à la modulation annuelle de la consommation de gaz, le Gaz de France a décidé, il y a une trentaine d'années, de stocker du gaz, soit dans des nappes aquifères, soit dans des cavités salines. La recherche de structures géologiques aptes à recevoir ce gaz, la réalisation et l'équipement de puits d'exploration ou d'exploitation, l'entretien de ces puits et le contrôle des stockages ont été confiés au Département réservoirs souterrains de la Direction des études et techniques nouvelles. Les phases d'exploration et de développement d'un stockage souterrain nécessitent le forage de puits du type pétrolier. Ces sondages permettent, d'une part la récupération d'un maximum de renseignements concernant les différentes couches géologiques traversées et l'évaluation de leur aptitude à stocker le gaz, et d'autre part, d'assurer une exploitation optimale et fiable du stockage dans les meilleures conditions de sécurité. La pratique acquise dans l'exécution de ces forages par le Gaz de France lui a permis d'adapter aux stockages souterrains de nombreuses techniques des forages pétroliers. Parallèlement des procédés originaux ont pu être mis au point pour répondre à certaines exigences particulières du forage des puits de réservoirs souterrains, notamment à celles concernant le bon calibrage du trou foré ou la qualité des cimentations des cuvelages. L'article présente l'ensemble de ces adaptationset pratiques originales; bien que ne prétendant rien d'autre qu'apporter une contribution au chapitre problèmes particuliers des forages pour stockages souterrains de la technique pétrolière, certaines de celles-ci devraient pouvoir, en retour, trouver des applications intéressantes dans les forages pétroliers de moyenne profondeur. About 30 years ago and with a view to keep pace with the annual variation of gas consumption, Gaz de France decided to store gas in either aquifer layers or salt cavities. The

  10. Les applications thérapeutiques des lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetaud, J M; Decomps, B.; Griesemann, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Les applications thérapeutiques des lasers sont décrites selon la nature de leur mécanisme d'action. Les appareils utilisés pour leur action thermique sont à base de lasers de forte puissance optique à argon ionisé, Nd. Y.A.G. et CO2. Ils sont employés dans de nombreuses disciplines médicales : ophtalmologie, otorhinolaryngologie, endoscopie digestive, bronchique et urinaire, chirurgie générale et réparatrice, chirurgie dentaire, dermatologie. Les effets photochimiques sont obtenus à des nive...

  11. The DES-model and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of the Danish Energy System (DES) Model, which has been used for several years as the most comprehensive model for the energy planning. The structure of the Danish energy system is described, and a number of energy system parameters are explained, in particular the efficiencies and marginal costs of combined heat and power (CHP). Some associated models are briefly outlined, and the use of the model is described by examples concerning scenarios for the primary energy requirements and energy system costs up to the year 2000, planned development of the power and heating systems, assessment of nuclear power, and effects of changes in the energy supply system on the emissions of SO2 and NOsub(x). (author)

  12. The application of radioactive isotopes to the study of motion of silt and pebbles in the rivers and in the sea; Application des isotopes radioactifs a l'etude des mouvements des sediments et des galets dans les cours d'eau et en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hours, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d' Hydraulique

    1959-07-01

    The application of radioactive tracers to the study of sediments drift has received considerable attention since 1954 in various countries. A comparative review is made of a number of techniques of labelling, immersing and detecting silts, sands, and pebbles. The influence of the burying of the active material is emphasized. The different experiments which have been so far carried out are described. (author) [French] L'application des traceurs radioactifs a l'etude des deplacements de sediments a fait depuis 1954 l'objet de travaux nombreux dans divers pays. On passe en revue et on compare differentes techniques de marquage, d'immersion et de detection des vases, sables et galets; on insiste sur l'influence de l'enfouissement du materiau actif. On decrit les differentes experiences effectuees jusqu'a ce jour. (auteur)

  13. Outlier Detection: Applications And Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outliers once upon a time regarded as noisy data in statistics, has turned out to be an important problem which is being researched in diverse fields of research and application domains. Many outlier detection techniques have been developed specific to certain application domains, while some techniques are more generic. Some application domains are being researched in strict confidentiality such as research on crime and terrorist activities. The techniques and results of such techniques are not readily forthcoming. A number of surveys, research and review articles and books cover outlier detection techniques in machine learning and statistical domains individually in great details. In this paper we make an attempt to bring together various outlier detection techniques, in a structured and generic description. With this exercise, we hope to attain a better understanding of the different directions of research on outlier analysis for ourselves as well as for beginners in this research field who could then pick up the links to different areas of applications in details.

  14. Des tensions épistémiques et professionnelles en agriculture : Dynamiques autour des techniques sans labour et de leur évaluation environnementale

    OpenAIRE

    Goulet, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Cet article s’intéresse à l’évolution des rapports entre la recherche agronomique et des collectifs d’agriculteurs autour de la production de connaissances en agriculture. À partir des débats portant sur les dispositifs d’évaluation d’impacts environnementaux des techniques sans labour, nous soulignons l’émergence de tensions épistémiques au sein de l’appareil de recherche-développement en agriculture. Chercheurs et agents du développement se polarisent autour de différentes pratiques de l’ex...

  15. Traitement des diagraphies acoustiques. Première partie : application de techniques issues de l'intelligence artificielle au pointe des diagraphies acoustiques Full Waveform Acoustic Data Processing. Part One: an Artificial Intelligence Approach for the Picking of Waves on Full-Waveform Acoustic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les enregistrements des données acoustiques en champ total (fuit waveform ont conduit le géophysicien et le diagraphiste à utiliser des techniques de traitement du signal pour séparer les différentes ondes observées sur les enregistrements. L'une des tâches importantes du traitement des diagraphies acoustiques est le pointé des temps d'arrivée des différentes ondes enregistrées. Une démarche de type système expert a été utilisée pour mettre au point un algorithme multicanaux qui réalise le pointé des différentes ondes, à l'aide de règles faisant intervenir les caractéristiques ou attributs de chaque onde. Une onde est caractérisée par sa vitesse, sa fréquence, son amplitude et sa cohérence latérale. L'algorithme fournit un ensemble de logs accompagnés d'une estimation de la dispersion des mesures à chaque cote profondeur. Les logs fournis sont les logs de lenteur et les logs de fréquence. Les résultats obtenus sur un ensemble de diagraphies acoustiques enregistrées dans un puits vertical du Bassin parisien montrent que la dispersion des mesures reste faible en comparaison des pas d'échantillonnage en temps et profondeur. Les logs de dispersion peuvent aussi permettre de détecter des phénomènes physiques tels que caves, fractures, conversions d'ondes ou interférences, reliés à la lithologie. Dans une deuxième partie, nous montrerons différentes techniques de séparation d'ondes. La troisième partie illustrera, sur un cas particulier, l'utilisation des logs issus des diagraphies acoustiques pour caractériser les formations. The full waveforms recorded by an array of recievers in a borehole sonic tool contain a set of waves that can be fruitfully used to obtain detailed information about the nearborehole lithology and structure. The different waves that can be observed by full-waveform sonic data are described in this article. The main tools used in the recording of full-waveform data are then reviewed

  16. ÉTUDE DU TRAITEMENT DES SILOXANES PAR ADSORPTION SUR MATÉRIAUX POREUX : APPLICATION AU TRAITEMENT DES BIOGAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Ricaurte Ortega, Deyanira

    2009-01-01

    Étude du traitement des siloxanes par adsorption sur matériaux poreux : application au traitement des biogaz Les biogaz sont des mélanges à forte teneur en méthane utilisés dans la production de chaleur ou d'électricité. Ils contiennent des quantités plus ou moins importantes de siloxanes qui sont interdits pour de nombreuses utilisations du biogaz. La possibilité d'élimination des siloxanes par adsorption est étudiée. Une étude en réacteurs statiques permet d'évaluer les capacités d'adsorpti...

  17. Analytical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions from some of the world's leading nuclear analysts included in this book describe a variety of nuclear techniques and applications, such as those in the fields of environment and health, industrial processes, non-destructive testing, forensic and archaeological investigations and cosmochemistry, and in method validation. The descriptive articles demonstrate the advantages of nuclear techniques in, for example, analysing trace elements in submilligram samples in a single strand of hair or in kilogram samples of municipal waste. Halogenated organic compounds as well as major and trace inorganic constituents are analysed in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. Several different techniques are applied to investigate the authenticity of art objects and the origin of extraterrestrial material. Many applications of nuclear analytical techniques in industrial process control or in the production of high-tech materials are described, highlighting the socioeconomic benefit of these techniques in our daily lives. The book is intended to stimulate students, teachers and non-nuclear scientists to take the 'nuclear' option into consideration when deciding on a new field of study or an alternative analytical technique

  18. Electrochemistry, a technique to prepare redox nano-structured composite materials (polymer/nano-particles) - Characterizations - Applications; L'electrochimie, un outil pour elaborer des materiaux composites redox nanostructures (polymere/nanoparticules) - Caracterisations - Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardon-Noblat, S. [Grenoble-1 Univ. Joseph Fourier, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR 5630, Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble, FR CNRS 2607, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work is presented at first the preparation by an electrochemical way of bi functional nano-structured composite materials. It is shown that with the pulsed electrolysis techniques, it is possible to obtain metallic particles whose size and organization are controlled at the nano-scopic scale in redox matrices. Then, are presented the physico-chemical characterizations of these nano-objects (coupled in situ or ex situ at the electrochemistry). The first results relative to the catalytic activation of CO{sub 2} with these materials used as composite cathodes are indicated. (O.M.)

  19. Transitions des exploitations agricoles vers l'agriculture biologique dans un territoire : approche par les interactions entre systèmes techniques et de commercialisation : Application aux aires d'alimentation de captages en Île-de-France

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    En réponse aux réglementations environnementales récentes incitant à une gestion préventive de la qualité de l’eau, l’agriculture biologique (AB) constitue une des solutions globales préconisée pour cette gestion préventive. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’étudier les transitions des exploitations agricoles vers l’AB dans les territoires, en prenant les aires d’alimentation de captages (AAC) en Île-de-France comme cas d’étude. En nous inscrivant en agronomie des territoires, nous développons ...

  20. Maladies des plantes dues a Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) : strategie et techniques d'etude - resultats

    OpenAIRE

    Camporota, P.

    1989-01-01

    Les techniques présentées permettent la détermination fine des souches de R. solani et l’appréciation de l’influence exercée par le sol sur le saprophytisme et le parasitisme du champignon. Les résultats obtenus et l’intérêt d’utiliser ces techniques pour la recherche de voies de lutte sont discutés.

  1. PENERAPAN VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATION (VBA SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU AJAR ENKRIPSI DAN DEKRIPSI DES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The DES encryption/decryption algorithm is quite a popular algorithm due to ease in learning. Calculations for DES using binary numbers however are very difficult, including 16 rounds required for a full encode. Teaching DES encryption manually is difficult since it requires a long time. It also requires high accuracy for the 64-bit binary numbers, the possibility of mistakes are very high. Besides, the students cannot perform self-check, whether the given task is done correctly. Application of Excel and VBA is used to facilitate observation, comparison, and understanding the DES algorithm. The result is a teaching model using DES for modern encryption.

  2. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  3. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  4. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  5. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  6. PENERAPAN VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATION (VBA) SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU AJAR ENKRIPSI DAN DEKRIPSI DES

    OpenAIRE

    Yasri

    2011-01-01

    The DES encryption/decryption algorithm is quite a popular algorithm due to ease in learning. Calculations for DES using binary numbers however are very difficult, including 16 rounds required for a full encode. Teaching DES encryption manually is difficult since it requires a long time. It also requires high accuracy for the 64-bit binary numbers, the possibility of mistakes are very high. Besides, the students cannot perform self-check, whether the given task is done correctly. Application ...

  7. Rock-Eval 6 Applications in Hydrocarbon Exploration, Production, and Soil Contamination Studies Les applications de Rock-Eval 6 dans l'exploration et la production des hydrocarbures, et dans les études de contamination des sols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafargue E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful petroleum exploration relies on detailed analysis of the petroleum system in a given area. Identification of potential source rocks, their maturity and kinetic parameters, and their regional distribution are best accomplished by rapid screening of rock samples (cores and/or cuttings using the Rock-Eval apparatus. The technique has been routinely used for about fifteen years and has become a standard tool for hydrocarbon exploration. This paper describes how the new functions of the latest version of Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 have expanded applications of the method in petroleum geoscience. Examples of new applications are illustrated for source rock characterization, reservoir geochemistry, and environmental studies, including quantification. Le succès d'une exploration pétrolière repose sur l'analyse détaillée du système pétrolier dans une zone donnée. L'identification des roches mères potentielles, la détermination de leur maturité, de leurs paramètres cinétiques et de leur répartition sont réalisées au mieux à partir d'examens rapides d'échantillons de roches (carottes ou déblais au moyen de la pyrolyse Rock-Eval. Cette technique a été utilisée en routine pendant une quinzaine d'années et elle est devenue un outil standard pour l'exploration des hydrocarbures. Cet article décrit comment les nouvelles fonctionnalités de la dernière version de l'appareil Rock-Eval (Rock-Eval 6 ont permis une expansion des applications de la méthode en géosciences pétrolières. Des exemples d'applications nouvelles sont illustrés dans les domaines de la caractérisation des roches mères, de la géochimie de réservoir et des études environnementales incluant la quantification et la description des hydrocarbures dans des sols contaminés.

  8. Modélisation et stabilisation des réseaux sociopolitiques - application à des coalitions de pays

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradova, Galina

    2014-01-01

    2Le sujet principal de cette thèse est la présentation d'un paradigme théorique inspiré de la Physique Statistique pour décrire les dynamiques d'instabilité ainsi que les processus de stabilisation dans la formation de coalitions entre pays considérés comme des acteurs rationnels. Ce travail s'inscrit dans une logique interdisciplinaire impliquant les mathématiques appliquées et la sociophysique avec des applications à des cas réels choisis dans le passé et le présent. Le modèle, par sa formu...

  9. Applications des concordanciers à l'enseignement de la grammaire anglaise en DEUG

    OpenAIRE

    Rézeau, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Les programmes de recherche des collocations des mots d'une langue sont récemment devenus conviviaux et abordables ; les corpus de textes sous forme numérique existent. L'utilisation didactique de ces outils reste néanmoins marginale ou épisodique. Cet article donne des exemples concrets et commentés d'application des concordanciers à l'enseignement de la grammaire anglaise à l'université et une ébauche de typologie d'exercices. Concordancing programs have recently become more user-friendl...

  10. Application of nuclear analytical techniques in research and preservation of cultural heritage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan

    Rabat: Centre national de l´energie, des sciences et des techniques nucléaires (CNESTEN), 2012, s. 5-6. [Quatrième Conférence sur les Techniques Analytiques Nucléaires et Conventionnelles et leurs Applications (TANCA 2012). Rabat (MA), 22.10.2012-23.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * rentgenfluorescence analysis * luminescence dating * radiocarbon dating Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. DETECTION ET IDENTIFICATION DES ARYTHMIES CARDIAQUES PAR APPLICATION DES RESEAUX DE NEURONES

    OpenAIRE

    BELGACEM, N.; M.A Chikh; BEREKSI REGUIG, F.

    2003-01-01

    L’électrocardiographie explore l’activité électrique du coeur par enregistrement des variations des ondes électriques de l’activité de polarisation et de dépolarisation ventriculaire et auriculaires du coeur. L’activité cardiaque constitue l’un des plus importants paramètres déterminant l’état d’un sujet. Elle se traduit par l’apparition de plusieurs ondes sur le tracé de l’électrocardiographe : c’est le signal cardiaque, l’électrocardiogramme : ECG. L'analyse du signal ECG et l'i...

  12. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  13. Hacking interdit découvrez les techniques des hackers pour mieux vous protéger

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Urbina, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, impossible de surfer sur Internet sans protection efficace ! Mais même avec des logiciels appropriés, nul n'est à l'abri du danger ! Virus, usurpations d'adresse IP, troyens, intrusions dans votre système, attaques par phishing : l'imagination des pirates est sans limite ! La seule solution est de vous protéger efficacement et pour cela, un moyen : connaître les techniques des hackers pour mieux déjouer leurs pièges ! Un internaute averti en vaut deux !

  14. Conception d'antennes spirales large bande à alimentation coplanaire pour des applications radar sur dirigeable

    OpenAIRE

    Louertani, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Un dirigeable haute altitude (HAA: High Altitude Airship) évoluant à plus de 20 km au-dessus du sol est envisagé en tant que plate-forme d'accueil pour un réseau d'antennes spirales pour des applications radar. L'antenne spirale d'Archimède est un excellent élément rayonnant pour des applications nécessitant une large bande de fréquences ainsi qu'une polarisation circulaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l'alimentation se fait au centre de l'antenne spirale. Cependant, certains environnements inte...

  15. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  16. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  17. Reconstruction of crown length of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, establishment of sample methods and application in forest growth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Spathelf, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Évolution en hauteur des houppiers d'épicéa (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) et de sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, mise en œuvre de méthodes d'échantillonnage, application à l'analyse de la croissance des forêts. On a utilisé une technique permettant de dater la mortalité des branches pour estimer la régression par le bas des houppiers de l'épicéa et du sapin pectiné, dans des placettes temporaires installées dans des forêts mélangées et inéquiennes de la Forêt Noire (Allemagne). Les r...

  18. Vérification des protocoles cryptographiques : Comparaison des modèles symboliques avec une application des résultats --- Etude des protocoles récursifs

    OpenAIRE

    Hördegen, Heinrich

    2007-01-01

    Cette thèse traite de la vérification des protocoles cryptographiques. Son sujet est la modélisation symbolique de protocoles avec pour objectif la preuve de propriétés de sécurité. La thèse comprend deux parties: La première partie définit quatre modèles symboliques différant par les moyens syntaxiques que les concepteur peuvent utiliser pour représenter les primitives cryptographiques. On a observé que les vérificateurs utilisent des astuces de codage dans des modèles peu riches pour représ...

  19. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  20. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  1. Nuclear applications of modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference surveyed a range of modern analytical techniques and their applicability to nuclear technology. The initial papers described problems and techniques relevant to the fast reactor, and then moved on to the application of neutron methods. Next various probe methods were described, including the nuclear microprobe, computer control of the electron microprobe and the laser microprobe. Then followed papers which described applications of scanning electron microscopy, and finally papers which dealt with the study of surfaces, and the application and behaviour of protective coatings on materials. (author)

  2. Pollution par les nitrates: quels remèdes?

    OpenAIRE

    Zilliox, Lothaire; Schenck, Charles; Kobus, Helmut; Huwe, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    Au cours des dix dernières années, la pollution des eaux souterraines par les nitrates n'a cessé d'augmenter. Principale accussée: l'agriculture, l'application de méthodes de techniques culturales devrait permettre une meilleure gestion des engrais azotés.

  3. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  4. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Interactive Data Visualization: Foundations, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition provides all the theory, details, and tools necessary to build visualizations and systems involving the visualization of data. In color throughout, it explains basic terminology and concepts, algorithmic and software engineering issues, and commonly used techniques and high-level algorithms. Full source code is provided for completing implementations.

  5. Techniques utilisées pour l'étude du zooplancton sur les sites des centrales nucléaires des cotes françaises de manche et atlantique

    OpenAIRE

    Le Fevre-lehoerff, Geneviève

    1985-01-01

    Les techniques et méthodologies décrites ici ne concernent que celles utilisées dans les études de sites de centrales nucléaires (Gravelines, Penly, Paluel, Englesqueville, Flamanville et Plogoff) choisies en fonction des caractéristiques de la zone étudiée et des conditions de travail.

  6. Contributions au traitement statistique du signal avec des applications biomédicales

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quang Thang

    2012-01-01

    Cette étude présente des contributions en traitement statistique du signal avec des applications biomédicales. La thèse est divisée en deux parties. La première partie traite de la détection des hotspots à l'interface des protéines. Les hotspots sont les résidus dont les contributions énergétiques sont les plus importantes dans l'interaction entre protéines. Les forêts aléatoires (Random Forests) sont utilisées pour la classification. Une nouvelle famille de descripteurs de hotspot est égalem...

  7. Application of Nanoindentation Technique in Wood Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; ZHOU Dingguo; WANG Siqun; ZHANG Yang

    2006-01-01

    Nanoindentation technique is a technique that determines the mechanical properties of a material in sub-micron scale. The technique involves penetrating a sample material using an indenter, while the penetration depth and load are recorded so that stiffness and hardness of the indented location can be subsequently calculated. The micron spatial resolution in nanoindentaion tests renders the technique very useful in the investigation of the wood cell-wall level and polymer interphase. This review mainly discussed the principle of nanoindentation and its current applications in wood science field.

  8. Technique de modélisation transactionnelle en vue de l’amélioration de la simulation des modèles de performances des architectures électroniques dans le domaine automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Majdoub, Takieddine

    2012-01-01

    Dans le domaine automobile, l’architecture électronique des véhicules repose sur un ensemble de calculateurs interconnectés au travers différents réseaux de communication. Compte tenu des évolutions applicatives observées, la conception de ces systèmes tend à se complexifier. Il s’avère alors indispensable de pouvoir prendre en compte au plus tôt lors des phases de conception l’influence des échanges entre calculateurs. Afin d’aider les architectes à concevoir de telles architectures, différe...

  9. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  10. Commande des bras manipulateurs et retour visuel pour des applications à la robotique de service

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Aguilar, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Dans le contexte de la robotique de service, les robots doivent interagir avec l'environnement et les humains qui s'y trouvent. La présence d'humain crée un contexte particulier où la sécurité et le confort des utilisateurs prime sur la dynamique du système. L'environnement n'étant pas figé dans ce contexte, l'utilisation de capteurs extéroceptifs est indispensable. Un premier thème développé dans le mémoire est la planification de trajectoires pour laquelle nous proposons de borner la vitess...

  11. Sécurité des applications AJAX: Unity Web SARL

    OpenAIRE

    Koker, Cem; Hauri, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    AJAX est un ensemble de technologies Internet déjà existantes depuis quelques années et remises au goût du jour il y a peu. Elles permettent de créer des flux de communication entre client et serveur de manière asynchrone. Grâce à AJAX, le client qui visite une page Internet qui utilise ces technologies n’a plus besoin d’attendre la réponse du serveur pour envoyer de nouvelles données. Ce changement est radical dans le monde des communications entre client et serveur Web car les échangent éta...

  12. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  13. Techniques and applications of path integration

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  14. Immobilization Techniques for Microarray: Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Balasaheb Nimse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The highly programmable positioning of molecules (biomolecules, nanoparticles, nanobeads, nanocomposites materials on surfaces has potential applications in the fields of biosensors, biomolecular electronics, and nanodevices. However, the conventional techniques including self-assembled monolayers fail to position the molecules on the nanometer scale to produce highly organized monolayers on the surface. The present article elaborates different techniques for the immobilization of the biomolecules on the surface to produce microarrays and their diagnostic applications. The advantages and the drawbacks of various methods are compared. This article also sheds light on the applications of the different technologies for the detection and discrimination of viral/bacterial genotypes and the detection of the biomarkers. A brief survey with 115 references covering the last 10 years on the biological applications of microarrays in various fields is also provided.

  15. Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Myung K

    2011-01-01

    Digital holography is an emerging field of new paradigm in general imaging applications. By replacing the photochemical procedures with electronic imaging and having a direct numerical access to the complex optical field, a wide range of new imaging capabilities become available, many of them difficult or infeasible in conventional holography. An increasing number of researchers—not only in optical physics and optical engineering, but also in diverse applications areas such as microbiology, medicine, marine science, particle analysis, microelectromechanics, and metrology—are realizing and exploiting the new capabilities of digital holography. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, by Dr. Myung K. Kim, is intended to provide a brief but consistent introduction to the principles of digital holography as well as to give an organized overview of the large number of techniques and applications being developed. This will also shed some light on the range of possibilities for f...

  16. Progress in application of CFD techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important branch of fluid mechanics, and will continue to play great roles on the design of aerospace vehicles, explora- tion of new concept vehicles and new aerodynamic technology. This paper will present the progress of CFD from point of view of engineering application in recent years at CARDC, including the software integration, grid technique, speeding up of convergence, unsteady fluid computation,etc., and also give some engineering application examples of CFD at CARDC.

  17. Wave Separation. Part Two: Applications La séparation des ondes. Deuxième partie : applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    qui doit être de plus grande amplitude. Le filtrage est effectué sans effet de bord et les variations d'amplitude de l'onde sont préservées. Il permet de séparer les données en un espace signal et un espace bruit. Le filtre SMF (matrice spectrale est coûteux en temps de calcul. Il fait l'hypothèse que l'onde est localement stable. Il ne nécessite pas la mise à plat des données. Il permet de séparer des ondes très voisines sans faire appel à des hypothèses a priori fortes. Il donne une mesure des écarts de temps. Il donne une mesure des variations de spectre d'amplitude et de phase lors de la propagation bien supérieure à celle fournie par la méthode de Wiener puisqu'il opère sur l'ensemble des traces. Il permet également de séparer les données en un espace signal et un espace bruit. La méthode paramétrique est la plus coûteuse en temps. Elle est simple à mettre en oeuvre et ne nécessite ni mise à plat ni préparation de données. Elle extrait les ondes en fonction des paramètres retenus, notamment les écarts de temps. Elle est particulièrement recommandée en profil sismique déporté où la lenteur des ondes montantes n'est pas connue. Elle est robuste vis-à-vis de quelques paramètres d'entrée si le bruit est faible par le rapport au signal à extraire. Les multiples applications à des données réelles ont illustré l'efficacité de ces techniques de séparation d'ondes. Par contre, l'application à un nouveau type de données nécessite souvent un contrôle des performances pour choisir la meilleure méthode.

  18. Les " affaires " et la mise en application des normes internationales, des défis et des opportunités pour l'enseignement de la comptabilité

    OpenAIRE

    Colasse, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    La deuxième partie de cette conférence a été publiée dans la Revue Française de Comptabilité (n° 285, février 2006, pp. 37-40) sous le titre "IFRS : un défi et une opportunité pour l'enseignement de la comptabilité" National audience Selon l'auteur, les " affaires " et la mise en application des normes internationales constituent à la fois un formidable défi et une formidable opportunité pour un enseignement de la comptabilité resté trop technique et trop révérencieux envers la normalis...

  19. La PCR quantitative en temps réel : application à la quantification des OGM

    OpenAIRE

    Alary Rémi; Gautier Marie-Françoise; Joudrier Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Suite à l’obligation d’étiquetage, au seuil de 1 %, des aliments contenant des OGM autorisés, il est nécessaire de disposer de méthodes fiables de quantification. Pour répondre à cette obligation, la technique de PCR quantitative en temps réel semble actuellement la mieux adaptée. Son principe, ses avantages et sa mise en oeuvre pour la détermination de la teneur en OGM de farines de soja sont présentés. Les PCR simplex et duplex sont comparées.

  20. La PCR quantitative en temps réel : application à la quantification des OGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alary Rémi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Suite à l’obligation d’étiquetage, au seuil de 1 %, des aliments contenant des OGM autorisés, il est nécessaire de disposer de méthodes fiables de quantification. Pour répondre à cette obligation, la technique de PCR quantitative en temps réel semble actuellement la mieux adaptée. Son principe, ses avantages et sa mise en oeuvre pour la détermination de la teneur en OGM de farines de soja sont présentés. Les PCR simplex et duplex sont comparées.

  1. Nouvelles applications des complexes métalliques en catalyse homogène, avec des enzymes artificielles et en nanotechnologie

    OpenAIRE

    Pierron, Julien; Ward, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    La chimie des métaux a trouvé un grand nombre d’applications, grâce à l’immense potentiel d’optimisation des complexes métalliques. Les propriétés de ces complexes varient en fonction du centre métallique et des ligands coordinés, qui peuvent être diversifiés afin d’obtenir les caractéristiques désirées. Dans les dernières années, l’importance des complexes métalliques s’est accrue dans diverses directions comme la synthèse organique, la catalyse, les médicaments ou les matériaux. Dans cette ...

  2. Optical tweezers technique and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, HongLian; Li, ZhiYuan

    2013-12-01

    Since their advent in the 1980s, optical tweezers have attracted more and more attention due to their unique non-contact and non-invasion characteristics and their wide applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medical science and nanoscience. In this paper, we introduce the basic principle, the history and typical applications of optical tweezers and review our recent experimental works on the development and application of optical tweezers technique. We will discuss in detail several technological issues, including high precision displacement and force measurement in single-trap and dual-trap optical tweezers, multi-trap optical tweezers with each trap independently and freely controlled by means of space light modulator, and incorporation of cylindrical vector optical beams to build diversified optical tweezers beyond the conventional Gaussian-beam optical tweezers. We will address the application of these optical tweezers techniques to study biophysical problems such as mechanical deformation of cell membrane and binding energy between plant microtubule and microtubule associated proteins. Finally we present application of the optical tweezers technique for trapping, transporting, and patterning of metallic nanoparticles, which can be harnessed to manipulate surface plasmon resonance properties of these nanoparticles.

  3. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  4. Spectral Matrix Filtering Applied to Vsp Processing Application du filtrage matriciel au traitement des profils sismiques verticaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    ère peut être extraite après horizontalisation et application d'un filtrage matriciel avec une forte moyenne en fréquence. Ce traitement est alors équivalent à un filtrage en vitesse apparente classique. Le filtrage matriciel peut conduire à une séparation d'onde sans connaissance a priori sur la vitesse apparente des différentes ondes. Dans le domaine fréquentiel, une onde W(f peut s'écrire comme le produit d'une ondelette A(f par un vecteur normalisé S(f caractérisant la surface d'onde. Pour un modèle à deux ondes W1(f = A1(f S1(f et W2(f = A2(f S2(f, quatre cas sont possibles : a Si les amplitudes des deux ondes W1 et W2 sont identiques à toutes les fréquences et si les ondes sont orthogonales ( = 0, représente le produit scalaire; les deux ondes sont projetées sur les 2 premiers vecteurs de façon équipotente et la séparation est impossible. b Si les amplitudes des deux ondes W1 et W2 sont identiques à toutes les fréquences et si les ondes ont des vitesses apparentes très proches ( ~ 1; les deux ondes sont projetées sur le premier vecteur propre et la séparation est impossible. c Si les amplitudes des ondes W1 et W2 sont différentes à toutes les fréquences et si les ondes sont orthogonales ( = 0, la séparation est parfaitement bien réalisée, chaque onde se projetant sur un vecteur propre. d Si les ondes ont des amplitudes très différentes et des vitesses apparentes très proches ( ~1, la séparation est partiellement réalisée. L'onde de plus forte amplitude est projetée sur le premier vecteur propre. L'onde de plus faible amplitude est projetée partiellement sur le deuxième vecteur propre. Les amplitudes relatives de chaque onde ne sont pas conservées. Les cas (c et (d sont illustrés par des exemples synthétiques présentés en figures 3 et 4. L'application de la technique de filtrage matriciel est illustrée à l'aide de deux exemples. Le premier exemple montre des données sismiques obtenues dans un puits vertical avec un g

  5. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 21st century, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is widely used in process control, industrial applications and for routine elemental analysis. The technique has a multielement capability capable of detecting elements with Z ≥ 10, with a few instruments capable of detecting also elements with Z ≥ 5. It is characterized by a non-destructive analysis process and relatively good detection limits, typically one part per million, for a wide range of elements. The first commercial XRF instruments were introduced to the market about 50 years ago. They were the wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers utilizing Bragg’s law and reflection on crystal lattices for sequential elemental analysis of sample composition. The advances made in radiation detector technology, especially the introduction of semiconductor detectors, improvements in signal processing electronics, availability and exponential growth of personal computer market led to invention of energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The EDXRF is more cost effective as compared to WDXRF. It also allows for designing compact instruments. Such instruments can be easily tailored to the needs of different customers, integrated with industrial installations, and also miniaturized for the purpose of in-situ applications. The versatility of the technique has been confirmed in a spectacular way by using the XRF and X-ray spectrometric techniques, among few others, during the NASA and ESA missions in search for the evidence of life and presence of water on the surface of Mars. The XRF technique has achieved its strong position within the atomic spectroscopy group of analytical techniques not only due to its versatility but also due to relatively low running costs, as compared to the commonly used methods, e.g., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission/mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). Presently, the XRF technique together with X ray

  6. Applications of computer techniques in humus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review is presented of the application of computer techniques in humus research for studies on problems such as the characterization of soil organic matter by instrumental methods of analysis in relation to soil productivity, studies on the origin and structure of soil humic acids by pyrolysis mass spectrometry and a computer, studies to discriminate between mull and mor types of humus, and nitrogen transformations in soils, especially simulation of nitrogen behaviour in soils. The applications are described of computer techniques in humus research work in a number of laboratories by making use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and pyrolysis techniques in combination with gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or mass spectrometry (PYGC, PYGC-MS or PY-MS) and a computer. It is suggested that the application of computer techniques in humus research offers many interesting possibilities for significant progress. A number of problems are proposed, in particular the elucidation of the structure of the so-called hetrocyclic nitrogen compounds by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a computer system; this problem is connected with the slow N-releasing property of soil humus. It has also been suggested that a computerized International Documentation System for Soil Humus Research should be established which would serve as the international source of information. (author)

  7. Soft Computing Techniques for Process Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Malhotra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovations in soft computing techniques have brought automation capabilities to new levelsof applications. Process control is an important application of any industry for controlling the complexsystem parameters, which can greatly benefit from such advancements. Conventional control theory isbased on mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour of process control systems. Due to lackin comprehensibility, conventional controllers are often inferior to the intelligent controllers. Softcomputing techniques provide an ability to make decisions and learning from the reliable data or expert’sexperience. Moreover, soft computing techniques can cope up with a variety of environmental and stabilityrelated uncertainties. This paper explores the different areas of soft computing techniques viz. Fuzzy logic,genetic algorithms and hybridization of two and abridged the results of different process control casestudies. It is inferred from the results that the soft computing controllers provide better control on errorsthan conventional controllers. Further, hybrid fuzzy genetic algorithm controllers have successfullyoptimized the errors than standalone soft computing and conventional techniques.

  8. Development and applications of microanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new analytical techniques is an essential part of our everyday life and is dictated by strong progress in modern science and technology. Both these areas require more precise information about materials and processes involved. Due to these requirements we have been observing a rapid growth in the development of techniques that require both a high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Modern analytical techniques provide an important interface between science and applications. The works presented in this habilitation thesis span the period of almost 20 years. During this time the author has been leading the development and applications of several new analytical and micro analytical techniques which have been documented in this thesis. This development has required development of ideas, strong leadership, organisational skills, organisation of funds and groups to carry out the necessary work. In chapter 3 the use of the PIXE and XANES techniques described an investigation of permeability for selected elements inside cells. It was important to develop new protocols for sample preparation and analysis and a large number of cells were necessary in order to obtain meaningful data. This development was closely associated with work presented in chapter 4 where the role of sample damage under the MeV ion beam bombardment was investigated. At that time we were the leading group in the world to perform such studies. Chapter 5 describes development of new analytical techniques and its possible applications. Development of the SIHF has been probably the most demanding and difficult project and was described in chapter 6 and it was closely related with development of a diamond detector described in chapter 7. A great part of these works were performed by the author at the Micro Analytical Research Centre (MARC) in the School of Physics at the University of Melbourne in Australia. However, some works were performed at GSI in Germany and BNL in USA. (author)

  9. Sentic computing techniques, tools, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cambria, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this book common sense computing techniques are further developed and applied to bridge the semantic gap between word-level natural language data and the concept-level opinions conveyed by these. In particular, the ensemble application of graph mining and multi-dimensionality reduction techniques is exploited on two common sense knowledge bases to develop a novel intelligent engine for open-domain opinion mining and sentiment analysis. The proposed approach, termed sentic computing, performs a clause-level semantic analysis of text, which allows the inference of both the conceptual and emot

  10. Application of digital gammagraphy techniques to steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reveal certain defects in steel by gammagraphy, it is possible to use an electronic detector measuring the transmitted flux point by point. In order to improve the performance of these techniques, the use of multiple detectors is being investigated to facilitate the mapping of flaws in the inspection of large-section products. In this connection, we have developed an experimental test bench designed to elucidate the applicable measurement conditions. We have investigated more particularly the evolution of the volume of the limit detectable fault according to the geometrical measurement parameters. An attempt is also being made to transpose tomographical techniques to the examination of small steel specimens

  11. Emerging wireless networks concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makaya, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An authoritative collection of research papers and surveys, Emerging Wireless Networks: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications explores recent developments in next-generation wireless networks (NGWNs) and mobile broadband networks technologies, including 4G (LTE, WiMAX), 3G (UMTS, HSPA), WiFi, mobile ad hoc networks, mesh networks, and wireless sensor networks. Focusing on improving the performance of wireless networks and provisioning better quality of service and quality of experience for users, it reports on the standards of different emerging wireless networks, applications, and service fr

  12. Thermohydraulique des écoulements d'hélium faiblement supercritique en conduite application au refroidissement des écrans de faisceau du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hatchadourian, E

    2000-01-01

    Au cours d'observations, au-delà de la mise en évidence d'un effet inattendu, l'effort de compréhension porte tout d'abord vers une description qualitative du phénomène et ensuite quantitative. Puis, lorsque ce phénomène est compris, le travail peut s'orienter vers une étape d'exploitation o le mécanisme est utilisé pour développer de nouvelles voies de recherche ou encore apporter des solutions à des besoins d'ordre technologique. L'étude établie sur le projet du futur collisionneur de particules du CERN en est un exemple convaincant : il s'agit dans un premier temps de définir un modèle simplifié sur l'écoulement d'hélium supercritique dans des tubes soumis à des apports de chaleur, afin de permettre la compréhension des mécanismes essentiels puis developper un modèle plus précis, mais également plus complet, pour l'étude quantitative. L'application directe de cette étude thermohydraulique concerne le refroidissement des écrans de faisceau du LHC. Ces écrans, maintenus à une te...

  13. Bioanalytical applications using supercritical fluid techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Angel; Zougagh, Mohammed; de Andrés, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The bioanalytical applications of supercritical fluid techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), are of increasing interest. The main role of these techniques is in the sample preparation and separation of biologically active compounds, particularly drugs and their metabolites, as well as endogenous compounds. An insight is given into the different types of extracting fluids and modifiers, detectors, stationary phases, mobile phases and collection strategies. A critical discussion is presented on the existing state of the art concerning the applications of SFC and SFE with a specific focus on its advantages and limitations in the bioanalytical field. New developments and the possibilities for routine work in the near future are also covered. PMID:21083113

  14. Advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Peng; 曹鹏

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is a well-known non-invasive technique that provides spectra (by MR spectroscopy, MRS) and images (by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) of the examined tissue with detailed metabolic, structural, and functional information. This doctoral work is focused on advanced methodologies and applications of MRS for probing cellular and molecular changes in vivo. A single-voxel diffusion-weighted (DW) MRS method was first developed for monitoring the size changes of intramyocellu...

  15. The Application of Magnetic Techniques in Biosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Safarikova, M.; Safarik, I.

    2001-01-01

    The idea to use magnetic techniques in biosciences is not new, but it has enjoyed a resurgence of interest especially during the last two decades. Magnetic adsorbents, carriers and modifiers can be used for the immobilization, isolation, modification, detection, determination and removal of a variety of biologically active compounds, xenobiotics, cellular components and cells. Magnetic separation and labelling have recently found many useful and interesting applications in various areas of bi...

  16. Program slicing techniques and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sasirekha, N; Hemalatha, Dr M

    2011-01-01

    Program understanding is an important aspect in Software Maintenance and Reengineering. Understanding the program is related to execution behaviour and relationship of variable involved in the program. The task of finding all statements in a program that directly or indirectly influence the value for an occurrence of a variable gives the set of statements that can affect the value of a variable at some point in a program is called a program slice. Program slicing is a technique for extracting parts of computer programs by tracing the programs' control and data flow related to some data item. This technique is applicable in various areas such as debugging, program comprehension and understanding, program integration, cohesion measurement, re-engineering, maintenance, testing where it is useful to be able to focus on relevant parts of large programs. This paper focuses on the various slicing techniques (not limited to) like static slicing, quasi static slicing, dynamic slicing and conditional slicing. This pape...

  17. Nano-computed tomography. Technique and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is an emerging, high-resolution cross-sectional imaging technique and represents a technical advancement of the established micro-CT technology. Based on the application of a transmission target X-ray tube, the focal spot size can be decreased down to diameters less than 400 nanometers (nm). Together with specific detectors and examination protocols, a superior spatial resolution up to 400 nm (10 % MTF) can be achieved, thereby exceeding the resolution capacity of typical micro-CT systems. The technical concept of nano-CT imaging as well as the basics of specimen preparation are demonstrated exemplarily. Characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications) in a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE(-/-)/LDLR(-/-) double knockout mouse) are demonstrated in the context of superior spatial resolution in comparison to micro-CT. Furthermore, this article presents the application of nano-CT for imaging cerebral microcirculation (murine), lung structures (porcine), and trabecular microstructure (ovine) in contrast to micro-CT imaging. This review shows the potential of nano-CT as a radiological method in biomedical basic research and discusses the application of experimental, high resolution CT techniques in consideration of other high resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques.

  18. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  19. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented. PMID:26944696

  20. Reduction of thermal models of buildings: improvement of techniques using meteorological influence models; Reduction de modeles thermiques de batiments: amelioration des techniques par modelisation des sollicitations meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautin, S.

    1997-04-01

    This work concerns the modeling of thermal phenomena inside buildings for the evaluation of energy exploitation costs of thermal installations and for the modeling of thermal and aeraulic transient phenomena. This thesis comprises 7 chapters dealing with: (1) the thermal phenomena inside buildings and the CLIM2000 calculation code, (2) the ETNA and GENEC experimental cells and their modeling, (3) the techniques of model reduction tested (Marshall`s truncature, Michailesco aggregation method and Moore truncature) with their algorithms and their encoding in the MATRED software, (4) the application of model reduction methods to the GENEC and ETNA cells and to a medium size dual-zone building, (5) the modeling of meteorological influences classically applied to buildings (external temperature and solar flux), (6) the analytical expression of these modeled meteorological influences. The last chapter presents the results of these improved methods on the GENEC and ETNA cells and on a lower inertia building. These new methods are compared to classical methods. (J.S.) 69 refs.

  1. La (méta)génomique des microorganismes du rumen et ses applications à la production des ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Morgavi, Diego; Kelly, W. J.; Janssen, P H; Attwood, G T

    2013-01-01

    La viande et le lait produits par les ruminants sont d'importants produits agricoles qui représentent une source importante de protéines pour les humains. La production des ruminants a une valeur économique considérable et un impact sur la sécurité alimentaire de nombreuses régions du monde. Cependant, le secteur fait face à des défis majeurs en raison de la diminution des ressources naturelles et de la conséquente hausse des prix, mais également en raison de la prise de conscience grandissan...

  2. Advanced MRI techniques of the fetal brain; Zukunftsweisende MRT-Techniken des fetalen Gehirns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepf, V.; Dittrich, E.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Kasprian, G.; Kollndorfer, K.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Evaluation of the normal and pathological fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI of the fetal brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used in clinical practice, all other methods are used at a research level. Serving as standard methods in the future. Combined structural and functional data for all gestational ages will allow more specific insight into the developmental processes of the fetal brain. This gain of information will help provide a common understanding of complex spatial and temporal procedures of early morphological features and their impact on cognitive and sensory abilities. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung des gesunden bzw. pathologischen fetalen Gehirns. Die Magnetresonanztomographie. Zukunftsweisende Techniken in der MRT-Bildgebung des fetalen Gehirns. Die Diffusionstensorbildgebung (DTI) befindet sich bereits in der klinischen Anwendung, alle anderen Methoden sind bisher noch als experimentell zu werten. Auf dem Weg zur Etablierung als Standardverfahren. Eine kombinierte Verarbeitung funktioneller und struktureller Daten, modelliert fuer jede Schwangerschaftswoche, wird es zukuenftig ermoeglichen, anhand dieser fusionierten Informationen einen praezisen Einblick in den Entwicklungsprozess des Gehirns zu erlangen. Diese Erkenntnisse und Ergebnisse werden entscheidend zur Klaerung des zeitlichen Verlaufs und des komplexen Aufbaus frueher morphologischer Auffaelligkeiten beitragen sowie deren Einfluss auf kognitive und sensorische Faehigkeiten aufzeigen. (orig.)

  3. Outrepasser les limites des techniques classiques de Prise d'Empreintes grace aux Reseaux de Neurones

    OpenAIRE

    Burroni, Javier; Sarraute, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of Artificial Intelligence techniques to the field of Information Security. The problem of remote Operating System (OS) Detection, also called OS Fingerprinting, is a crucial step of the penetration testing process, since the attacker (hacker or security professional) needs to know the OS of the target host in order to choose the exploits that he will use. OS Detection is accomplished by passively sniffing network packets and actively sending test packets to the targ...

  4. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  5. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  6. Application des outils du traitement du signal a la commande des machines tournantes

    OpenAIRE

    Hilairet, Mickaël

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of our research was the application of Kalman filters and frequency estimators for the sensorless speed estimation of electrical machines with a restrained computational cost.Extended Kalman filters are frequently used to estimate the flux and rotor velocity of an induction machine. Generally, these filters are implemented through their conventional equations, although their large computational burden. Therefore, we present a modification of the Kalman filter equations tha...

  7. Interactive data visualization foundations, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Matthew; Keim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Visualization is the process of representing data, information, and knowledge in a visual form to support the tasks of exploration, confirmation, presentation, and understanding. This book is designed as a textbook for students, researchers, analysts, professionals, and designers of visualization techniques, tools, and systems. It covers the full spectrum of the field, including mathematical and analytical aspects, ranging from its foundations to human visual perception; from coded algorithms for different types of data, information and tasks to the design and evaluation of new visualization techniques. Sample programs are provided as starting points for building one's own visualization tools. Numerous data sets have been made available that highlight different application areas and allow readers to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different visualization methods. Exercises, programming projects, and related readings are given for each chapter. The book concludes with an examination of several existin...

  8. Raisonnement géométrique et méthodes de décision en robotique : application à la programmation automatique des robots

    OpenAIRE

    Laugier, Christian

    1987-01-01

    Présentation des 2 catégories de techniques permettant de faire évoluer un robot. Description de la programmation des robots (grâce à des outils de programmation et simulation graphique) et de la programmation automatique en utilisant la modélisation géométrique

  9. Effet des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols, zaï forestier et cordons pierreux, sur la réhabilitation de la végétation herbacée à l'Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yameogo, Jérôme T.; Hien, Mipro; Lykke, Anne Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Dans la perspective de trouver des solutions pour remédier au problème de dégradation des ressources naturelles en milieu forestier, des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols ont été appliquées dans la forêt classée de Kuinima, à l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. L’étude a consisté au suivi de l......’évolution de la strate herbacée sur des parcelles où ont été appliquées des techniques de traitement par du zaï forestier et des cordons pierreux. Sur ces parcelles, l’herbe a été récoltée sur des placettes de 1 m2 par la méthode de la récolte intégrale pour suivre l’évolution de la biomasse. Les placettes ont...

  10. Magnetic force control technique in industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques of the magnetic force control have been examined for industrial application. The problems and the technique are different in dispersion medium of gas and that of liquid. In addition, the method is different depending on the magnetic characteristic of the target objects. In case of the liquid, the dispersion medium having different viscosity was examined. The separation speed is decided with the magnitude of the magnetic force because a drag force increases with the viscosity. When the water is the dispersion medium, magnetic seeding is possible and hence the nonmagnetic materials can be separated and even the dissolved material could be separated. The separation technique has been used for purifying the waste water form paper mill or wash water of drum. On the other hand when the water is not dispersion medium, mainly the ferromagnetism particle becomes the target object because the magnetic seeding becomes difficult. The iron fragments have been separated from the slurry of slicing machine of solar battery. It has been clarified high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) can be applied for the viscous fluid of which viscosity was as high as 10 Pa s. When the dispersion medium is gaseous material, the air is important. The drag force from air depends greatly on Reynolds number. When speed of the air is small, the Reynolds number is small, and the drag force is calculated by the Stokes' law of resistance. The study with gaseous dispersion medium is not carried out much. The magnetic separation will discuss the possibility of the industrial application of this technique.

  11. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  12. DE LA CONVERGENCE TECHNIQUE A LA MIGRATION DES FONCTIONS DE COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paquienseguy, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    Tenter ici de marquer le passage des technologies de l'information et de la communication premières du nom comme le vidéotex, les messageries professionnelles de type Atlas 400, les CD-Roms et leurs lecteurs à celles, numériques, qui se répandent sous nos yeux.

  13. OUVELLES VOIES DE SYNTHESE D'HETEROCYCLES AZOTES DANS DES CONDITIONS DE LA "CHIMIE VERTE " : APPLICATION A LA SYNTHESE DES 2-AMINOPYRIDINES ET DES 2-PYRIDONES.

    OpenAIRE

    KIBOU, ZAHIRA

    2014-01-01

    Les dérivés des 2-Aminopyridines et des 2-pyridones constituent deux classes de composes appartenant a la famille des hétérocycles azotés, elles sont présentes dans de nombreux produiuts naturels aux activités biologiques intéressantes et variées. Les synthèses décrites dans la litérature de ce type de composés sont nombreuses. Nous avons envisagé deux approches synthétiques pour ces hétérocyles.

  14. Description d'un processus de debureaucratisation de l'appareil administratif etatique au moyen de differentes techniques de gestion des ressources humaines

    OpenAIRE

    Thibault DUVILLIER

    2000-01-01

    Le but de cet exposé1 consiste à expliquer un processus de débureaucratisation de l'appareil administratif étatique au moyen de techniques de gestion des Ressources humaines. Pour ce faire, il convient de s'entendre sur le concept de bureaucratie autant que sur celui de gestion des Ressources humaines. En disséquant une organisation définie comme bureaucratique en ses diverses composantes, nous pourrons ainsi mieux émettre des pistes de débureaucratisation. Précisément, les différentes techni...

  15. Aide à la décision dans le pilotage des flux matériels et patients d'un plateau médico-technique

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami, Sondes

    2006-01-01

    Le travail présenté dans le cadre de cette thèse est dédié à l'étude d'un système de production de services: les établissements de soins. Nous nous sommes intéressé plus particulièrement au plateau médico-technique, ressource goulot et coûteuse des établissements de soins. La question est d'améliorer ou de maintenir la qualité des soins tout en minimisant les coûts. Vers le plateau médico-technique converge l'ensemble des flux patients et des flux matériels nécessaires aux opérations. Ainsi l...

  16. Description d'un processus de debureaucratisation de l'appareil administratif etatique au moyen de differentes techniques de gestion des ressources humaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault DUVILLIER

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet exposé1 consiste à expliquer un processus de débureaucratisation de l'appareil administratif étatique au moyen de techniques de gestion des Ressources humaines. Pour ce faire, il convient de s'entendre sur le concept de bureaucratie autant que sur celui de gestion des Ressources humaines. En disséquant une organisation définie comme bureaucratique en ses diverses composantes, nous pourrons ainsi mieux émettre des pistes de débureaucratisation. Précisément, les différentes techniques de gestion des Ressources humaines dont je ferai état ici permettront de faciliter le changement organisationnel souhaité.

  17. Outrepasser les limites des techniques classiques de Prise d'Empreintes grace aux Reseaux de Neurones

    CERN Document Server

    Burroni, Javier

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of Artificial Intelligence techniques to the field of Information Security. The problem of remote Operating System (OS) Detection, also called OS Fingerprinting, is a crucial step of the penetration testing process, since the attacker (hacker or security professional) needs to know the OS of the target host in order to choose the exploits that he will use. OS Detection is accomplished by passively sniffing network packets and actively sending test packets to the target host, to study specific variations in the host responses revealing information about its operating system. The first fingerprinting implementations were based on the analysis of differences between TCP/IP stack implementations. The next generation focused the analysis on application layer data such as the DCE RPC endpoint information. Even though more information was analyzed, some variation of the "best fit" algorithm was still used to interpret this new information. Our new approach involves an analysis of the compos...

  18. Modélisation des processus physiques et biologiques dans des fosses septiques et voies de valorisation des boues de vidange:Application à Bujumbura-Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Nsavyimana, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Dans les pays en développement (PED) en général et au Burundi en particulier, la problématique de gestion des eaux usées et des déchets solides constitue un enjeu majeur pour les spécialistes et les autorités locales. En effet, suite à un manque des stations d'épuration collectives au Burundi, les fosses septiques sont les plus utilisées pour gérer les eaux usées produites. Cependant, les processus qui s'y déroulent ne sont pas encore maîtrisés et la gestion des boues de vidange lorsque c...

  19. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble 111In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration

  20. Clinical Application of the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshihiro; Kurosawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method with which to measure respiratory system resistance and reactance during tidal breathing. Recently, its clinical application has spread worldwide with the expansion of commercially available broadband frequency FOT devices, including MostGraph and Impulse Oscillometry. An increasing number of reports have supported the usefulness of the FOT in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the FOT is not a surrogate test for spirometry, but should be used complementarily. Furthermore, reference values are not necessarily available and the interpretation of some measured data is controversial. There is a need to update the international statement for not only technical aspects but also the clinical use of the FOT. In this review, we summarize the previously published studies and discuss how to use the FOT in a clinical setting. PMID:26984069

  1. MR cholangiography: techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Panebianco, V.; Catalano, C.; Lobina, L.; Passariello, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) is a new non-invasive imaging technique for the evaluation of bilio-pancreatic disorders. Different sequences, using both breathhold and non-breathhold techniques, have been employed in order to obtain MRCP images. The authors discuss the technical aspects, particularly focusing their attention on a non-breathhold, three-dimensional, fat-suppressed turbo-spin-echo sequence, optimized on a 0.5-T magnet with 15 mT/m gradients. Clinical applications of MRCP are evaluated, presenting data from both the literature and personal experience. The main indication for MRCP study is represented by the evaluation of common bile duct obstruction, with the aim of assessing the presence of the obstruction (accuracy 85-100 %) and, subsequently, its level (accuracy 91-100 %) and its cause. The utility of associating conventional MR images to MRCP in malignant strictures in order to characterize and stage the malignant lesions is also discussed. Finally, data are presented regarding the indications and utility of MR pancreatography in the evaluation of patients with chronic pancreatitis. (orig.) With 11 figs., 45 refs.

  2. Neutron radiographic techniques, facilities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a collection of three papers, written for presentation on two international conferences. The first paper: ''Neutron radiography. Techniques and facilities'', written by J.P. Barton of N-Ray Engineering Co. La Jolla, CA., USA and J.C. Domanus was presented at the International Symposium on the Use and Development of Low and Medium Flux Research Reactors at the Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 16-19 October 1983. The second paper: ''Neutron radiography with the DR-1 reactor at Risoe National Laboratory'', written by J.C. Domanus, was presented at the same Symposium. The third paper: ''Defects in nuclear fuel revealed by neutron radiography'', written by J.C. Domanus is accepted for presentation on 18 October 1984 to the 3rd European Conference on Nondestructive Testing, Florence, Italy, 15-18 October 1984. While the first paper describes the principles of neutron radiographic techniques and facilities, the second one describes an example of such facility and the third gives an example of application of neutron radiography in the field of nuclear fuel. (author)

  3. Analyse du transfert de l'information scientifique et technique entre les secteurs public et privé. Etude des co-publications dans les revues scientifiques espagnoles

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Toledo, Elea; Román Román, Adelaida; Rostaing, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    Ce travail expose comment les techniques bibliométriques peuvent répondre en partie à des démarches d'évaluation des échanges entre les acteurs du système Science-Technologie-Société. Cette étude bibliométrique s'est plus particulièrement focalisée sur l'évaluation des collaborations scientifiques par une analyse des co-publications entre les acteurs espagnols du secteur public (représentants la Science) et ceux du secteur privé (représentants la Technologie) pour la période 1995-1999. Le cor...

  4. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  5. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments; Application des chargeurs solaires aux appareils de prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [French] L'utilisation de piles classiques presente certains inconvenients. C'est pourquoi, dans tous les appareils de prospection, les piles fournissant des tensions elevees ont ete remplacees au fur et a mesure par des alimentations a base de transistors, utilisant des sources d'energie moins encombrantes. Toutefois, il faut tout de meme avoir des tensions faibles et l'utilisation de ces piles entraine dans les pays chauds ou humides une consommation disproportionnee par rapport aux services rendus. C'est pourquoi l'emploi de l'energie solaire presente de reels avantages. Cet expose decrit, apres un rappel de notion de base sur les semi-conducteurs, une batterie solaire a base de selenium qui a ete realisee par la Societe des freins et signaux Westinghouse. (auteur)

  6. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  7. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  8. Thermodynamic Aspects of Supercritical Fluids Processing: Applications of Polymers and Wastes Treatment Aspects thermodynamiques des procédés mettant en oeuvre des fluides supercritiques : applications aux traitements des polymères et des déchets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslin P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid processes are of increasing interest for many fields : in supercritical fluid separation (petroleum-chemistry separation and purification, food industry and supercritical fluid chromatography (analytical and preparative separation, determination of physicochemical properties; as reaction media with continuously adjustable properties from gas to liquid (low-density polyethylene, waste destruction, polymer recycling; in geology and mineralogy (volcanoes, geothermal energy, hydrothermal synthesis; in particle, fibber and substrate formations (pharmaceuticals, explosives, coatings; in drying materials (gels. This paper presents the unusual physicochemical properties of supercritical fluids in relation to their engineering applications. After a short report of fundamental concepts of critical behavior in pure fluids, we develop in more details the tunable physicochemical properties of fluid in the supercritical domain. The second part of this paper describes the engineering applications of supercritical fluids relevant of chemical reactions and polymer processing. Each application presentation is divided in two parts : the first one recalls the basic concepts including general background, physicochemical properties and the second one develops the engineering applications relevant of the advocated domain. La mise en Suvre des fluides supercritiques est d'un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines : pour la séparation (séparation et purification en pétrochimie, industrie alimentaire et la chromatographie par fluides supercritiques (séparation analytique et préparatoire, détermination des propriétés physicochimiques, comme milieux réactifs aux propriétés continûment ajustables allant du gaz au liquide (polyéthylène de faible densité, élimination des déchets, recyclage des polymères, en géologie et en minéralogie (volcanologie, énergie géothermique, synthèse hydrothermique, dans la formation des particules

  9. Commande des systèmes à commutation : applications aux systèmes électriques

    OpenAIRE

    Amet, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Dans ce travail de thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'une bourse CIFRE entre le laboratoire ECS-Lab et l'entreprise GS Maintenance, nous nous sommes intéressés au contrôle et à l'observation des systèmes électriques, particulièrement les convertisseur multicellulaires séries et les moteurs à courant continu série.Dans la topologie des convertisseurs multicellulaires il est nécessaire d'équilibrer les tensions des condensateurs flottants à des valeurs spécifiques. Les techniques de commande par Mo...

  10. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  11. PREPARATION DES COMPOSITES BENTONITE-DERIVES DE P4VP APPLICATION A LA RETENTION DES COLORANTS TEXTILE

    OpenAIRE

    GADIRI, ANISSA

    2014-01-01

    Les industries du textile rejettent de grandes quantités d‘eaux usées présentant un risque de toxicité. Il existe déjà des traitements tels que l‘adsorption sur charbon actif qui est un processus efficace mais onéreux et qui produit une boue constituant elle même une menace environnementale. Les argiles, les poly (4-vinylpyridine) et ses dérivées pourraient être des matériaux adsorbants alternatifs à la fois économiques et moins polluants. Beaucoup d‘auteurs ont étudié l‘adsorptio...

  12. Contribution à la modélisation des structures SIW et SINRD pour application micro-ondes et télécommunication

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Alhzzoury, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Les développements technologiques en télécommunication et microondes tendent depuis plusieurs années vers la miniaturisation des circuits, une réduction des coûts, des masses et des pertes dans ces dispositifs. Les circuits SIW (Substrate Integrated Waveguide) s’inscrivent tout à fait dans cette mouvance et font à l’heure actuelle l’objet de nombreux sujets de recherche avec des applications directes dans l’industrie. Les circuits SINRD (Substrate Integrated Non Radiative Dielectric) utilisen...

  13. Technique de la cinématique inverse pour l'étude des rendements isotopiques des fragments de fission aux énergies GANIL

    OpenAIRE

    Delaune, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Les caractéristiques des distributions des produits de fission sont le résultat des propriétés dynamiques et quantiques du processus de déformation du noyau fissionnant. Ces distributions représentent également un intérêt pour la conception de nouveaux réacteurs nucléaires ou pour l'incinération de déchets radioactifs. Jusqu'à présent, notre compréhension de la fission nucléaire reste limitée du fait de restrictions expérimentales. En particulier, les rendements des produits de fission lourds...

  14. Application and industrialization of irradiation processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation processing technique is a new processing technique. At present, there are 40 sets of electron accelerators have been built or are building for industry are, total power comes to 1436 kw. The products provided have been 8 types and several ten kinds. Current status of radiation processing technique at home and abroad are reviewed

  15. Gestion patrimoniale des réseaux d’eau potable. Politiques d’investissement et gestion des immobilisations : cadre et bonnes pratiques. Une vision à la croisée des approches techniques, comptables et financières. Synthèse

    OpenAIRE

    ASTEE groupe de travail gestion patrimoniale AEP- immobilisations; Werey, C.

    2013-01-01

    / La pratique actuelle des services d’eau potable est souvent basée sur l’établissement d’un programme de renouvellement / réhabilitation réalisé à partir de l’expérience des agents et de leur connaissance du réseau ou à partir d’outils d’aide à la décision utilisant des données d’exploitations et d’investigation. C’est ce que nous appelons l’approche « technique » de la gestion patrimoniale qui définit les besoins. Se pose ensu...

  16. Gestion patrimoniale des réseaux d’eau potable. Politiques d’investissement et gestion des immobilisations : cadre et bonnes pratiques. Une vision à la croisée des approches techniques, comptables et financières. Guide complet juillet 2014

    OpenAIRE

    103-111,; Werey, C.

    2014-01-01

    / La pratique actuelle des services d’eau potable est souvent basée sur l’établissement d’un programme de renouvellement / réhabilitation réalisé à partir de l’expérience des agents et de leur connaissance du réseau ou à partir d’outils d’aide à la décision utilisant des données d’exploitations et d’investigation. C’est ce que nous appelons l’approche « technique » de la gestion patrimoniale qui définit les besoins. Se pose ensuite l...

  17. From the coupling between ion beam analysis techniques and physico-chemical characterization methods to the study of irradiation effects on materials behaviour; Du couplage des techniques d'analyse par faisceaux d'ions et des methodes de caracterisation physico-chimique a l'etude des effets d'irradiation sur le comportement des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard-Pinard, N

    2003-07-01

    The general purpose of my research work is to follow and to interpret the surface evolution of materials, which have received several treatments. During my PhD and my post-doc work, my field of research was tribology. Since I arrived in the 'Aval du Cycle Electronucleaire' group of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, my research activities are in line with the CNRS program 'PACE ' (Programme sur l'Aval du Cycle Electronucleaire) within the ACTINET network. They are coordinated by the PARIS (Physico-chimie des actinides et autres radioelements en solution et aux interfaces) and NOMADE (NOuveaux MAteriaux pour les DEchets) GDR with ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), EDF and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire) as partner organisations. My work focused on the study of fission products and actinides migration in barrier materials, which may be capable of assuring the long term safety of deep geological repositories. Until now, it was necessary to use the coupling of ion beam analysis techniques and physico-chemical characterization techniques. During the last few months, I have became interested in understanding radiolytic effects. This new orientation has led us to use ion beams as an irradiating tool. These irradiation experiments are pursued in three major projects. The study of cobalt sulfide inhibition effects of radiolysis gas production during the irradiation of model organic molecules. This is a collaboration with the IRSN, the Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse and the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne. A PhD, co-directed by M. Pijolat from ENSMSE and myself, concerning this study will start in October 2003. Water radiolysis effects on iron corrosion are also studied in the particular case of vitrified nuclear waste containers, which will be stored in deep geological repositories. One ANDRA financed PhD, co-directed by Nathalie Moncoffre and myself, is

  18. Étude comparative des techniques de filtrage non-linéaire appliquées à la localisation 2D d'un véhicule en temps réel

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Cyril; Betaille, David; Peyret, François

    2008-01-01

    Étude comparative des techniques de filtrage non-linéaire appliquées à la localisation 2D d'un véhicule en temps réel. Le contexte général des travaux rapportés dans cet article concerne la localisation de véhicules dans les systèmes d'aide à la conduite (ADAS), où les fonctionnalités de navigation, d'aide à la conduite et de coopération avec l'infrastructure seront bien plus avancées qu'aujourd'hui. Pour ces applications, la localisation vise une précision métrique, y compris en milieu urbai...

  19. Continuous surveillance of transformers using artificial intelligence methods; Surveillance continue des transformateurs: application des methodes d'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, A.; Germond, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Boss, P.; Lorin, P. [ABB Secheron SA, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The article describes a new method for the continuous surveillance of power transformers based on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. An experimental pilot project on a specially equipped, strategically important power transformer is described. Traditional surveillance methods and the use of mathematical models for the prediction of faults are described. The article describes the monitoring equipment used in the pilot project and the AI principles such as self-organising maps that are applied. The results obtained from the pilot project and methods for their graphical representation are discussed.

  20. ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE CERN 2004: Instructor-led WBTechT Course for Microsoft Applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Aimeriez-vous améliorer vos connaissances des applications de Microsoft Office ou d'Outlook ? Un nouveau cours, combinant un cours avec professeur et une formation multi-media sur ordinateur, est proposé par l'Enseignement Technique : Instructor-led CERN Web-based Technical Training (WBTechT) Course for Microsoft Applications. La prochaine session aura lieu le 1er avril 2004 matin. Ces sessions sont de forme "auto-formation", les participants étant autonomes tout en ayant accès au soutien du professeur lorsqu'ils sont dans la salle de cours. Les sujets proposés sont les applications de Microsoft Office XP (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access) ainsi qu'Outlook, déclinés aux niveaux introduction, intermédiaire et avancé. Consultez le portail 2004 CERN WBTechT, où vous trouverez le contenu détaillé des cours du catalogue "Microsoft Office XP". Aucune expérience préalable en auto-formation utilisant le Web n'est nécessaire : chaque session débutera par une introduction à l'E-formation et par l'insc...

  1. Techniques et Innovation : Acteurs, idées, territoires, XVIIIe - XIXe siècles : Note de Synthèse. Habilitation à diriger des Recherches

    OpenAIRE

    Garçon, Anne-Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Exercice obligé d'ego-histoire dans lequel l'auteur opère la synthèse de ses travaux, les réfère à sa formation et à son expérience professionnelle et présente ses projets de recherche en histoire et archéologie des techniques.

  2. Application of Machine Learning Techniques in Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture. Machine learning algorithms learn models from historical data. In aquaculture historical data are obtained from farm practices, yields, and environmental data sources. Associations between these different variables can be obtained by applying machine learning algorithms to historical data. In this paper we present applications of different machine learning algorithms in aquaculture applications.

  3. Audit Techniques for Service Oriented Architecture Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Adrian COTFAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA approach enables the development of flexible distributed applications. Auditing such applications implies several specific challenges related to interoperability, performance and security. The service oriented architecture model is described and the advantages of this approach are analyzed. We also highlight several quality attributes and potential risks in SOA applications that an architect should be aware when designing a distributed system. Key risk factors are identified and a model for risk evaluation is introduced. The top reasons for auditing SOA applications are presented as well as the most important standards. The steps for a successful audit process are given and discussed.

  4. Managerial Techniques Applicable in Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana POP

    2012-01-01

    The paper I propose is based on the hypothesis that some managerial techniques applied in physical education classes, on higher education level, could increase the teaching quality and efficiency with positive effects on student’s results. The improvement of working relationship and emotional environment between students and professor during the classes through communication, motivation and authority delegation techniques brings, on the students’ side, a positive perception about practice and...

  5. DOveHOStructures de proximité versus plateaux techniques en cancérologie : analyse organisationnelle et des préférences des patients dans le contexte des soins de support

    OpenAIRE

    Buthion, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Alors que la question des soins à domicile est présentée comme une alternative hospitalière à la fois appréciée des personnes malades et moins coûteuse pour la collectivité, la question de ce qui, dans l’organisation des soins, peut influencer le choix ou l’acceptation des personnes pour l’une ou l’autre des alternatives est peu abordée. Partant de l’hypothèse qu’il serait pertinent de s’interroger sur la nature de la demande de soins ainsi que la façon dont les patients et leur entourage, tr...

  6. Quel apport des professionnels de l'Information Scientifique et Technique dans le dispositif de veille d'un organisme de recherche?

    OpenAIRE

    Brachet-Ducos, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Dans un monde de plus en plus compétitif, les organismes de recherche se doivent d'utiliser des dispositifs spécifiques de gestion stratégique de l'information pour anticiper et favoriser l'innovation en augmentant la pertinence, la finalité et la qualité des recherches menées en leur sein. Les professionnels de l'Information Scientifique et Technique (IST) accompagnent la collecte et la diffusion de cette information. Avec l'avènement d'Internet et de la mondialisation, les flux d'informatio...

  7. Monsieur Omar Fassi Fihri Secrétaire perpétuel Académie HASSAN II des Sciences et Techniques Royaume du Maroc

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    CERN-HI-1007135 01: M. Gouighri, Boursier de l’Académie des Sciences, Université Hassan II; J. Collot, Directeur du Laboratoire international associé; R. Heuer,\tDirecteur général du CERN;O. Fassi Fehri, Secrétaire perpétuel, Académie Hassan II des Sciences et Techniques, Maroc; S. Boutouil, Boursière du Laboratoire international associé; R. Klapisch, Fondation Partager le Savoir, Président et fondateur; G.Carnot, Président de la Fondation Carnot.

  8. Vers une acquisition automatique de connaissances d'adaptation par examen de la base de cas --- une approche fondée sur des techniques d'extraction de connaissances dans des bases de données

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aquin, Mathieu; Brachais, Sébastien; Lieber, Jean; Napoli, Amedeo

    2004-01-01

    Cet article présente une approche pour apprendre automatiquement des connaissances d'adaptation destinées à un système de raisonnement à partir de cas. Cet apprentissage s'appuie sur la base de cas, l'idée étant que, pour deux cas de cette base, leur différence est interprétée comme le résultat d'un processus d'adaptation. La technique d'apprentissage utilisée est l'extraction de motifs fréquents, technique de fouille de données qui suppose un formatage % des données sous la forme d'un ensemb...

  9. Development of fricriveting as a new joining technique for polymer and lightweight alloys; Entwicklung des Reibnietens als neues Fuegeverfahren fuer Kunststoff und Leichtbaulegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amancio-Filho, S.T.; Santos, J.F. dos [GKSS Forschungszentrum GmbH, Institut fuer Werkstoffforschung, Werkstoffmechanik, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The increasing demand on environmental consciousness, cost savings and high performance end products has been guiding scientists and engineers to a constant development of new materials and technologies. This class of lightweight structures are specially used in industrial fields such as transportation and modern civil engineering. Currently available joining methods for polymer-metal structures (adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening) are usually application-specific, presenting high operational costs, limited mechanical performance or are not environmental friendly. A new Friction Riveting technique for polymeric-metallic joints was developed, demonstrated and characterized in this work, as an alternative, reliable, environmental compatible and economically viable spot joining process. In the simplest process variant a rotating cylindrical metallic rivet is inserted in one or more thermoplastic base plates. The high rotation speed and pressure increase friction and heat is generated. When the preset time is achieved the temperature highly increases and the rivet tip plasticizes. At this point rotation is decelerated and the axial pressure increased, so the plasticized rivet tip becomes deformed; after cooling it becomes anchored in the polymeric base plate. In this work case-study joints on commercially available polyetherimide (PEI) and aluminium 2024-T351 (Al-Cu-Mg alloy) were chosen for demonstrating proposed theories and mechanisms of FricRiveting. Sound friction riveted point-on-plate and single-rivet overlap joints with elevated joint efficiencies in terms of base materials strength were obtained (tensile joint efficiencies of about 97 % of the rivet strength and shear joint efficiencies of about 70 % of the polymer strength) through tensile and lap shear testing at room temperature. Finally, the microstructural changes and properties were described for this case-study joint. The feasibility of FricRiveting was demonstrated in this work by the presented

  10. Ultrasound tomography techniques and application to thermometry

    OpenAIRE

    Nebeker, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the results of our work in developing Ultrasound Tomography for breast imaging and is divided into the following topics. First, we describe a new pulse- echo-based technique for creating detailed maps of sound beams and show results of the technique on a clinical ultrasound system. We map all A-Line beams and make quantitative measurements in the lateral and elevational plane, and quantify reflection and refraction caused by a cylinder of glycerin. Next, we explore our fi...

  11. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  12. Bathymetric techniques and Indian Ocean applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Fernandes, W.A.

    and Its Applications Edited by: Philippe Blondel ISBN 978-953-307-959-2, Hard cover, 148 pages Publisher: InTech Publication date: January 2012 Subject: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences Bathymetry is the only way to explore, measure...

  13. Big data for development : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anwaar; Qadir, Junaid; ur Rasool, Raihan; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Zwitter, Andrej; Crowcroft, Jon

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of social media sites and proliferation of digital computing devices and Internet access, massive amounts of public data is being generated on a daily basis. Efficient techniques/algorithms to analyze this massive amount of data can provide near real-time information about emergin

  14. Caractérisation de la variabilité des performances des bétons : Application à la durabilité des structures

    OpenAIRE

    Torrenti, Jean Michel

    2009-01-01

    Le programme de recherche APPLET "Durée de vie des ouvrages : Approche Prédictive Performantielle et probabiliste" (cf. communication de Ch. Cremona sur le programme), a été financé par l'Agence Nationale de la Recherche en 2007 pour une durée de 3 ans et bénéficie d'une labellisation du pôle de compétitivité ADVANCITY. Son consortium est composé du LCPC (pilote), d'entreprises (Vinci Construction, Oxand, LERM), de laboratoires de recherche (CEA/LECBA, LRMH, LEPTIAB, GHYMAC, LMDC, LMT, LML),...

  15. Bilans énergétiques et environnementaux des systèmes type dans les filières biogaz : Application au traitement des boues résiduaires en France

    OpenAIRE

    ALMANSOUR, Essam; BONNET, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Le biogaz constitue, dans l’optique des transports durables, une solution possible pour la production de carburant renouvelable. Les bilans énergétiques et environnementaux doivent être produits et comparés afin d’évaluer les alternatives en bilan global. Pour la France, une filière type décrivant le traitement par méthanisation des boues des stations d’épurations urbaines en France a été définie et étudiée par enquêtes techniques, sous la forme de systèmes type. Le bilan environnemental est ...

  16. Banques de séquences pour la taxinomie des phytovirus : l'analyse factorielle des correspondances appliquée à la classification des géminivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, D.; Fauquet, Claude; Fargette, Denis; Vidal, G.

    1992-01-01

    Cet article présente un exemple d'utilisation des banques de données moléculaires, comme source d'information, et de l'analyse factorielle des correspondances, comme technique d'analyse, pour la recherche taxinomique, ceci dans un pays en développement. L'application de cette technique statistique multivariée à la classification des virus de plantes permet de dégager des critères taxinomiques cohérents basés sur la composition en acides aminés, dinucléotides et codons de la protéine capsidair...

  17. Using Concept Map Technique in Accounting Education: Uludag University Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan, Yasemin; Yücel, Elif; Saraç, Mehlika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years accounting applications become more complicated because of the growing markets and developing technology. Therefore the requirements of accounting education have increased and trying some new learning techniques have become necessary. Thus, this study was prepared to measure the contribution of concept map technique, used in accounting lessons, to the effect on students learning level. In the first part of the study, the concept map technique and its applications were explaine...

  18. Nitrous Oxide Formation and Destruction by Industrial No Abatement Techniques Including Scr Emissions des protoxides d'azote par des techniques industrielles d'abattement de NO y compris le SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    'investigations systématiques concernant les émissions de N2O d'unités de combustion stationnaire d'échelle industrielle, équipées de technologies d'abatement de NO. Les études effectuées en laboratoire, présentées ici, suggèrent que des techniques d'étagement du combustible, de réduction sélective non catalytique (NCSR et catalytique (CSR du NO, doivent être considérées comme des sources potentielles d'augmentation des émissions de protoxyde d'azote. L'étude utilise un réacteur (fig. 1 permettant l'étagement de flammes laminaires C2H4/O2/Ar en deux fractions Fl et F2, respectivement caractérisées par un débit D1 et D2 et une richesse R1 et R2; Rg désigne la richesse globale des deux fractions. La fraction Fl brûle sous forme de flamme de prémélange plate sur un brûleur (B1 constitué d'une plaque en bronze fritté; la fraction F2, injecté dans une double couronne à points d'injection multiples (B2 brûle sous forme de flamme de diffusion, après mélange avec les produits de combustion de la fraction Fl. La distance (X entre les deux brûleurs B1 et B2 est variable. 1. Formation de N2O due à l'étagement du combustible Le monoxyde d'azote est introduit en prémélange avec la fraction Fl. Sa concentration après mélange avec les produits de combustion de Fl est désignée par NOin. La figure 2 donne la fraction de l'azote du NO transformée en N2O (Fn en fonction de R1 avec Rg comme paramètre. Les températures mesurées au point d'injection (Tx y correspondant sont présentées sur la figure 3. On observe (1 qu'une séquence de stratification riche - pauvre est généralement plus favorable à la formation de N2O qu'une séquence pauvre - riche (fig. 1, (2 que Fn diminue lorsque Tx augmente (fig. 4 et 5 ou lorsque la concentration de l'oxygène décroît (fig. 6. Ces tendances, généralement observées dans le cas de la combustion en phase gazeuse, s'expliquent qualitativement par les réactions principales de formation et de destruction du N2O

  19. La digestion ruminale des amidons : cinétique et applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Après avoir présenté la micropopulation ruminale, la place de l'amidon dans l'alimentation des ruminants, et rappelé les principes de la digestion ruminale, l'auteur a développé les voies de dégradation des glucides. Il a ensuite dressé un bilan des connaissances actuelles sur les aspects cinétiques de la dégradation de l'amidon des principales matières premières. Cela a permis de constater des variations importantes entre les sources d'amidon, qui s'expliquent principalement par la variabili...

  20. Etude du potentiel des sous-produits vinicoles pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée

    OpenAIRE

    Berchem, Thomas; Jacquet, Nicolas; Richel, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    d’une population mondiale en expansion constante, il est primordial de trouver des voies de production plus durables pour les produits de consommation courante. La chimie biobasée et le bioraffinage constituent une alternative à laquelle il convient de porter une grande attention. La très grande quantité de biomasse constituée par les déchets verts produits à l’échelle planétaire représente une ressource énergétique et chimique très peu exploitée jusqu’à présent. Les sous-produits vini...

  1. Techniques for Finding Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Sandulescu

    2014-01-01

    The current trend is to move everything on the Internet. Because a lot of companies store sensitive user information, security has become mandatory. Usually, software developers don’t follow some basic practices in order to secure their applications. This paper will present in the second chapter, the white-box, black-box and gray-box methods which can be used in order to test applications for possible vulnerabilities. It focuses on fuzz testing, which is a black-box testing method, presented ...

  2. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far...... retrospective assessment of accident doses received by the population after a nuclear accident. The development of new luminescence techniques after the Chernobyl accident has considerably improved the sensitivity and precision in the evaluation of accident doses. This paper reviews the development work......, especially on optically stimulated luminescence methods for retrospective assessment of accident doses carried out at Riso National Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Helsinki as part bf a joint European Union research project. We demonstrate that doses lower than 100 mGy can be measured from...

  3. Application of estimation techniques to biotechnical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Liang

    1991-01-01

    It is acknowledged that to significantly improve biochemical system performance control should be implemented in real-time. Control algorithms, particularly modem control algorithms, require knowledge of the process dynamics and continuous measurement or detection of the system states and outputs. In many processes state variables cannot be measured on-line due, for example, to the non-availability of on-line sensors. Estimation techniques can be applied to estimate nonmeasurable state variab...

  4. Big Data For Development: Applications and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Anwaar; Qadir, Junaid; Rasool, Raihan ur; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Zwitter, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    With the explosion of social media sites and proliferation of digital computing devices and Internet access, massive amounts of public data is being generated on a daily basis. Efficient techniques/ algorithms to analyze this massive amount of data can provide near real-time information about emerging trends and provide early warning in case of an imminent emergency (such as the outbreak of a viral disease). In addition, careful mining of these data can reveal many useful indicators of socioe...

  5. Application of Tuina Techniques to Spinal Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Min; SHEN Guo-quan; YAN Jun-tao; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    @@ It's one of the earliest medical techniques to relieve pain, restore health and enjoy comfort with manipulations. Knowledge on spinal neck pain, shoulder pain, low back pain and leg pain can be traced back to the early stage of human evolution and upright position of two legs. Therefore the history of treating spinal diseases with Tuina or manipulations probably keeps the same pace with civilization.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy - application and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the scanning electron microscope, and other image forming scanning systems (STEM and the nuclear microprobe), to a range of nuclear reactor problems is described. Particular attention is given to the solution of fracture problems. Autoradiography, electron spectroscopy, and an investigation of irradiation damage in boron carbide using the transmission electron microscope are also described. (author)

  7. Des Chiffres et des Lettres : distraction, variations, habitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Laborde

    2011-01-01

    Cet article envisage une des émissions les plus anciennes du Paysage Audiovisuel Français : Des Chiffres et des Lettres. La sérialité que l’émission met en œuvre au cours de son histoire est faite de variations qui témoignent à la fois des évolutions des techniques audiovisuelles, des logiques de programmations, des attentes spectatorielles. Ce jeu télévisé, toujours le même et pourtant toujours différent, permet à la fois la reconnaissance immédiate et la perception d'un changement, double a...

  8. Simulation of Engine Internal Flows Using Digital Physics Simulation des écoulements dans les moteurs avec la technique Digital Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulations of engine intake port and cylinder flows performed using PowerFLOW software. The numerical technique behind PowerFLOW, called Digital Physics, is based on statistical kinetic theory and it is numerically stable, so divergence does not occur during calculations. Digital Physics uses large numbers of computational cells with a simple turbulence model, giving grid-independence and high levels of accuracy. In addition, the technique is explicit in time, and so a transient simulation is always obtained. The paper outlines the numerical technique and presents details of an engine port and cylinder simulation. Cet article présente la simulation des écoulements dans les conduits d'admission et dans les cylindres avec le code PowerFLOW. La technique numérique sur laquelle repose PowerFLOW, appelée Digital Physics , est basée sur une théorie statistique de la cinétique. Elle est numériquement stable. La technique Digital Physicsutilise un nombre élevé de mailles de calcul avec un modèle de turbulence simple procurant une indépendance du maillage et une précision élevée. De plus, la méthodologie est explicite en temps, permettant la simulation des transitoires. Des simulations d'écoulements dans les conduits d'admission et dans les cylindres sont présentées.

  9. FORMATION 2005 Pour L'Afrique SURLA TECHNIQUE DES PETITES CENTRALES HYDRO-ELECTRIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    “Le stage de formation 2005 por l'Afrique sur la technique de petites centrales hydro-electrique”est subventionnte par le Gouvernement Chinois specialement pour les pays en voie de developpement,dans le cadre de l'aide aux pays en voie de developpement.Charge par le Ministere chinois du Commerce,

  10. The application of TXRF analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis technique is introduced briefly. A small TXRF analyzer characterised by double path X-ray exciting sources and specially short optical path (15 cm) is described. Low minimum detection limit (MDL), e.g. 7 pg for Co element under Cu target tube operating at 20 kV and 6 mA, and 30 pg for Sr under Mo target tube at 46 kV and 10 mA, is achieved. Some analysis experiments for tap water, marine animal and human hair are performed and the results are given

  11. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  12. Neutron Scattering in Biology Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fitter, Jörg; Katsaras, John

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

  13. Techniques for Finding Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sandulescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trend is to move everything on the Internet. Because a lot of companies store sensitive user information, security has become mandatory. Usually, software developers don’t follow some basic practices in order to secure their applications. This paper will present in the second chapter, the white-box, black-box and gray-box methods which can be used in order to test applications for possible vulnerabilities. It focuses on fuzz testing, which is a black-box testing method, presented in the third chapter. The fourth chapter presents the stages of a fuzzing test and in the final chapter, we show a basic practical example on how to use the Burp Suite[8] fuzzer to find a vulnerability.

  14. Revisiting Aggregation Techniques for Data Intensive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation has been an important operation since the early days of relational databases. Today's Big Data applications bring further challenges when processing aggregation queries, demanding robust aggregation algorithms that can process large volumes of data efficiently in a distributed, share-nothing architecture. Moreover, aggregation on each node runs under a potentially limited memory budget (especially in multiuser settings). Despite its importance, the design and evaluation of aggrega...

  15. Application of simulation techniques in supernova physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In supernova (SN) physics, the responses of nuclear neutrino-detectors to SN neutrino-spectra, are studied by convoluting original theoretical cross sections with well known SN (anti)neutrino-energy distributions (such distributions are the two-parameter Fermi-Dirac and Power-Law distributions). Also, the interpretation of SN neutrino signals, created at various nuclear ν-detectors, is explored by applying simulation techniques in low-energy ν-tildee anti-neutrino spectra of boosted β-radioactive 6He ions (beta-beam neutrinos). In the present paper, we employ simulation techniques to analyze original SN anti-neutrino signals by using synthetic beta-beam spectra (defined as linear combinations of boosted beta-beam spectra of 6He). The quality of the fits, obtained by using the MERLIN optimization package, is in general good. From a nuclear theory point of view, the resulted nuclear responses reflect the effectiveness of some detector materials as SN neutrino detectors (COBRA, CUORE, ICARUS experiments).

  16. Application of exploration geochemistry techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples collected from Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Laguna and Quezon provinces were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co, Pb, and Ni using two analytical methods - Smith and Lynch (S and L) element extraction technique used in exploration geochemical survey and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) technique for determining zinc availability in soil. The analytical results were treated statistically using the method of Lepeltier to obtain the background values. The background, or average concentrations of the elements obtained by the S and L method were an order-higher than those computed for the IRRI method. The different metal value contour maps of northwestern Luzon were multiplied by its corresponding metal ratio, IRRI/S and L to produce the agri-geochemical maps or agri-maps that show approximate trace element levels available to the plant. The agri-maps of northwestern Luzon show a region wide deficiency in Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Co, and Ni, with the exception of Baguio Area. It has been recognized that excess deficiency in certain minor or trace elements in, particularly the essential micronutrient elements, is one of the important factors in agricultural productivity. It is therefore, recommended that in order to assure the necessary level of trace elements in northwestern Luzon, additions of at least copper, zinc and manganese be provided together with the needed fertilizer. (Author). 14 figs.; 14 refs.; 4 tabs

  17. « Les “vues” de l’esprit ». Une introduction à l’anthropologie des sciences et des techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Nous voudrions bien comprendre ce qui fait la différence entre les sciences et les autres activités, entre nos sociétés scientifiques et celles, préscientifiques, qui les ont précédées. Mais nous souhaiterions aussi trouver des explications qui soient les plus légères possibles. En appeler à des changement dans le cerveau, ou dans l’esprit, ou dans les relations sociales, ou dans les infrastructure économiques, voilà qui est trop lourd ; c’est prendre un bulldozer pour dépoter un géranium. Un...

  18. Fiches techniques Les triacylglycérols des huiles de graines de quatre Cucurbitacées tropicales des genres Lagenaria et Luffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin Isabelle

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Les huiles de graines de quatre Cucurbitacées tropicales de l’île de la Réunion, provenant respectivement de deux variétés de l’espèce Lagenaria leucaritha (calebasses bouteille et la gale et de deux espèces du genre Luffa (pipangailles lisse et à côtes, ont été analysées aussi bien pour la fraction saponifiable que pour la fraction insaponifiable. L’étude de la fraction saponifiable a été consacrée, d’une part, à la détermination de la composition quantitative et qualitative en acides gras des différentes huiles dont les résultats ont fait l’objet d’une publication antérieure [1] et, d’autre part, à celle de leurs triacylglycérols. Une comparaison des compositions en acides gras des deux genres étudiés a permis de mettre en évidence les spécificités propres à chaque genre. Les genres Lagenaria et Luffa, présentant une composition en acides gras qualitativement similaire, contiennent ainsi les AG couramment rencontrés dans le règne végétal, à savoir les acides palmitique, stéarique, oléique et linoléique. Ce dernier est, par ailleurs, l’acide gras majoritaire avec des teneurs supérieures à 50%. La présence de cet acide gras essentiel confère ainsi à ces huiles de bonnes propriétés diététiques et nutritionnelles. Au sein du genre Lagenaria, les huiles des graines des variétés bouteille et la gale se caractérisent par leur teneur élevée en acide linoléique (71,5% pour la variété bouteille, et 81,5% pour la variété la gale. Les huiles de Lagenaria leucaritha sont du type palmitique-linoléique car ces deux acides gras représentent quantitativement plus de 85% des AG totaux. Contrairement à ces deux huiles, celles du genre Luffa se différencient, d’une part, par une teneur moindre en acide linoléique avec 55,3% pour l’espèce Luffa acutangula et 51,2% pour l’espèce Luffa cylindrica. D’autre part, elles sont du type palmitique-oléique-linoléique puisque ces trois

  19. L'evolution thermique de la matière organique des sédiments : applications d'une simulation mathématique. Potentiel pétrolier des bassins sédimentaires de reconstitution de l'histoire thermique des sédiments Thermal Evolution of Organic Matter in Sediments : Application of a Mathematical Simulation. Petrleum Potential of Sedimentary Basins and Reconstructing the Thermal History of Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Tissot B.; Espitalié J.

    2006-01-01

    Au moyen d'un modèle mathématique, on simule la dégradation thermique de la matière organique des sédiments. Les applications possibles de ce modèle concernent la recherche des zones favorables pour la prospection de l'huile ou du gaz, la détermination de l'époque de formation des hydrocarbures pour la comparer avec l'âge des pièges et celui des couvertures, l'évaluation des réserves ultimes d'un bassin, ainsi que la pyrogénation des schistes bitumineux. Le type de matière organique est repré...

  20. Techniques d'Optimisation pour le Dimensionnement et la Reconfiguration des Réseaux MPLS

    OpenAIRE

    Beker, Sergio Ariel

    2004-01-01

    The calculation of virtual topologies on mapped onto physical topologies is one of the main techniques in traffic engineering. For a given physical network topology with fixed capacities, and a traffic matrix to route, the problem is the one of finding a virtual topology which will optimally route the given traffic matrix over the physical topology. When the traffic matrix evolves on long timescales, we will need to recalculate such optimal layout. Our first contribution consists in the defin...

  1. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  2. Hybrid Grid Techniques for Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomullil, Roy P.; Soni, Bharat K.; Thornburg, Hugh J.

    1996-01-01

    During the past decade, computational simulation of fluid flow for propulsion activities has progressed significantly, and many notable successes have been reported in the literature. However, the generation of a high quality mesh for such problems has often been reported as a pacing item. Hence, much effort has been expended to speed this portion of the simulation process. Several approaches have evolved for grid generation. Two of the most common are structured multi-block, and unstructured based procedures. Structured grids tend to be computationally efficient, and have high aspect ratio cells necessary for efficently resolving viscous layers. Structured multi-block grids may or may not exhibit grid line continuity across the block interface. This relaxation of the continuity constraint at the interface is intended to ease the grid generation process, which is still time consuming. Flow solvers supporting non-contiguous interfaces require specialized interpolation procedures which may not ensure conservation at the interface. Unstructured or generalized indexing data structures offer greater flexibility, but require explicit connectivity information and are not easy to generate for three dimensional configurations. In addition, unstructured mesh based schemes tend to be less efficient and it is difficult to resolve viscous layers. Recently hybrid or generalized element solution and grid generation techniques have been developed with the objective of combining the attractive features of both structured and unstructured techniques. In the present work, recently developed procedures for hybrid grid generation and flow simulation are critically evaluated, and compared to existing structured and unstructured procedures in terms of accuracy and computational requirements.

  3. Exploitation des données de la cohorte STANISLAS par des techniques de fouille de données numériques et symboliques utilisées seules ou en combinaison

    OpenAIRE

    Maumus, Sandy; Napoli, Amedeo; Szathmary, Laszlo; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    La cohorte STANISLAS est une population de familles d'origine française supposées saines, recrutées au Centre de Médecine Préventive de Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy et suivies tous les cinq ans sur une période de dix ans. Les données de la cohorte, de types numérique et textuel, représentent une richesse et un volume considérables, exploitées jusque là par des méthodes statistiques classiques. Nous proposons d'étudier ces données par des techniques de fouille de données numériques et symboliques, en ...

  4. The six-port technique with microwave and wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2009-01-01

    One of the main issues in microwave and wireless system design is to ensure high performance with low cost techniques. The six-port technique helps allow for this in critical network design areas. This practical resource offers you a thorough overview the six-port technique, from basic principles of RF measurement based techniques and multiport design, to coverage of key applications, such as vector network analyzers, software defined radio, and radar. The first book dedicated to six-port applications and principles, this volume serves as a current, one-stop guide offering you cost-effective s

  5. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  6. Méthodologies scientifiques et techniques pour approcher le vivant : comparaison des programmes scolaires France-Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Les percées en matière de biotechnologie ouvrent la voie à des transformations d’une grande portée touchant au coeur du vivant : manipulation génétique, OGM ou utilisation de cellules souches, la biologie contemporaine soulève des questions porteuses d’enjeux qui trouvent écho dans la recherche et l’enseignement des sciences. Dans ce contexte, nous avons mené une étude sur l’analyse du discours des programmes officiels scolaires du préscolaire au secondaire en France et au Québec sur les questions entourant le vivant, en considérant que lesdits programmes contribuent autant à la structuration des situations éducatives qu’à l’intégration d’un point de vue sur la société et les savoirs. L’étude a été réalisée au regard de trois modes de questionnement : caractérisation du vivant, approches éthiques du vivant et méthodologies scientifiques et techniques. Les résultats de l’analyse montrent une évolution comparable des activités expérimentales suggérées au cours de la scolarité dans les deux pays. Celles-ci convoquent une pluralité de démarches (et non une seule et même démarche scientifique et proposent des tâches ouvertes aux élèves visant à leur donner de l’autonomie. Sur beaucoup de plans, les attentes semblent s’appuyer, en partie, sur un modèle socioconstructiviste de l’acquisition des connaissances. Les façons de favoriser les rencontres du « vivant » diffèrent quant à elles.

  7. Radiological normal anatomy of the larynx and pharynx and imaging techniques; Radiologische Normalanatomie des Larynx und Pharynx sowie bildgebende Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, S.F.; Krestan, C.R.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.M.; Fruehwald, J.; Peloschek, P.; Kainberger, F.; Czerny, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Formanek, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkrankheiten, Wien (Austria)

    2009-01-15

    The larynx and the pharynx represent anatomically as well as functionally a very complex organ which serves as an airway and a nutrition channel. Knowledge of anatomy and anatomical topography is therefore a fundamental basis for the evaluation of any pathological process. Beside the clinical examination and endoscopy performed by ear, nose and throat specialists, imaging techniques play a crucial role in pre-therapeutic and post-therapeutic diagnostics. The radiologist employs a conventional x-ray swallow examination, as well as contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), depending on the medical problem in question. The following article demonstrates the functional and especially the structural anatomy of the larynx and the pharynx. Furthermore, the broad range of imaging techniques in clinical use is discussed. (orig.) [German] Larynx und Pharynx repraesentieren sowohl anatomisch als auch funktionell ein sehr komplexes Organsystem, das als Luft- und Speiseweg dient. Die Kenntnis der Anatomie und anatomischen Topographie ist daher die elementare Grundlage fuer die Beurteilung jeglicher pathologischer Prozesse. Neben der klinischen Untersuchung und der Endoskopie durch den Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Arzt kommt den bildgebenden Verfahren in der prae- und posttherapeutischen Diagnostik eine entscheidende Rolle zu. Der Radiologe bedient sich hierbei - in Abhaengigkeit von der Fragestellung - der konventionellen Roentgenschluckuntersuchung, der kontrastmittelverstaerkten Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT), der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) und der Positronenemissionstomographie-Computertomographie (PET-CT). Der folgende Artikel demonstriert die funktionelle und insbesondere die strukturelle Anatomie des Larynx und Pharynx. Darueber hinaus wird das breite Spektrum der bildgebenden

  8. Extraction Sans Solvant Assistée par Micro-ondes
    Conception et Application à l'extraction des huiles essentielles

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchesi, Marie-Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    L'Extraction Sans Solvant Assistée par Micro-ondes (ESSAM) est une nouvelle technique d'extraction mise au point au sein du Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles et des Sciences des Aliments de l'Université de La Réunion. Ce procédé est une combinaison entre une technique d'extraction traditionnelle et une technologie innovante. En effet, si les systèmes de cohobation et de piégeage du mélange vapeur d'eau-huile essentielle sont proches d'une HydroDistillation (HD), le chauffage par...

  9. Different Techniques of MRU: Pitfalls & Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nayyeri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Magnetic resonance urography (MRU refers to MR imaging of the urinary col-lecting systems and it provides information roughly analogous to conventional intravenous urography. There are two basic MRU imaging strategies, (1 Static MRU uses T2W scans and rely on the presence of fluid in the pelvicaliceal systems and the ureters; (2 Excretory MRU is performed after administration of IV Gd using a 3D gradient echo sequence. Static MRU is best used for dilated collecting systems and can be employed regardless of renal function. Excretory MRU is usually preferred over static techniques for the demonstration of non-distended ureters; however, it is contraindicated in severely impaired renal function. As MR urograms are often displayed as maximum intensity projections, a low signal intensity ureteral stone surrounded by high signal intensity urine may be obscured on maximum intensity projection images. A prob-lem in static MR urography is the superimposition of fluid-filled structures (i.e. bowel loops, gall bladder and bile ducts, CSF, or any intraabdominal fluid collection on reconstructed images which may create false posi-tive findings or obscure true abnormalities. Non-distended ureters may escape detection on static MR uro-grams, resulting in the incorrect diagnosis of complete ureteral obstruction. Parapelvic cysts may simulate hy-dronephrosis while calyceal diverticulae may simulate simple renal cysts on static MRU. Excretory MR urography is performed in all such cases; however, Gd may create different problems when it becomes too concentrated within the collecting system. Sufficiently concentrated Gd shortens T2 relaxation times to the point that signal loss from T2 relaxation exceeds the T1 shortening effects of the contrast agent. This may result in poor visualization of all or a portion of collecting system on T1W images. Concentrated Gd in the renal collecting system also causes signal loss on T2W images

  10. Hyphenated techniques and their applications in natural products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Satyajit D; Nahar, Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    A technique where a separation technique is coupled with an online spectroscopic detection technology is known as hyphenated technique, e.g., GC-MS, LC-PDA, LC-MS, LC-FTIR, LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, and CE-MS. Recent advances in hyphenated analytical techniques have remarkably widened their applications to the analysis of complex biomaterials, especially natural products. This chapter focuses on the applications of hyphenated techniques to pre-isolation and isolation of natural products, dereplication, online partial identification of compounds, chemotaxonomic studies, chemical finger-printing, quality control of herbal products, and metabolomic studies, and presents specific examples. However, a particular emphasis has been given on the hyphenated techniques that involve an LC as the separation tool. PMID:22367902

  11. Radioanalytical techniques and their application in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron techniques mainly in the form of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is suitable for determination of very low amounts of many elements and can be effectively applied in crime investigation. Trace element analysis plays a significant role in forensic science. Different aspects of radioanalytical techniques, role of a few typical elements and their forensic application in different types of samples are discussed

  12. L’art roman des Pyrénées : matériaux, technique et couleurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Rollier-Hanselmann

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available L’architecture romane des régions pyrénéennes a été analysée sous différents points de vue : formel, stylistique, structurel, historique et conceptuel. Pour comprendre les relations entre constructions, vie sociale et économique de l’époque, l’un des axes de recherche peut être celui de l’analyse des matériaux constitutifs des bâtiments, de leur qualité et leur variété.Le séminaire, organisé par Marius Vendrell, professeur à l’université de Barcelone, clôturait un programme de recherches mené...

  13. Intelligent techniques in engineering management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Onar, Sezi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of engineering management. The involved applications of intelligent techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy sets, Tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc. will be useful for engineering managers, postgraduate students, researchers, and lecturers. The book has been written considering the contents of a classical engineering management book but intelligent techniques are used for handling the engineering management problem areas. This comprehensive characteristics of the book makes it an excellent reference for the solution of complex problems of engineering management. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers with their previous works in the area of engineering management.

  14. Thermoluminescence du quartz naturel et artificiel pur ou dopé des ions Fe++ et Fe+++: application à la datation des poteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available La thermoluminescence constatée sur les échantillons de poteries et conduisant à la datation archéologique de celles-ci, est due aux inclusions de quartz initialement contenues dans l'argile. Nous présentons une étude de la thermoluminescence d'échantillons de quartz monocristallin synthétique dans lesquels des impuretés ont été volontairement ajoutées et appliquons les résultats à une nouvelle technique de datation, la méthode DATE (différence d'atténuation temporelle des émissions. La termoluminiscencia constatada en muestras de cerámica permite una datación arqueológica es debida a las inclusiones de cuarzo inicialmente contenidas en la arcilla. Se presenta un estudio de la termoluminiscencia de muestras de cuarzo monocristalino sintético en las cuales han sido colocadas voluntariamente impurezas se han aplicado los resultados de una nueva técnica de fechado, el método DATE (Diferencia de atenuación temporal de emisiones. The thermoluminescence observed on samples of pottery and leading to their archaeological dating is a result of the presence of quartz particles originally enclosed in the clay. We offer a study of the termoluminescence of samples of synthetic mono-crystalline quartz doped in with impurities and apply the results to a new dating technique, the 'DATE' method, based upon difference in time attenuation of the emissions.

  15. Review on Micro- and Nanolithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werayut Srituravanich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications from commercial micro devices to emerging applications in nanoscale science and engineering. Micro- and nanolithography has been the key technology in manufacturing of integrated circuits and microchips in the semiconductor industry. Such a technology is also sparking a magnificent transformation of nanotechnology. The lithography techniques including photolithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography and scanning probe lithography are discussed. Furthermore, their applications are reviewed and summarized into four major areas: electronics and microsystems, medical and biotech, optics and photonics, and environment and energy harvesting.

  16. Émulsions stabilisées par des particules solides: études physico-chimiques et évaluation pour l'application cutanée.

    OpenAIRE

    Frelichowska, Justyna

    2009-01-01

    La stabilisation des émulsions peut être assurée par des particules solides plutôt qu'avec des molécules d'émulsifiant. Les émulsions stabilisées par des particules solides sont aussi appelées “les émulsions de Pickering”. Ce travail est divisé en deux parties : 1) l'étude des aspects physico-chimiques des émulsions ; 2) l'évaluation des émulsions stabilisées par des solides pour l'application cutanée. Les émulsions ont été stabilisées avec des nanoparticules de silice de caractère hydrophobe...

  17. Multiscale and multiresolution approaches in turbulence LES, DES and hybrid RANS/LES methods : applications and guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Sagaut, Pierre; Terracol, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The book aims to provide the reader with an updated general presentation of multiscale/multiresolution approaches in turbulent flow simulations. All modern approaches (LES, hybrid RANS/LES, DES, SAS) are discussed and recast in a global comprehensive framework. Both theoretical features and practical implementation details are addressed. Some full scale applications are described, to provide the reader with relevant guidelines to facilitate a future use of these methods.

  18. Rôle des Pseudomonas fluorescents dans la biodisponibilté des métaux contaminant les minéraux du sol : application à la phytoremédiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferret, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Le développement de l'industrie et de l'agriculture a entraîné l'accumulation d'éléments métalliques dans les sols. Dans ces écosystèmes, la fraction vivante intervient de façon importante dans la modification de la rétention des contaminants. Parmi les techniques de décontamination, la phytoremédiation apparaît comme un outil de choix. Si un des inconvénients majeurs de cette technique réside dans des durées de traitement pouvant atteindre plusieurs années, l'ajout de micro-organismes couplé...

  19. A Study on the Suitable Techniques for Improving the Flow Properties of the Egyptian Waxy Crude Oils Étude des techniques permettant d'améliorer l'écoulement des pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Eman N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, three different techniques were used for improving the flow properties of three Egyptian waxy crude oils (M-96, GPY-3 and Khalda. These techniques are : dilution, heating and chemical treatment. The improvement efficiency for each technique was investigated by measuring the rheological properties and the pour point as well. Also, the effect of each improvement technique on the power requirement was studied through calculation of the reduction in the pipeline pressure loss. The studied techniques have shown promising results in improving the flow properties of the tested crudes. However, the most suitable technique for a specific crude should be decided in the light of the technical features studied in the present paper in addition to an economical study which should be performed on each case individually. Cet article rend compte des essais effectués pour améliorer les caractéristiques d'écoulement de trois pétroles bruts égyptiens à base paraffinique (M-96, GPY-3 et Khalda. Trois techniques différentes ont été mises en oeuvre : dilution, chauffage et traitement chimique. L'efficacité de chacune de ces techniques a été évaluée par la mesure des propriétés rhéologiques et du point d'écoulement. De plus, on a étudié l'effet de ces diverses techniques sur les besoins énergétiques en calculant la réduction de la perte de charge en pipeline. Les techniques envisagées ont apporté des résultats prometteurs quant à l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement des bruts étudiés. Toutefois, pour choisir la technique la plus appropriée à un pétrole brut spécifique, il faudrait combiner les données techniques apportées par cet article avec une étude d'ordre économique effectuée pour chaque cas individuel.

  20. Patrimoine technique méconnu des mines d’Alsace et de Moselle : les machines d’extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chip Buchheit

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article dresse un bref historique des machines d’extraction et rappelle les grandes étapes de leur évolution technique. Les résultats des recensements du patrimoine minier réalisés dans le bassin houiller lorrain et dans le bassin potassique alsacien ont permis de distinguer les éléments représentatifs et remarquables de ce patrimoine méconnu et insuffisamment considéré.This article offers a brief history of winding engines and of the principal stages in their technical evolution. Inventory surveys carried out in the Lorraine coal basin and in the region of potassium mines in Alsace allow for an identification of the representative engines and of the remarkable ones, all of them part of a little studied and much neglected industrial heritage.

  1. DE LA SURVEILLANCE DES ACTIVITES HUMAINES EN MER. ESSAI SUR LES RAPPORTS DU DROIT ET DE LA TECHNIQUE.

    OpenAIRE

    Leboeuf, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Mention très honorable, Félicitations du jury Truly prospective technique is often at the roots of substantial changes to the Law. It impacts on our social environment using legal restrictions to limit physical and moral damages by utilising the advanced technical process. The implementation of a new application, its use and commercialisation, should observe legal norms respecting the numerous and varied arms of law. As one of the structuring elements of society, law is impacted by techniq...

  2. Buob Baptiste, La dinanderie de Fès. Un artisanat traditionnel dans les temps modernes. Une anthropologie des techniques par le film et le texte, Ibis Press, Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, Coll. Archéologie expérimentale et Ethnologie des techniques, n°10, 2009, 417 p. + 2 illustrations hors texte + un DVD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Remillet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir souligné combien les nombreux travaux portant sur les systèmes de production de l’artisanat fassi étaient emprunts d’un certain culturalisme, l’auteur rappelle l’intérêt majeur pour l’anthropologie des techniques d’étudier les pratiques de production au sein des ateliers de fabrication. Dans cette perspective, l’ouvrage de B. Buob développe « une anthropologie critique des représentations couramment associées à « l’artisanat traditionnel marocain » (p. 9. À partir d’une ethnograp...

  3. DIMENSIONNEMENT PAR OPTIMISATION DES INDUCTEURS A AIMANTS POUR APPLICATION AUXILIAIRE AUTOMOBILE

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos Bugatti, Manuela

    2004-01-01

    Au cours de ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à la problématique du dimensionnement des inducteurs à aimants ferrites pour moteurs d'auxiliaire automobile, aussi bien brushless qu'à courant continu. Un outil informatique permettant de trouver les grandeurs géométriques et physiques optimales pour un inducteur, tout en respectant le cahier des charges, a été réalisé. Cet outil s'appuie sur un modèle analytique de l'inducteur, basé sur la résolution formelle des équations de champ, qui a ...

  4. Review of Matrix Decomposition Techniques for Signal Processing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of matrix is a vital part of many scientific and engineering applications. It is a technique that breaks down a square numeric matrix into two different square matrices and is a basis for efficiently solving a system of equations, which in turn is the basis for inverting a matrix. An inverting matrix is a part of many important algorithms. Matrix factorizations have wide applications in numerical linear algebra, in solving linear systems, computing inertia, and rank estimation is an important consideration. This paper presents review of all the matrix decomposition techniques used in signal processing applications on the basis of their computational complexity, advantages and disadvantages. Various Decomposition techniques such as LU Decomposition, QR decomposition , Cholesky decomposition are discussed here. Keywords –

  5. Instrumental analytical techniques in geochemistry: Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemists must analyse an extremely wide range of terrestrial and planetary materials. The instrumental techniques necessary to cope with this difficult task are considered. The most important analytical techniques in use by the geochemist today are AAS, ICP-OES, INAA, MSID and XRFS, and the electron microscope for in situ mineral analysis. Some applications of these techniques to solving major problems in geochemistry are discussed. The importance of certified reference materials and of high quality geochemical data are emphasized. It is concluded that the general quality of trace element data has improved over the past 25 years, as a direct result of the application of modern instrumental techniques. Surprisingly, the quality of data reported for certain major elements has deteriorated over that time, when compared with data obtainable by classical chemical methods. Predictions are made concerning the instrumentation needs of the next generation of geochemists. (orig.)

  6. Optimisation des techniques et déploiements radio pour les réseaux efficaces en énergie

    OpenAIRE

    SUAREZ RIVERA, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Le monde des technologies de l'information et de la communication est en phase d'évolution permanente. Ces progrès sont accompagnés d'une croissance très rapide du trafic de données, en particulier celui des réseaux mobiles sans fil. Une conséquence importante est l'augmentation de l'énergie consommée par le réseau, en particulier le réseau d'accès (et notamment les stations de base). Les coûts opérationnels relatifs à l'énergie des opérateurs commencent à représenter une part très importante...

  7. Optimisation des applications multimédia sur des processeurs multicœurs embarqués

    OpenAIRE

    Baaklini, Elias Michel

    2014-01-01

    Parallel computing is currently the dominating architecture in embedded systems. Concurrency improves the performance of the system rather without increasing the clock speed which affects the power consumption of the system. However, concurrency needs to be exploited in order to improve the system performance in different applications environments. Multimedia applications (real-Time conversational services such as video conferencing, video phone, etc.) have many new features that require comp...

  8. Advances in application and research of sterile insect irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect irradiation techniques have developed rapidly and achieved many results in the world in recent years. In practice, it has become one of the important measures to area-wide integrated pest management.Here the sterile insect irradiation techniques were reviewed, including their strategy, mechanism and quality control. How to break through the constraints in the practical application of the sterile insects was also discussed in this paper

  9. Application of artificial intelligence techniques to TRR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been over ten years since TRR had its initial critical. To collect the experiences of shift operators and technique staffs and transfer these experts' knowledge to a computer and build an expert system is a typical application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear business. The system can provide the correct information of TRR operation for shift personnel, new staffs and other technical people

  10. Fusion Based Neutron Sources for Security Applications: Neutron Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, S.; Seviour, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The current reliance on X-Rays and intelligence for na- tional security is insufficient to combat the current risks of smuggling and terrorism seen on an international level. There are a range of neutron based security techniques which have the potential to dramatically improve national security. Neutron techniques can be broadly grouped into neutron in/neutron out and neutron in/photon out tech- niques. The use of accelerator based fusion devices will potentially enable to wide spread applic...

  11. Artificial intelligence techniques for industrial applications in job shop scheduling.

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Wade Benton

    1983-01-01

    The application of AI (artificial intelligence) techniques to the scheduling of industrial production operations offers a promising new approach to a scheduling problem of great magnitude and complexity. Foremost among these techniques is a powerful knowledge representation language that is capable of modeling the production environment at all levels of detail. The capturing of such complexity in the data base enables the computer to generate feasible schedules from a very large solution spac...

  12. Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The book presents the latest technological advances in Raman spectroscopy that are presently redrawing the landscape of many fields of biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. Numerous examples are given to illustrate the application of the new methods and compared with established and related techniques. The book is suitable for both new researchers and practitioners in this area as well as for those familiar with the Raman technique but seeking to keep abreast of the latest dramatic advances in this field.

  13. Fusion d'images: application au contr\\^ole de la distribution des biopsies prostatiques

    CERN Document Server

    Mozer, Pierre; Chevreau, G; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the application of a 3D ultrasound data fusion technique to the 3D reconstruction of prostate biopies in a reference volume. The method is introduced and its evaluation on a series of data coming from 15 patients is described.

  14. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  15. 9th International Conference on Optimization : Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Wu, Soon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and state-of-the-art solutions on optimization techniques and provides new research direction and developments. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of the book will be much beneficial to experts and students in optimization and operation research community. It selects high quality papers from The International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applications (ICOTA2013). The conference is an official conference series of POP (The Pacific Optimization Research Activity Group; there are over 500 active members). These state-of-the-art works in this book authored by recognized experts will make contributions to the development of optimization with its applications.

  16. Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management. In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial optimisation (CO), and multiple objective programming for multipurpose management. Studies reported in the literature on the application of these methods are reviewed in this paper.

  17. Privacy-aware knowledge discovery novel applications and new techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bonchi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Covering research at the frontier of this field, Privacy-Aware Knowledge Discovery: Novel Applications and New Techniques presents state-of-the-art privacy-preserving data mining techniques for application domains, such as medicine and social networks, that face the increasing heterogeneity and complexity of new forms of data. Renowned authorities from prominent organizations not only cover well-established results-they also explore complex domains where privacy issues are generally clear and well defined, but the solutions are still preliminary and in continuous development. Divided into seve

  18. L'épistémologie et l'histoire des sciences et des techniques peuvent elles aider les futurs enseignants de sciences physiques dans l'exercice de leur métier ? Regards portés pour une ingénierie de formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedj Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la place de l'Epistémologie, l'Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques comme élément pertinent pour améliorer la professionnalité des enseignants de sciences physiques. La réflexion se nourrit des nouvelles orientations prises au sein d'écoles d'ingénieurs et de facultés de médecine qui ont fait le choix d'introduire des unités d'enseignement dédiées aux Sciences Humaines et Sociales afin de perfectionner la qualité professionnelle de leurs formations. Une étude de cas dédiée à l'enseignement de l'énergie illustre le propos.

  19. Application of thermoluminescence technique to identify radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research studies reported by various authors have shown that a few methods -one of which is thermoluminescence technique- may be suitable for identification of some certain irradiated spices and food containing bones. This study is an application of the thermoluminescence technique for identifying the irradiated samples. The investigation was carried out on different types of foodstuffs such as onions, potatoes and kiwi. Measurements show that the technique can be applied as a reliable method to distinguish the irradiated food products from non-irradiated ones. The results demonstrate also that it is possible to use this method for determining the absorbed dose of irradiated samples from the established dose-effect curve. (Author)

  20. A comparison between single exponential smoothing (SES, double exponential smoothing (DES, holt’s (brown and adaptive response rate exponential smoothing (ARRES techniques in forecasting Malaysia population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nazim Aimran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research develops techniques which are helpful in forecasting univariate time series data. The techniques used in this study are Single Exponential Smoothing (SES, Double Exponential Smoothing (DES, Holt’s (Brown and Adaptive Response Rate Exponential Smoothing (ARRES Techniques. For the purpose of this study, secondary data of Malaysia Population covering the period 1957 up to 2013 was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. From the result obtained, Holt’s method was found to be the best method to forecast the Malaysia population since it produces the lowest Mean Square Error (MSE value which is 38,273.3 compared to 210,480.29 for SES, 38,827.7 for DEB and 209,835.8 for ARRES techniques. Keywords: Univariate, Forecasting, Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing, And Adaptive Response Rate Exponential Smoothing, Holt’s (Brown.

  1. Analyse spectrale et statistique vent-vagues des images radar à ouverture synthétique - Application aux données des satellites ERS-1/2

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbaol, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    Le radar à ouverture synthétique (ROS) est le seul instrument à fournir une information directionnelle des vagues grâce à sa haute résolution. Toutefois, l'inversion des spectres 2-D ROS, afin de restituer le spectre de la mer, est rendue difficile par la forte distortion spectrale causée par le filtrage passe-bas dans la direction de déplacement de l'instrument (azimut). Ce filtrage est issu des composantes radiales des mouvements sur la surface qui affectent l'information Doppler nécessaire...

  2. Natural gas hydrates. Experimental techniques and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yuguang; Liu, Changling (eds.) [Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology (China). Gas Hydrate Laboratory

    2013-07-01

    Focuses on gas hydrate experiment in laboratory. Intends to provide practical significant parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation in the oceanic and permafrost environments. Consists of different themes that present up-to-date information on hydrate experiments. ''Natural Gas Hydrates: Experimental Techniques and Their Applications'' attempts to broadly integrate the most recent knowledge in the fields of hydrate experimental techniques in the laboratory. The book examines various experimental techniques in order to provide useful parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation. It provides experimental techniques for gas hydrates, including the detection techniques, the thermo-physical properties, permeability and mechanical properties, geochemical abnormalities, stability and dissociation kinetics, exploitation conditions, as well as modern measurement technologies etc.

  3. Positron emission particle tracking-Application and labelling techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J.Parker; Xianfeng Fan

    2008-01-01

    The positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) technique has been widely used in science and engineering to obtain detailed information on the motion and flow fields of fluids or granular materials in multiphase systems, for example, fluids in rock cracks, chemical reactors and food processors; dynamic behaviour of granular materials in chemical reactors, granulators, mixers, dryers, rotating kilns and ball mills. The information obtained by the PEPT technique can be used to optimise the design, operational conditions for a wide range of industrial process systems, and to evaluate modelling work. The technique is based on tracking radioactively labelled particles (up to three particles) by detecting the pairs of back-to-back 511 ke V -γ-rays arising from annihilation of emitted positrons. It therefore involves a positron camera, location algorithms for calculating the tracer location and speed, and tracer labelling techniques. This paper will review the particle tracking technique from tracking algorithm, tracer labelling to their application.

  4. Application of glyph-based techniques for multivariate engineering visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazar, Vladimir; Marunic, Gordana; Percic, Marko; Butkovic, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of glyph-based techniques for engineering visualization as well as practical application for the multivariate visualization process. Two glyph techniques, Chernoff faces and star glyphs, uncommonly used in engineering practice, are described, applied to the selected data set, run through the chosen optimization methods and user evaluated. As an example of how these techniques function, a set of data for the optimization of a heat exchanger with a microchannel coil is adopted for visualization. The results acquired by the chosen visualization techniques are related to the results of optimization carried out by the response surface method and compared with the results of user evaluation. Based on the data set from engineering research and practice, the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques for engineering visualization are identified and discussed.

  5. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  6. Application of Intelligent Techniques towards Improvement of Crop Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritimoy Sanyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant improvement of information technology in the last few years helps us for implementing computer science towards improvement of crop productivity. We can apply different intelligent natured inspired algorithm such as artificial neural network (ANN, genetic algorithm (GA, fuzzy logic or image processing technique in effective weeds control, effectual pesticides or fungicides application, disease identification, seeds or pollen classification, environmental control in greenhouse and remote sensing applications.

  7. Review of Matrix Decomposition Techniques for Signal Processing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Agarwal; Rajesh Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition of matrix is a vital part of many scientific and engineering applications. It is a technique that breaks down a square numeric matrix into two different square matrices and is a basis for efficiently solving a system of equations, which in turn is the basis for inverting a matrix. An inverting matrix is a part of many important algorithms. Matrix factorizations have wide applications in numerical linear algebra, in solving linear systems, computing inertia, and r...

  8. Advances in the Application of Electrical Techniques for Site Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical techniques in site remediation have advanced over the past 10–15 years as a result of the experience gained in their application to various types of waste and sites. The main advances have been in equipment design and construction combined with improvement in the understanding of the vitrification process. An overview is given of the advances together with an account of an application to a particular remediation problem. (author)

  9. Dosimetry techniques of thermal neutrons and {gamma} radiation in reactor cores; Techniques de dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques et du rayonnement {gamma} dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, J.; Draganic, I.; Hering, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Chemical studies under radiation done in the reactor cores require to be followed by dosimetry. When the irradiations are done in the reflector, one can limit to the measure of the {gamma} and the neutron radiation. For the dosimetry of the {gamma} radiation, a dosimeter of ferrous sulfate is convenient until doses of about 10{sup 6} rep. The use of aired oxalic acid solutions permits to reach 10{sup 7} rep. The dosimetry of thermal neutrons has been made with solutions of cobalt sulphate or paper filter impregnated with this salt. The total chemical effect of the {gamma} and of the slow neutrons radiation is obtained with solutions of ferrous sulfate added with lithium sulphate. (M.B.) [French] Les etudes de chimie sous radiation faites dans les piles exigent d'etre suivies par dosimetrie. Lorsque les irradiations sont effectues dans le reflecteur, on peut se limiter a doser le rayonnement {gamma} et les neutrons. Pour la dosimetrie du rayonnement {gamma}, un dosimetre a sulfate ferreux convient jusqu'a des doses d'environ 10{sup 6} rep. L'emploi de solutions aerees d'acide oxalique permet d'atteindre 10{sup 7} rep. La dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques a ete faite avec des solutions de sulfate de cotalt ou du papier filtre impregne de ce sel. L'effet chimique total du rayonnement {gamma} et des neutrons lents est obtenu avec des solutions de sulfate ferreux additionne de sulfate de lithium. (M.B.)

  10. Dans la Trajectoire des Choses

    OpenAIRE

    Coupaye, Ludovic; Douny, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Dans la trajectoire des choses. Comparaison des approches francophones et anglophones contemporaines en anthropologie des techniques. Dans cette introduction, les auteurs exposent les approches francophones et anglophones de l’étude des techniques et suggèrent que ces deux traditions ont traité d’enjeux comparables. Ils les resituent dans l’histoire des Sciences humaines et analysent leur place dans le champ anthropologique. Ils retracent les débats et les échanges qui les ont enrichies, part...

  11. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes; L'application des proprietes chimiques du ruthenium a des procedes de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [French] Les proprietes chimiques du ruthenium en solutions aqueuses nitriques et en solutions organiques de tributylphosphate, sont passees en revue. A partir de ces donnees, quelques exemples connus sont cites: ils exposent des procedes de separation ou d'elimination du ruthenium de dechets radioactifs. (auteurs)

  12. Portable flash x-ray systems: applications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three energies of portable flash x-ray equipment are described, and applications such as jetting and high explosive studies, bullet impact and casting of lead experiments are given as well as techniques for triggering and protection of equipment and film

  13. 48 CFR 9904.410-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performing the home office functions, pursuant to disclosed or established accounting practices for the.... 9904.410-50 Section 9904.410-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-50 Techniques for application. (a) G&A expenses of...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.406-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s cost accounting period is a change in accounting practices for which an adjustment in the contract.... 9904.406-50 Section 9904.406-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost of...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.417-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capitalized, such as the method used for financial accounting and reporting, may be used, provided the.... 9904.417-50 Section 9904.417-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost of...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.404-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... values established for tangible captial assets for financial accounting shall be the values used for.... 9904.404-50 Section 9904.404-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-50 Techniques for application. (a) The cost...

  17. Optical methods for ultrasensitive detection and analysis: Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is organized under the following sessions: Surface sensitive/ionization techniques; Advanced concepts in laser applications; Subwavelength spatial resolution spectroscopy; High-sensitivity spectroscopies using photothermal and polarization effects; Sensitive biomolecular detection; Novel optical spectroscopies and methods in condensed phase detection; Ultrasensitive detector methods

  18. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Minjing

    2011-01-01

    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  19. 48 CFR 9904.412-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-50(a)(2), any portion of unfunded actuarial liability, which occurs in the first cost accounting.... 9904.412-50 Section 9904.412-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412-50 Techniques for application. (a) Components...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.416-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liability in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. (ii.... 9904.416-50 Section 9904.416-50 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416-50 Techniques for application. (a) Measurement...

  1. Le « bassin des carènes » et le service technique des constructions navales à Balard : un exemple de cité scientifique à Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Gaudard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Le « bassin des carènes » à Balard abrite un ensemble cohérent d’édifices techniques, scientifiques et administratifs destinés à l’étude du comportement des navires et de leur propulsion en toutes situations. Créé à l’initiative de l’ingénieur Bertin et inauguré en 1906, le premier bassin, en béton, comptait alors parmi les quatre plus grands bassins du monde. À partir de 1932, Perret frères édifient une véritable cité scientifique : bâtiment administratif (IMH 1965, laboratoires, plusieurs bassins sont élevés en béton armé, avec un même soin accordé à l’ensemble.The ‘bassin des carènes’, the ship testing tank situated at Balard, in Paris, comprises a coherent ensemble of technical , scientific and administrative buildings devoted to the study of ships and their propulsion in different situations. The facility was first created in 1906 at the instigation of the engineer Bertin. At this date, the towing tank, constructed in reinforced concrete, was one of the four largest in the world. From 1932, the Perret brothers were commissioned to provide other constructions, completing an authentic scientific complex or ‘city’. This included the administrative building (given historic monument protection in 1932 and several other tanks, all constructed in reinforced concrete and with the same attention to detail.

  2. Application of the combined electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and probe beam deflection technique in deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The EQCM/PBD method has for the first time been applied to metal deposition/dissolution processes in deep eutectic solvents • The PBD responds to solution phase chemistry, while the E and QCM probes respond to interfacial processes only • The combination of electrochemical (E), gravimetric (QCM) and optical (PBD) responses provides diagnostic capability • EQCM/PBD data reveal the influence of Ag/Cl− complex speciation in the high chloride concentration ionic liquid • The PBD response reveals the intrusion of solubility limitations into Sn anodic stripping - Abstract: The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and probe beam deflection (PBD) have been widely used to study interfacial processes in molecular solvent-based electrolytes. However, there has been limited use of the EQCM and none of PBD in room temperature ionic liquids, including deep eutectic solvents (DES). Here we explore the use of the combined EQCM/PBD technique to the study of Ag and Sn electrodeposition from a DES comprising a 1:2 mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. While overcoming the effect of viscous loss in the acoustic wave (EQCM) part of the experiment is understood, the optical (PBD) technique fails to provide a meaningful response in slow scan rate voltammetric experiments; this contrasts sharply with the straightforward behaviour seen in aqueous media. Solution transport considerations reveal this to be a consequence of long surface-to-beam transit times in the viscous DES. The problem can be overcome by operating at scan rates 1-2 orders of magnitude slower, permitting application of this powerful technique to novel media of technological interest. The PBD responses reveal unanticipated chemical effects: multiple complexes in the Ag system and solubility limitations in the Sn system, neither of which is evident from the electrochemical or QCM responses

  3. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  5. Chitosan Microgels and Nanoparticles via Electrofluidodynamic Techniques for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Guarino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrofluidodynamics techniques (EFDTs are emerging methodologies based on liquid atomization induced by electrical forces to obtain a fine suspension of particles from hundreds of micrometers down to nanometer size. As a function of the characteristic size, these particles are interesting for a wide variety of applications, due to the high scalability of chemical and physical properties in comparison to the bulk form. Here, we propose the optimization of EFDT techniques to design chitosan systems in the form of microgels or nanoparticles for several biomedical applications. Different microscopy techniques (Optical, SEM, TEM have been used to investigate the morphology of chitosan systems at multiple size scale. The proposed study confirms the high versatility and feasibility of EFDTs for creating micro and nano-sized carriers for cells and drug species.

  6. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  7. Empirical Study on Applications of Data Mining Techniques in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare environment is generally perceived as being ‘information rich’ yet ‘knowledge poor’. There is a wealth of data available within the healthcare systems. However, there is a lack of effective analysis tools to discover hidden relationships and trends in data. Knowledge discovery and data mining have found numerous applications in business and scientific domain. Valuable knowledge can be discovered from application of data mining techniques in healthcare system. In this study, we briefly examine the potential use of classification based data mining techniques such as Rule based, decision tree and Artificial Neural Network to massive volume of healthcare data. In particular we consider a case study using classification techniques on a medical data set of diabetic patients.

  8. Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

  9. Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields noninstrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usuallay MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the particle image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

  10. Review of geographic processing techniques applicable to regional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, R.C.

    1988-02-01

    Since the early 1970s regional environmental studies have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using computer-assisted techniques. This paper presents an overview of some of these past experiences and the capabilities developed at the Laboratory for processing, analyzing, and displaying geographic data. A variety of technologies have resulted such as computer cartography, image processing, spatial modeling, computer graphics, data base management, and geographic information systems. These tools have been used in a wide range of spatial applications involving facility siting, transportation routing, coal resource analysis, environmental impacts, terrain modeling, inventory development, demographic studies, water resource analyses, etc. The report discusses a number of topics dealing with geographic data bases and structures, software and processing techniques, hardware systems, models and analysis tools, data acquisition techniques, and graphical display methods. Numerous results from many different applications are shown to aid the reader interested in using geographic information systems for environmental analyses. 15 refs., 64 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Development of a tentacle propulsion technique for underwater application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As robotic technology matures and more platforms are fielded in unstructured real-world situations, the more new areas of applications are being thought for robotic deployment. After successes in industrial robots, researchers are now trying to explore new robots with biological features of different biological creatures like, snake, bird, and spider for their stunning advantages. Underwater exploration using robots is a new avenue. Research on the tentacle robot for underwater application is a new field of research besides the other research in this arena. There are few researches on this topic are explored and mostly are on biological robot. Besides those researches this paper aims to propose and demonstrate another technique to build a tentacle for propulsion purposes. Therefore, in this paper will discuss more on mathematical development for the propulsion technique and its software verification technique in considering the environmental constrains

  12. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  13. Spread Spectrum Techniques and their Applications to Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Cianca, E.

    2005-01-01

    Spread Spectrum (SS) radio communications is on the verge of potentially explosive commercial development An SS-based multiple access, such as CDMA, has been chosen for 3G wireless communications. Other current applications of SS techniues are in Wireless LANs and Satellite Navigation Systems....... However, SS techniques will play an important role also in future wireless applications, mainly combined with other technologies such as epsilon, OFDM, MIMO and UWB. In this paper, after an overview on SS signalling and its advantages, some of the most important techniques based on SS signalling for...... current and future wireless applications are described. Particular relevance is given to DS-CDMA and hybrid CDMA-based multiple access schemes, such as TDMA-CDMA, OFDM-CDMA....

  14. Eco-Extraction des huiles essentielles et des arômes alimentaires en vue d'une application comme agents antioxydants et antimicrobiens

    OpenAIRE

    Mnayer, Dima

    2014-01-01

    Les huiles essentielles et les arômes des plantes constituent un réel potentiel pour l’industrie dans le but de substituer aux composés synthétiques ayant des effets néfastes sur la santé et l’environnement. Afin de contribuer aux principes de la chimie verte, cette étude porte sur l’éco-extraction et la valorisation des extraits naturels des plantes et le développement d’une nouvelle technologie «verte» pour l’extraction des composés aromatiques naturels. La première partie de ce manuscrit m...

  15. Eco-extraction des huiles essentielles et des arômes alimentaires en vue d'une application comme agents antioxydants et antimicrobiens

    OpenAIRE

    Mnayer, Dima

    2014-01-01

    Les huiles essentielles et les arômes des plantes constituent un réel potentiel pour l’industrie dans le but de substituer aux composés synthétiques ayant des effets néfastes sur la santé et l’environnement. Afin de contribuer aux principes de la chimie verte, cette étude porte sur l’éco-extraction et la valorisation des extraits naturels des plantes et le développement d’une nouvelle technologie «verte» pour l’extraction des composés aromatiques naturels. La première partie de ce manuscrit m...

  16. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, M J

    2000-01-01

    application is required at each power step thus removing the need for accurate reproducibility of absorbed microwave power and also reducing experimental time. This method as well as a previous method developed for use with ceramic samples are described and discussed. The microwave palaeointensity technique has been used successfully in three palaeomagnetic studies (that include rock magnetic and directional analyses). These are a study of historic lava from Mt. Etna, Sicily, a detailed through the flow study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii and a study of Tertiary Australian lava. Palaeointensity results are compared to observatory records and / or results of previous studies using conventional techniques. The research undertaken, described in this thesis, demonstrates that the microwave palaeointensity technique is a viable technique for use with lava. This enables greater confidence that any palaeointensity results obtained are not affected by sample alteration during experimentation. The suitability ...

  17. Analyse des suites al\\'eatoires engendr\\'ees par des automates cellulaires et applications \\`a la cryptographie

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers interactions between cellular automata and cryptology. It is known that non-linear elementary rule which is correlation-immune don't exist. This results limits the use of cellular automata as pseudo-random generators suitable for cryptographic applications. In addition, for this kind of pseudo-random generators, a successful cryptanalysis was proposed by Meier and Staffelbach. However, other ways to design cellular automata capable to generate good pseudo-random sequences remain and will be discussed in the end of this article.

  18. Trouver et utiliser des informations sur Internet à l’école : problèmes techniques et questions éthiques

    OpenAIRE

    Ravestein, Jean; Ladage, Caroline; Johsua, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Utiliser des moteurs de recherche d’information sur Internet devient aujourd’hui possible et se voit recommandé dans des contextes pédagogiques (B2i, C2i). Toutefois, l’usage des outils de recherche dans les classes ne va pas sans poser des problèmes dont cet article voudrait rendre compte selon deux aspects majeurs : celui du manque d’entendement des élèves et des enseignants concernant le fonctionnement des moteurs de recherche, qui leur reste opaque ; celui de la pertinence et de la nature...

  19. Solid propellant micro thrusters for space application; Micropropulseur a propergol solide pour des applications spatiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larangot, B.; Rossi, C.; Esteve, D. [Laboratoire d' analyse et d' architecture des systemes (LAAS-CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Orieux, S. [Laboratoire d' analyse et d' architecture des systemes (LAAS-CNRS/CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2003-07-01

    The paper presents the development of solid propellant micro thruster matrix on silicon. The concept is based on the pyrotechnic material combustion of propellant type stored in a micro machined silicon or Foturan tank. Each Thruster contains three parts: a thermal igniter, a tank and a nozzle. Due to the one shot characteristic, thrusters are fabricated in array configuration. The main field of application is the realization of micro propulsion modules for nano satellite. The micro thrusters array presented in this paper contains 16 individual thrusters on 64 mm{sup 2} surface. Each thruster has a combustion surface of 2.25 mm{sup 2} and throat diameters of 105 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m. The manufacturing process is described and preliminary ignition results and combustion rate are given. (authors)

  20. Applications of the petroleum products microbiology; La microbiologie des produits petroliers et ses applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, J.P.; Monot, F.; Ballerini, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2002-09-01

    Because of the use on a massive scale of petroleum products, hydrocarbons constitute the most frequent organic pollutants of soils. At a polluted site, natural attenuation is the process by which the pollutants are removed by the joint action of dispersion and biodegradation. Only biodegradation can ensure complete in situ removal by mineralization of pollutants. For this reason, both aerobic and anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons and related products constitute research fields in full expansion. Actually, the remarkable microbial capacities for hydrocarbon conversion can lead to applications in bioconversion that are besides the scope of pollutant degradation, such as microbial desulfurization of petroleum products. In addition to bio-desulfurization, the points discussed involve the aerobic biodegradation of gasoline (over 200 hydrocarbons) and of ethers such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) that are presently important constituents of gasoline, as well as the anaerobic degradation of mono-aromatic hydrocarbons. The discussion also includes soil bio-remediation. (authors)

  1. Quelques extensions des level sets et des graph cuts et leurs applications à la segmentation d'images et de vidéos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Image processing techniques are now widely spread out over a large quantity of domains: like medical imaging, movies post-production, games... Automatic detection and extraction of regions of interest inside an image, a volume or a video is challenging problem since it is a starting point for many applications in image processing. However many techniques were developed during the last years and the state of the art methods suffer from some drawbacks: The Level Sets method only provides a loca...

  2. Bladesmithing with Murray Carter modern application of traditional techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Bladesmithing with Murray Carter provides the reader with an in-depth look into traditional Japanese Cutlery forging techniques and their modern applications. A non-stop flow of inquiries to Murray has prompted him to reveal the secret techniques learned during 18 years in Japan, where he lived and worked as a village bladesmith. He now shares this wealth of information for the benefit of the curious reader and Japanese knife enthusiast alike. Owners of nearly 15,000 of Murray's knives will be delighted to see a comprehensive book written by the knives' creator. Features: 250+ dazzling, f

  3. RF circuit design techniques for MF-UHF applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eroglu, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, semiconductor processing, and RFID are some of the critical applications within the medium frequency (MF) to ultrahigh frequency (UHF) range that require RF designers to have a solid understanding of analytical and experimental RF techniques. Designers need to be able to design components and devices cost effectively, and integrate them with high efficiency, minimal loss, and required power. Computer-aided design (CAD) tools also play an important part in helping to reduce costs and improve accuracy through optimization. RF Circuit Design Techniques for MF-UHF Appli

  4. Metamodeling Techniques Applied to the Design of Reconfigurable Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ferrarini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize autonomous manufacturing systems in environments characterized by high dynamics and high complexity of task, it is necessary to improve the control system modelling and performance. This requires the use of better and reusable abstractions. In this paper, we explore the metamodel techniques as a foundation to the solution of this problem. The increasing popularity of model-driven approaches and a new generation of tools to support metamodel techniques are changing software engineering landscape, boosting the adoption of new methodologies for control application development.

  5. The use of pathological and histopathological techniques in the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Harshad C. Chauhan; PanduRanga S. Lambade; Arnab Sen; Abidali I. Dadawala; Pradeep B. Ranaware; Bharatsingh Chandel; Dilip V. Joshi; Patel, Sandeep S.; Kumar Pankaj; Nalinkant M. Shah; Hemendrasingh N. Kher

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) among sheep and goats in the Province of Gujarat, India. Clinical signs observed during outbreaks were typical of PPR. Predominant signs were severe diarrhoea, dyspnoea, mucopurulent discharge from the eyes and nose, erosive rhinitis, necrotic ulcers in the mouth, on the dental pad, tongue, upper and lower lips, fever and depression. Common post-mortem findings included congestion, red hepatisation, raised patches of emphys...

  6. Apprentissage incrémental de la saillance visuelle pour des applications robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Craye, Céline; Filliat, David; Goudou, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    International audience Nous proposons une méthode d'apprentissage incrémental de la saillance visuelle par un mécanisme d'exploration de l'environnement. Partant d'une définition géométrique de la saillance des objets, notre système observe de façon attentive et ciblée son environnement, jusqu'à découvrir des éléments saillants. Un classifieur permet alors d'apprendre les caractéristiques visuelles correspondantes afin de pouvoir ensuite prédire rapidement les positions des objets sans ana...

  7. Biological effects of neutrons, mechanisms and applications; Effets biologiques des neutrons: mecanismes et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Ph. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France)

    1999-12-01

    The interest to study the ionizing radiations effects on the biological structures concern not only the fundamental comprehension of the mechanisms leading to the radiation damage but also much more pragmatic problems such as the accidental overexposure or radiotherapy treatment. Among these fundamental or applied studies, the neutrons effects take an important part, because of their particular mode of indirect ionization effect and their applications, as well civil as military ones. The purpose of this review is to point out some specific biological effects of neutrons and to describe biological methods to measure them. It clearly appears that neutrons biological effects are more deleterious than those caused by the radiations of lower TEL(X- and {gamma}-rays) taken as reference, for all the measurement levels used, genes mutations, chromosome aberrations, cellular survival or carcinogenesis. This difference is probably related to the density of the energy deposit in the vital cell targets, and to the absence of significant variations related to oxygenation, dose rate or dose fractionation. Such toxic effects, when considered in the course of a criticality accident, can paradoxically become an advantage in the follow-up of therapeutic treatment. (author)

  8. Faire des outils entre le 50ème et le 35ème millénaire en France méditerranéenne. Systèmes techniques et évolutions anthropologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Slimak, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    L’analyse des principales séries archéologiques de la fin du Paléolithique moyen de France méditerranéenne permet de reconnaître l’émergence de groupes culturels originaux ainsi que leur évolution technique. Dans un premier temps des processus de continuité et d’évolution technique peuvent être reconnus, aboutissant à la structuration de sociétés dont les techniques sont exclusivement orientées vers l’obtention de lames, lamelles et pointes. Ce processus évolutif induit une transmission struc...

  9. Technologies propres : Méthodes de minimisation des rejets et de choix des procédés de valorisation des effluents. Application aux ateliers de traitement de surface.

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Valérie

    1999-01-01

    Le traitement des eaux constitue actuellement la part essentielle des investissements industriels pour la protection de l'environnement. En France, les moyens consacrés à la dépollution des eaux sont de l'ordre de 20 milliards de Francs dont la plus grosse part est consacrée à l'activité industrielle. Les actions engagées se font par une gestion globale des effluents en privilégiant les actions de réduction à la source notamment par la mise en place de technologies propres (optimisation, chan...

  10. Techniques and applications of endoscopic spine surgery. Part I:overview of current techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Xuan Liu; MD; PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is a serious health and social-economic problem. Endoscopic spine surgery as a treatment option for spinal pain has gained tremendous attention and growth in the past 2 decades, and a variety of endoscopic techniques have been invented to treat a wide range of spinal conditions. Purposes The purposes of this 2-part review article are to 1 ) overview the published techniques of endoscopic spine surgery, 2 ) summarize the applications of these techniques in treating various spinal conditions, and 3 ) evaluate the clinical evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these endoscopic techniques in treating some of the most common spinal conditions. The first part of the review article provides an overview of currently most commonly used techniques. Methods We searched the PubMed database for publications concerning endoscopic spine surgery and reviewed the relevant articles published in the English language. Results Discectomy and foraminotomy are the most common types of spine surgery that can currently be done endoscopically. Endoscopic techniques have been used to treat a wide range of spinal disorders located in the lumbar, cervical, as well as the thoracic regions of the spine.

  11. Quantification spatiale des précipitations. Applications au Nord-Est de la France

    OpenAIRE

    François, Didier; Humbert, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Une méthode de spatialisation des précipitations (PLUVIA) a été appliquée aux précipitations annuelles de la période 1971-1990 de deux régions du Nord-Est de la France. PLUVIA a permis de déterminer les reliefs qui expliquent le mieux la répartition des précipitations annuelles. Les résultats ont également été comparés à ceux issus d’un krigeage simple pour estimer le gain de précision obtenu par PLUVIA.

  12. Application of ESPI techniques for the study of dynamic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, Rene

    2004-06-01

    Full field optical measurement techniques have already entered into various fields of industrial applications covering static as well as dynamic phenomena. The electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) allows the non contact, sensitive and three dimensional measurement of displacements in the sub micron range of objects with dimensions from mm2 to m2. For dynamic and transient phenomena, the use of pulsed laser have already been reported for various applications and successfully proven for the determination of the structural response of different components. In this paper we would like to present recent developments in the field of pulsed ESPI applications where emphasis is put onto the full field measurement result. The use of a completely computer controlled system allows easy access to mode shape characterization, deformation measurements and the characterization of transient events like shock wave propagation. Recent developments of the 3D-PulseESPI technique led to a very compact and complete system with improved characteristics regarding robustness and operation. The integrated design of the illumination laser and sensors for image acquisition allows easy aiming and adjustments with respect to the object of inspection. The laser is completely computer controlled which is advantageously used in a completely automatic brake squeal inspection system, which captures the squealing signal, automatically fires the laser and provides the complete deformation map of the component under test. Examples of recent applications in the field of dynamic structure response, with an emphasis in the field of automotive applications are given.

  13. Stochastic global optimization techniques and applications in chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rangaiah, Gade Pandu

    2010-01-01

    Optimization has played a key role in the design, planning and operation of chemical and related processes, for several decades. Global optimization has been receiving considerable attention in the past two decades. Of the two types of techniques for global optimization, stochastic global optimization is applicable to any type of problems having non-differentiable functions, discrete variables and/or continuous variables. It, thus, shows significant promise and potential for process optimization. So far, there are no books focusing on stochastic global optimization and its applications in chem

  14. Commercial Application of Technique for Removing Sulfates from Reforming Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiChangqing

    2002-01-01

    In the course of reduction of reforming catalyst by not hydrogen a certain amount of chlorine containing compounds is added to the recycle hydrogen to facilitate the reduction of sulfates.The outcome of commercial application of this technique has revealed that the procedure of "regeneration by chlorination→reduction→sulfate removal→sulfiding and oil feed-in"aimed at sulate removal is very simple and can recover the reaction activity of reforming catalyst after having been poisoned by sulfates.This procedure can be disseminated for application in refineries.

  15. Cloud computing and digital media fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kuan-Ching; Shih, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing and Digital Media: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications presents the fundamentals of cloud and media infrastructure, novel technologies that integrate digital media with cloud computing, and real-world applications that exemplify the potential of cloud computing for next-generation digital media. It brings together technologies for media/data communication, elastic media/data storage, security, authentication, cross-network media/data fusion, interdevice media interaction/reaction, data centers, PaaS, SaaS, and more.The book covers resource optimization for multimedia clo

  16. Systematic application of DNA fiber-FISH technique in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wenpan; Jiang, Yanqin; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH) is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0%) were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceum whereas, in G. arboreum, it was approximately three times longer (3.1 Mb). A fiber-FISH based immunofluorescence method was also described to assay the DNA methylation. Using this technique, we revealed that both telomere and 5S rDNA were methylated at different levels. In addition, we developed a BAC molecule-based fiber-FISH technique. Using this technique, we can precisely map BAC clones on each other and evaluated the size and location of overlapped regions. The development and application of fiber-FISH technique will facilitate high-resolution physical mapping and further directed sequencing projects for cotton. PMID:24086609

  17. Systematic application of DNA fiber-FISH technique in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0% were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceum whereas, in G. arboreum, it was approximately three times longer (3.1 Mb. A fiber-FISH based immunofluorescence method was also described to assay the DNA methylation. Using this technique, we revealed that both telomere and 5S rDNA were methylated at different levels. In addition, we developed a BAC molecule-based fiber-FISH technique. Using this technique, we can precisely map BAC clones on each other and evaluated the size and location of overlapped regions. The development and application of fiber-FISH technique will facilitate high-resolution physical mapping and further directed sequencing projects for cotton.

  18. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  19. Application of fisheries-management techniques to assessing impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring methods used in fisheries-management assessments were examined and their potential applicability in confirmatory impact monitoring were evaluated using case studies from selected nuclear power plants. A report on Task I of the project examined the application of Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) techniques in monitoring programs at riverine, large lake and ocean sites. Included in this final report is an examination of CPUE data for the Oconee Nuclear Plant on Lake Keowee, a reservoir site. This report also presents a summary of results obtained over the life of the project and guidelines for designing and implementing data collection programs and for data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of monitoring data from Lake Keowee confirmed findings from previous analyses of surveys at nuclear power plants on large lakes, rivers and coastal sites. CPUE techniques as applied to these monitoring programs do not provide data necessary to separate changes induced by plant operation from naturally occurring changes

  20. Application for proteomic techniques in studying osteoarthritis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YvesHenrotin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the genomic era, proteomic corresponds to a wide variety of techniques to study the protein content of cells, tissue or organism and to isolate protein of interest. It offers the choice between gel-based and gel-free methods or shotgun proteomics. Applications of proteomic technology may concern three principal objectives in several biomedical or clinical domains of research as in osteoarthritis: (i to understand the physiopathology and underlying mechanisms leading to a disease or associated to a particular model, (ii, to find disease-specific biomarker and (iii to identify new therapeutic targets. This review aimed at gathering most of the data regarding the proteomic techniques and their applications to arthritis research. It also reported technical limitations and solutions, as for example for sample preparation. Proteomics open wide perspectives in biochemical research but many technical matters still remain to be solved.

  1. Applications of lattice QCD techniques for condensed matter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V

    2016-01-01

    We review the application of lattice QCD techniques, most notably the Hybrid Monte-Carlo (HMC) simulations, to first-principle study of tight-binding models of crystalline solids with strong inter-electron interactions. After providing a basic introduction into the HMC algorithm as applied to condensed matter systems, we review HMC simulations of graphene, which in the recent years have helped to understand the semi-metal behavior of clean suspended graphene at the quantitative level. We also briefly summarize other novel physical results obtained in these simulations. Then we comment on the applicability of Hybrid Monte-Carlo to topological insulators and Dirac and Weyl semi-metals and highlight some of the relevant open physical problems. Finally, we also touch upon the lattice strong-coupling expansion technique as applied to condensed matter systems.

  2. NooJ, un outil TAL pour l'enseignement des langues. Application pour l'étude de la morphologie lexicale en FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Silberztein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available NooJ est un système de traitement de corpus – reprenant et améliorant les fonctionnalités d'INTEX – conçu pour l'enseignement des langues et de la linguistique. NooJ intègre des outils de traitement automatique du langage qui offrent à l'enseignant des possibilités de traiter un corpus, et des procédures de recherche, de test, et d'entraînement pour l'étudiant. Nous présentons ici un exemple d'application de NooJ à l'enseignement du français langue étrangère, qui reprend quelques activités sur l'étude de la morphologie lexicale.

  3. COMPLEX RESISTIVITY AND SPECTRAL INDUCED POLARIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    DE DONNO, GIORGIO

    2012-01-01

    The potential and limits of the complex resistivity and the Spectral Induced Polarization techniques for environmental applications are investigated starting from the controlled laboratory conditions. The solution of the 2D forward problem for the complex resistivity is achieved on cylindrical-shaped models by a transformed formulation and using the Complete Electrode Model to define boundary conditions. The finite element algorithm, implemented in Matlab to solve numerically these equations,...

  4. Analysis of deployment techniques for webbased applications in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Cathal

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is no longer just a source for accessing information; it has become a valuable medium for social networking and software services. Web-browsers can now access entire software systems available online to provide the user with a range of services. The concept of software as a service(SAAS) was born out of this. The number of development techniques and frameworks for such web-applications has grown rapidly and much research and development has been carried out on adva...

  5. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  6. Techniques, Applications and Challenging Issue in Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Shaidah Jusoh; Hejab M. Alfawareh

    2012-01-01

    Text mining is a very exciting research area as it tries to discover knowledge from unstructured texts. These texts can be found on a desktop, intranets and the internet. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of text mining in the contexts of its techniques, application domains and the most challenging issue. The focus is given on fundamentals methods of text mining which include natural language possessing and information extraction. This paper also gives a short review on domains whi...

  7. Internet tomography an introduction to concepts, techniques, tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moloisane, Abia; O’Droma, Máirtín

    2013-01-01

    Internet tomography, introduced from basic principles through to techniques, tools and applications, is the subject of this book. The design of Internet Tomography Measurement Systems (ITMS) aimed at mapping the Internet performance profile spatially and temporally over paths between probing stations is a particular focus.The Internet Tomography Measurement System design criteria addressed include:Minimally-invasive, independent and autonomous, active or passive measurement;Flexibility and scalability;Capability of targeting local, regional and global Internet paths and underlying IP networks;

  8. Hair transplantation update: procedural techniques, innovations, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunagan, M J Kristine; Banka, Nusrat; Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The advances in hair transplantation, particularly the advent of follicular unit transplantation, have greatly elevated the outcome of this procedure. Various modifications to the basic technique as well as innovations focused on the different aspects of the hair transplantation procedure have further enhanced this type of hair restoration surgery. In addition, there is ongoing expansion of the indications and applications of this procedure beyond the usual male pattern hair loss. PMID:23159183

  9. APPLICATIONS OF MOLECULAR DISTILLATION TECHNIQUE IN FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ketenoglu; Tekin, A.

    2015-01-01

    There are several separation techniques -including conventional distillation- for extracting heat sensitive compounds from food products. However, some compounds may have high boiling points at which other compounds might be adversely affected. Vacuum application is also needed for such kinds of foods. Molecular distillation is an advanced vacuum distillation method performed by short-path evaporators. Distance between evaporator and condenser is extremely reduced which results in minimized p...

  10. Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa; Valentin Toader; Aurelian Sofică; Mihaela Filofteia Tutunea; Rozalia Veronica Rus

    2015-01-01

    Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients), organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions) and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry...

  11. On the Application of TLS Techniques to AC Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cirrincione

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a new neuron, the TLS EXIN neuron, to AC induction motor drives. In particular, it addresses two important subjects of AC induction motor drives: the on-line estimation of the electrical parameters of the machine and the speed estimation in sensorless drives. On this basis, this work summarizes the parameter estimation and sensorless techniques already developed by the authors over these last few years, all based on the TLS EXIN. With regard to sensorless, two techniques are proposed: one based on the MRAS and the other based on the full-order Luenberger observer. The work show some of the most significant results obtained by the authors in these fields and stresses the important potentiality of this new neural technique in AC induction machine drives.

  12. Practical technique of pulsed field magnetization for bulk HTS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied a pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of bulk HTS assembled into a synchronous motor as a field-pole. The PFM is essential to apply bulk HTS inside the machine as a practical technique. In the present study, we developed a PFM technique that is a usage of Controlled Magnetic density Distribution Coil (CMDC). The coil is composed of inner vortex coil and outer solenoid. We successfully obtained the trapped flux density with 1.3 T by the step-wise cooling method with CMDC at 38 K in the motor. The bulk was cooled by a condensed neon. In addition, we studied the PFM for Gd-bulk of 140 mm diameter. By using the CMDC, we obtained the trapped flux density distribution with regular shape. In this paper we report these advanced PFM techniques for a practical machinery applications

  13. Hyperspherical harmonics expansion techniques application to problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a generalized theoretical technique for solving the fewbody Schrödinger equation. Straight forward approaches to solve it in terms of position vectors of constituent particles and using standard mathematical techniques become too cumbersome and inconvenient when the system contains more than two particles. The introduction of Jacobi vectors, hyperspherical variables and hyperspherical harmonics as an expansion basis is an elegant way to tackle systematically the problem of an increasing number of interacting particles. Analytic expressions for hyperspherical harmonics, appropriate symmetrisation of the wave function under exchange of identical particles and calculation of matrix elements of the interaction have been presented. Applications of this technique to various problems of physics have been discussed. In spite of straight forward generalization of the mathematical tools for increasing number of particles, the method becomes computationally difficult for more than a few particles. Hen...

  14. Imaging of the hip and bony pelvis. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Johnson, K.J. [Princess of Wales Birmingham Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. (eds.) [Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of the bony pelvis and hip joint that provides a detailed description of the techniques and imaging findings relevant to this complex anatomical region. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging the pelvis and hip are discussed in detail. The second part of the book documents the application of these techniques to the diverse clinical problems and diseases encountered. Among the many topics addressed are congenital and developmental disorders including developmental dysplasia of the hip, irritable hip and septic arthritis, Perthes' disease and avascular necrosis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, bony and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, tumours and hip prostheses. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. (orig.)

  15. Conception d’une application web de gestion de la maintenance des réseaux routiers

    OpenAIRE

    JABRI, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Ce document présente le travail réalisé dans le cadre du projet de fin d’études du cursus d’Ingénieur de l’Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Electronique, Informatique, Télécommunications, Mathématique et Mécanique de Bordeaux. Au sein de l’Ifsttar la mission s’est structurée autour de la mise en place d’une application web de gestion de la maintenance des réseaux routiers, et selon le plan suivant : -Travail de recherche consistant à faire communiquer ...

  16. Techniques Pour le Support des Phases d'Alerte et de Gestion de Crise des Réseaux de Sécurité Civile

    OpenAIRE

    Camara, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis proposes a new set of techniques to enhance the coverage and organization of wireless mobile networks in the Public Safety context. Public Safety Networks (PSNs) are networks established by the authorities to either warn the population about an imminent catastrophe or coordinate teams during the crisis and normalization phases. A catastrophe can be defined as an extreme event causing a profound damage or loss as perceived by the afflicted people. PSNs have the fundamental role of ...

  17. Biodistribution et effet biologique des nanoparticules utilisant des techniques d’imagerie multimodale : (Imagerie de résonance magnétique)

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, Achraf Al,

    2009-01-01

    As novel engineered nanoparticles such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are extensively used in nanotechnology due to their superior properties, it becomes critical to fully understand their biodistribution and effect when accidently inhaled. There fore, development of animaging technique which allow longitudinal in vivo follow-up of SWCNT effect based on their intrinsic properties is highly desirable. Non invasive free-breathing hyperpolarized 3He lung MRI protocol was developed com...

  18. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  19. Contribution à l'optimisation des revêtements des moules de fonderie - application aux outillages de coulée centrifuge

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconu, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    L'objet de ce travail est d'améliorer la durée de vie des coquilles de centrifugation des tuyaux en fonte. Leur paroi interne est soumise à des flux thermiques intenses (de l'ordre de quelques MW/m²) durant plusieurs secondes. L'utilisation d'un dépôt céramique et/ou métallique est envisagée pour assurer la protection de cette surface. Afin d'évaluer l'intérêt des revêtements, notamment les dépôts obtenus par projection thermique et par soudure, nous développons une méthode d'évaluation de fl...

  20. Efficacité technique des unités de production informelles: une approche de régressions quantiles. Le cas de l'agglomération d'Antananarivo

    OpenAIRE

    Faly Henry Rakotomanana

    2010-01-01

    Cette étude a pour objet d’analyser le degré l’efficacité technique des unités de production informelles et ses déterminants dans le cas de l’agglomération d’Antananarivo à Madagascar en utilisant les bases de données issues d’une série d’enquête de type 1-2-3 sur le secteur informel réalisées en 2001 et 2004. La méthode de la régression par quantile est retenue dans les modèles pour tenir compte des fortes disparités des unités en termes de performances. Le degré d’efficacité des unités de p...

  1. Absolute measurement of {beta} activities and application to the determination of neutronic densities; Mesure absolue d'activites {beta} et application a la determination des densites neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1951-01-15

    M. Berthelot, to my entrance to the ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', proposed me to study the absolute measurement of neutron densities. Very quickly the problem of the absolute activity of {beta} sources became the central object of this work. In a first part, we will develop the methods of absolute determination for {beta} activities. The use of a 4{pi} counter permits to get the absolute activity of all beta radioactive source, susceptible to be put as thin leaf and of period superior than some minutes. The method is independent of the spectra of the measured radioelement. we will describe in the second part some applications which use neutron densities measurement, neutron sources intensities and ratio of cross sections of capture of thermal neutrons. (M.B.) [French] M. Berthelot, a mon entree au ''Commissariat a l 'Energie Atomique'', m'a propose d'etudier la mesure absolue des densites neutroniques. Tres rapidement le probleme de l'activite absolue des sources beta est devenu l'objet central de ce travail. Dans une premiere partie, on abordera les methodes de determination absolue des activites beta. L'utilisation d'un compteur 4{pi} permet d 'obtenir l'activite absolue de toute source radioactive beta, susceptible d'etre mise sous forme de feuille mince et de periode superieure a quelques minutes. La methode est independante du spectre du radioelement mesure. On decrira dans la seconde partie quelques applications a des mesures de densites neutroniques, d'intensites de sources de neutrons et de rapport de sections efficaces de capture de neutrons thermiques. (M.B.)

  2. Concentration spatiale des accidents de la route : méthode d'identification des zones noires basée sur l'autocorrélation spatiale application et étude de sensibilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Flahaut

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cette contribution est d'identifier les lieux de concentration spatiale d'accidents de la route sous la forme de zones noires plutôt que de points noirs. L'application d'une méthode géographique d'analyse basée sur des mesures locales d'autocorrélation spatiale permet de localiser ces zones noires.La pertinence de la méthode est considérée, et une étude de la sensibilité des résultats à différents niveaux de contiguïté et à plusieurs fonctions des pondérations est proposée. Les résultats sont également comparés à ceux obtenus par une méthode statistique de lissage par noyau.L'application de la méthode à quelques routes montre concrètement son adéquation et son applicabilité au problème de la localisation des zones noires.

  3. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  4. Application of split window technique to TIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Rokugawa, Shuichi; Ishii, Yoshinori

    1992-01-01

    Absorptions by the atmosphere in thermal infrared region are mainly due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. As the content of water vapor in the atmosphere greatly changes according to weather conditions, it is important to know its amount between the sensor and the ground for atmospheric corrections of thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data (i.e. radiosonde). On the other hand, various atmospheric correction techniques were already developed for sea surface temperature estimations from satellites. Among such techniques, Split Window technique, now widely used for AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), uses no radiosonde or any kind of supplementary data but a difference between observed brightness temperatures in two channels for estimating atmospheric effects. Applications of Split Window technique to TIMS data are discussed because availability of atmospheric profile data is not clear when ASTER operates. After these theoretical discussions, the technique is experimentally applied to TIMS data at three ground targets and results are compared with atmospherically corrected data using LOWTRAN 7 with radiosonde data.

  5. Modélisation des écoulements de fluides et des transferts de chaleur au sein des déchets ménagers. Application à la réinjection de lixiviat dans un centre de stockage

    OpenAIRE

    Aran, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    La modélisation des écoulements de fluides et des transferts de chaleur au sein des déchets ménagers vise d'une part à contrôler et maîtriser les effluents liquides (lixiviat) et gazeux (biogaz) issus de la biodégradation et susceptibles de polluer l'environnement, d'autre part à accélérer les temps de stabilisation des décharges estimés actuellement à une trentaine d'année. La première partie de l'étude a consisté à instrumenter un centre de stockage de la région parisienne dans lequel des s...

  6. L'impact des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques posés par la nouvelle conjoncture dans l'exploration et la production du pétrole Impact of Scientific Developments on the Solving of Technical Problems Raised by the New Economic Situation in Oil Exploration and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les circonstances difficiles que traverse l'exploration et la production du pétrole, le savoir-faire technologique, associé à la maîtrise des coûts, seront pour l'industrie pétrolière et parapétrolière des atouts essentiels. On envisage ici l'impact prévisible des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques dans l'exploration et la production. Les principales disciplines scientifiques concernées (géologie, géophysique, géochimie, mécanique des roches et des sols, mécanique des fluides, physicochimie des interfaces ainsi que trois techniques de base (modélisation, systèmes experts, matériaux nouveaux sont examinées dans ce sens. En particulier,la modélisation numérique voit son importance croître de manière spectaculaire : elle couvre désormais des domaines nouveaux, comme les Sciences de la Terre, et continue à s'enrichir de développements importants, même dans les secteurs où on l'utilise depuis 20 ans comme la production. Ces évolutions s'accompagneront nécessairement d'ajustements dans la formation des hommes et le fonctionnement des organisations; en particulier un espace nouveau pourrait se dégager pour de petites entreprises de conseil et de service plus riches en matière grise qu'en investissements lourds. In the difficult circumstances now confronting oil exploration and production, technical know-how combined with cost control will be essential assets for the petroleum and petroleum equipment and service industries. This article considers the foreseeable impact of scientific developments on the solving of technical problems in exploration and production. The principal scientific disciplines involved (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, rock and soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, interface physicochemistry as well as three basic techniques (modeling, expert systems, new materials are examined within this context. In particular, numerical modeling is increasing in

  7. Vulnérabilité des systèmes agricoles et innovations techniques dans un contexte de variabilité climatique: cas des cultures de mil et de sorgho dans les zones sahélienne et soudano-sahélienne du Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Sissoko, Penda; Jens B. Aune; Synnevag, Gry; Lebailly, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude analyse la vulnérabilité des systèmes d’exploitation agricoles à base de mil et de sorgho à la variabilité climatique et l’adoption des innovations techniques dans les zones sahélienne et soudano- sahélienne du Mali. Sur la base d’enquêtes réalisées auprès de 360 exploitations agricoles dans les zones sahélienne et soudano-sahélienne, cette recherche a montré que la variabilité pluviométrique observée au cours des trois décennies dans les sites de recherche à travers des insuffisa...

  8. La gestion des flux d'information et l'intégration des techniques multimédia dans les systèmes d'information

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Dou Goarin, Carine; Leveillé, Valérie

    1997-01-01

    International audience The opening of markets to the world and the growth of technological applications are among factors militating in favor of dynamic information system management. Few authors have already analyzed the different types of information used by organisms, but their studies didn't integrate the dynamic dimension of information. This characteristic induce a new definition of the different types of information and the information has to be now considered as a flood in the syst...

  9. Applications of surface analytical techniques in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gujie; Li, Yubiao; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-03-01

    to show how each technique is applied and used to obtain specific information and to resolve real problems, which forms the central theme of this review. Although this review focuses on applications of these techniques to study mineralogical and geological samples, we also anticipate that researchers from other research areas such as Material and Environmental Sciences may benefit from this review.

  10. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources

  11. Development of Plant Application Technique of Low Dose Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Lim, Yong Taek (and others)

    2007-07-15

    The project was carried out to achieve three aims. First, development of application techniques of cell-stimulating effects by low-dose radiation. Following irradiation with gamma-rays of low doses, beneficial effects in crop germination, early growth, and yield were investigated using various plant species and experimental approaches. For the actual field application, corroborative studies were also carried out with a few concerned experimental stations and farmers. Moreover, we attempted to establish a new technique of cell cultivation for industrial mass-production of shikonin, a medicinal compound from Lithospermum erythrorhizon and thereby suggested new application fields for application techniques of low-dose radiation. Second, elucidation of action mechanisms of ionizing radiation in plants. By investigating changes in plant photosynthesis and physiological metabolism, we attempted to elucidate physiological activity-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation and to search for radiation-adaptive cellular components. Besides, analyses of biochemical and molecular biological mechanisms for stimulus-stimulating effects of low-dose radiation were accomplished by examining genes and proteins inducible by low-dose radiation. Third, development of functional crop plants using radiation-resistant factors. Changes in stress-tolerance of plants against environmental stress factors such as light, temperature, salinity and UV-B stress after exposed to low-dose gamma-rays were investigated. Concerned reactive oxygen species, antioxidative enzymes, and antioxidants were also analyzed to develop high value-added and environment-friendly functional plants using radiation-resistant factors. These researches are important to elucidate biological activities increased by low-dose radiation and help to provide leading technologies for improvement of domestic productivity in agriculture and development of high value-added genetic resources.

  12. Electro-thermography technique for nondestructive testing (NDT) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. S.; Hung, Y. Y.; Liu, L.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, Electro-Thermography is introduced in nondestructive testing applications. Electro-Thermography is one of the novel active thermography techniques for nondestructive testing. It gains the advantages from the optical and electromagnetic properties in full-field, non-contact, high inspection speed, and sensitivity in geometry variation. It is mostly applicable to all kind of ferrous-metal, some composites materials. A fundamental difference among electro-thermography and other active thermography techniques are the excitation mechanism. Electro-Thermography is a combination of the electromagnetic induction and surface thermal radiation measuring technique; it used the induction method to excite the object, and then it used the radiation properties to measure the distribution of surface temperature of the object. It detects flaws by the flaw's anomalous heating and heat transfer response. The method of excitation is also different from others irradiation excitation. Electro-Thermography needs an electromagnetic coil to generate eddy current through induction to change the surface and subsurface temperature. Electro-Thermography can detect surface and sub-surface flaws, unless the flaw is too remote and tiny from the surface. Some experiments in flaw detections and other types of inspections are demonstrated.

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  14. Conference on Nuclear and Conventional Analytical Techniques and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : A panoply analytic techniques methods has emerged in recent decades due to the challenges of society in quality of products and the increasing demand of chemical analysis services. The industrial progress which came along with an instrumental perfection of devices with analytical use, led to the development of new techniques more and more advanced in this field. These come as well, to answer the disturbing effects of this industrialization and the wishes of a public increasingly conscious and requiring globally. The leaders in this field of analysis and material characterization are more than ever confronted with problems of identification and quantification of different chemical forms of a multitude of products in varied circles; Industrial pollutants, soil, water, air, food, medicines, ceramics, concrete, plants etc. It was from that perspective that the unifying theme ''geomaterials: characterization to applications '' of the conference on nuclear and conventional analytical techniques and their applications (TANCA 2010) was chosen. It contributes to the debate of these subjects and builds relationships between stakeholders in this field, both technically and practically

  15. Research and Application of MEMS Technique at BSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    LIGA technique has been developed since 1993 at BSRF, including the fabrication of LIGA mask, deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, the pouring molding and the applications in some fields. The LIGA mask with gold absorbing structures of 20μm thickness and 5μm width and Kapton membrane of around 5μm thickness has been successfully fabricated and applied to the deep X-ray lithography with the PMMA structure of 1mm thickness or above. The beamline from a wiggler is used for the deep X-ray lithography of LIGA station and is open to other institutes researching the deep X-ray lithography. The normal process of LIGA technique with the exception of molding has been established with the PMMA structures of 500μm thickness at BSRF. The largest aspect ratio of PMMA structures can reach about 50 with the height of 500μm and the lateral size of 10μm. The nickel and copper structures with the thickness of 0.5mm and 1mm have been made by using the electroplating technique. The SU8 as a resist material of deep etch lithography with UV light is also developed in the fabrication of LIGA mask and some devices at BSRF.Electromagnetic stepping micro motor, heat exchange, accelerator, structures used in the EDM (electro discharge machining) are being developed for the future applications.

  16. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  17. Application perspectives of simulation techniques CFD in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenarios simulation in nuclear power plants is usually carried out with system codes that are based on concentrated parameters networks. However situations exist in some components where the flow is predominantly 3-D, as they are the natural circulation, mixed and stratification phenomena. The simulation techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have the potential to simulate these flows numerically. The use of CFD simulations embraces many branches of the engineering and continues growing, however, in relation to its application with respect to the problems related with the safety in nuclear power plants, has a smaller development, although is accelerating quickly and is expected that in the future they play a more emphasized paper in the analyses. A main obstacle to be able to achieve a general acceptance of the CFD is that the simulations should have very complete validation studies, sometimes not available. In this article a general panorama of the state of the methods application CFD in nuclear power plants is presented and the problem associated to its routine application and acceptance, including the view point of the regulatory authorities. Application examples are revised in those that the CFD offers real benefits and are also presented two illustrative study cases of the application of CFD techniques. The case of a water recipient with a heat source in its interior, similar to spent fuel pool of a nuclear power plant is presented firstly; and later the case of the Boron dilution of a water volume that enters to a nuclear reactor is presented. We can conclude that the CFD technology represents a very important opportunity to improve the phenomena understanding with a strong component 3-D and to contribute in the uncertainty reduction. (Author)

  18. Application of nuclear physics techniques in ecological and agrogeochemical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the last several years works on development of complex of nuclear physics techniques environmental analyses and their application for ecological and agrogeochemical researches are carrying out at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. The results of studies allowed: To develop a complex of multielement instrumental nuclear physics techniques (neutron activation analyses, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray structural analyses, radiochemical and so on) to analyze environment object (in that number soil). These techniques allow to identify content of more than 40 chemical elements with detection limit of 10-8 - 0.03 % of weight, error not more than 50 % and productivity is 50 samples per workday; To estimate ecological and agrogeochemical state of soils and develop technology to bring in manganese containing micro fertilizer based on large scale soil mapping for different climate zone. This technique has been tested by scientific and manufacturing organization in Uzbekistan. Depend on soil composition crop capacity was 300-1200 kg/ha; To develop neutron activation analysis method for quality control of cottonseed before sowing; It has been studied high frequency and laser irradiation effect on cottonseed and based on these study equipment assembled. It is proved possibility to raise crop capacity up to 500-700 kg/hectare; It has been established feasibility to use non-traditional natural soil improvers with the element composition close to the soil of the given

  19. Innovative SU-8 Lithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Bong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SU-8 has been widely used in a variety of applications for creating structures in micro-scale as well as sub-micron scales for more than 15 years. One of the most common structures made of SU-8 is tall (up to millimeters high-aspect-ratio (up to 100:1 3D microstructure, which is far better than that made of any other photoresists. There has been a great deal of efforts in developing innovative unconventional lithography techniques to fully utilize the thick high aspect ratio nature of the SU-8 photoresist. Those unconventional lithography techniques include inclined ultraviolet (UV exposure, back-side UV exposure, drawing lithography, and moving-mask UV lithography. In addition, since SU-8 is a negative-tone photoresist, it has been a popular choice of material for multiple-photon interference lithography for the periodic structure in scales down to deep sub-microns such as photonic crystals. These innovative lithography techniques for SU-8 have led to a lot of unprecedented capabilities for creating unique micro- and nano-structures. This paper reviews such innovative lithography techniques developed in the past 15 years or so.

  20. Concerning the application of the nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work intends to describe briefly, some of the nuclear and connected techniques of greater application in the conditions of developing countries, which are employed in the Center of Studies Applied to the Nuclear Development, and that can be of interest for the Latin-American countries. Within those techniques we have: radiobiology, that consists of the employment of ionizing radiations to induce mutations oriented to the improvement of the cultivations. It mentions the atmospheric contamination generated by the industry of the exposition to metals and toxic waste, and of mortiferous parasites that adapt quickly to the unhealthy environmental conditions. It also enumerates some advantages of the utilization of instruments based on radioisotopic fountains. (S. Grainger)

  1. The application of value analysis techniques for complex problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the application of the Value Analysis technique to the transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT). A team representing five different companies or organizations with diverse technical backgrounds was formed to analyze and recommend improvements. The results were a 38% systems-wide savings, if incorporated, and a shipping container which is volumetrically and payload efficient as well as user friendly. The Value Analysis technique is a proven tool widely used in many diverse areas both in the government and the private sector. Value Analysis uses functional diagramming of a piece of equipment or process to discretely identify every facet of the item being analyzed. A standard set of questions is then asked: What is it?, What does it do?, What does it cost?, What else will do the task?, and What would that cost? Using logic and a disciplined approach, the result of the Value Analysis performs the necessary functions at a high quality and the lowest overall cost

  2. Positron lifetime technique with applications in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the positron lifetime technique as a method to measure extremely low concentrations of extremely small cavities in materials. The method is based upon the fact that the positron lieftime decreases as the electron density increases and upon the fact that a positron preferably annihilates in cavity-like defects in lattices. The theory of positron behaviour in materials and technical aspects of measuring positron liefetimes are described in ch.'s 2 and 3 respectively. Three methods for increasing the time resolution are discussed and some positron sources are described (ch.4). Some applications of the positron lifetime technique and experimental results are shown in chapter 5. 125 refs.; 61 figs.; 18 tabs

  3. MR urography in children and adolescents: techniques and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Trout, Andrew T; Smith, Ethan A

    2016-06-01

    Renal and urinary tract imaging is commonly performed in the pediatric population, particularly in the setting of suspected or known congenital anomalies. In most cases, adequate anatomic assessment can be achieved using ultrasound and fluoroscopic techniques, and evaluation of differential renal function and urinary tract drainage can be accomplished with renal scintigraphy. However, in a subset of children, anatomic or functional questions may remain after this routine evaluation. In this setting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tailored to evaluate the kidneys and urinary tract, known as MR urography (MRU), can be used to depict the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder in detail and to determine differential renal function and assess urinary tract drainage. The objectives of this review article are to (1) describe pediatric-specific MRI techniques for assessment of the kidneys and urinary tract and (2) present common clinical applications for pediatric MRU where imaging can "add value" in terms of diagnosis and patient management. PMID:26915088

  4. Recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presented recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques and results in Vietnam. The author concentrated some valuable and helpful studies such as functional tests, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, bone, thyroid, lung, kidney and gastrointestinal tract scintigraphy for diagnosis. The results of RIA and IRMA concerning with thyroid diseases, cancer, microalbuminuria and TSH in blood spot on paper for screening of congenital hypothyroidism in new born babies were also given. The report also mentioned results of liver cancer and palliative bone metastasis treatments in Vietnam. A new technique using gamma probe in surgery for breast cancer was presented. The author introduced some modern teleradiotherapeutic modalities such as cyberknif, gamma knife, gamma rotating systeme and linac recently installed in Vietnam. (author)

  5. Applications of nuclear tracer techniques in coastal zone process studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear techniques have a wide utility in coastal zone studies. Applications described in this talk include studies of the offshore dispersal of sewage, the migration of sand and sediment, and processes important to the biogeochemical cycling of elements in the marine environment. They are particularly suited to elucidation of the compartmentalisation and rates of processes, both presently occurring and in past times. Many studies are designed to contribute to the scientific basis, or development of engineering concepts, for sustainable development in coastal regions where population densities are high and there are potential conflicts in the exploitation of resources. Other studies are aimed at developing an understanding of specific interactions within coastal ecosystems and the rates at which these processes occur. These radiotracer techniques provide a mechanism of fine tuning concepts and equations (models) in order to achieve a balance between man' s activities and his impact on the environment

  6. Novel atmospheric extinction measurement techniques for aerospace laser system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for manned and unmanned aerospace vehicle applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 kHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  7. Lab-on-a-chip techniques, circuits, and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghallab, Yehya H

    2010-01-01

    Here's a groundbreaking book that introduces and discusses the important aspects of lab-on-a-chip, including the practical techniques, circuits, microsystems, and key applications in the biomedical, biology, and life science fields. Moreover, this volume covers ongoing research in lab-on-a-chip integration and electric field imaging. Presented in a clear and logical manner, the book provides you with the fundamental underpinnings of lab-on-a-chip, presents practical results, and brings you up to date with state-of-the-art research in the field. This unique resource is supported with over 160 i

  8. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  9. Techniques, Applications and Challenging Issue in Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidah Jusoh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Text mining is a very exciting research area as it tries to discover knowledge from unstructured texts. These texts can be found on a desktop, intranets and the internet. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of text mining in the contexts of its techniques, application domains and the most challenging issue. The focus is given on fundamentals methods of text mining which include natural language possessing and information extraction. This paper also gives a short review on domains which have employed text mining. The challenging issue in text mining which is caused by the complexity in a natural language is also addressed in this paper.

  10. Application of Nuclear Techniques in Industry and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major radiotracer techniques are now in routine service industry to optimize processes, solve problems improve product quality, save energy and reduction pollution. The benefit to cost ratios of radiotracers, sealed sources and nucleonic gauges applications are considerably high; between 10:1 and 4000:1. The number of services for troubleshooting carried out worldwide per year is in excess of tens of thousands (out of them greater than 5000 are gamma scans). The number of nucleonic gauges worldwide could be estimated to be greater that 250,000 (Author)

  11. APPLICATION OF OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES IN FRONT END COMPUTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Front End Computer (FEC) environment imposes special demands on software, beyond real time performance and robustness. FEC software must manage a diverse inventory of devices with individualistic timing requirements and hardware interfaces. It must implement network services which export device access to the control system at large, interpreting a uniform network communications protocol into the specific control requirements of the individual devices. Object oriented languages provide programming techniques which neatly address these challenges, and also offer benefits in terms of maintainability and flexibility. Applications are discussed which exhibit the use of inheritance, multiple inheritance and inheritance trees, and polymorphism to address the needs of FEC software

  12. Epicyclic Gear Train Solution Techniques with Application to Tandem Bicycling

    OpenAIRE

    Corey, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents a unification of kinematic and force-based methods for the design and analysis of planetary gear trains along with a discussion of potential applications in tandem biking. Specifically, this thesis will provide a simple solution technique for the general case of a two-degree of freedom (2DOF) planetary gear train along with new graphical design aids. It will also address the use of epicyclic gear trains as a power coupling in a tandem bike. In the current literature, p...

  13. Liste des auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abdoul Razack Adjibi-Oualiou, agronome forestierdirection des Forêts et des Ressources naturellesBP 393, Cotonou, république du Béninmailto: Aristide Cossi Adomou, botanisteuniversité d’Abomey-Calavi, faculté des Sciences et Techniques département de Biologie végétaleHerbier national du Bénin, 01 BP 4521, Cotonou, république du Béninmailto: Pierre Onodjè Agbani, botaniste systématicien, écologuelaboratoire d'Écologie appliquée, Cotonou, république du B...

  14. Les entretiens professionnels théorie et applications : cours de master 2 psychologie sociale du travail et des ressources humaines

    OpenAIRE

    Salès-Wuillemin, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Ce chapitre est un résumé de cours de Master 2. Il présente les différentes techniques d'entretiens utilisés en psychologie sociale du travail et des ressources humaines, depuis l'entretien centré sur la tâche à l'entretien de recrutement.

  15. Digital holography and wavefront sensing principles, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnars, Ulf; Watson, John; Jüptner, Werner

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a self-contained treatment of the principles and major applications of digital hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This second edition has been significantly revised and enlarged. The authors have extended the chapter on Digital Holographic Microscopy to incorporate new sections on particle sizing, particle image velocimetry and underwater holography. A new chapter now deals comprehensively and extensively with computational wave field sensing. These techniques represent a fascinating alternative to standard interferometry and Digital Holography. They enable wave field sensing without the requirement of a particular reference wave, thus allowing the use of low brilliance light sources and even liquid-crystal displays (LCD) for interferometric applications.              

  16. New approaches in intelligent control techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kountchev, Roumen

    2016-01-01

    This volume introduces new approaches in intelligent control area from both the viewpoints of theory and application. It consists of eleven contributions by prominent authors from all over the world and an introductory chapter. This volume is strongly connected to another volume entitled "New Approaches in Intelligent Image Analysis" (Eds. Roumen Kountchev and Kazumi Nakamatsu). The chapters of this volume are self-contained and include summary, conclusion and future works. Some of the chapters introduce specific case studies of various intelligent control systems and others focus on intelligent theory based control techniques with applications. A remarkable specificity of this volume is that three chapters are dealing with intelligent control based on paraconsistent logics.

  17. Target Detection: Remote Sensing Techniques for Defence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Chaudhuri

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous development in remote sensing technology in the recent past has opened up new challenges in defence applications. On important area of such applications is in target detection. This paper describes both classical and newly developed approaches to detect the targets by using remotely-sensed digital images. The classical approach includes statistical classification methods and image processing techniques. The new approach deals with a relatively new sensor technology, namely, synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems and fast developing tools, like neural networks and multisource data integration for analysis and interpretation. With SAR images, it is possible to detect targets or features of a target that is otherwise not possible. Neural networks and multisource data integration tools also have a great potential in analysing and interpreting remote sensing data for target detection.

  18. An Analysis of Performance Enhancement Techniques for Overset Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomehri, J. J.; Biswas, R.; Potsdam, M.; Strawn, R. C.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overset grid methodology has significantly reduced time-to-solution of high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations about complex aerospace configurations. The solution process resolves the geometrical complexity of the problem domain by using separately generated but overlapping structured discretization grids that periodically exchange information through interpolation. However, high performance computations of such large-scale realistic applications must be handled efficiently on state-of-the-art parallel supercomputers. This paper analyzes the effects of various performance enhancement techniques on the parallel efficiency of an overset grid Navier-Stokes CFD application running on an SGI Origin2000 machine. Specifically, the role of asynchronous communication, grid splitting, and grid grouping strategies are presented and discussed. Results indicate that performance depends critically on the level of latency hiding and the quality of load balancing across the processors.

  19. Application of Space Geodetic Techniques to Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    With the emergence of large-scale geodetic ground networks, both regional and global, and affordable spaceborne GPS scientific receivers, space geodetic techniques are finding diverse and unexpected new applications in many areas of Earth remote sensing. Basic GPS navigation receivers are now all but indispensable to low earth orbiting missions of all kinds. Science applications of spaceborne GPS today include centimeter-level precise orbit determination for gravity mapping, ocean altimetry, geocenter detection, and enhanced global geodesy; high resolution 3D imaging of the global ionosphere; occultation limb sounding to recover precise profiles of atmospheric refractivity, density, pressure, temperature, water vapor, and geopotential heights; and the experimental detection of GPS ocean reflections for direct ocean altimetry and scatterometry. In the past five years there has been an explosion in the use of both ground and spaceborne geodetic receivers for direct sensing of the atmosphere to provide data for weather prediction and research in global climate change. Atmospheric applications of space geodesy are generating increasing scientific interest. Dense GPS networks in Japan, North America, Scandinavia, Europe, and elsewhere are now routinely providing data for assimilation into daily weather forecasts. A constellation of six orbiting occultation receivers, such as the COSMIC mission to be launched in 2005, can measure atmospheric refractivity with a precision equivalent to 0.1 K in temperature within a climate region corresponding to 1/30 the earth's surface, with just a few weeks of data. Vertical resolution can reach below a hundred meters. This offers perhaps the most promising approach yet to detecting and discriminating among subtle forced climatic signals, which may amount to only a few tenths of a Kelvin average temperature change per decade. This presentation will survey the techniques and applications of GPS atmospheric sensing from the ground and

  20. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  1. Henri Desbois, Les mesures du territoire : aspects techniques, politiques et culturels des mutations de la carte topographique

    OpenAIRE

    Enjalbert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Prenant acte de la « boulimie cartographique » contemporaine qui fait de la carte un outil de description du monde omniprésent, Henri Desbois s’attache dans cet ouvrage issu de son habilitation à diriger des recherches à en déconstruire l’apparente neutralité. « Une carte n’est pas le territoire » : cet aphorisme d’Alfred Korzybski sous-tend, en filigrane, l’ensemble de l’ouvrage. C’est à travers une épistémologie très documentée qu’Henri Desbois décortique les visions du monde et les imagin...

  2. Analyse des besoins des usagers

    OpenAIRE

    KHOUDOUR,L; LANGLAIS,A; Charpentier, C.; MOTTE,C; PIAN,C

    2002-01-01

    Il s'agit d'étendre la surveillance vidéo de l'enceinte du métro vers l'intérieur des rames. Les images captées constituent des prises de vue des événements qui se déroulent à l'intérieur des véhicules afin notamment d'améliorer la sécurité des usagers transportes. Il est possible de mémoriser les images des quelques instants précédant un incident usager, d'analyser ces images en temps différé et de mieux appréhender en temps réel le comportement des usagers face à des événements ou des consi...

  3. Etude in situ des phénomènes de retrait-gonflement des sols : application à deux sols tropicaux peu gonflants

    OpenAIRE

    Coquet, Yves

    1996-01-01

    Ce travail est consacré à la mesure in situ de la courbe de retrait de sols peu gonflants. Un effort expérimental important porte sur la mise au point des méthodes utilisées pour le suivi simultané in situ des variations d'épaisseur et de teneur en eau de couches de sol. Nous montrons la faisabilité des mesures de variation d'épaisseur sur sols peu gonflants grâce à l'utilisation de capteurs électroniques de déplacement. La précision obtenue (plus ou moins 10 microm) permet de mettre en évide...

  4. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, M.J

    2000-05-01

    There is at present little information regarding the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, due mainly to the difficulty in obtaining reliable palaeointensity estimates. A major reason for the low success rate (typically 20- 30%) is sample alteration during experimentation, as samples experience prolonged heating up to their Curie temperature. A new palaeointensity technique in which high frequency microwaves are used to demagnetise and remagnetise palaeomagnetic samples has been developed for use with lava. The microwaves enable vastly reduced heating of the bulk sample and therefore reduce the likelihood of alteration. This thesis describes and discusses the microwave palaeointensity technique as well as three palaeomagnetic studies that include microwave palaeointensity analysis. The background and theory of microwave heating is presented. The magnetic system of the magnetic particles is directly excited by ferromagnetic resonance, FMR using the high power process of parallel pumping. Some heating of the bulk sample will occur due to the subsequent relaxation processes. Microwaves with a frequency of 8.2 GHz are used in the Liverpool automated microwave and SQUID magnetometer system. The microwave technique is a variant of the conventional stepwise Thellier method. A new microwave method has been developed for use with lava in which the microwave induced thermoremanence is produced perpendicular to the natural remanent magnetisation. Only one microwave application is required at each power step thus removing the need for accurate reproducibility of absorbed microwave power and also reducing experimental time. This method as well as a previous method developed for use with ceramic samples are described and discussed. The microwave palaeointensity technique has been used successfully in three palaeomagnetic studies (that include rock magnetic and directional analyses). These are a study of historic lava from Mt. Etna, Sicily, a detailed through

  5. The microwave palaeointensity technique and its application to lava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is at present little information regarding the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, due mainly to the difficulty in obtaining reliable palaeointensity estimates. A major reason for the low success rate (typically 20- 30%) is sample alteration during experimentation, as samples experience prolonged heating up to their Curie temperature. A new palaeointensity technique in which high frequency microwaves are used to demagnetise and remagnetise palaeomagnetic samples has been developed for use with lava. The microwaves enable vastly reduced heating of the bulk sample and therefore reduce the likelihood of alteration. This thesis describes and discusses the microwave palaeointensity technique as well as three palaeomagnetic studies that include microwave palaeointensity analysis. The background and theory of microwave heating is presented. The magnetic system of the magnetic particles is directly excited by ferromagnetic resonance, FMR using the high power process of parallel pumping. Some heating of the bulk sample will occur due to the subsequent relaxation processes. Microwaves with a frequency of 8.2 GHz are used in the Liverpool automated microwave and SQUID magnetometer system. The microwave technique is a variant of the conventional stepwise Thellier method. A new microwave method has been developed for use with lava in which the microwave induced thermoremanence is produced perpendicular to the natural remanent magnetisation. Only one microwave application is required at each power step thus removing the need for accurate reproducibility of absorbed microwave power and also reducing experimental time. This method as well as a previous method developed for use with ceramic samples are described and discussed. The microwave palaeointensity technique has been used successfully in three palaeomagnetic studies (that include rock magnetic and directional analyses). These are a study of historic lava from Mt. Etna, Sicily, a detailed through the

  6. Application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is a compilation of scientific results from the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution which was implemented from 1995 to 1997. The conclusions of the CRP were presented by scientists from the following participating Member States: Austria, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Senegal and the United Kingdom. The CRP was implemented in recognition of the importance of protecting groundwater resources, and promoting the role of isotope techniques when integrated to classical hydrological methods to identify the sources and mechanisms of by which pollution takes place. The results of the CRP are expected to find practical applications in tackling hydrological problems encountered in technical co-operation projects of the IAEA. This publication could also provide a contribution toward the continuing efforts of various sectors to investigate, mitigate and control the threat of groundwater pollution. This publication includes the results of 16 investigations dealing with isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur integrated to some extent with the classical hydrological tools of investigation. Each document in this compilation is provided with abstract and index

  7. Applicability of Operational Research Techniques in CANDU Nuclear Plant Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, and ICONE 9 in Niece, 2001, the use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. Innovative practices included greatly reducing Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is being put in place. Further cost refinement of the station preventive maintenance strategy whereby decisions are based on statistical analysis of historical failure data is being evaluated. A wide range of Operational Research (OR) literature was reviewed for implementation issues and several encouraging areas were found that will assist in the current effort of evaluating maintenance optimization techniques for nuclear power production. The road ahead is expected to consist first of resolving 25 years of data issues and preserving the data via appropriate knowledge system techniques while post war demographics permit experts to input into the system. Subsequent analytical techniques will emphasize total simplicity to obtain the requisite buy in from Corporate Executives who possibly are not trained in Operational Research. Case studies of containment airlock seal failures are used to illustrate the direct applicability of stochastic processes. Airlocks and transfer chambers were chosen as they have long been known as high maintenance items. Also, the very significant financial consequences of this type of failure will help to focus the attention of Senior Management on the effort. Despite substantial investment in research, improvement in the design of the seal material or configuration has not been achieved beyond the designs completed in the 1980's. Overall, the study showed excellent agreement of the relatively quick stochastic methods with the maintenance programs produced at

  8. Optimization of industrial production systems: contribution of mixed simulation techniques of continuous and discrete phenomena; Optimisation des systemes de production industriels: apport des techniques de simulation mixte de phenomenes continus et discrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagnat, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Bertrand, J.Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure en Genies des Techniques Industrielles, ENSGTI, 64 - Pau (France); Dannoux, F. [3A Alliance Agro-Alimentaire, 64 - Pau (France); Hochon, J.C. [IXI, 31 - Toulouse (France); Signoret, J.P. [Elf Exploration Production, 64 - Pau (France). Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents an hybrid simulation technique based on Petri nets and supported by the mixed MISS-RdP tool. It introduces the contribution of this technique to the modeling, simulation and prediction of the performances of hybrid systems in order to optimize them at their design state with respect to their productivity and to the mastery of risks. This technique can be applied in particular to the study of production systems. (J.S.)

  9. Évaluation de la qualité des comportements des agents en simulation : application à un simulateur de conduite en environnement virtuel

    OpenAIRE

    DARTY, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Cette thèse se situe dans le contexte de la Simulation Multi-Agents et s'intéresse à l'évaluation de la capacité des agents à reproduire individuellement des comportements humains. Les comportements que nous considérons sont dits 'de haut niveau', par opposition aux comportements moteurs ou réflexes. Cette problématique se retrouve dans de nombreux domaines avec la Réalité Virtuelle, les Agents Conversationnels Animés, les agents d'un simulateur immersif, les jeux. L'approche dominante pour é...

  10. Évaluation de la qualité des comportements des agents en simulation : application à un simulateur de conduite en environnement virtuel

    OpenAIRE

    Darty, Kévin

    2015-01-01

    Cette thèse se situe dans le contexte de la Simulation Multi-Agent et s'intéresse à l'évaluation de la capacité des agents à reproduire individuellement des comportements humains. Les comportements que nous considérons sont dits "de haut niveau", par opposition aux comportements moteurs ou réflexes. Cette problématique se retrouve dans de nombreux domaines avec la Réalité Virtuelle, les Agents Conversationnels Animés, les agents d'un simulateur immersif, les jeux. L'approche dominante pour év...

  11. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs

  12. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: the technique and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an experimental technique using statistical analysis of the fluctuations of fluorescence in a system in order to decipher dynamic molecular events, such as diffusion or conformational fluctuations of biomolecules. First introduced by Magde et al to measure the diffusion and binding of ethidium bromide onto double-stranded DNA, the technique has been undergoing a renaissance since 1993 with the implementation of confocal microscopy FCS. Since then, a flurry of experiments has implemented FCS to characterize the photochemistry of dyes, the translational and rotational mobilities of fluorescent molecules, as well as to monitor conformational fluctuations of green fluorescent proteins and DNA molecules. In this review, we present the analytical formalism of an FCS measurement, as well as practical considerations for the design of an FCS setup and experiment. We then review the recent applications of FCS in analytical chemistry, biophysics and cell biology, specifically emphasizing the advantages and pitfalls of the technique compared to alternative spectroscopic tools. We also discuss recent extensions of FCS in single-molecule spectroscopy, offering alternative data processing of fluorescence signals to glean more information on the kinetic processes. (author)

  13. Surface dating of bricks, an application of luminescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Anna; Martini, Marco; Maspero, Francesco; Panzeri, Laura; Sibilia, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence techniques are a powerful tool to date archaeological ceramic materials and geological sediments. Thermoluminescence (TL) is widely used for bricks dating to reconstruct the chronology of urban complexes and the development of human cultures. However, it can sometimes be inconclusive, since TL assesses the firing period of bricks, which can be reused, even several centuries later. This problem can be circumvented using a dating technique based on a resetting event different from the last heating. OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) exploits the last light exposition of the brick surface, which resets the light-sensitive electron traps until the surface is definitely shielded by mortar and superimposed bricks. This advanced application (surface dating) has been successfully attempted on rocks, marble and stone artifacts, but not yet on bricks. A recent conservation campaign at the Certosa di Pavia gave the opportunity to sample some bricks belonging to a XVII century collapsed wall, still tied to their mortars. This was an advantageous condition to test this technique, comparing the dating results with precise historical data. This attempt gave satisfactory results, allowing to identify bricks surely reused and to fully confirm that the edification of the perimetral wall occurred at the end of XVII century.

  14. A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Biswas, Gautam; Aaseng, Gordon; Narasimhan, Sriam; Pattipati, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic , models of the nominal system, derived from design documents, are also employed for fault isolation and identification. Depending on the complexity of the monitored signals from the physical system, diagnostic applications may involve straightforward trending and feature extraction techniques to retrieve the parameters of importance from the sensor streams. They also may involve very complex analysis routines, such as signal processing, learning or classification methods to derive the parameters of importance to diagnosis. The process that is used to diagnose anomalous conditions from monitored system signals varies widely across the different approaches to system diagnosis. Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning systems, model-based reasoning systems, learning systems, and probabilistic reasoning systems are examples of the many diverse approaches ta diagnostic reasoning. Many engineering disciplines have specific approaches to modeling, monitoring and diagnosing anomalous conditions. Therefore, there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to building diagnostic and health monitoring capabilities for a system. For instance, the conventional approaches to diagnosing failures in rotorcraft applications are very different from those used in communications systems. Further, online and offline automated diagnostic applications are integrated into an operations framework with flight crews, flight controllers and maintenance teams. While the emphasis of this paper is automation of health management functions, striking the correct balance between

  15. Application of data mining techniques for nuclear data and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of previously unknown, valid, novel, potentially useful, and understandable patterns in large databases. It encompasses many different techniques and algorithms which differ in the kinds of data that can be analyzed and the form of knowledge representation used to convey the discovered knowledge. Patterns in the data can be represented in many different forms, including classification rules, association rules, clusters, etc. Data mining thus deals with the discovery of hidden trends and patterns from large quantities of data. The field of data mining is emerging as a new, fundamental research area with important applications to science, engineering, medicine, business, and education. It is an interdisciplinary research area and draws upon several roots, including database systems, machine learning, information systems, statistics and expert systems. Data mining, when performed on time series data, is known as time series data mining (TSDM). A time series is a sequence of real numbers, each number representing a value at a point of time. During the past few years, there has been an explosion of research in the area of time series data mining. This includes attempts to model time series data, to design languages to query such data, and to develop access structures to efficiently process queries on such data. Time series data arises naturally in many real-world applications. Efficient discovery of knowledge through time series data mining can be helpful in several domains such as: Stock market analysis, Weather forecasting etc. An important application area of data mining techniques is in nuclear power plant and related data. Nuclear power plant data can be represented in form of time sequences. Often it may be of prime importance to analyze such data to find trends and anomalies. The general goals of data mining include feature extraction, similarity search, clustering and classification, association rule mining and anomaly

  16. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  17. Conception et Réalisation d’une Application basée sur l’Architecture SOA : Traitement des Appels d’Offres.

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIF, Lamia

    2014-01-01

    Le travail de PFE qui nous a été confié consistait à contribuer à une étude qui vise à intégrer une architecture technique de type SOA dans un système d‟information. Pour cette étude nous avons retenu un système de traitement des appels d‟offre. Après l‟étude du domaine des appels d‟offre, nous avons retenu les étapes de processus d‟appels d‟offre selon son type. Une fois que nous avons acquises des connaissances sur l‟architecture SOA basée sur les services réutilisables, nous avons...

  18. CONCEPTION ET OPTIMISATION DE RESEAUX D’ANTENNES IMPRIMEES A FAISCEAUX MULTIPLES APPLICATION DES RESEAUX DE NEURONES

    OpenAIRE

    Chaker, Hichem,

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse développe d’une part des techniques d’optimisation de réseaux d’antennes imprimées multifaisceaux, basées sur les méthodes méta-heuristiques, telles que l’essaim de particule adaptative et leur modèle hybride avec les algorithmes génétiques. D’autre part, elle exploite la notion d’intelligence artificielle en utilisant les réseaux de neurones pour la modélisation du problème de synthèse de réseaux d’antennes imprimées à faisceaux multiples. Le problème de synthèse c...

  19. Advanced knowledge engineering techniques with applications to electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-C.; Marathe, H.; Ma, T.-K.; Rosenwald, G.

    1997-12-31

    This chapter starts with a brief overview of the state-of-the-art of expert system applications to electric power systems. Several knowledge engineering techniques that were motivated by power system applications are reviewed: (1) identification of relations among rules or chains of rules, (2) estimation of the worst case processing time of rule-based systems, and (3) the equivalence class method for validation and verification of rule-based systems. The first issue, relation checking, is considered the most practical among the three and, therefore, the subject is discussed extensively in this chapter. A general relation checking algorithm developed at the University of Washington is described. A representation of rule-based systems in the attribute space is proposed. This representation is used to define several relations among rules. The relations defined are cause-effect, mutual exclusion, redundancy, conflict, subsumption and implication. A relation between a rule and a chain of rules is either complete, i.e. the relation holds for all instantiations of the rules, or partial, i.e. the relation holds only for some instantiations of the rules. An algorithm to detect relations between a new rule (to be added to the rule base) and rules in the rule base is developed. Example applications of this algorithm to rule-based systems are provided. (Author)

  20. Application of Lorentz force techniques for flow rate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Reschad Johann; Resagk, Christian

    2014-11-01

    We report on the progress of the Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV): a contactless non-invasive flow velocity measurement technique. This method has been developed and demonstrated for various applications in our institute and in industry. At applications for weakly conducting fluids such as electrolytes with conductivities in the range of 1 - 10 S/m the challenging bottleneck is the detection of the tiny Lorentz forces in the noisy environment of the test channel. For the force measurement a state-of-the-art electromagnetic force compensation balance is used. Due to this device the mass of the Lorentz force generating magnets is limited. For enabling larger magnet systems and for higher force signals we have developed and tested a buoyancy based weight force compensation method which will be presented here. Additionally, results of LFV measurements at non-symmetric fluid profiles will be shown. By that an evaluation of the feasibility of this measurement principle for disturbed fluid profiles that are relevant for developing the LFV for weakly conducting fluids towards industrial applications can be made. Additionally a prospective setup for using the LFV for molten salt flows will be explained.

  1. Novel microsystem applications with new techniques in LTCC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Walker, Charles A.

    2005-04-01

    Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) enables development and testing of critical elements on microsystem boards as well as nonmicroelectronic meso-scale applications. We describe silicon-based microelectromechanical systems packaging and LTCC meso-scale applications. Microfluidic interposers permit rapid testing of varied silicon designs. The application of LTCC to micro-high-performance liquid chromatography (?-HPLC) demonstrates performance advantages at very high pressures. At intermediate pressures, a ceramic thermal cell lyser has lysed bacteria spores without damaging the proteins. The stability and sensitivity of LTCC/chemiresistor smart channels are comparable to the performance of silicon-based chemiresistors. A variant of the use of sacrificial volume materials has created channels, suspended thick films, cavities, and techniques for pressure and flow sensing. We report on inductors, diaphragms, cantilevers, antennae, switch structures, and thermal sensors suspended in air. The development of 'functional-as-released' moving parts has resulted in wheels, impellers, tethered plates, and related new LTCC mechanical roles for actuation and sensing. High-temperature metal-to-LTCC joining has been developed with metal thin films for the strong, hermetic interfaces necessary for pins, leads, and tubes.

  2. Nouvelles techniques pratiques pour la modelisation du comportement dynamique des systèmes eau-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Benjamin

    The dynamic or seismic behavior of hydraulic structures is, as for conventional structures, essential to assure protection of human lives. These types of analyses also aim at limiting structural damage caused by an earthquake to prevent rupture or collapse of the structure. The particularity of these hydraulic structures is that not only the internal displacements are caused by the earthquake, but also by the hydrodynamic loads resulting from fluid-structure interaction. This thesis reviews the existing complex and simplified methods to perform such dynamic analysis for hydraulic structures. For the complex existing methods, attention is placed on the difficulties arising from their use. Particularly, interest is given in this work on the use of transmitting boundary conditions to simulate the semi infinity of reservoirs. A procedure has been developed to estimate the error that these boundary conditions can introduce in finite element dynamic analysis. Depending on their formulation and location, we showed that they can considerably affect the response of such fluid-structure systems. For practical engineering applications, simplified procedures are still needed to evaluate the dynamic behavior of structures in contact with water. A review of the existing simplified procedures showed that these methods are based on numerous simplifications that can affect the prediction of the dynamic behavior of such systems. One of the main objectives of this thesis has been to develop new simplified methods that are more accurate than those existing. First, a new spectral analysis method has been proposed. Expressions for the fundamental frequency of fluid-structure systems, key parameter of spectral analysis, have been developed. We show that this new technique can easily be implemented in a spreadsheet or program, and that its calculation time is near instantaneous. When compared to more complex analytical or numerical method, this new procedure yields excellent prediction of

  3. Les possibilités des turbines de détente dans les industries gazière et pétrolière Application of Expansion Turbines in the Gas and Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verneau A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilisées depuis longtemps dans l'industrie cryogénique, les turbines de détente voient leur intérêt augmenter actuellement en tant que turbines de récupération de l'énergie des laminages. Cette énergie peut servir à l'entraînement de compresseurs, pompes ou générateurs électriques. Il existe surtout des turbines dans la gamme de 200 à 20 000 ch. Deux types principaux sont développés : les turbines axiales et les turbines radiales. Les particularités techniques et les domaines d'emploi de chaque type sont discutés. Ue intérêt particulier est porté au domaine des petites puissances (de 100 kW jusqu'à quelques centaines de watts. L'évolution du rendement en fonction de la puissance est étudiée et quelques types spéciaux bien adaptés à cette gamme, tels que les turbines périphériques, sont présentés. Quelques indications sur la récupération de l'énergie des liquides par turbines sont également données. Ensuite, plusieurs exemples d'applications sont exposés tels que : récupération de fractions condensables du gaz naturel (butane, propane, éthane, récupération de gaz perdu, récupération de l'énergie des laminages lors de la distribution et au niveau des stockages souterrains, turbine hydraulique de lavage de gaz, récupération de l'énergie des fumées de cracking catalytique, entraînement de petits générateurs électriques dans la gamme de quelques kilowatts à quelques centaines de watts. Enfin, nous abordons la technologie et les dispositions constructives particulières en nous attachant plus spécialement aux problèmes de régulation, étanchéité, paliers. Des techniques nouvelles telles que l'emploi de paliers à gaz et leurs avantages sont décrites. Les difficultés dues aux basses températures et à la condensation sont examinées. Nous terminons par quelques considérations d'ordre économique destinées à prévoir la rentabilité d'une installation de récupération d

  4. UTILISATION DU MODÈLE ÉCREVISSE COMME ESPÈCE BIOINDICATRICE DE POLLUTION. APPLICATION À L’ÉTUDE DES TRANSFERTS TROPHIQUES DU CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON O.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available La bioaccumulation des métaux par les organismes aquatiques est directement liée aux modalités d’exposition : contamination directe via le milieu ou contamination trophique via l’ingestion de proies contaminées. Pour appréhender les perturbations des écosystèmes, il apparaît important de déterminer des espèces « bioindicatrices » et de mesurer la part respective de ces deux voies d’exposition. Les travaux présentés concernent le transfert trophique du cadmium entre une proie, le bivalve benthique Corbicula fluminea, et un de ses prédateurs, l’écrevisse Astacus astacus. Afin d’insister sur l’importance des modalités de prédation de ce crustacé, nous avons réalisé 2 approches expérimentales complémentaires. La première concerne la consommation « naturelle » de proies contaminées pendant 30 jours d’exposition, la seconde consiste à introduire directement un bol alimentaire de proies contaminées dans l’estomac des écrevisses par une technique de gavage. Les résultats montrent une différence importante entre ces deux approches expérimentales.

  5. Principles and applications of neutron based inspection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of substances of importance, for a variety of purposes from national security threats (e.g., nuclear materials, explosives, narcotics) to customs duties, shipment control and validation, and for protection of the environment. The inspection is generally founded on the nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the various nuclides present and the detection of resultant characteristic emissions. These can be discrete gamma lines resulting from the thermal (n,γ) neutron capture process or inelastic neutron scattering (n,n'γ) occurring with fast neutrons. The two types of reactions are generally complementary. The capture process provides energetic and highly penetrating gamma rays in most inorganic substances and in hydrogen, while fast neutron inelastic scattering provides relatively strong gamma-ray signatures in light elements such as carbon and oxygen. In some specific important cases, though, unique signatures are provided by the neutron capture process in light elements such as nitrogen, where unusually high energy gamma rays are produced. This forms the basis for key explosive detection techniques. The detection of nuclear materials, both fissionable (e.g., 238U) and fissile (e.g., 235U), are generally based on the fissions induced by the probing neutrons and detecting one or more of the unique signatures of the fission process. These include prompt and delayed neutrons and prompt and delayed gamma rays. These signatures are not discrete in energy (typically they are continua) but temporally and energetically significantly different from the background, thus making them readily distinguishable. The penetrability of fast neutrons as probes and the gamma rays and fission neutrons as signatures make neutron interrogation applicable for large conveyances such as cars, trucks and marine containers. The neutron-based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can

  6. Principles and applications of neutron based inspection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of substances of importance for a variety of purposes from national security threats (e.g., nuclear materials, explosives, narcotics) to customs dutiable goods, to hazardous substances to protect the environment. The inspection is generally founded on the nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the various nuclides present and the detection of resultant characteristic emissions. These can be discrete γ lines resulting from the thermal (n, γ) neutron capture process or inelastic neutron scattering (n, n'γ) occurring with fast neutrons. The two types of reactions are generally complementary. The capture process provides energetic and highly penetrating γ rays in most inorganic substances and hydrogen. Fast neutrons inelastic scattering provide relatively strong γ-ray signatures in light elements such as carbon and oxygen. In some specific important cases, unique signatures are provided by the neutron (n, γ) process in light elements such as nitrogen, where unusually high-energy γ rays are produced. This forms the basis for key explosive detection techniques. The detection of nuclear materials, both fissionable (e.g., 238U) and fissile (e.g., 235U), is generally based on the fissions induced by the probing neutrons and detecting one or more of the unique signatures of the fission process. These include prompt and delayed neutrons and prompt and delayed γ rays. These signatures are not discrete in energy (typically they are continua) but temporally and energetically significantly different from the background, thus making them readily distinguishable. The penetrability of fast neutrons as probes, and the γ rays and fission neutrons as signatures makes neutron interrogation applicable to the inspection of large conveyances such as cars, trucks, and marine containers. Neutron based inspection techniques have a broad applications. They can be used as stand-alone for complete scans of objects

  7. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  8. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Les roches présentent souvent un comportement élastique nettement non linéaire, entraînant des conséquences importantes sur la propagation des ondes. Cette non-linéarité élastique est surtout causée par les microdéfauts mécaniques ubiquistes (microfissures, joints de grains, macles, etc. dont la rigidité varie sous l'effet de la contrainte. Ce sujet fait l'objet d'études de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous nous proposons de présenter très sommairement les bases théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux permettant d'avoir un ordre de grandeur des effets caractéristiques observés dans les roches afin de pouvoir proposer une approche critique des possibilités d'applications en géophysique. Deux disciplines se sont développées en parallèle à partir du même principe physique et avec des formalismes très proches : - L'acousto-élasticité étudie l'effet des précontraintes statiques sur les vitesses de propagation des ondes élastiques. On dispose d'un formalisme mécanique élaboré permettant de relier quantitativement variation de contrainte et variation de vitesse élastique (par exemple pour ce qui concerne l'anisotropie acoustique induite par un état de contrainte et d'une méthode expérimentale de mesure des coefficients de non-linéarité. - L'acoustique non linéaire s'intéresse aux conséquences de la variation des modules élastiques au passage d'une onde qui ne peut plus être considérée comme une petite perturbation, mais qui induit localement des modifications mesurables du milieu de propagation ; modifications entraînant l'apparition de phénomènes inconnus en acoustique linéaire tels que la génération d'harmoniques et l'interaction onde-onde. Les applications à la sismique pétrolière semblent fort lointaines puisque, avec les méthodes classiques de surface ou de puits, il y a peu d'espoir de réussir à faire propager jusqu'aux couches profondes des ondes dont l'amplitude dépasserait le seuil de

  9. Some applications of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations to the cold-atom physics; Quelques applications des equations de Faddeev-Yakubovsky a la physique des atomes froids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Laboratoire physique subatomique et cosmologie, universite Jospeh-Fourier, CNRS/IN2P3, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Deltuva, A. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Lazauskas, R. [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS/universite Louis-Pasteur, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2011-01-15

    We present some recent applications of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations in describing atomic bound and scattering problems. We consider the scattering of a charged particle X by atomic hydrogen with special interest in X = p,e{sup {+-},} systems of cold bosonic molecules and the bound and scattering properties of N=3 and N=4 atomic {sup 4}He multimers. (authors)

  10. Measurements and Application of Partition Coefficients of Compounds Suitable for Tracing Gas Injected Into Oil Reservoirs Mesures et applications des coefficients de partage de composants utilisables comme gaz traceurs injectés dans des réservoirs de pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugstad O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracing of injection gas in oil reservoirs is a technique used to improve the description of permeability distributions in situ. Results from dynamic laboratory experiments of gas tracers are reported. Gas tracers are delayed when flooding through a reservoir by the partitioning into the oil phase. A knowledge of this effect is important to optimize the interpretation of field tracer tests. The partition is quantified by the partition coefficient K. Two chemical tracers perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH and the radioactive 14C labelled ethane have been studied here. The two chemical compounds are new as reservoir tracers and no field results with these tracers are reported in the open literature. Our group has, however, recently applied these compound successfully as tracers in a North Sea reservoir. Les traceurs représentent un outil précieux pour améliorer la description des gisements. On les a utilisés pour obtenir des renseignements sur la configuration de l'écoulement des fluides injectés et sur leur vitesse, sur l'instant de percé des venues d'eau et sur leur origine précise, sur les traitements d'amélioration du balayage, sur les hétérogénéités importantes telles que fractures, barrières d'écoulement et stratifications de la perméabilité. Dans les gisements importants comportant plusieurs puits de production et plusieurs puits d'injection, il est donc souhaitable de disposer de plusieurs traceurs afin de pouvoir injecter différents traceurs ou mélanges de traceurs dans les différents puits. L'article présenté ici est une contribution a l'effort fait pour étendre le nombre de gaz traceurs fiables applicables aux gisements. L'article présente les résultats d'essais dynamiques en laboratoires dans lesquels on injecte des traceurs à travers un milieu poreux. Lorsqu'ils traversent un réservoir, les gaz traceurs sont retardés du fait de leur ségrégation dans la phase huile. La

  11. Mécanismes d'interaction du laser femtoseconde avec le tissu pour des applications en greffe de cornée

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzo, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    Mon projet de doctorat s'est déroulé au Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée de l'Ecole Polytechnique, ENSTA, CNRS à Palaiseau, en collaboration avec le Laboratoire Biotechnologie et Oeil, Université Paris V, Hôpital Hôtel Dieu à Paris. Il porte sur l'étude des phénomènes d'interaction du rayonnement à impulsions ultracourtes avec le tissu et notamment sur les applications des lasers femtoseconde (dont les impulsions durent 10-15 s) en chirurgie de la cornée. Environ 100.000 greffes de cornée sont...

  12. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements; Electromigration en sels fondus et application a la separation des isotopes des elements alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for {sup 48}Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr{sub 2} - CeBr{sub 3}. A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [French] On a etudie la separation des isotopes des elements alcalino-terreux par electromigration a contre-courant en bromures fondus. On a etudie les conditions dans lesquelles la cathode fonctionne en electrode a brome pour des intensites les plus elevees possibles. Pour la separation du calcium, il a ete necessaire d'utiliser une chaine stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr). Pour le baryum et le strontium, on a pu operer sur les bromures purs. On a obtenu des facteurs d

  13. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  14. The Application of Quantitative Fluorescence Techniques in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yutao; Yang Haibo; Guo Qingxia

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of multi-methods of Geo-logging at wellsite has become the major measurement of oil & gas exploration. From the early stage of manually geo-logging to the modern mudlogging with new techonlogies of MWD, LWD and QFT etc. The new technologies have played very important roles in the exploring of oil & gas. Being one of the newest technology of mudlogging, QFT has been widely used in oilfield for about 3 years. When it is put in operation in some oilfields of China in 1997, its advantages in oil & gas detection at wellsite have been continuously recognized, especially in the detection of shows of light oil and condensed oil.Aset of powerful classification standard of resource rock oil bearing grades and the interpretation standards have been summarized by the application of the quantitative fluorescencelogging techniques (QFT) in Basins of China, together with gas-logging data, and other information got from the Geo-logging procedures at wellsite.

  15. Application of modern reliability database techniques to military system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunea, Cornel [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, George Washington University, 1776 G Street, NW, Suite 9, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)], E-mail: cornel@gwu.edu; Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Sarkani, Shahram; Chang, H.-C. [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, The George Washington University, 1776 G Street, NW, Suite 9, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis techniques of modern reliability databases, with an application to military system data. The analysis of military system data base consists of the following steps: clean the data and perform operation on it in order to obtain good estimators; present simple plots of data; analyze the data with statistical and probabilistic methods. Each step is dealt with separately and the main results are presented. Competing risks theory is advocated as the mathematical support for the analysis. The general framework of competing risks theory is presented together with simple independent and dependent competing risks models available in literature. These models are used to identify the reliability and maintenance indicators required by the operating personnel. Model selection is based on graphical interpretation of plotted data.

  16. Digital fluoroscopy: Technique and applications for evaluating left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central cardiovascular dynamics can be studied without cardiac catheterization by digital processing of fluoroscopic images of the heart obtained after central intravenous injection of contrast media. While digital subtraction angiography has been used for studying peripheral vasculature for several years, it is only recently that this technique has been applied for assessing cardiac morphology and physiology. The conversion of fluoroscopic x-ray data into a digital form has an added advantage for the study of the central cardiovascular system since it not only permits contrast enhancement of the images but also facilitates quantitative and functional analysis of the x-ray data. The several applications described in this chapter suggest that digital subtraction cardiovascular angiography will prove to be a powerful tool for studying cardiovascular physiology in animals and for evaluating heart disease in patients

  17. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  18. The application of irradiation techniques to food and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to establishing concrete infrastructures for the enlarged utilization of irradiation techniques in the food industries, the efficacy of gamma irradiation was investigated for both soybeans having problems in water-soaking process before mass-processing and dried-red pepper requiring long-term storage. Irradiation of 5 kGy was found effective for the reduction of soaking and cooking time of soybeans, but negligible changes were induced by irradiation in their nutritional components and processing properties (Tofu,soymilk). Air-tight packaging was suitable for the keeping quality of dried red pepper and irradiation applications were more effective in powdered samples than in whole pepper for preserving and improving their quality. (Author)

  19. Application of neutron backscatter techniques to level measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed and built portable level detectors and fixed level monitors based on neutron scattering and detection principles. The main components of these devices, which we call neutron backscatter gauges, are a neutron emitting radioisotope, a neutron detector, and a ratemeter. The gauge is a good detector for hydrogen but is much less sensitive to most other materials. This allows level measurements of hydrogen bearing materials, such as hydrocarbons, to be made through the walls of metal vessels. Measurements can be made conveniently through steel walls which are a few inches thick. We have used neutron backscatter gauges in a wide variety of level measurement applications encountered in the petrochemical industry. In a number of cases, the neutron techniques have proven to be superior to conventional level measurement methods, including gamma ray methods

  20. Relationship of microdosimetric techniques to applications in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations are known to induce a wide variety of biological effects, including cell killing, mutation, chromosome aberrations, and carcinogenesis. Most effects of direct relevance to humans, whether from environmental, occupational, diagnostic, or therapeutic exposure, are due to damage to individual cells either singly or in multiples. It is clear that the microscopic patterns of interactions and energy deposition by the radiations are crucial to any detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which they induce these effects. All physical descriptions of these microscopic patterns constitute the field of microdosimetry in its broadest sense. This chapter summarizes the main descriptions which have been proposed to date and illustrates how they have been applied to biological systems. Limitations of the techniques and their applications are discussed

  1. Application of multivariate techniques to analytical data on Aegean ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general problems of data collection and handling for multivariate elemental analyses of ancient pottery are considered including such specific questions as the level of analytical precision required, the number and type of elements to be determined and the need for comprehensive multivariate statistical analysis of the collected data in contrast to element by element statistical analysis. The multivariate statistical procedures of clustering in a multidimensional space and determination of the numerical probabilities of specimens belonging to a group through calculation of the Mahalanobis distances for these specimens in multicomponent space are described together with supporting univariate statistical procedures used at Brookhaven. The application of these techniques to the data on Late Bronze Age Aegean pottery (largely previously analysed at Oxford and Brookhaven with some new specimens considered) have resulted in meaningful subdivisions of previously established groups. (author)

  2. The use of pathological and histopathological techniques in the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad C. Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR among sheep and goats in the Province of Gujarat, India. Clinical signs observed during outbreaks were typical of PPR. Predominant signs were severe diarrhoea, dyspnoea, mucopurulent discharge from the eyes and nose, erosive rhinitis, necrotic ulcers in the mouth, on the dental pad, tongue, upper and lower lips, fever and depression. Common post-mortem findings included congestion, red hepatisation, raised patches of emphysema in the lungs, haemorrhages and froth exudates in the trachea, severe enteritis and streaks of haemorrhages in the intestine, enlargement and petechial haemorrhages in the spleen and oedema and inflammatory lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Spectacular histopathological changes were observed in the lungs, intestine, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and kidneys. Clinical, gross and histopathological lesions and haematological changes were suggestive of PPR, which was further confirmed by detection of PPR viral antigen in clinical samples, as well as post-mortem tissues using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s‑ELISA.

  3. PREVISION QUANTITATIVE DES PRECIPITATIONS : ADAPTATION PROBABILISTE PAR RECHERCHE D'ANALOGUES.Utilisation des Réanalyses NCEP / NCAR et application aux précipitations du Sud-Est de la France

    OpenAIRE

    Bontron, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    Ce mémoire étudie l'application du principe d'analogie à la prévision et à la simulation des précipitations. A partir de la caractérisation d'une situation météorologique cible, cette approche consiste à rechercher, dans une archive météorologique, les situations passées similaires. Les précipitations observées lors de ces situations analogues permettent ensuite de donner une estimation probabiliste des précipitations attendues pour la situation cible.Après avoir défini les critères et les sc...

  4. Etude de nano-transistors à faible pente sous le seuil pour des applications très basse consommation

    OpenAIRE

    Villalon, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Le transistor à effet tunnel bande à bande (TFET) est une architecture PIN à grille capable d’obtenir une pente sous le seuil inférieure à 60mV/dec à température ambiante, ce qui représente un avantage par rapport au MOSFET dans le cas d’applications basse consommation. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’étudier et de caractériser des TFETs fabriqués au CEA-LETI (sur substrats SOI avec les procédés standards CMOS), afin de comprendre et d’optimiser ces dispositifs. La première génération de TFET...

  5. Détection d'intrusions comportementale par diversification de COTS : application au cas des serveurs web

    OpenAIRE

    Majorczyk, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    version non-définitive de la thèse, présentée lors de la soutenance. L'informatique et en particulier l'Internet jouent un rôle grandissant dans notre société. Un grand nombre d'applications critiques d'un point de vue de leur sécurité sont déployées dans divers domaines comme le domaine militaire, la santé, le commerce électronique, etc. La sécurité des systèmes informatiques devient alors une problématique essentielle tant pour les individus que pour les entreprises ou les états. Il est ...

  6. The application of microwave techniques to temperature measurement in biotelemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a microwave dielectric resonator for temperature measurement in Biotelemetry offers the advantage that a passive temperature telemeter can be used. The telemeter is powered by a source remote from the host creature, thus permitting greater miniaturisation of the implant than is possible with conventional techniques. This is essential, especially for application to small animals where the telemeter size and weight become critical. The design of the telemeter which is based upon a novel microwave technique, and the associated practical considerations are discussed. Included in this work is a criticism of initially promising ideas which after an in-depth investigation had to be disregarded. Although the transponder could not be built in its final form due to the unavailability of certain key materials, the transponder operation was tested and found to be successful. A specification of the transponder and transmitter requirements for a working system are included. A theoretical and experimental appraisal of dielectric resonators as miniature microwave filters, also forms a large part of this work. Dielectric resonators offer a significant volume reduction compared to air-filled metallic cavities, and simple coupling to microstrip combined with ease of tuning permits incorporation into Microwave Integrated Circuits. A computer program which can form the basis for a dielectric resonator filter design is provided, and some unusual results of tests on dielectric resonators are presented. It is believed that this will help to popularise and increase understanding of the dielectric resonator - which is an exciting, yet still emerging technology

  7. Surgical Tips in Frozen Abdomen Management: Application of Coliseum Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazanos, Ioannis D; Manatakis, Dimitrios K; Stamos, Nikolaos; Stoidis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5-3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of "intentional open abdomen" was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways ("postoperative open abdominal wall"). Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as "frozen abdomen," where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the "Coliseum technique" for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of "malignant" frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair. PMID:26064759

  8. Modern trends: analytical chemistry - techniques and application to biodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganism isolated from specimens are usually identified by conventional bacterial identification procedures of morphological evaluation and cultural techniques. These complex methods of studying organisms are extremely tedious and time consuming. This causes serious problems by delaying the decision concerning the presence of pathogens and therefore the adequate drug therapy. Frequently, the decision about the presence of pathogens has to be made prior to the results of microbiological tests. In order to overcome these conditions, workers explored new instrumental methods for characterization, rapid acquisition, high reproducibility, computer aided data recording and interpretation of microorganisms. This article brief reviews application of these modern instrumental approaches such as Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Gas Chromatography (GC), Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Bioluminescence, Chemiluminescence, FLow Cytometry, Micro calorimetry, GC-MASS Spectrometry, Electrical Impedance, Bio sensors and Radiometry. These techniques have increased the capacity of doing basic research with a major impact on both the clinical laboratories and industry. The radiometric procedure is being used for research and biological quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in our laboratory at PINSTECH. (author)

  9. Applications of pattern recognition techniques to online fault detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common problem to operators of complex industrial systems is the early detection of incipient degradation of sensors and components in order to avoid unplanned outages, to orderly plan for anticipated maintenance activities and to assure continued safe operation. In such systems, there usually are a large number of sensors (upwards of several thousand is not uncommon) serving many functions, ranging from input to control systems, monitoring of safety parameters and component performance limits, system environmental conditions, etc. Although sensors deemed to measure important process conditions are generally alarmed, the alarm set points usually are just high-low limits and the operator's response to such alarms is based on written procedures and his or her experience and training. In many systems this approach has been successful, but in situations where the cost of a forced outage is high an improved method is needed. In such cases it is desirable, if not necessary, to detect disturbances in either sensors or the process prior to any actual failure that could either shut down the process or challenge any safety system that is present. Recent advances in various artificial intelligence techniques have provided the opportunity to perform such functions of early detection and diagnosis. In this paper, the experience gained through the application of several pattern-recognition techniques to the on-line monitoring and incipient disturbance detection of several coolant pumps and numerous sensors at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented

  10. Localized application maps of inputs and techniques for family agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís Piroli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, family farming is an activity that has emerged during the Portuguese empire, and had a major expansion later, with the arrival of immigrants in the nineteenth century. During the recession caused by the 1929 crisis, which led many farmers to bankruptcy, these immigrants bought small plots of land, thus increasing the number of these establishments. Nevertheless, Brazil still maintains a history of agricultural production on farms. So, historically, family farms got in the background, receiving less encouragement and direction from public policy, which brings about great technological backwardness compared to large producers. In this sense, it is now known that by using rudimentary techniques many small farmers are unable to compete in the market. Thus, this project was proposed in order to meet family farmers seeking for support and instructions for handling their properties economically viable and environmentally sustainable, based on assumptions of precision agriculture. This action also tries to ensure the permanence of these farmers in the field, both for preserving natural resources and also for reducing their spending on inputs by applying appropriate localized doses and preparing soil tillage according to the need. The objective was to create physical and chemical soil maps of their properties, aiming at providing information needed for input and technique applications most appropriately and accurately.

  11. Quantum theory of many-body systems techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zagoskin, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This text presents a self-contained treatment of the physics of many-body systems from the point of view of condensed matter. The approach, quite traditionally, uses the mathematical formalism of quasiparticles and Green’s functions. In particular, it covers all the important diagram techniques for normal and superconducting systems, including the zero-temperature perturbation theory and the Matsubara, Keldysh and Nambu-Gor'kov formalism, as well as an introduction to Feynman path integrals. This new edition contains an introduction to the methods of theory of one-dimensional systems (bosonization and conformal field theory) and their applications to many-body problems.   Intended for graduate students in physics and related fields, the aim is not to be exhaustive, but to present enough detail to enable the student to follow the current research literature, or to apply the techniques to new problems. Many of the examples are drawn from mesoscopic physics, which deals with systems small enough that quantum...

  12. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to measure

  13. Fiche technique à usage des techniciens et des ingénieurs forestiers établie à partir des résultats de recherche des auteurs et d'expériences pratiques de formation et de développement (Burundi, Cameroun, France, Gabon et RCA) : Exemples de méthodes simplifiées d'éclaircie dans les plantations forestières des zones tropicales et méditerranéennes

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, R.; Njoukam, R.

    2007-01-01

    Bien que l'ensemble du milieu scientifique, politique et médiatique s'accorde pour dénoncer la disparition des forêts tropicales et méditerranéennes et pour signaler le rôle des défrichements agricoles, peu de documents pratiques sont disponibles pour aider les agriculteurs à replanter des forêts et surtout à les gérer. Forts du constat que la plupart des reboisements réalisés en milieu paysan en Afrique sont ensuite laissés à l'abandon, ce qui les rends improductifs et sensibles aux agressio...

  14. New Complexity Scalable MPEG Encoding Techniques for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Mietens

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity scalability offers the advantage of one-time design of video applications for a large product family, including mobile devices, without the need of redesigning the applications on the algorithmic level to meet the requirements of the different products. In this paper, we present complexity scalable MPEG encoding having core modules with modifications for scalability. The interdependencies of the scalable modules and the system performance are evaluated. Experimental results show scalability giving a smooth change in complexity and corresponding video quality. Scalability is basically achieved by varying the number of computed DCT coefficients and the number of evaluated motion vectors but other modules are designed such they scale with the previous parameters. In the experiments using the “Stefan” sequence, the elapsed execution time of the scalable encoder, reflecting the computational complexity, can be gradually reduced to roughly 50% of its original execution time. The video quality scales between 20 dB and 48 dB PSNR with unity quantizer setting, and between 21.5 dB and 38.5 dB PSNR for different sequences targeting 1500 kbps. The implemented encoder and the scalability techniques can be successfully applied in mobile systems based on MPEG video compression.

  15. Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Commercial Applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the establishment of the first Chinese nuclear reactor and accelerator in 1958, the nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China have dramatically developed in past half century. Nowadays 10 research nuclear reactors and over 100 small accelerators are available in China. Roughly, about 50 % of the machine time is applied for commercial purpose at the moment. The versatile nuclear analytical methods, mainly NAA, PIXE, XRF, etc., in China have been and are being applied widely and extensively in the following three fields: scientific, training, and commercial. This paper will briefly describe the past experience and present status about NATs for commercial applications. Some practical examples to demonstrate the role of NATs in this aspect will be given as well. Basically, the NATs used for the commercial applications in China can be divided into two types, i.e. off-line and on-line. The former mainly includes instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for compositional determination, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) also for compositional analysis, accelerator-based mass-spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of C-14, Be-7, Cl-36 and other long-lived radioactive nuclides, solid state nuclear track detector

  16. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  17. Des Chiffres et des Lettres : distraction, variations, habitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laborde

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article envisage une des émissions les plus anciennes du Paysage Audiovisuel Français : Des Chiffres et des Lettres. La sérialité que l’émission met en œuvre au cours de son histoire est faite de variations qui témoignent à la fois des évolutions des techniques audiovisuelles, des logiques de programmations, des attentes spectatorielles. Ce jeu télévisé, toujours le même et pourtant toujours différent, permet à la fois la reconnaissance immédiate et la perception d'un changement, double adresse qui explique sans doute sa longévité et fait de ce programme un parangon de la sérialité télévisuelle.This article considers one of the oldest programs in the French media landscape: « Des Chiffres et des Lettres ». Seriality that implements the program in its history is made changes that reflect both the evolution of audiovisual techniques, of logic programming and expectations spectatorial. This TV show, always the same and yet still different, allows both the immediate recognition and perception of a change which probably explains its longevity and made this program a paragon of seriality in television.

  18. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Behar E.; Mikitenko P.

    2006-01-01

    Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres ), l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et l...

  19. Evaluation des bassins par modélisation intégrée en deux dimensions des transferts techniques, de l'écoulement des fluides, de la genèse et de la migration des hydrocarbures Basin Evaluation by Integrated Two-Dimensional Modeling of Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, Hydrocarbon Generation, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenet P. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle de bassin exposé dans cet article décrit les phénomènes physiques et chimiques qui contrôlent la formation d'accumulations commerciales, dans le cadre évolutif d'un bassin sédimentaire affecté par la subsidence : transfert de chaleur, compaction et écoulement de l'eau, génèse des hydrocarbures, migration diphasique de l'eau et des hydrocarbures. Le modèle tient compte des variations de conductivité et des phénomènes thermiques transitoires pour reconstituer les paléo-températures. Des validations quantitatives de la reconstitution des paléo-températures et du modèle cinétique de formation des hydrocarbures peuvent être obtenues par comparaison avec les températures actuelles et les données géochimiques. Les écoulements et les surpressions induits par la compaction sont décrits en couplant une loi de compaction avec la loi de Darcy, classique pour les écoulements de l'eau, en ajoutant un critère de fracturation hydraulique naturelle. Ceci permet de modéliser les pressions anormales dans des séquences deltaïques récentes (delta de la Mahakam, comme dans des bassins liés à des rifts anciens (mer du Nord. Une adaptation de la loi de Darcy aux écoulements diphasiques permet de reproduire la migration primaire et la migration secondaire. En particulier, le modèle permet d'étudier le rôle des pressions anormales et l'influence des failles sur la migration et le piégeage. Nos résultats confirment que les modèles de bassins peuvent contribuer à synthétiser les données géologiques, géophysiques et géochimiques dans un schéma cohérent. En précisant l'évaluation pétrolière, ces modèles constituent une des principales voies pour améliorer l'efficacité de l'exploration. The basin model discussed in this paper describes the physical and chemical phenomena that control the formation of commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons in the moving framework of a subsiding sedimentary basin : heat

  20. History Matching of Production and 4D Seismic Data: Application to the Girassol Field, Offshore Angola Calage simultané des données de production et de sismique 4D : application au champ de Girassol, Offshore Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roggero F.

    2012-04-01

    quantitative des données de sismique 4D en modélisation de réservoir. Cette publication propose une méthodologie innovante basée sur des méthodes avancées de calage simultané des modèles 3D de réservoir par les données de production et de sismique 4D. Cette approche intègre dans le même processus de calage d’historique la modélisation géostatistique, les changements d’échelle, la simulation des écoulements et la modélisation pétro-élastique. Les données simulées de production et de sismique 4D sont comparées aux données réelles par l’intermédiaire d’une fonction objectif, qu’un algorithme d’optimisation par ajustement de surface de réponse permet de minimiser. La méthode de déformation graduelle est utilisée pour contraindre globalement ou localement la réalisation en facies du modèle géologique à l’échelle fine. De plus, une nouvelle technique est mise en oeuvre pour mettre à jour les proportions de facies pendant le processus d’optimisation en intégrant les informations de sismique 4D. Une application réalisée avec succès sur le champ de Girassol est présentée. Girassol est un vaste réservoir turbiditique, complexe et faillé, situé dans les grands fonds au large de l’Angola. Un modèle géostatistique détaillé a d’abord été construit pour décrire les hétérogénéités du réservoir à l’échelle géologique fine, en se basant sur les données initiales de sismique 3D. Le modèle a ensuite été contraint par les données de production et de sismique 4D après inversion, en explorant les réalisations géostatistiques par déformation graduelle et en ajustant les proportions de facies. L’intégration des données de sismique 4D a conduit à de meilleures prévisions de production, confirmées par une nouvelle campagne sismique acquise deux ans après la période d’historique initialement considérée. Les données de sismique 4D ont aussi contribué à mieux caractériser la distribution spatiale

  1. 7th international conference on Nuclear microprobe technology and applications; 7. conference internationale sur la technologie et les applications des microsondes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This colloquium gives an up-to-date report on the continuously advancing applications and development of microbeam technology. It presents abstracts and oral contributions in the following domains: microprobes facilities, analysis techniques, imaging techniques, micro-ion beam modification of materials, microelectronics, applications in Material Sciences in Biology in Medicine in earth and planetary Sciences in environment in art in archaeology, alternative techniques. (A.L.B.)

  2. Métadonnées dans un outil de gestion d'images : Expériences de mise en ligne d'archives et de corpus numériques scientifiques par le pôle Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques en Ligne du Centre Alexandre Koyré-CRHST

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane POUYLLAU; Secchiaroli, Lucie; Sastrada, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Dans le cadre des réseaux documentaires du CNRS, Le pôle histoire des Sciences et des Techniques présente ces outils et son savoir-faire en matière de gestion de grands corpus scientifiques.En raison de l'explosion de la numérisation à grande échelle (Gallica-BNF, Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine, et récemment Google Print). Nous avons, dès 2003, réduit la numérisation de masse effectuée en interne au profit d'une sous-traitance maîtrisée privilégiant la qualité. Un réseau a été fo...

  3. Traitement-recyclage du combustible nucléaire usé : La séparation des actinides - Application à la gestion des déchets

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMTE, Michaël; BONIN, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Après son passage en réacteur, le combustible nucléaire usé contient encore beaucoup de matières valorisables au plan énergétique (uranium, plutonium), ainsi que des produits de fission et actinides mineurs qui représentent les résidus des réactions nucléaires. Le traitement-recyclage du combustible usé, tel qu'il est pratiqué en France, implique la séparation chimique de ces matières. Le développement de ce procédé et sa mise en œuvre industrielle représentent un haut fait de la science et d...

  4. Applications des réseaux de capteurs intelligents et de la communication sans fil à l'instrumentation des structures de génie civil

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cam, Vincent; NGUYEN VAN PHU, Cyril; Guillemaud, William; Lemarchand, Laurent; FLEURY, Alain; Sorin, Jean Luc; COTTINEAU, Louis Marie

    2008-01-01

    Les technologies des transmissions sans-fil ont toujours intéressé les physiciens et ce domaine est actif depuis son origine. Néanmoins, stimulé par le secteur de la téléphonie et des télécommunications en général, ce domaine connaît un regain d'intérêt et un fort développement depuis une dizaine d'années. Les technologies sans-fil (ou wireless) s'inscrivent dans une tendance mondiale à la communication, à la mobilité, à la recherche de souplesse de mise en oeuvre... Elles s'insèrent dans de ...

  5. Application des liquides ioniques à la valorisation des métaux précieux par une voie de chimie verte

    OpenAIRE

    Billy, Emmanuel,

    2012-01-01

    À ce jour, la récupération de métaux précieux contenus dans les déchets d’équipements électriques et électroniques (DEEE) se fait par des procédés présentant un niveau de dangerosité certain du fait de l’utilisation de cyanure ou d’eau régale qui impactent l’environnement avec une toxicité notoire pour l’homme dans le cas des cyanures. C’est dans la perspective de répondre à ces enjeux environnementaux que le projet PEPITE a été construit en associant un industriel (RECUPYL®) le LEPMI avec le...

  6. ITIL et la gestion des services: adaptation et application dans une infrastructure IT de petite dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Baillifard, Alain; Guex, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    ITIL est un référentiel de gestion et de management des systèmes d'information (IT Infrastructure Library) s'appuyant sur les manières d'opérer considérées comme les meilleures et issues de la pratique. L'entreprise est fortement informatisée et celle-ci est présente dans tous les processus métier, fonctions support, offre de produits et services, canaux de distribution. Les besoins de l'entreprise vis-à-vis de l'informatique sont une disponibilité accrue du système, permettre l'amélioration ...

  7. VEILLE ET MANAGEMENT DES COMPETENCES: APPLICATION DE LA DEMARCHE DE VEILLE AUX METIERS NUMERIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Philippe; Bertacchini, Yann

    2003-01-01

    Par « métier numérique », nous entendons les métiers liés spécifiquement à la diffusion et à la banalisation des technologies de l'information communication (TIC) qui ont été « nouvelles » pendant la dernière décennie. L'objet de ces métiers est de privilégier les objets immatériels c'est-à-dire, les productions intellectuelles et le traitement de l'information. La net économie et le retournement Si le phénomène et l'expression de nouvelle économie tendent respectivement à rejoindre les princ...

  8. Optimisation de Gammes: Application à la Conception des Machines Synchrones à Concentration de Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Sesanga N'Tshuika, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Les travaux de cette thèse portent sur l'optimisation de gammes dans la conception des machines synchrones à concentration de flux. Dans un premier temps, un modèle de dimensionnement multi physique dédié à l'optimisation a été développé pour chaque machine retenue pour cette étude. Un modèle analytique pour la structure à bobinage reparti et un modèle semi-analytique à base de réseaux de réluctances pour la machine à bobinage sur dents. Dans un second temps, nous avons validé nos modèles par...

  9. Restauration en carte des domaines faillés en extension. Méthode et applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouby, Delphine

    1994-01-01

    Les méthodes de restauration en coupe ou en carte sont des outils performants pour estimer les déplacements dans les domaines déformés. De plus, elles permettent de tester la cohésion géométrique d'une carte ou d'une coupe, laquelle est considérée comme acceptable d'un point de vu cinématique si son état restauré est géologiquement acceptable. Etant donné que les méthodes de restauration en coupe sont limitées aux domaines de déformation plane, nous avons mis au point une méthode numérique de...

  10. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the advances achieved in the development and application of several etched damage track plastic dosimeters that can be used to measure dose-equivalent from neutrons with energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The project was initiated with the design of a rem-responding dosimeter that measured fast (> 1 MeV) neutron dose-equivalent as a function of the damage track density directly induced within the volume of polycarbonate foils amplified by electrochemical etching. Stillwagon (1978) adapted electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) to alpha dosimetry and used the technique to determine Pu-239 uptake in human bone. Su (1979) extended the usefulness of the ECEPF neutron dosimetry technique to encompass thermal neutron dose measurement. The thermal neutron dosimeter was composed of an external radiator tablet made of 7LiF in contact with a polycarbonate foil and utilized the thermal neutron-induced 6Li(n, α)3H reaction to give a dose-equivalent response as a function of alpha track density registered in the detector foil. An intermediate (1 eV-1 MeV) neutron dosimeter was developed and has been shown to give an approximately dose-equivalent response to neutrons with energies from 1 eV to 17 MeV. The intermediate neutron dosimeter consists of 6LiF-Teflon/CR-39 Polymer foil assembly which is enclosed by a (Cd + In) neutron filter. The neutron dose-equivalent is measured as a variable function of the damage track density registered in the CR-39 detector foil due to alpha particles from the 1/v dependent 6Li(n, α)3H reaction, recoil H, C, O nuclei from neutron-induced elastic scattering within the foil volume, and protons from the 6Li(n, p) reaction for neutron energies above 2 MeV. 46 figs., 6 tabs

  11. The innovative application of surface geophysical techniques for remedial investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.R. [OYO Geospace, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Smith, S. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Boston, MA (United States); Gilmore, P. [Fishbeck, Thomson, Carr and Huber, Aida, MI (United States); Cox, S. [Blasland, Bouck, and Lee, Edison, NJ (United States)

    1993-03-01

    When researchers are investigating potential subsurface contamination at hazardous waste landfills, the surface geophysical techniques they may use are often limited. Many geophysical surveys are concerned with areas next to and not directly within the landfill units. The highly variable properties of the materials within the landfill may result in geophysical data that are either difficult or impossible to interpret. Therefore, contamination at these sites may not be detected until substantial lateral migration away from the unit has occurred. In addition, because of the poor resolution of some techniques, the landfill as a whole must be considered as a source, where discrete disposal areas within landfill units may be the actual point sources of contaminants. In theory, if specific sources within the landfill are identified and isolated, then reduced time, effort, and expenditures will be required for remediation activities. In the summer of 1989, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated a small potentially hazardous waste landfill to determine if contaminant hot spots could be identified within the landfill and to determine if significant vertical and lateral migration of contaminants was occurring away from these locations. Based on the present hydrogeologic conditions, researchers anticipated that subsurface flow would be primarily vertical, with the zone of saturation at a depth greater than 150 meters. This necessitated that the survey be performed, for the most part, directly on the capped portion of the landfill. Focused geophysical surveys conducted off the landfill would not have provided useful information concerning conditions directly beneath the landfill. This paper discusses the planning, application, and analysis of four combined sensing methods: two methods of electromagnetic induction [low induction (Em) and time domain (TEM)], ground penetrating radar (GPR), and soil gas.

  12. Application of positron annihilation techniques in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The investigation of the material damage state is very important for industrial application. Most mechanical damage starts with a change in the microstructure of the material. Positron annihilation techniques are very sensitive probes for detecting defects and damage on an atomic scale in materials, which are of great concern in the engineering applications. Additionally they are apparatus of non-destruction, high-sensitivity and easy-use. Purpose: Our goal is to develop a system to exploit new non-destructive testing (NDT) methods using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and their chemical environment. Methods: A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the 'sandwich structure' of sample-source-sample in conventional Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectrometers. Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectra of a single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. Results: The feasibility and reliability of positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation and damage caused by mechanical treatment or by irradiation of metal alloys. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples, as well as for measuring the two-dimension distribution of defects in portable, sensitive, fast way. Conclusion: Positron NDT measurement shows changes in real atomic-scale defects prior to changes in the mechanical properties, which are detectable by other methods of NDT, such as ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. This system can be developed for use in both the laboratory and field in the future. (authors)

  13. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a 60Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  14. Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas

    This thesis is dedicated to the development of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver based on the subgroup (or multiband) method. In this formalism, cross sections for resonant isotopes are represented in the form of probability tables on the whole energy spectrum. This study is intended in order to test and validate this approach in lattice physics and criticality-safety applications. The probability table method seems promising since it introduces an alternative computational way between the legacy continuous-energy representation and the multigroup method. In the first case, the amount of data invoked in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations can be very important and tend to slow down the overall computational time. In addition, this model preserves the quality of the physical laws present in the ENDF format. Due to its cheap computational cost, the multigroup Monte Carlo way is usually at the basis of production codes in criticality-safety studies. However, the use of a multigroup representation of the cross sections implies a preliminary calculation to take into account self-shielding effects for resonant isotopes. This is generally performed by deterministic lattice codes relying on the collision probability method. Using cross-section probability tables on the whole energy range permits to directly take into account self-shielding effects and can be employed in both lattice physics and criticality-safety calculations. Several aspects have been thoroughly studied: (1) The consistent computation of probability tables with a energy grid comprising only 295 or 361 groups. The CALENDF moment approach conducted to probability tables suitable for a Monte Carlo code. (2) The combination of the probability table sampling for the energy variable with the delta-tracking rejection technique for the space variable, and its impact on the overall efficiency of the proposed Monte Carlo algorithm. (3) The derivation of a model for taking into account anisotropic

  15. "Zaï" Technique traditionnelle de restauration et de récupération des terres arides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonda, JM.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available "Zai", a traditional technique for restoring and recovering of arid soils. This work presents some observations about mountain gorillas behaviour in captivity at Tshibati. After their death, it is sad to see that their breeding is like sent back while many scientific informations are unknown on these primates.

  16. Key Techniques and Application Progress of Molecular Pharmacognosy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xue-feng; HU Jing; XU Hai-yu; GAO Wen-yuan; ZHANG Tie-jun; LIU Chang-xiao

    2011-01-01

    At the boundary between pharmacognosy and molecular biology, molecular pharmacognosy has developed as a new borderline discipline. This paper reviews the methods, application, and prospect of molecular pharmacognosy. DNA marker is one of genetic markers and some molecular marker methods which have been successfully used for genetic diversity identification and new medicinal resources development. Recombinant DNA technology provides a powerful tool that enables scientists to engineer DNA sequences. Gene chip technique could be used in determination of gene expression profiles, analyses of polymorphisms, construction of genomic library, analysis of mapping, and sequencing by hybridization. Using the methods and theory of molecular biology and pharmacognosy, molecular pharmacognosy represents an extremely prospective branch of pharmacognosy and focuses on the study of systemic growth of medicinal plants, identification and evaluation of germplasm resources, plant metabolomics and production of active compounds. Furthermore, the great breakthrough of molecular pharmacognosy could be anticipated on DNA fingerprint analysis, cultivar improvement, DNA identification, and a global DNA barcoding system in the future.

  17. Hot gas stream application in micro-bonding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrijasevic, Daniela; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Smetana, Walter; Boehm, Stefan; Brenner, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for bonding micro-parts with dimensions in the range of 50 μm to 300 μm. Two different kinds of adhesives - polyurethane adhesive foil and hot melt glue - were applied to a basic substrate by different techniques. The focused and concentrated hot gas stream softened glue which had been applied in a solid state. Micro-parts were then embossed in the softened glue, or covered and shielded by it. In this way, a rigid and compact bond was obtained after cooling. For the positioning of micro-parts (optical fibers), it has been necessary to manufacture adequate V-grooves. Finite element analyses using the ANSYS TM program package were performed in order to evaluate parameters which govern the heat transfer to the adhesive and substrate respectively. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained by the numerical simulations. The advantages of this new approach are small system size, low capital costs, simple usage, applicability to many material combinations, easy integration into existing production lines, etc.

  18. MR angiography of the body. Technique and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele [Pisa Univ. Radiodiagnostica 1 Universitaria (Italy). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. of Oncology, Transplants, and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Cosottini, Mirco [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Unit of Neuroradiology Dept. of Neurosciences; Caramella, Davide (eds.) [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. of Oncology, Transplants, and Advanced Technologies in Medicine

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) continues to undergo exciting technological advances that are rapidly being translated into clinical practice. It also has evident advantages over other imaging modalities, including better patient safety compared with CT angiography and superior accuracy and contrast resolution compared with ultrasonography. With the aid of numerous high-quality illustrations, this book reviews the current role of MRA of the body. It is divided into three sections. The first section is devoted to issues relating to image acquisition technique and sequences. Individual chapters focus on flow-based MRA, contrast media, contrast-enhanced MRA, artifacts, and image processing. The second and principal section of the book addresses the clinical applications of MRA in various parts of the body, including the neck vessels, the spine, the thoracic aorta and pulmonary vessels, the heart and coronary arteries, the abdominal aorta and renal arteries, and peripheral vessels. The role of the blood pool contrast agents for the diagnosis and characterization of vascular disease is fully explored. The final section considers the role of MRA in patients undergoing liver or pancreas and kidney transplantation. This book will be an invaluable aid to all radiologists who work with MRA. (orig.)

  19. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions

  20. Application of Neuro-Fuzzy Techniques for Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Rahoma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The prediction is very useful in solar energy applications because it permits to estimate solar data for locations where measurements are not available. The developed artificial intelligence models predict the solar radiation time series more effectively compared to the conventional procedures based on the clearness index. Approach: The forecasting ability of some models could be further enhanced with the use of additional meteorological parameters. After having simulated many different structures of neural networks and trained using measurements as training data, the best structures were selected in order to evaluate their performance in relation with the performance of a neuro-fuzzy system. As the alternative system, ANFIS neuro-fuzzy system was considered, because it combines fuzzy logic and neural network techniques that are used in order to gain more efficiency. ANFIS is trained with the same data. Results: The comparison and the evaluation of both of the systems were done according to their predictions, using several error metrics. Fuzzy model was trained using data of daily solar radiation recorded on a horizontal surface in National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Egypt (NARIG at ten years (1991-2000. Conclusion: The predicting conclusion indicated that the TS fuzzy model gave a good accuracy of approximately 96% and a root mean square error lower than 6%.

  1. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques to environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M. C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Marques, A. P.; Barros, L. I. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    A few examples of application of nuclear-analytical techniques to biological monitors—natives and transplants—are given herein. Parmelia sulcata Taylor transplants were set up in a heavily industrialized area of Portugal—the Setúbal peninsula, about 50 km south of Lisbon—where indigenous lichens are rare. The whole area was 10×15 km around an oil-fired power station, and a 2.5×2.5 km grid was used. In north-western Portugal, native thalli of the same epiphytes (Parmelia spp., mostly Parmelia sulcata Taylor) and bark from olive trees (Olea europaea) were sampled across an area of 50×50 km, using a 10×10 km grid. This area is densely populated and features a blend of rural, urban-industrial and coastal environments, together with the country's second-largest metro area (Porto). All biomonitors have been analyzed by INAA and PIXE. Results were put through nonparametric tests and factor analysis for trend significance and emission sources, respectively.

  2. Development and application of simulation technique for hydrokinetic hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianye ZHU; Qingyan WANG; Kun YIN; Siyi WANG

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation is an important method for hydrokinetic hammer design. Various kinds of simulation measures with their technical characters and applications being taken during the computer aided design are enumerated. Computer simulation supports plenty of valuable references to the designer. Each type of simulation process is used to explore the exact aspect of the performance of hydrokinetic hammer and each type of simulation method has its own excellences and deficiencies. Thus the integrative simulation methods based on modern computational technology are brought forward to obtain the perfect capability of the whole product. Along with the development of computer hardware and software, various kinds of platforms have been provided to different simulation methods that can be carried out with distinct working flows. The jet flow element is the core part of the hydrokinetic hammer. We can build the ideal simulation model of it by means of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology. On the other hand, to set up the digital model of piston and hammer, the best way is to build the virtual prototype using automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical system. As a result of the argumentation, we think the technique of Virtual Prototype and CFD are the prime way to process the combined computer simulation for hydrokinetic hammer.

  3. Exploring Gamification Techniques and Applications for Sustainable Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Letiţia Negruşa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is perceived as an appropriate solution for pursuing sustainable economic growth due to its main characteristics. In the context of sustainable tourism, gamification can act as an interface between tourists (clients, organisations (companies, NGOs, public institutions and community, an interface built in a responsible and ethical way. The main objective of this study is to identify gamification techniques and applications used by organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry to improve their sustainable activities. The first part of the paper examines the relationship between gamification and sustainability, highlighting the links between these two concepts. The second part identifies success stories of gamification applied in hospitality and tourism and reviews gamification benefits by analysing the relationship between tourism organisations and three main tourism stakeholders: tourists, tourism employees and local community. The analysis is made in connection with the main pillars of sustainability: economic, social and environmental. This study is positioning the role of gamification in the tourism and hospitality industry and further, into the larger context of sustainable development.

  4. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES IN PROCESS FAULT DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. HUSSAIN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical processes are systems that include complicated network of material, energy and process flow. As time passes, the performance of chemical process gradually degrades due to the deterioration of process equipments and components. The early detection and diagnosis of faults in chemical processes is very important both from the viewpoint of plant safety as well as reduced manufacturing costs. The conventional way used in fault detection and diagnosis is through the use of models of the process, which is not easy to be achieved in many cases. In recent years, an artificial intelligence technique such as neural network has been successfully used for pattern recognition and as such it can be suitable for use in fault diagnosis of processes [1]. The application of neural network methods in process fault detection and diagnosis is demonstrated in this work in two case studies using simulated chemical plant systems. Both systems were successfully diagnosed of the faults introduced in them. The neural networks were able to generalise to successfully diagnosed fault combinations it was not explicitly trained upon. Thus, neural network can be fully applied in industries as it has shown several advantages over the conventional way in fault diagnosis.

  5. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres , l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et les mécanismes thermodynamiques mis en jeu sont brièvement exposés, les sources de fluides supercritiques disponibles au voisinage des gisements pétroliers sont rapidement répertoriées et certains problèmes d'exploitation évoqués. Outre leur application en récupération assistée, les fluides supercritiques sont également impliqués dans des procédés de raffinage et d'extraction divers. C'est le procédé de désasphaltage de fractions pétrolières lourdes qui, en 1956, a fait l'objet de la première application industrielle exploitant les fortes variations du pouvoir solvant d'un fluide au voisinage de son point critique. Ce procédé connaît, depuis une dizaine d'années, un regain d'intérêt du fait de l'économie d'énergie qu'il permet de réaliser. D'autre part, les schistes bitumineux, les sables asphaltiques et les charbons, sources d'hydrocarbures considérables pour l'avenir, constituent des domaines d'applications potentielles originales des fluides supercritiques. Les procédés spécifiques, pour la plupart en cours de développement au stade pilote, sont passés en revue. The average recovery by natural drainage from oil fields is barely 30%. Enhanced recovery includes all production processes which appreciably increase this rate. Among such processes, supercritical fluid flooding is quite promising. The main fluids now used are methane (or, more generally, so-called leangaseous hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon

  6. Application of Thin Bed Log Evaluation Techniques in Dagang Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiren; Jiao Cuihua; Liu Dewu; Heng zhi

    1995-01-01

    @@ Some techniques are presented in this paper through which vertical resolution of individual logs can be increased by mathematical and geological ana lysis methods. These techniques provide a solid basis for accurate delineation and evaluation of thin beds.

  7. Designing Pixel-oriented Visualization Techniques : Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    Visualization techniques are of increasing importance in exploring and analyzing large amounts of multidimensional information. One important class of visualization techniques which is particularly interesting for visualizing very large multidimensional data sets is the class of the pixel-oriented techniques. The basic idea of pixel-oriented visualization techniques is to represent as many data objects as possible on the screen at the same time by mapping each data value to a pixel of the scr...

  8. Dosimetric comparison of IMRT and modulated arc-therapy techniques in the treatment of cervical cancers; Comparaison dosimetrique des techniques de RCMI et d'arctherapie modulee dans le traitement des cancers du col uterin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard-Oldrini, S.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.; Bouziz, D.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the dosimetric comparison of two techniques used for the treatment of cervical cancers: the intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) with static beams and modulated arc-therapy with RapidArc. The treatment plans of 15 patients have been compared. The clinical target volume (CTV) comprises the gross target volume, the cervix, the upper third of the vagina, and ganglionary areas. The previsional target volume comprises the clinical target volume and a one centimetre margin. Organs at risk are rectum, bladder, intestine and bone marrow. Arc-therapy seems to provide a better sparing of intestine that IMRT, while maintaining a good coverage of the previsional target volume and decreasing treatment duration. Short communication

  9. The Application of Adaptive Mesh Methods to Petroleum Reservoir Simulation Application des méthodes de maillages évolutifs à la simulation de réservoirs pétroliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis R. W.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of adaptive mesh methods to the numerical simulation of one and two-dimensional petroleum reservoir waterfloods. The method uses current information on the solution to adapt the mesh to the solution as the computation proceeds. It is shown that this leads to significant improvements in accuracy at a marginal increase in computational cost. Cet article décrit l'application des méthodes de maillages évolutifs à la simulation numérique dinjection d'eau à une ou deux dimensions dans des réservoirs pétroliers. La méthode utilise des informations disponibles sur la solution pour adapter le maillage à la solution pendant que se déroule le calcul. On montre que cela conduit à des améliorations significatives en ce qui concerne la précision avec une augmentation marginale du coût des calculs.

  10. Le concept et l'application des parités agricoles à la CEE en 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Goossens; Eric Tollens

    1989-01-01

    [fre] La comparaison internationale en valeurs réelles de la production finale de l'agriculture est effectuée habituellement en Écu à l'aide des taux de change. Cette comparaison est affectée de distorsions dues au* différents niveaux de prix aux producteurs dans les pays concernés. Dans toutes les comparaisons, où il est nécessaire de parvenir à des résultats en valeurs réelles ou en volume, c'est-à-dire en faisant abstraction des différences de niveau des prix, des parités de pouvoir d'acha...

  11. Synthese de nanoparticules plasmoniques par laser femtoseconde en milieu liquide pour des applications biomedicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Sebastien

    The femtosecond laser synthesis of plasmonic nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Cu, AuAg, AuCu) is described. The approach relies on the fs laser ablation of a target immersed in a liquid, followed by the laser-induced fragmentation and growth of nanoparticles in solution. This two-step methodology significantly enhances the production rate, the reproducibility and the size control of nanoparticles in comparison to the direct laser ablation based technique. For gold, the laser-induced growth of nanometric seeds initially formed by laser ablation in the presence of a stabilizing agent allows the synthesis of functionalized nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 3-76 nm and coefficients of variation (COV) varying between 15-30%. In comparison to the direct laser ablation, the size control is much simpler, as it uniquely depends on the gold to stabilizing agent molecular concentration ratio. The approach has been described for dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG), but can be extended to all stabilizing agents and open new avenues in the formation of various novel bioconjugates. The fs laser ablation and fragmentation also allow the synthesis of stable and low dispersed Au nanoparticles in pure water. These nanoparticles are unique for sensing applications with high sensitivity based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), since they greatly reduce the noise associated with surface contaminants and byproducts found in solution. The formation of various nanospheres with predetermined size, shape and composition (AuxAg(1-x), AuxCu(1-x) ) is also reported by the use of a fs irradiation of a mixture of two pure metallic ix colloidal solutions in a very simple chemical environment, e.g. water and a stabilizing agent. From a chemical point of view, oxidation of silver nanoparticles is significantly reduced by the incorporation of a small amount of gold and is completely inhibited for a gold atomic fraction larger than 0.4-0.5. The bifunctional nature related to the partial

  12. Application of integrated data mining techniques in stock market forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yin Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock market is considered too uncertain to be predictable. Many individuals have developed methodologies or models to increase the probability of making a profit in their stock investment. The overall hit rates of these methodologies and models are generally too low to be practical for real-world application. One of the major reasons is the huge fluctuation of the market. Therefore, the current research focuses in the stock forecasting area is to improve the accuracy of stock trading forecast. This paper introduces a system that addresses the particular need. The system integrates various data mining techniques and supports the decision-making for stock trades. The proposed system embeds the top-down trading theory, artificial neural network theory, technical analysis, dynamic time series theory, and Bayesian probability theory. To experimentally examine the trading return of the presented system, two examples are studied. The first uses the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC data-set that covers an investment horizon of 240 trading days from 16 February 2011 to 23 January 2013. Eighty four transactions were made using the proposed approach and the investment return of the portfolio was 54% with an 80.4% hit rate during a 12-month period in which the TSMC stock price increased by 25% (from $NT 78.5 to $NT 101.5. The second example examines the stock data of Evergreen Marine Corporation, an international marine shipping company. Sixty four transactions were made and the investment return of the portfolio was 128% in 12 months. Given the remarkable investment returns in trading the example TSMC and Evergreen stocks, the proposed system demonstrates promising potentials as a viable tool for stock market forecasting.

  13. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  14. Spatial processing techniques for satellite altimetry applications in continental hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Philippe; Calmant, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    Radar-based satellite altimetry is a well recognized measuring technique with good precision for oceanographic applications. For continental hydrology, its use is complicated by a number of factors such as river width, satellite crossing angle and noise from the river banks or islands. These factors make precision vary significantly. The satellite crossing points can be made into virtual gauging stations that can complement the existing network of in situ stations. This article describes a series of spatially explicit processing to correct or exclude altimetry measurements not related to the water level. While some processing take advantage of a priori information such as the centerline of the river, other processing are based on pattern recognition to characterize the shape described by the sequence of points. These problems are dealt with by fitting a second degree polynomial curve to the sequence of points and characterizing its shape. The correction is applied by determining a weight for each point in the crossing sequence of measurements. These processing approaches have been combined into a single tool called VHSTOOL. The method is tested on a 1000 km stretch of the S˜ao Francisco River in Brazil. Data from Envisat cover the 2003-2010 period while the recently launched Altika sensor provided data for a few months in 2013. Results show that the average accuracy of 60 cm obtained (45 cm by removing outliers) is comparable to that of completely manual methods. Altika measurements could not be validated since no recent in situ data was available but initial evaluation suggests increased details should bring some improvements over Envisat data.

  15. Techniques d'amélioration du routage et de la formation des clusters multi-sauts dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Cherif

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are used today in many applications that differ in their own objectives and specific constraints. However the common challenge in designing WSN applications comes from the specific constraints of micro-sensors because of their limited physical resources such as limited battery lifetime, weak computational capability and small memory capacity. This thesis aims to develop techniques to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks intended to a cold ch...

  16. AMELIORATION DES PLANTES Biotechnologies et arachide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Danièle

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches sur les biotechnologies de l’arachide sont principalement conduites aux États-Unis mais également à travers des programmes collaboratifs internationaux où interviennent l’Icrisat et le Cirad. Malgré une forte variation phénotypique, l’arachide cultivée montre peu de variabilité moléculaire. L’arachide étant une culture alimentaire et de rente très importante dans les régions sahéliennes, la sécheresse et la contamination des graines par l’aflatoxine en cours de culture constituent des contraintes majeures. La seule application connue en sélection assistée par marqueurs d’ADN fait intervenir des gènes provenant d’une espèce sauvage compatible en croisement avec l’espèce cultivée. Les principaux résultats publiés jusqu’à présent concernent la mise au point de techniques de régénération et de transfert de gènes. Le marquage moléculaire s’avérant inefficace, les recherches s’orientent aujourd’hui sur la génomique fonctionnelle du fait de la disponibilité des techniques de transformation génétique. L’objectif est de développer de nouveaux outils moléculaires capables d’assister les programmes de sélection pour la résistance à ces deux traits complexes.

  17. Architecture Logicielles pour des Applications h\\'et\\'erog\\`enes, distribu\\'ees et reconfigurables

    OpenAIRE

    Louberry, Christine; Dalmau, Marc; Roose, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The recent apparition of mobile wireless sensor aware to their physical environment and able to process information must allow proposing applications able to take into account their physical context and to react according to the changes of the environment. It suppose to design applications integrating both software and hardware components able to communicate. Applications must use context information from components to measure the quality of the proposed services in order to adapt them in rea...

  18. Conception et adaptation de services techniques pour l'informatique ubiquitaire et nomade

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Sylvain

    2005-01-01

    Depuis la fin des années 1990, le développement des terminaux nomades et des réseaux sans fil s'est considérablement accéléré. Cela a provoqué l'apparition de nouvelles applications, très largement réparties, et offrant de nouveaux services, aussi bien aux usagers (applications de commerce électronique, télévision interactive, applications de proximité), qu'aux entreprises (développement du commerce B2B). Avec l'apparition de ces nouvelles applications, les services techniques, qui prennent e...

  19. The influence of the PDMS technique in the study of the induced modifications of polymers used in nuclear environment; Apport de la technique PDMS a l`etude des modifications induites dans des polymeres utilises en ambiance nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1995-07-20

    The PDMS technique (Particle Induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry) combined with a TOF detection (Time of Flight) is the main tool used in this study of polymer degradation in nuclear environment. Ar{sup 3+} ions with a 9 MeV energy have been used to induce the secondary ion emission, and the study was devoted to two stresses typical of this type of environment. The first part of the work concerned with the structural modifications induced by gamma irradiation on ion exchange resin, used for nuclear effluents reprocessing, namely the poly(4-vinylpyridine), or P-4PV. For such a material, the negative fragment emission is particularly sensitive to structural modifications. Difficult physical measurements in such an insoluble and infusible material (IR, UV - Vis, EPR, TGA, dielectric measurements) became consistent after the degradation mechanisms were elucidated. These effects, interpreted in terms of scissions and recombinations, enabled us to explicit different modes of energy deposition, and shed light on some discrepancies between SIMS and PDMS. The second part of the study is devoted to the thermal ageing of an elastomer, used in fabrication of valve gaskets submitted to high temperatures. First of all, we studied the constituents of the polymeric material, i. e. copolymer, homo polymers, and also additives. This last component proved useful to analyze, as a superficial lubricant layer can mask the conformational rearrangements which seem to occur after few hours of thermal treatment (PE blocks are prevailing at the surface). Here too, the PDMS information is important to account for static SIMS and ESCA results, as its probed layer thickness lies in-between. (author) 187 refs.

  20. Holographie électronique en champ sombre : une technique fiable pour mesurer des déformations dans les dispositifs de la microélectronique

    OpenAIRE

    Denneulin, Thibaud,

    2012-01-01

    Les contraintes font maintenant partie des “ boosters ” de la microélectronique au même titre que le SOI (silicium sur isolant) ou le couple grille métallique / diélectrique haute permittivité. Appliquer une contrainte au niveau du canal des transistors MOSFETs (transistors à effet de champ à structure métal-oxyde-semiconducteur) permet d'augmenter de façon significative la mobilité des porteurs de charge. Il y a par conséquent un besoin de caractériser les déformations induites par ces contr...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.405-50 - Techniques for application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cost accounting techniques which establishes and maintains adequate cost identification to permit audit... materiality, the Government and the contractor reach agreement on an alternate method that satisfies...

  2. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed

  3. Technical assessment of air quality measuring analyzers; Evaluation technique des analyseurs de mesure de la qualite de l`air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, V. [Laboratoire de mesures a l`air ambiant, Dept. Mesures et Analyses, INERIS, (France)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality measuring analyzers are assessed in order to verify their measuring performance and to examine their aptitude to field measurements. For ensuring such assessment, the INERIS institute (France) disposes of three climatic enclosures, gas mixture emission systems and data acquisition systems. The assessment methodology is presented together with the various possible results: response time, linearity and limits determination, calibration studies, thresholds, drifts, hysteresis, physical detrimental effects, etc. Applications such as analyzers for one or more pollutants in ambient air and at the emission source (portable multi-gas analyzers) are presented, together with their results

  4. Spray Atomization Models in Engine Applications, from Correlations to Direct Numerical Simulations Modèles de spray dans les applications moteur, des corrélations aux simulations numériques directes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dos Santos F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sprays are among the very main factors of mixture formation and combustion quality in almost every (IC engine. They are of great importance in pollutant formation and energy efficiency although adequate modeling is still on development. For many applications, validation and calibration of models are still an open question. Therefore, we present an overview of existing models and propose some trends of improvement. Models are classified in zero dimensional and dimensional classes ranging from simple formulations aimed at close-to-real-time applications to complete detailed description of early atomization stages. Les sprays sont parmi les principaux facteurs de qualite, dans la formation du melange et la combustion, dans un grand nombre de moteurs (a combustion interne. Ils sont de toute premiere importance dans la formation de polluants et l’efficacite energetique, bien qu’une modelisation adequate soit encore en developpement. Pour un grand nombre d’applications, la validation et la calibration de ces modeles demeurent une question ouverte. Aussi, presentons-nous un apercu des modeles existants et proposons quelques voies d’amelioration. Les modeles sont classes en nondimensionnels et dimensionnels allant de formules simples dediees a des applications proches du temps reel a des descriptions detaillees des premiers stades de l’atomisation.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Spatially Resolved NMR Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This handbook and ready reference covers materials science applications as well as microfluidic, biomedical and dental applications and the monitoring of physicochemical processes. It includes the latest in hardware, methodology and applications of spatially resolved magnetic resonance, such as portable imaging and single-sided spectroscopy. For materials scientists, spectroscopists, chemists, physicists, and medicinal chemists.

  6. Industrial applications of radioisotopes: techniques and procedures of (NTIS) Nuclear Techniques Industrial Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope handling procedures followed by personnel of the Nuclear Techniques Industrial Service (NTIS) during the conduction of investigations in industry are described. Possible radiological implications as a result of the various measuring techniques and different types of plants are discussed. Conditions under which permanent authorization has been granted for the use of radioisotopes are mentioned

  7. Impact des normes fondamentales du travail sur la productivité des entreprises sénégalaises

    OpenAIRE

    Inis Ndiaye, Alfred; Fall, Abdoulaye

    2006-01-01

    Mesure l'influence de l'application des normes fondamentales du travail sur le fonctionnement et les performances des entreprises, les contraintes à leur mise en oeuvre, et fait des propositions pour assurer une promotion efficace des normes.

  8. Application of the Overclaiming Technique to Scholastic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Dubois, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The overclaiming technique is a novel assessment procedure that uses signal detection analysis to generate indices of knowledge accuracy (OC-accuracy) and self-enhancement (OC-bias). The technique has previously shown robustness over varied knowledge domains as well as low reactivity across administration contexts. Here we compared the OC-accuracy…

  9. Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Cooke, David; Koch, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -TDS). In this review article the authors describe the technique in its various implementations for static and time-resolved spectroscopy, and illustrate the performance of the technique with recent examples from solid-state physics and physical chemistry as well as aqueous chemistry. Examples from other...

  10. Assessment of speciation techniques including the application of photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes laboratory experiments that compare chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for rapidly characterizing ionic species in detail. These techniques were tested on various radioactive ion systems to develop a rapid, accurate approach to site characterization for use with Remedial Action Programs. Promising techniques were evaluated. 9 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Zehr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. Molecular biological techniques permit study of the abundance, distribution, diversity, and physiology of microorganisms in situ. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity, oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  12. Which competencies for engineering, conception an R and D needs? The Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires contribution - INSTN contribution to education and training in the fields of engineering, conception and R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN) provides students with high scientific qualifications, professionals and engineers with specialized education in all disciplines related to nuclear energy applications. Academic courses and professional training sessions are designed to put students in direct contact with specialists of each discipline providing up-to-date knowledge and know-how. This mission is focused on nuclear science and technology, and one of its main features is the 'Nuclear Engineering degree' in France, also called 'Genie Atomique' course. It represents a 'specialized' course (Master after the masters degree in nuclear engineering) designed for engineers who can thereby acquire a broad view of sciences and techniques implemented in the nuclear energy sector based on a specific high level fundamental courses in disciplines such as reactor physics, thermal hydraulics and nuclear materials. The 'Genie Atomique' course is organized by INSTN in Saclay and Cadarache research centres for the 'civilian' students and in Cherbourg for the future officers and staff of nuclear submarines and aircraft carrier at the EAMEA military school. During the last period, industry representatives have clearly expressed their increasing need to engage high level engineers, educated in the field of nuclear engineering to face the new challenges of what is now called the 'Nuclear Renaissance'. INSTN together with University Paris Sud 11 developed a new master degree in nuclear engineering opened to students from France and abroad. The objective of this specialty is to provide in-depth training in the field of nuclear reactor physics for the purpose of using existing tools, developing and installing third-generation reactors, and designing and developing the future systems still known as 'integrated systems'. (author)

  13. Calcite Twins, a Tool for Tectonic Studies in Thrust Belts and Stable Orogenic Forelands Les macles de la calcite, un outil pour les études tectoniques dans les chaînes plissées et les avant-pays peu déformés des orogènes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcite twins have been used for a long time as indicators of stress/strain orientations and magnitudes. Recent developments during the last 15 years point toward significant improvements of existing techniques as well as new applications of calcite twin analysis in thrust belts and forelands. This paper summarizes the principles of the most common techniques in this tectonic field and illustrates some aspects of the use of calcite twins to constrain not only stress/strain orientations and magnitudes, but also to some extent paleotemperature or paleoburial in orogenic forelands. This review is based in a large part on the studies that I conducted in various geological settings such as the forelands of Taiwan, Pyrenees, Zagros, Rockies and Albanides orogens. The contribution of calcite twin analysis to the understanding of the intraplate stress transmission away from plate boundaries is also emphasized. Les macles de la calcite sont utilisees depuis longtemps comme indicateurs de paleocontraintes et comme marqueurs de la deformation finie, en orientations comme en grandeurs. Au cours des 15 dernieres annees, des ameliorations importantes des methodes d’analyses existantes ont ete realisees et ont donne lieu a de nouvelles applications dans les chaines plissees et les avant-pays peu deformes des orogenes. Cet article resume le principe des methodes les plus utilisees en tectonique et illustre quelques apports de l’analyse des macles de la calcite pour la caracterisation non seulement des orientations et des grandeurs des paleocontraintes et de la deformation finie, mais egalement dans une certaine mesure de la paleotemperature et du paleoenfouissement. Cette revue se fonde en grande partie sur les etudes regionales que j’ai effectuees dans des contextes geologiques varies, comme les avant-pays des chaines de Taiwan, des Pyrenees, du Zagros, des Rocheuses et des Albanides. Cet article discutera egalement la contribution de l’etude des

  14. Contributions à l'étude du complexe absorbant des sols acides à charges mixtes : application aux andosols du Velay

    OpenAIRE

    Espiau, P.

    1987-01-01

    En prenant comme modèle les andosols à charges mixtes du Velay, l'auteur s'intéresse, dans le contexte naturel, à la détermination des charges négatives et des cations échangeables qui les saturent. Ainsi, il discute les problèmes posés par les membres de l'égalité qui assure l'électroneutralité dans les sols (somme des cations échangeables = capacité d'échange cationique effective)

  15. Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma: Technique, indication and results; Transarterielle Chemoembolisation (TACE) des hepatozellulaeren Karzinoms: Technik, Indikationsstellung und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Zangos, S.; Balzer, J.O.; Nabil, M.; Rao, P.; Eichler, K.; Abdelkader, A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, J.W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); Bechstein, W.O. [Klinik fuer Allgemeinchirurgie, J.W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany); Zeuzem, S. [Klinik fuer Innere Medizin, Hepatologie, J.W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    To present current data on technique, indications and results of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The principle of TACE is the intra-arterial injection of chemotherapeutic drug combinations like doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitomycin into the hepatic artery, followed by lipiodol injection, Gelfoam for vessel occlusion and degradable microspheres. The side effects and complications after TACE range from fever, upper abdominal pain and vomiting to acute or chronic liver cell failure. The palliative effect in unresectable HCC using TACE allows local tumor control in 15 to 60% of cases and 5-year survival rates ranging from 8 - 43%. The potentially curative treatment option allows local tumor control from 18 - 63%. The neoadjuvant treatment option of TACE in combination with other treatment options like percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) reach local tumor control rates between 80 - 96%. The bridging effect of TACE before liver transplantation reaches 5-year survival rates from 59 - 93%. The symptomatic therapy option of TACE is used to counteract pain directly caused by HCC and acute/subacute bleeding in the HCC. The local tumor response reaches up to 88% and the bleeding control is from 83 to 100%. (orig.)

  16. MISE AU POINT D'UNE TECHNIQUE D'ADMINISTRATION IN VIVO DES VECTEURS GENETIQUES DANS LEMUSCLE CARDIAQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective In order to improve the in vivo gene transfer into the heart muscle, we have designed a ECG-synchronized microinjection system that allows sequential gene delivery to the myocardium.Methods A cannula was introduced into the right carotid artery of the Wistar rat under general anesthesia.With the ECG-synchronized injection during diastole, the genetic vector (Ad CMV lacZ ) infusion was performed with various concentrations( l07 ~ l010pfu ) and different frequency ( the ratio of heart beats per injection from 1: 1 to 4: 1 ). The hearts of the rats were removed after 7 days for histological examination. Results Best results were obtained with a total vector amount of l09 pfu and a good ratio 3: 1 between heart frequency and injection frequency. The transfection efficiency was increased by use of vasodilators and by an increase of vascular permeability. No signs of myocardial ischemia or ventricular arrythmia were observed. Conclusion We have established a novel and safe method for in vivo gene transfer into the heart. Transgene expression suggests that this method may be useful technique to study cardiac function of treat cardiac diseases by means of gene theratpy.

  17. Réalisation d’une interface Matlab pour la simulation des bioprocédés : Application au mod`ele ADM1

    OpenAIRE

    KHEDIM, Zeyneb

    2014-01-01

    Le traitement des eaux usées par digestion anaérobie est technique prometteuse vu son produit en biogaz, qui est valorisable comme énergie. Ce processus est mystérieux et les comportements de ses populations bactériennes lors de la dégradation des substrats polluants, méritent d’être modélisés et étudiés en approfondie. L’objectif principal de notre mémoire est de comprendre la digestion anaérobie par son modèle ADM1 (Anaerobic Digestion Model N°1) et d’implémenter ce dernier s...

  18. Réduction des impacts environnementaux des ateliers de traitement de surface : application de stratégies de production plus propre et plus sûre

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Gaëlle

    2009-01-01

    Les industriels ont de plus en plus souvent recours à des pratiques de production plus propre. Ces pratiques, nombreuses et variées, sont génératrices de multiples effets bénéfiques. Néanmoins, l'impact global de leur mise en œuvre sur l'entreprise peut être difficilement appréhendable. Afin d'aider les industriels d'une part, à évaluer les impacts liés à la mise en œuvre de ces pratiques, et d'autre part, dans le choix de l'implantation de pratiques de production plus propre et plus sûre, un...

  19. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques in environmental research. Plenary lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, B; Steinnes, E

    1992-03-01

    Among nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) is particularly useful for environmental studies. It affords low detection limits for many elements, high specificity and few sources of systematic error, which means that high accuracy is attainable. Neutron activation analysis is particularly useful for trace and ultra-trace analysis of environmental samples (water, soils, rocks and biological material). In trace element work associated with pollution, instrumental NAA is a powerful technique for multi-element surveys, in particular when combined with other spectroscopic techniques. Nuclear techniques, as with most analytical techniques, cannot be used to distinguish between different physico-chemical forms of an element per se. When used in combination with appropriate separation techniques, however, nuclear techniques can provide valuable information about trace element speciation in environmental and biological systems. From dynamic tracer experiments, i.e., addition of chemically well defined labelled compounds to environmental systems, valuable information can be obtained on the distribution of species and on microchemical processes influencing the physico-chemical forms. In these laboratories, speciation studies on trace elements in natural waters have been carried out by using instrumental NAA in combination with physical separation techniques, such as dialysis and ultrafiltration, in situ and in the laboratory. Dynamic radiotracer experiments have provided important information about processes influencing the speciation of trace elements in aquatic systems. Sequential extraction techniques have proved to be useful in studies on sediments and soils when combined with NAA. Sequential extractions also provide significant information about the physico-chemical behaviour of radionuclides supplied to natural soils from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:1580364

  20. Passive RF component technology materials, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on novel materials and techniques, this pioneering volume provides you with a solid understanding of the design and fabrication of smart RF passive components. You find comprehensive details on LCP, metal materials, ferrite materials, nano materials, high aspect ratio enabled materials, green materials for RFID, and silicon micromachining techniques. Moreover, this practical book offers expert guidance on how to apply these materials and techniques to design a wide range of cutting-edge RF passive components, from MEMS switch based tunable passives and 3D passives, to metamaterial-bas

  1. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  2. Separation techniques and application of Zr and Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation technique of Zr and Hf is the key of Zr and Hf production. Some hydrometallurgical separation techniques are emphatically described, including MIBK-HCNS process, TOA process, TBP-HCl-HNO3 process, improved N235-H2SO4 process, and sulphoxide process. Zr is mainly used as canning material, structural material and moderator in the nuclear industry. Hf is used as control rod in the nuclear industry. Strengthening the research on the separation techniques of Zr and Hf, and developing the production of Zr and Hf are of great importance to promoting the development of the nuclear power of China. (authors)

  3. Le discours des objets. Pratiques et techniques de circulation, entre clandestinité et exhibition discursive [The Discourse of objects. Circulation practices and techniques, between discursive secrecy and discursive display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Paveau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous étudions la circulation matérielle des discours. Nous nous proposons de centrer notre recherche sur des objets matériels liés à des pratiques sociales de circulation de discours écrits, produits dans des contextes socio-historiques particuliers. La circulation est traitée concrètement: ce sont des discours qui se déplacent spatialement (circulation ou temporellement (transmission grâce à des supports matériels, corps, objets ou artefacts. Nous dépassons les matérialités scripturales traditionnelles (comme la lettre ou lemessage par exemple pour des objets où s'imbriquent le discours verbal et son «support» considéré comme organisateur socio-cognitif (par exemple: objets publicitaires qui se font discours épidictiques,drapeau militaire où les noms des batailles constituent une biographie du groupe. Le point commun de ces pratiques est d'être produites dans des situations socioculturelles et des contextes contraignants où le discours doit circuler clandestinement ou spectaculairement.We study the material circulation of the discourse. We propose to center our research on material objects related to social practices of circulation of written discourse, produced in contexts particular sociohistories. Circulation is treated concretely: discourse move spatially (circulation or temporally (transmission by material supports, body, objects or artifacts. We exceed the traditional scriptural materialities (like the letter for example for objects where the verbal discourse and its «support» considered as socio-cognitive organizer are imbricated (for example: advertising objectswhich are made speech epidictic, military flag where the names of the battles constitute a group’s biography. The common point of these practices is to be produced in sociocultural situations and constraining contexts where the discourse must circulate clandestinely or spectacularly.

  4. Application of microdialysis technique in the traditional chinese medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; grc540, grc540

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...

  5. Decomposition techniques in mathematical programming engineering and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Conejo, AJ

    2006-01-01

    Presents a practical approach to decomposition techniques in optimization. This book addresses decomposition in linear programming, mixed-integer linear programming, nonlinear programming, and mixed-integer nonlinear programming, and provides decomposition algorithms as well as heuristic ones.

  6. Speciation and interfacial studies using electrochemical techniques for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this the electrochemical techniques for speciation studies and some of the results on speciation of copper in the presence of a few volatile amines which are potential candidates for AVT are discussed

  7. Radioimmunoassay techniques and their application in veterinary parasitology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parasitology radioimmunoassay has been largely employed as a technique for detecting antibodies. Three types of this assay are outlined here and a brief comparison is made with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Examples where radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been used in parasitology are given. It is concluded that in veterinary parasitology radioimmunoassay is of greater value as a tool in the study of immune mechanisms to parasites rather than as a diagnostic technique. (author)

  8. Wave Propagation Through Inhomogeneities With Applications to Novel Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.; Tokars, R.; Varga, D.; Floyd B.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes phenomena observed as a result of laser pencil beam interactions with abrupt interfaces including aerodynamic shocks. Based on these phenomena, a novel flow visualization technique based on a laser scanning pencil beam is introduced. The technique reveals properties of light interaction with interfaces including aerodynamic shocks that are not seen using conventional visualization. Various configurations of scanning beam devices including those with no moving parts, as well as results of "proof-of-concept" tests, are included.

  9. 'Hybrid' non-destructive imaging techniques for engineering materials applications

    OpenAIRE

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Alexander M. Korsunsky

    2014-01-01

    The combination of X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques provides a unique tool for structural and mechanical analysis of engineering components. A variety of modes can be employed in terms of the spatial resolution (length-scale), time resolution (frequency), and the nature of the physical quantity being interrogated. This thesis describes my contributions towards the development of novel X-ray “rich” imaging experimental techniques and data interpretation. The experiment...

  10. Administration et gestion des contrats XL

    CERN Document Server

    Senouf, J

    2000-01-01

    Les grands contrats de travaux génèrent un grand nombre de commandes (OSVC) passées par un grand nombre de responsables techniques. Ils sont généralement basés sur des bordereaux de prix associés à un éventail de conditions économiques adaptées aux besoins complexes et variés des multiples utilisateurs du CERN nécessitant des calculs sophistiqués. L'administration des commandes, le suivi des travaux et de la facturation doivent répondre aux besoins de tous les acteurs. Les responsables techniques doivent jouir de la plus large indépendance administrative dans le respect des règlements CERN et des conditions contractuelles. Le contrôle des métrés et décomptes doit être rigoureux et d'une traçabilité complète. L'utilisation des bases de données Oracle a déjà permis l'intégration des données administratives et techniques. Le Web nous invite à une communication totale et transparente entre les utilisateurs, les services techniques et les contractants. De nouveaux types de contrat so...

  11. SAFE-NEXT : UNE APPROCHE SYSTEMIQUE POUR L'EXTRACTION DE CONNAISSANCES DE DONNEES.
    Application A La Construction Et A L'interprétation De Scénarios D'accidents De La Route

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ahmed, Walid

    2005-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, l'informatisation des saisies de données et la puissance des systèmes de collecte conduisent à la construction de grandes Bases de Données (BD). L'exploitation de ces millions de données en accidentologie et dans beaucoup d'autres domaines (e.g. management, marketing, etc.) fait appel à des techniques d'Extraction de Connaissances de Données (ECD). La complexité des données, du domaine d'application et des connaissances recherchées rendent fondamentale l'intégration des connaissa...

  12. Application des systèmes structurés à l'étude du diagnostic : Localisation de capteurs

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub Agha, Sameh

    2007-01-01

    Dans cette thèse nous étudions le problème de détection et localisation de défauts (FDI) diagonal avec une banque d'observateurs. Nous étudions ce problème sur la classe des systèmes linéaires structurés avec leurs graphes associés. Les systèmes structurés sont une classe particulière des systèmes linéaires où les éléments des matrices sont soit fixés à zéro soit des paramètres libres. On présente une condition nécessaire et suffisante pour la solubilité générique du problème FDI. Cette condi...

  13. Application de l'apprentissage artificiel à la prévision des crues éclair

    OpenAIRE

    Toukourou, Mohamed Samir

    2009-01-01

    L'objet de cette thèse est d'appliquer l'apprentissage statistique à la prévision des crues éclair cévenoles qui ont occasionné des pertes humaines et des dégâts considérables durant ces 20 dernières années. Les travaux s'inscrivent dans le cadre du projet Bassin Versant Numérique Expérimental Gardons. Dans ce contexte, ce mémoire se propose de présenter les travaux effectués pour réaliser la prévision des crues du Gardon d'Anduze à Anduze, jusqu'à un horizon de prévision de l'ordre de grande...

  14. Application of filtering techniques in preprocessing magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Yi, Yongping; Yang, Hongxia; Hu, Guochuang; Liu, Guoming

    2010-08-01

    High precision magnetic exploration is a popular geophysical technique for its simplicity and its effectiveness. The explanation in high precision magnetic exploration is always a difficulty because of the existence of noise and disturbance factors, so it is necessary to find an effective preprocessing method to get rid of the affection of interference factors before further processing. The common way to do this work is by filtering. There are many kinds of filtering methods. In this paper we introduced in detail three popular kinds of filtering techniques including regularized filtering technique, sliding averages filtering technique, compensation smoothing filtering technique. Then we designed the work flow of filtering program based on these techniques and realized it with the help of DELPHI. To check it we applied it to preprocess magnetic data of a certain place in China. Comparing the initial contour map with the filtered contour map, we can see clearly the perfect effect our program. The contour map processed by our program is very smooth and the high frequency parts of data are disappeared. After filtering, we separated useful signals and noisy signals, minor anomaly and major anomaly, local anomaly and regional anomaly. It made us easily to focus on the useful information. Our program can be used to preprocess magnetic data. The results showed the effectiveness of our program.

  15. Orbital welding technique; Orbitalschweisstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschen, W. [Kraftanlagen Nukleartechnik GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [German] Die praktische Anwendung des Wolfram-Inertgas-(WIG-)Orbitalschweissverfahrens erfolgt in allen Sparten des Rohrleitungsbaues. Vorwiegend wird das Verfahren an austenitischen und ferritischen Werkstoffen eingesetzt. Aber auch andere Werkstoffe, wie Aluminium, Nickel- und Titanlegierungen, sind gaengige Praxis. Dabei werden sowohl duenn- als auch dickwandige Rohre wirtschaftlich verschweisst. In der Instandhaltung ist die Anwendung der Orbitaltechnik fuer dickwandige Rohre von besonderem Interesse und wird hier beschrieben. (orig.)

  16. Panorama européen des biolubrifiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poitrat Étienne

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Des perspectives de développement importantes peuvent être envisagées, lorsque le bénéfice environnemental et sanitaire est immédiat, dans les utilisations à huiles perdues ou à risque de pertes accidentelles dans l’environnement, en milieu de travail confiné et pour les applications dans les industries agroalimentaires. En outre, les lubrifiants d’origine végétale présentent des performances techniques au moins égales aux huiles synthétiques. Les critères d’éco-compatibilité suivants sont reconnus et fréquemment utilisés : biodégradabilité, toxicité humaine, écotoxicité (aquatique ou terrestre, bioaccumulation.

  17. Disorders of gastric emptying and the application of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a greatly increased understanding of the physiology of gastric emptying in normal subjects, and of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of gastric empyting disorders associated with the development and application of methods to quantify gastric emptying in humans. The non-invasive measurement of gastric emptying by means of radionuclide-labelled food markers has widespread clinical and research applications

  18. Chemical dosimetry techniques for various applications under different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, B L; Narayan, G R; Nilekani, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry for various applications under different geometrical arrangements. These applications include: gamma chambers, blood irradiators, radiotherapy using both sup 6 sup 0 Co and accelerators, animal irradiations with different types of radiation sources, fluid irradiators for sludge and rubber latex and industrial electron irradiators. The dosimeters used were Fricke, FBX and alanine/glutamine (spectrophotometric readout).

  19. Measurement and Simulation Techniques For Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Djoko Hartanto; Aan Febriansyah; Ratno Nuryadi

    2012-01-01

    Applications of microcantilevers as biosensors have been explored by many researchers for the applications in medicine, biological, chemistry, and environmental monitoring. This research discusses a design of measurement method and simuations for piezoresistive microcantilever as a biosensor, which consist of designing Wheatstone bridge circuit as object detector, simulation of resonance frequency shift based on Euler Bernoulli Beam equation, and microcantilever vibration simulation using COM...

  20. CONCEPTION ET DÉVELOPPEMENT D’APPLICATIONS ET SERVICES DÉDIÉS À LA SANTÉ SUR DES TERMINAUX MOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    MERZOUGUI, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    La conception et le développement d’applications et services sur des périphériques mobiles ne cessent de croître, du fait de l’adoption de plus en plus forte de terminaux mobiles et de l’émergence de nouveaux usages et services. Toutefois le manque de maturité des solutions proposées par les différents constructeurs rend la plupart de leurs systèmes embarqués peu ouverts et non interopérables. Ainsi, il est souvent nécessaire, lors d’un développement sur un mobile, de trouver un compromis ...

  1. Light ions radiobiological effects on human tumoral cells: measurements modelling and application to hadron-therapy; Mesures et modelisation des effets radiobiologiques des ions legers sur des cellules tumorales humaines: application a l'hadrontherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalade, P

    2005-11-15

    In classical radiotherapy, the characteristics of photons interactions undergo limits for the treatment of radioresistant and not well located tumours. Pioneering treatments of patients at the Lawrence Laboratory at Berkeley has demonstrated two advantages of hadrons beams: the Relative Biologic Effect (the RBE) and the ballistic of the beams. Since 1994, the clinical centre at Chiba, has demonstrated successfully the applicability of the method. A physics group, managed by G. Kraft, at Darmstadt in Germany, has underlined the advantages of carbon beams. An European pool, called ENGIGHT (European Network for LIGHt ion Therapy) has been created in which the French ETOILE project appeared. The purpose of the thesis concerns measurements and models of 'in vitro' human cells survival. In the first part, the nowadays situation in particles interactions, tracks and cells structures and radiobiology is presented here. The second is devoted to the models based on the beam tracks and localization of the physical dose. Discussion of sensitivity to various parameters of the model has been realized with the help of numerical simulations. Finally the predictions of the improved model has been compared to experimental irradiations of human cells with argon and carbon beams of the GANIL machine. Conclusion of such study shows the performance and limits of a local model for predicting the radiobiological efficiency of light ions in hadron-therapy. (author)

  2. Conception et modelisation logicielles des systemes interactifs : application aux interfaces multimodales

    OpenAIRE

    Nigay, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the software engineering design and implementation of Human- Computer Interfaces. We concentrate on multifeature systems which integrate new techniques as multiple communication means. We examine user, as well as system activities. We therefore assign various steps in the abstraction and concretisation mechanisms for information exchange between the user and the system. The Pipe-lines design space organises these steps within a framework that integrates both user and sy...

  3. Application of impedance measurement techniques to accelerating cavity mode characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance measurements, using a central wire to simulate the electron beam, were performed on a 52 MHz accelerating cavity at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This cavity was recently installed in the X-ray storage ring at the NSLS as a part of an upgrade of the ring. To damp higher-order modes (HOM) in this cavity, damping antennas have been installed. We implemented the impedance measurement technique to characterize the cavity modes up to 1 GHz and confirm the effectiveness of the damping antennas. Scattering parameters were measured using a network analyzer (HP 8510B) with a personal computer as a controller. Analysis based on S and T parameters for the system was used to solve for the cavity impedance, Z(ω), as a function of the measured transmission response, S21(ω). Search techniques were used to find the shunt resistance Rsh, and Q from the calculated Z(ω) for different modes. Our results for R / Q showed good agreement with URMEL simulations. The values of Q were compared with other independent Q measurement techniques. Our analytical technique offers an alternative approach for cases where full thru-reflection-line (TRL) calibration is not feasible and a more time-effective technique for obtaining R / Q, compared with the bead-pull method. (orig.)

  4. Application of ultrasonic techniques for evaluation of thermal fatigue crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage in nuclear facilities during operation is caused by cyclic loadings due to mechanical or thermal fatigue. Fatigue damage is often related with loads, which were not taken into account in the design, e.g. temperature cycling arising from unexpected stratified flow conditions. Thermal stratification typically occurs in the surge line or the main feed water lines. The large number of thermal cycles with great amplitude produced by stratification raises some concerns about the damage induced by fatigue in these lines. Therefore, nondestructive technique should be employed for the evaluation of residual life to guarantee its integrity. In this study, an ultrasonic technique was applied for evaluation of thermal fatigue cracks in stainless steel used for piping systems in the nuclear power plant. Quantitative evaluation of thermal fatigue cracks is available by the employment of advanced ultrasonic techniques equipped with digital signal processing techniques such as wavelet transform and neural network method in ultrasonic testing. In this investigation, fatigue cracks were generated in austenitic stainless steel specimen by mechanical load and thermal cycle, and the thermal fatigue cracks were quantitatively evaluated by the ultrasonic technique with the digital signal processing method. (orig.)

  5. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques and applications to materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present the application of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to thin film steochiometry determination and application to optimization of the film process elaboration in the case of dielectric films (Ge,Pb,O) and ionic conductors films (Na,Al,O). After we shall present the application of particles induced gamma emission (PIGE) for the characterization of ternary compounds (B,Si,C) used as coating to protect composites materials. The last part of this paper will describe the determination of oxygen in the bulk of fluoride glasses with charged particles activation analysis. (orig.)

  7. Regard sur les origines des communautés virtuelles : les " communautés en ligne " et le temps partagé. Un exemple d'hybride socio-technique

    OpenAIRE

    Serres, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    International audience Autour de la notion de " communauté en ligne ", cette communication vise les trois objectifs suivants : - proposer un éclairage historique sur les lointaines origines de cette notion, en rappelant le contexte, les acteurs et les forces mobilisés, les éléments discursifs et les composants techniques, participant de ce qui fut alors un " imaginaire technique " du début des années 60. - rappeler brièvement par quelles " traductions " cette notion de online communities e...

  8. Application of infrared technique in research of mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared technique as a new method is more useful for research of materials science. This paper simply describes the techniques of infrared temperature measurement and thermography and provides the experimental data of some metals and alloys during the deformation and the fatigue process by use of the infrared sensing method. It is shown that the conventional tensile data can be correlated with infrared radiational energy change during the tensile pulling. The temperature field of metal during elastic-plastic deformation can be calculated by finite element analysis, and the thermoelastic effect of metal can be shown by thermography. The infrared technique can be used to predict the fatigue damage, monitor their propagations and give the alarm at fracture. Finally, it must be pointed out that the irreversibility of infrared emission of metal can be used as a basis of nondestructive testing. (author)

  9. Signal Morphing techniques and possible application to Higgs properties measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Katharina Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One way of describing deviations from the Standard Model is via Effective Field Theories or pseudo-observables, where higher order operators modify the couplings and the kinematics of the interaction of the Standard Model particles. Generating Monte Carlo events for every testable set of parameters for such a theory would require computing resources beyond the ones currently available in ATLAS. Up to now, Matrix-Element based reweighting techniques have been often used to model Beyond Standard Model process starting from Standard Model simulated events. In this talk, we review the advantages and the limitations of morphing techniques to construct continuous probability model for signal parameters, interpolating between a finite number of distributions obtained from the simulation chain. The technique will be exemplified by searching for deviations from the Standard Model predictions in Higgs properties measurements.

  10. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  11. The application of nuclear techniques in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the extremely high cost of developing Malaysian offshore petroleum resources, the foremost consideration is being placed on proper petroleum detection so as to efficiently developed the petroleum resources, and to ensure that maximum productivity is achieved. Nuclear techniques are being used to meet these requirements. The natural radioactivity of the formations is measured to determine the occurence of sandstone, which could be hydrocarbon bearing. Confirmation of types hydrocarbon presence could be achieved by bombardment of the formation with high energy neutron and measuring the subsequent gamma ray emitted. This technique also indicates the type of formation and the water saturation of the formation. Nuclear techniques are also used to diagnose the problem encountered when petroleum is produced below its potential. (author). 6 figs

  12. Application of acoustic emission technique to limoges enamels for damage assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Studer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L'éclairage de tungstène-halide a été mis en cause quant à son impact dans les vitrines. Un tel risque n'est pas facile à évaluer : c’est la technique d'émission acoustique qui a été utilisée pour détecter de microdégâts sur des émaux de Limoges, puisque des recherches précédentes avaient mis en évidence la fragilité et vulnérabilité de ceux-ci. Avant d'appliquer la technique aux originaux, les échantillons d'émail ont été utilisés dans des tests et exposés aux variations de température pour évaluer leur réponse à la détérioration induite. La distribution d'humidité relative et de température dans deux vitrines a été mesurée afin d'évaluer le changement thermique. De plus, la performance de méthodes actuelles pour contrôler l'humidité relative, le taux de renouvellement de l’air et les risques de polluants carbonyl dans les vitrines a été aussi évaluée. Cette analyse a abouti à plusieurs modifications pour améliorer le microenvironnement lors de la présentation-exposition.Tungsten-halide lighting has been found to cause significant temperature distributions within showcases. The risk from such medium scale heating events is not easy to assess; therefore the acoustic emission technique was used to detect micro damage within Limoges enamels, as previous research has shown how vulnerable these enamels are. Prior to applying the technique to the originals, enamel samples were used in flexure tests and exposed to variations of temperature to assess their response to stress induced deterioration. The temperature and relative humidity distribution in two display cases were measured with data loggers at different points to assess the thermal loading. In addition, the performance of current methods to control relative humidity, the air exchange rate, and the risks from carbonyl pollutants within the showcases were also assessed. This analysis resulted in several changes to improve the display

  13. Application of Wavelet Techniques in ECG Signal Processing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ECG signals are non-stationary, pseudo periodic in nature and whose behavior changes with time. The proper processing of ECG signal and its accurate detection is very much essential since it determines thecondition of the heart. The analysis of ECG signal requires the information both in time and frequency, for clinical diagnosis. Hence the wavelet transforms becomes handy for analyzing these types of the signals. In this paper we have given an overview of some wavelet techniques published in journals and conferences since 2005 onwards for processing the ECG and also we have compared the performance, advantages and limitations of these techniques.

  14. Applications of Indirect Imaging techniques in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Harlaftis, E T

    2000-01-01

    A review is given on aspects of indirect imaging techniques in X-ray binaries which are used as diagnostics tools for probing the X-ray dominated accretion disc physics. These techniques utilize observed properties such as the emission line profile variability, the time delays between simultaneous optical/X-ray light curves curves, the light curves of eclipsing systems and the pulsed emission from the compact object in order to reconstruct the accretion disc's line emissivity (Doppler tomography), the irradiated disc and heated secondary (echo mapping), the outer disc structure (modified eclipse mapping) and the accreting regions onto the compact object, respectively.

  15. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  16. Techniques for Performance Improvement of Integer Multiplication in Cryptographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brumnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of arithmetic operations performance in number fields is actively researched by many scientists, as evidenced by significant publications in this field. In this work, we offer some techniques to increase performance of software implementation of finite field multiplication algorithm, for both 32-bit and 64-bit platforms. The developed technique, called “delayed carry mechanism,” allows to preventing necessity to consider a significant bit carry at each iteration of the sum accumulation loop. This mechanism enables reducing the total number of additions and applies the modern parallelization technologies effectively.

  17. Application of nuclear techniques on environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioanalysis and tracer techniques that can be used on environmental pollution problems. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry are the two methods that are used frequently on such problems. These methods are used for metal analysis. Tracer technique with radioactive labeled compounds are used to study the fate of the pollution substances in environmental systems. It is very important to validate every new developed analysis method, due to the environmental pollution problem closely related to the low enforcement. (author)

  18. Application of microlearning technique and Twitter for educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchanov, B. H.; Satabaldiyev, A. B.; Latuta, K. N.

    2013-04-01

    The current paper reviews the usage of social resource such as Twitter in microlearning technique for educational purposes. The problem is that most of instructors are unaware that with the help of social networks the students' productivity can increase. The research is applied on CS205 Advanced Programming in C++ course at Suleyman Demirel University (Kazakhstan). The collected results show that in a modern world of emerging mobile technologies, we are as educators should improve the way of teaching by adding electronically supported learning methods. In this study, the significance of microlearning technique is proposed.

  19. Techniques for analyzing lens manufacturing data with optical design applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Morris I.; Light, Brandon B.; Malone, Robert M.; Gregory, Michael K.; Frayer, Daniel K.

    2015-09-01

    Optical designers assume a mathematically derived statistical distribution of the relevant design parameters for their Monte Carlo tolerancing simulations. However, there may be significant differences between the assumed distributions and the likely outcomes from manufacturing. Of particular interest for this study are the data analysis techniques and how they may be applied to optical and mechanical tolerance decisions. The effect of geometric factors and mechanical glass properties on lens manufacturability will be also be presented. Although the present work concerns lens grinding and polishing, some of the concepts and analysis techniques could also be applied to other processes such molding and single-point diamond turning.

  20. Systematic Application of DNA Fiber-FISH Technique in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wenpan; Jiang, Yanqin; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH) is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0%) were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceu...