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Sample records for application bla medical

  1. The Frequency of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC and blaNDM Carbapenemase Genes in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in Kermanshah Medical Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zare

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbapenemase genes have been spread among strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae that make them resistant to carbapenems. Hence, the present study aimed to study the prevalence of carbapenmase genes within K. pneumoniae isolates in Kermanshah medical centers. Methods: Sixty isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected and identified using API kit. Then, antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method. The carbapenems-resistant isolates were screened for carbapenemases production using the Modified Hodge Test (MHT. The carbapenemase genes of blaVIM, blaIMP, KPC and blaNDM were detected by PCR test . Results: Out of 60 isolates, 4 isolates were resistant to carbapenem antibiotics, but only one isolate was demonstrated to be positive for carbapenemases by MHT phenotypic testing. The gene of blaVIM was detected in three isolates by PCR, though other genes were not found in the isolates. Within the isolates, 6.67% and 100% were resistant to carbapenem and ampicillin, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that dissemination rate of carbapenemase genes was not reported to be high among isolates of K. pneumoniae in Kermanshah. Only blaVIM gene was probably more frequent than other tested genes. Since most isolates examined in this study were susceptible to carbapenem antibiotics, these antibiotics are still regarded as effective drugs against infections caused by K. pneumoniae.

  2. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  3. Beta-Lactamase Encoded Genes blaTEM and blaCTX Among Acinetobacter baumannii Species Isolated From Medical Devices of Intensive Care Units in Tehran Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilzadegan, Sara; Sade, Mojtaba; Godarzi, Hussein; Eslami, Gita; Hallajzade, Masoumeh; Fallah, Fatemeh; Yadegarnia, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive consumption of antimicrobial materials in hospitals is considered as the main encoder leading to the emergence, development and acquisition of new bacterial resistance to beta-lactamase. Objectives Owing to the lack of proper information regarding the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to antibiotics and responsible genes in the country, the current study aimed to consider the resistance or sensitivity of the Acinetobacter baumannii multi drug resistant (MDR) isolates facing 2% glutaraldehyde. The study was conducted in the selected intensive care units in Tehran hospitals, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods In this study conducted over a period of 10 months, A. baumannii species were isolated by bacterial culture following biochemical tests from intensive care units (ICUs) of some hospitals in Tehran, Iran (Fayazbaksh, Taleghani, Imam Khomeini, Valiasr, Labafinejad). The resistance and sensitivity of the isolates to antibiotics were considered according to the clinical and laboratory standard institute CLSI (2012) guidelines. By multiplex PCR method, blaCTX and blaTEM genes were detected and finally, MDR strains were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde. PCR was used for each strain of MDR using specific primers. Results In the current study, 131 A. baumannii isolates (22.3%) out of 588 were studied. The level of resistance to various antibiotics was in the range of 69.4% to 100%. The frequencies of blaTEM and blaCTX genes were 3.2% and 19.4%, respectively. MIC50% and MIC90% of imipenem and meropenem antibiotics were 32 ± 1 µg/mL and 64 ± 1 µg/mL, respectively (P < 0.9). However no resistance to glutaraldehyde was observed. Different bands of MDR strains were observed in the PCR product by electrophoresis. Conclusions It seems that besides the variety and prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX, enormous mechanisms such as porin and leaking systems (efflux pumps) are responsible for the information of the A. baumannii resistance to disinfectants

  4. Medical applications of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    At Present, about five thousands accelerators are devoted to biomedical applications. They are mainly used in radiotherapy, research and medical radioisotopes production. In this framework oncological hadron-therapy deserves particular attention since it represents a field in rapid evolution thanks to the joint efforts of laboratories with long experiences in particle physics. It is the case of CERN where the design of an optimised synchrotron for medical applications has been pursued. These lectures present these activities with particular attention to the new developments which are scientifically interesting and/or economically promising.

  5. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Polymeric Microspheres for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketie Saralidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymeric microspheres find application in a wide range of medical applications. Among other applications, microspheres are being used as bulking agents, embolic- or drug-delivery particles. The exact composition of the spheres varies with the application and therefore a large array of materials has been used to produce microspheres. In this review, the relation between microsphere synthesis and application is discussed for a number of microspheres that are used for different treatment strategies.

  7. [Medical applications of systems biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate in this review some applications of systems biology in the medical and biological areas. After a brief summary of time scales experienced by medical -observations and of the general scheme of dynamic systems, we describe how some techniques underlying the complex systems theory can be applied to model medical issues in immunology, medical genetics, developmental morphogenesis, biochemistry, epidemiology, telemedecine and multiple platforms of expertise. In concluding, we will discuss the issue of "clinomics" coupling clinical and -omics data in a unique patient-specific file.

  8. Medical imaging technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book has two intentions. First, it assembles the latest research in the field of medical imaging technology in one place. Detailed descriptions of current state-of-the-art medical imaging systems (comprised of x-ray CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine) and data processing techniques are discussed. Information is provided that will give interested engineers and scientists a solid foundation from which to build with additional resources. Secondly, it exposes the reader to myriad applications that medical imaging technology has enabled.

  9. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  10. CERN's role in medical applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Last week, CERN hosted the first meeting of the International Strategy Committee for medical applications. This Committee will help CERN establish its roadmap in the field of research and development activities for medical applications. Here the CERN Bulletin speaks with the Chair of the Committee as he shares his expectations and his vision.   Dr Michael Baumann is the Director of the Radiation Oncology department at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital in Dresden and of the Institute for Radiooncology of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). He has recently been appointed Chair of CERN’s International Strategy Committee for medical applications – the team of experts who will advise the CERN Medical Applications Study Group led by Steve Myers. “CERN has a tremendous record in physics and basic research,” says Baumann. “I think that it has a very important role in steering some of the R&D that cannot be done at universities ...

  11. Theoretical Studies on the First Hyperpolarizabilities of One-dimensional Donor-bridge-acceptor Chromophores and New Applications of BLA in Determining Molecular First Hyperpolarizabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We present a quantum-chemical analysis of the relationship between the bond length alteration (BLA) and the static first hyperpolarizability of a series of one-dimensional (ID)chromophores with donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) structures.The calculated results show that the parameter BLA can be considered as an indicator to evaluate the molecular first hyper-polarizability.Along the direction of molecular ground-state dipole moments, the evolutions of BLA can be classified into three categories: the first is a non-monotonic line, which represents most chromophores; the second is monotonic increasing; and the third, contrarily, is monotonic decreasing.On the whole, the first hyperpolarizabilities of these studied chromophores are the mortotonic functions of BLA along the direction of dipole moments.Therefore, the first hyper-polarizability of these 1D chromophores can be preliminarily evaluated in terms of the deve-lopment of BLA without a rigorous computation.In other words, one can roughly estimate the relative magnitude of the first hyperpolarizability according to the optimized geometry.

  12. MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOPOLYESTERS POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang Chen; Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of biopolyesters produced by many wild type and engineered bacteria.PHAs have diverse structures accompanied by flexible thermal and mechanical properties.Combined with their in vitro biodegradation,cell and tissue compatibility,PHAs have been studied for medical applications,especially medical implants applications,including heart valve tissue engineering,vascular tissue engineering,bone tissue engineering,cartilage tissue engineering,nerve conduit tissue engineering as well as esophagus tissue engineering.Most studies have been conducted in the authors' lab in the past 20+ years.Recently,mechanism on PHA promoted tissue regeneration was revealed to relate to cell responses to PHA biodegradation products and cell-material interactions mediated by microRNA.Very importantly,PHA implants were found not to cause carcinogenesis during long-term implantation.Thus,PHAs should have a bright future in biomedical areas.

  13. Yersinia enterocolitica and Photorhabdus asymbiotica β-lactamases BlaA are exported by the twin-arginine translocation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriefer, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Schmid, Franz X; Schmid, Annika; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In general, β-lactamases of medically important Gram-negative bacteria are Sec-dependently translocated into the periplasm. In contrast, β-lactamases of Mycobacteria spp. (BlaC, BlaS) and the Gram-negative environmental bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (L2) and Xanthomonas campestris (Bla(XCC-1)) have been reported to be secreted by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system. Yersinia enterocolitica carries 2 distinct β-lactamase genes (blaA and blaB) encoding BlaA(Ye) and the AmpC-like β-lactamase BlaB, respectively. By using the software PRED-TAT for prediction and discrimination of Sec from Tat signal peptides, we identified a functional Tat signal sequence for Yersinia BlaA(Ye). The Tat-dependent translocation of BlaA(Ye) could be clearly demonstrated by using a Y. enterocolitica tatC-mutant and cell fractionation. Moreover, we could demonstrate a unique unusual temperature-dependent activity profile of BlaA(Ye) ranging from 15 to 60 °C and a high 'melting temperature' (T(M)=44.3°) in comparison to the related Sec-dependent β-lactamase TEM-1 (20-50°C, T(M)=34.9 °C). Strikingly, the blaA gene of Y. enterocolitica is present in diverse environmental Yersinia spp. and a blaA homolog gene could be identified in the closely related Photorhabdus asymbiotica (BlaA(Pa); 69% identity to BlaA(Ye)). For BlaA(Pa) of P. asymbiotica, we could also demonstrate Tat-dependent secretion. These results suggest that Yersinia BlaA-related β-lactamases may be the prototype of a large Tat-dependent β-lactamase family, which originated from environmental bacteria.

  14. Medical applications of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, R M

    1995-06-01

    Medical applications for virtual reality (VR) are just beginning to emerge. These include VR surgical simulators, telepresence surgery, complex medical database visualization, and rehabilitation. These applications are mediated through the computer interface and as such are the embodiment of VR as an integral part of the paradigm shift in the field of medicine. The Green Telepresence Surgery System consists of two components, the surgical workstation and remote worksite. At the remote site there is a 3-D camera system and responsive manipulators with sensory input. At the workstation there is a 3-D monitor and dexterous handles with force feedback. The VR surgical simulator is a stylized recreation of the human abdomen with several essential organs. Using a helmet mounted display and DataGlove, a person can learn anatomy from a new perspective by 'flying' inside and around the organs, or can practice surgical procedures with a scalpel and clamps. Database visualization creates 3-D images of complex medical data for new perspectives in analysis. Rehabilitation medicine permits impaired individuals to explore worlds not otherwise available to them, allows accurate assessment and therapy for their disabilities, and helps architects understand their critical needs in public or personal space. And to support these advanced technologies, the operating room and hospital of the future will be first designed and tested in virtual reality, bringing together the full power of the digital physician.

  15. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  16. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  17. Co-Carriage of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Hospital Infections from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepjyoti Paul

    Full Text Available Global spread of KPC poses to be a serious threat complicating treatment options in hospital settings. The present study investigates the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of India. The study isolates were collected from different wards and clinics of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India, from 2012-2013. The presence of blaKPC was confirmed by genotypic characterization followed by sequencing. Cloning of the blaKPC-2 gene was performed and the genetic environment of this gene was characterized as well. Transferability of the resistance gene was determined by transformation assay and Southern hybridization. Additionally, restriction mapping was also carried out. Two isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to harbor blaKPC-2, were resistant towards aminoglycosides, quinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination. In both the isolates, the resistance determinant was associated with class 1 integron and horizontally transferable. Both the isolates were co-harboring blaNDM-1. The first detection of this integron mediated blaKPC-2 coexisting with blaNDM-1 in P. aeruginosa from India is worrisome, and further investigation is required to track the gene cassette mediated blaKPC-2 in terms of infection control and to prevent the spread of this gene in hospitals as well as in the community.

  18. Relation between blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes and acute urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi; Mehdi Goudarzi; Fattaneh Sabzehali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey the frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genotypes in extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection and the determination of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods: During 11-month study, 100 ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from 330 patients who met the definition of urinary tract infection. The phenotypic identification of ESBL was confirmed by double disk synergy test and combined disk diffusion test. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL isolates than 14 antimicrobial agents was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli was assessed by PCR method. Results: The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli was 40.8%. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL-producing E. coli showed that the majority of isolates were highly susceptible to amikacin (74%) and imipenem (91%). The rates of resistance to other antibiotics varied from 33% to 96%. Through 100 tested isolates, the prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was determined to be 67%, 45% and 74% respectively. In comparison with other bla genes, the frequency of blaCTX-M was strikingly high. Conclusions: Due to the increase of E. coli with multiple ESBL genes, continuous sur-veillance in order to use appropriate antibiotics and the control of infections is necessary.

  19. Mobile Applications to Improve Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Jamie; Farris, Karen B; Dorsch, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Background and Introduction: Mobile applications are useful tools to improve medication adherence. As developers continue to improve the features of existing mobile applications, pharmacists should be aware of the current features that are available to patients. There are limited studies available that discuss which applications have the most desirable features. The aim of this study was to compare available mobile applications and identify ideal application features used to improve medication adherence.

  20. MEMS for medical technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Thomas; Roxhed, Niclas; Stemme, Göran

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an in-depth description of two recent projects at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) which utilize MEMS and microsystem technology for realization of components intended for specific applications in medical technology and diagnostic instrumentation. By novel use of the DRIE fabrication technology we have developed side-opened out-of-plane silicon microneedles intended for use in transdermal drug delivery applications. The side opening reduces clogging probability during penetration into the skin and increases the up-take area of the liquid in the tissue. These microneedles offer about 200µm deep and pain-free skin penetration. We have been able to combine the microneedle chip with an electrically and heat controlled liquid actuator device where expandable microspheres are used to push doses of drug liquids into the skin. The entire unit is made of low cost materials in the form of a square one cm-sized patch. Finally, the design, fabrication and evaluation of an integrated miniaturized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based "electronic nose" microsystem for detection of narcotics is described. The work integrates a novel environment-to-chip sample interface with the sensor element. The choice of multifunctional materials and the geometric features of a four-component microsystem allow a functional integration of a QCM crystal, electrical contacts, fluidic contacts and a sample interface in a single system with minimal assembly effort, a potential for low-cost manufacturing, and a few orders of magnitude reduced in system size (12*12*4 mm 3) and weight compared to commercially available instruments. The sensor chip was successfully used it for the detection of 200 ng of narcotics sample.

  1. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  2. Rapid discrimination of blaIMP-1, blaIMP-6, and blaIMP-34 using a multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Shizuo; Ohge, Hiroki; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    Stealth-type carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to almost all β-lactams except imipenem is emerging in Japan. This resistance is mediated by specific variants of the metallo-β-lactamases (blaIMP-6 or blaIMP-34) that differs by one amino acid from the common variant blaIMP-1. We developed an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR assay enabling rapid, sequence independent, identification of these variants.

  3. Medical applications of artificial olfactometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); Severin, Erik J. (Inventor); Wong, Bernard (Inventor); Kelso, David M. (Inventor); Munoz, Beth C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for detecting the presence of an analyte indicative of various medical conditions, including halitosis, periodontal disease and other diseases are also disclosed.

  4. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  5. Real-time PCR assays for the detection and quantification of carbapenemase genes (bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48) in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Jèssica; Royo, Elena; Balcázar, José Luis; Borrego, Carles M

    2017-01-13

    In this study, we have developed real-time PCR assays using SYBR Green chemistry to detect all known alleles of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like carbapenemase genes in water, sediment, and biofilm samples collected from hospital and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and rivers receiving chronic WWTP discharges. The amplification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48 DNA was linear over 7 log dilutions (R (2) between 0.995 and 0.997) and showing efficiencies ranging from 92.6% to 100.3%. The analytical sensitivity indicated that the reaction for bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes was able to detect 35, 16, and 19 copy numbers per assay, respectively. The three carbapenemase genes were detected in hospital effluents, whereas only the bla KPC and bla NDM genes were detected in biofilm and sediment samples collected from wastewater-impacted rivers. The detection of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in different matrices suggests that carbapenem-resistant bacteria occur in both planktonic and benthic habitats thus expanding the range of resistance reservoirs for last-resort antibiotics. We believe that these real-time PCR assays would be a powerful tool for the rapid detection and quantification of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48-like genes in complex environmental samples.

  6. Biosensors and their Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Kokbas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are sensor systems that are combined with biological systems. They consist of two main parts; one of them is biological recognition element and the other one is physicochemical transducer. Biological recognition element can be biocatalysts (enzyme, microorganism, tissue materials or bioligands (antibodies, nucleic acids, lectins that interact selectively with the target analyte. Transducer converts the physical response resulting from the interaction between the target analyte and biological recognition element into a measurable signal. Biosensors which provide monitoring biological and synthetic processes can be used besides medical measuring and analyzing, for environmental observations and controls, defense industry, agriculture, food and pharmaceutical industry. Thus, they have an important role in daily life. In this review, characteristics of biosensors that are used in medical measuring and analyzing have been determined and classifications of biosensors according different features that are found in literature are presented. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 499-513

  7. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J Narayan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years.

  8. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  9. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement.

  10. Biomagnetics and bioimaging for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Shoogo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: ueno@medes.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sekino, Masaki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reviews medical applications of the recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation, and magnetic control of cell orientation and cell growth. These techniques are leading medicine and biology into a new horizon through the novel applications of magnetism.

  11. Wearable biosensors for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Crean, C; Mcgeough, C; O'Kennedy, R

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the design and development of wearable sensors for biomedical applications has garnered considerable attention in the scientifi c community and in industry. This chapter aims to review research conducted into wearable sensors for healthcare monitoring. Acceptance of this approach in observation of physiological data depends strongly on the cost, wearability, usability and performance of such devices. An outline of body sensor network systems (and applications of wearable...

  12. Medical and biomedical applications of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loske, Achim M

    2017-01-01

    This book provides current, comprehensive, and clear explanations of the physics behind medical and biomedical applications of shock waves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is one of the greatest medical advances of our time, and its techniques and clinical devices are continuously evolving. Further research continues to improve the understanding of calculi fragmentation and tissue-damaging mechanisms. Shock waves are also used in orthopedics and traumatology. Possible applications in oncology, cardiology, dentistry, gene therapy, cell transfection, transformation of fungi and bacteria, as well as the inactivation of microorganisms are promising approaches for clinical treatment, industrial applications and research. Medical and Biomedical Applications of Shock Waves is useful as a guide for students, technicians and researchers working in universities and laboratories. Chemists, biologists, physicians and veterinarians, involved in research or clinical practice will find useful advice, but also engineer...

  13. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanrewaju, O. A.; Faieza, A. A.; Syakirah, K.

    2013-06-01

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  14. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  15. Physics for Medical Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caner, Alesssandra; Rahal, Ghita

    2007-01-01

    The book introduces the fundamental aspects of digital imaging and covers four main themes: Ultrasound techniques and imaging applications; Magnetic resonance and MPJ in hospital; Digital imaging with X-rays; and Emission tomography (PET and SPECT). Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. choice of radioisotopes or contrast agents, optimisation of data acquisition and st

  16. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase genes, blaIMP-1, blaVIM-2 and blaSPM-1 in imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Moosavian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious cause of nosocomial infections.The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carryingmetallo- beta- lactamase (MBL genes.Material and Methods: 236 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from teaching hospitals of Ahvaz Universityof Medical Sciences during a period of 9 months in 2012. These strains were identified using conventional microbiologicaltests. The susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics were assessed using disk diffusion test. The IMP-EDTA combination diskphenotypic test was performed for detection of MBL producing strains. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR wasperformed to detect MBL genes, blaIMP-1, blaVIM-2 and blaSPM-1 in imipenem resistant strains.Results: Out of 236 examined isolates, 122 isolates (51.4% were resistant to imipenem. The IMP-EDTA combination testshowed that among 122 imipenem resistant strains, 110 strains (90% were phenotipically MBL producers. Additionally, theresults of PCR method showed that 2 strains (1.6% and 67strains (55% of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolates contained blaVIM-2 and blaIMP-1 genes respectively. No SPM-1gene was found in the examined samples.Conclusion: Resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem due to MBL enzymes is increasing in Ahavaz. Becauseof clinical significance of this kind of resistance, rapid detection of MBL producing strains and followed by appropriatetreatment is necessary to prevent the spreading of these organisms.

  17. Google Glass in Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Le thème de ce travail de Bachelor est de réalisé une application pour les Google Glass pour le domaine médical et plus précisément pour les ambulanciers. Le but est de pouvoir filmer les interventions des ambulanciers et de transmettre en temps réel la vidéo à l’hôpital, l’ambulancier peut communiquer directement avec le personnel médical à l’hôpital et le personnel médical peut aussi envoyer les informations lié au patient et d’afficher sur les Google Glass. Pour atteindre ce but, il faut c...

  18. Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biological and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising material for biological and medical applications, owning to its relatively inexpensive and large-scale synthesis, unique structure, and superior optical properties. However, most biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and bio-imaging, are dependent upon the precise control of the surfaces, and can be significantly affected by the type, distribution and stability of chemical funtionalisations of the nanodiamond surface. In this paper, recent studies on nanodiamonds and their biomedical applications by conjugating with different chemicals are reviewed, while highlighting the critical importance of surface chemical states for various applications.

  19. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  20. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P, E-mail: hlai@u.washington.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  1. 多重PCR检测食源金黄色葡萄球菌nuc、blaZ和mecA基因方法的建立与应用%Multiplex PCR for detection of nuc, blaZ and mecA genes in food-borne Staphylococcus aureus and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书亮; 刘冬香; 贾仁勇; 韩新锋

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立快速检测食源金黄色葡萄球菌(Sa)耐热核酸酶基因(nuc)、β-内酰胺酶基因(blaZ)和甲氧西林耐药基因(mecA)的多重PCR方法.方法 根据GenBank Sa的nuc、blaZ和mecA基因序列,设计3对特异性引物,建立鉴定Sa及分析Sa耐β-内酰胺类抗生素三重PCR方法,并对79株食源Sa进行基因检测与表型比较.结果 显示供试Sa中检出nuc、blaZ基因阳性率分别为97.47%、73.42%,mecA基因检出为阴性;nuc基因检出与其表型符合率达97.47%;而blaZ扩增结果与β-内酰胺酶试验、青霉素类敏感试验同时符合率为49.37%,前者与后两者符合率分别为60.76%和75.95%;mecA与耐甲氧西林表型符合率为100%;此次79株食源Sa中无耐甲氧西林Sa.结论 该方法简便、快捷、准确,为食源Sa鉴定和耐药性分子分析提供了参考依据.

  2. Multiplex PCR amplification assay for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstein, H-J; Ostholm-Balkhed, A; Nilsson, M V; Nilsson, M; Dornbusch, K; Nilsson, L E

    2007-12-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are often mediated by (bla-)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Numerous molecular typing methods, including PCR-based assays, have been developed for their identification. To reduce the number of PCR amplifications needed we have developed a multiplex PCR assay which detects and discriminates between (bla-)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M PCR amplicons of 747, 445 and 593 bp, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay allowed the identification of (bla-)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M genes in a series of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with previously characterised ESBL phenotype. The presence of (bla)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M genes was confirmed by partial DNA sequence analysis. Apparently, the universal well-established CTX-M primer pair used here to reveal plasmid-encoded (bla)CTX-M genes would also amplify the chromosomally located K-1 enzyme gene in all Klebsiella oxytoca strains included in the study.

  3. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polotto Milena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%, followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST, the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and

  4. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  5. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes.

  6. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  7. [Additive Manufacturing and Its Medical Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zewen; Wang, Guohui; Gao, Qin; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a collection of technologies based on the layer-by-layer manufacturing. Characterized by its direct manufacturing and rapidity, it has been regarded by the Economist Journal as one of the key techniques which will trigger the third industry reformation. The present article, beginning with a brief introduction of the history of AM and the process of its major technologies, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages and medical applications of the technique.

  8. Water-soluble fullerenes for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rašović, I

    2016-01-01

    Research on fullerenes occupies a unique position in the scientific arena. Synthesis and characterisation of this nanomaterial blur the line between materials science and chemistry; careful tuning of the processing methods gives birth to a whole family of molecules and their functionalised derivatives, whose unusual properties at this nanoscopic scale can be exploited in cutting-edge technological applications. This review focuses on the functionalisation of fullerenes for use in medical appl...

  9. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic......, environmental monitoring and food safety. The detected element varies from a single molecule (such as glucose), a biopolymer (such as DNA or a protein) to a whole organism (such as bacteria). Due to their easy use and possible miniaturization, biosensors have a high potential to come out of the lab...... and be available for use by everybody. To fulfil these purposes, polymers represent very appropriate materials. Many nano- and microfabrication methods for polymers are available, allowing a fast and cheap production of devices. This chapter will present the general concept of a biosensor in a first part...

  10. Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the results of a molecular epidemiological survey of 15 carbapenemase-encoding genes from a recent collection of clinical isolates. The most salient findings revealed that (i) 60% of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes, (ii) the blaDIM-1 gene that has only been reported in...

  11. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...... desirable mathematical properties. We propose numerical solutions for the initial and boundary value problems of _nding geodesics. These two methods are combined in a Riemannian gradientbased optimization scheme to compute the Karcher mean. We apply this to a study of the shape variation in HeLa cell nuclei...

  12. Co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoul, Abir; Loucif, Lotfi; Bakour, Sofiane; Amiri, Sabrina; Dekhil, Mazouz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in an Algerian hospital. A total of 43 imipenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 were identified using API 20NE and were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and Etest methods. Carbapenemase activity was detected using microbiological tests and PCR. Genetic transfer of the blaNDM-1 gene was performed by conjugation using sodium azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as recipient strain. Clonal relationships were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using partial sequences of the csuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 43 A. baumannii isolates were resistant to imipenem with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (>32μg/mL). The strains harboured blaOXA-23, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-58 and/or blaOXA-24 genes. Co-existence of blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 was detected in two isolates and one isolate, respectively. NDM-1 plasmid transfer to E. coli J53 was successful only for one of the three strains harbouring both blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58. The phylogenetic tree obtained from concatenation of the partial sequences of csuE and blaOXA-51 showed that there was no genetic relationship between the isolates and the blaNDM-1 resistance gene. Here we report for the first time the co-occurrence of blaNDM-1 along with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-58 in recent clinical isolates of A. baumannii from Northeast Algeria. These findings re-emphasise the dissemination and rapid spread of blaNDM-1 carbapenemase genes in multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii isolates in Algeria.

  13. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  14. Portable mini gamma camera for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, E; Benlloch, J M; El-Djalil-Kadi-Hanifi, M; López, S; Pavon, N; Ruiz, J A; Sánchez, F; Sebastiá, A

    2002-01-01

    A small, portable and low-cost gamma camera for medical applications has been developed and clinically tested. This camera, based on a scintillator crystal and a Position Sensitive Photo-Multiplier Tube, has a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter and provides 2.2 mm of intrinsic spatial resolution. Its mobility and light weight allow to reach the patient from any desired direction. This camera images small organs with high efficiency and so addresses the demand for devices of specific clinical applications. In this paper, we present the camera and briefly describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration and the image reconstruction method. The clinical tests and diagnostic capability are also presented and discussed.

  15. [Research on medical data mining and its applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanzhen; Wang, Youjun

    2014-10-01

    With the development of computer technology, medical data has developed from traditional paper pattern into electronic mode, which could effectively promote the medical development. This paper at first presents the status and characteristics of medical data mining. Then, it discusses the critical method of medical data mining in classification, clustering and prediction, respectively. The paper focuses on the application and assessment of five algorithms which are designed for medical data mining, including decision tree, cluster analysis, association rule, intelligent algorithm and the mix algorithm. Finally, this paper outlooks the data mining application in medical domain.

  16. PRIMA: An apparatus for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipala, V., E-mail: valeria.sipala@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [INFN, sezione di Catania (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze (Italy); Tesi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper a proton Computed Radiography (pCR) apparatus for medical applications, realized by PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) Italian Collaboration, is described. The system is oriented to acquire tomography images and meets clinical demands for the use of protons in radiotherapy treatments. The approach proposed here is based on 'single proton tracking' method with Most Likely Path (MLP) reconstruction of the single particle. A pCR prototype, with a field of view of about 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} and an acquisition time of the order of 10 s (10 kHz, 10{sup 5} events), has been developed and tested with a 62 MeV proton beam at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS). The apparatus architecture will be described and first proton radiographies will be shown.

  17. Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group, a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.

  18. Potential applications of medical and non-medical robots for neurosurgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alric, Matthieu; Chapelle, Frédéric; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Gogu, Grigore

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to review the state-of-the-art in medical robotic systems used for different surgical applications, and to position and evaluate their concepts according to the design requirements of an innovative, robotized neurosurgical system, capable of performing tumor ablation or electrode positioning. A few other non-medical systems, which have interesting concepts, will also be discussed. The overall aim is to determine the robotic concept (structure, actuation, etc.) most applicable to specific tasks in neurosurgery. The first section of the article describes the requirements of the task and each important aspect is expressed by an evaluation criterion. Then, 59 systems are described, according to the fields of medical applications and the robotic concepts. An evaluation of the different systems is conducted, based on the five most significant criteria. However, the main characteristic assessed is the deployment capability of the system i.e. extension and retraction. The final section presents an overview of concepts transferable to neurosurgical applications. Continuum concepts, such as "elephant trunks", seem to be the most adapted solutions, utilizing pneumatic and/or spring and/or cable actuations. Pneumatics offer deployment forces and cables can control and guide the deployment. The design of a new neurosurgical device should take into account these observations as a base.

  19. Aeromonas spp. simultaneously harbouring bla(CTX-M-15), bla(SHV-12), bla(PER-1) and bla(FOX-2), in wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Samanić, Ivica; Fredotović, Zeljana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Jutronić, Marinka; Puizina, Jasna

    2013-09-02

    Aeromonas species are becoming renowned as emerging pathogens by increasingly giving rise to a wide spectrum of food and waterborne infections in humans. Another worrisome feature of aeromonads is the growing frequency of antibiotic resistance as a consequence of their prominent diversity in terms of resistance determinants. This study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance pattern, prevalence and characterization of acquired β-lactamases, including extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC cephalosporinases, as well as the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons, in Aeromonas isolates from wild-growing Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the eastern coast of Adriatic Sea, Croatia. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were further screened by PCR for genes encoding AmpC (bla(FOX), bla(CMY), bla(MOX), bla(LAT), bla(BIL), bla(DHA), bla(ACC), bla(MIR), bla(ACT)), ESBLs (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CTX-M), bla(PER), bla(VEB), bla(GES/IBC), bla(OXA)) and integrases (intI1, intI2, intI3). Location of bla genes was characterized by plasmid DNA fingerprinting and Southern blot hybridization. Plasmids carrying ESBL genes were investigated for transferability by conjugation and PCR-based replicon typed. Out of 147 Aeromonas isolates recovered, 30 (20%) demonstrated multiple resistance profile, with co-resistance most frequently detected against penicillins, piperacillin/sulbactam and tetracycline. ESBL-encoding genes were detected in 21 (13 Aeromonas caviae and 8 Aeromonas hydrophila) isolates, with bla(CTX-M-15) gene identified in 19 and bla(SHV-12) in 12 isolates. Among them, 10 isolates simultaneously harboured bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(SHV-12), while 3 isolates additionally carried an AmpC β-lactamase bla(FOX-2) gene. bla(PER-1) gene was identified in a single isolate also harbouring the bla(CTX-M-15) gene. While bla(SHV-12) was chromosomally

  20. An Evaluation of Free Medical Applications for Android Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana D. CAPRAŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The field of healthcare applications (apps currently holds potential to improve the daily medical practice by implementing evidence-based healthcare tools. The purpose of this study was to describe the main characteristics of Android-based healthcare applications available in Google Play and to identify those applications that are evidence-based. Methods: The study was undertaken between the 1st of July and the 30th of August 2016. An evaluation form was developed to characterize the healthcare apps available in Google Play retrieved for the following keywords: (medical apps and (evidence based medical apps respectively. Only the free apps were considered eligible for the purpose of our study. Besides the general characteristics, several criteria with regards to interactivity, functionality, esthetics, contents, benefits, as well as evidence-based aspects were considered. Results: A number of 147 healthcare apps were displayed based on the used keywords and were included in the analysis. 42 of them were excluded due to the need for payment, malfunction after installation or games/animations that used medical terms. The remaining 105 apps were then analyzed by the evaluation criteria established in the research protocol. This study shows that until this point, mobile medical applications are mostly designed for consumers or medical students and less for medical professionals. 2 medical application include evidence based medical information and 19 applications were developed in this direction. The majority of the applications were developed in USA. 60% of the analyzed applications have the capacity of improving the quality of medical care. Conclusions: We found only 2 "ideal" mobile medical applications that brought together all the requirements that every application designed for medical use should fulfill.

  1. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  2. Characterization of a novel Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 476 carrying both bla KPC-2 and bla IMP-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cao, W; Zhu, X; Chen, Z; Li, L; Zhang, B; Wang, B; Tian, L; Wang, F; Liu, C; Sun, Z

    2012-08-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has recently spread rapidly throughout China. In this study, we characterized a carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolate that produced both KPC-2 and IMP-4 type carbapenemases. A clinical isolate of K. pneumoniae, resistant to both meropenem and imipenem, was recovered from a urine sample. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and Etest (bioMérieux, France). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for gene type analysis. bla (KPC) and the encoding genes of ESBLs and plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced. Plasmids were analyzed by transformation, enzyme restriction and Southern blot. PCR analysis revealed that the isolate was simultaneously carrying bla (KPC-2), bla (IMP-4), bla (TEM-1), and bla (OKP-B) genes. MLST assigned the isolate to a novel sequence type, ST476. bla (KPC-2)-harbouring plasmids of the isolate and comparative strains had similar EcoRI and HindIII restriction maps, while IMP-4-harbouring plasmids had variable HindIII restriction maps. Coexistence of bla (KPC-2) and bla (IMP-4) was probably due to bla (IMP-4)-harbouring plasmid transmission into KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae (ST476). The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses both therapeutic and infection control problems.

  3. Piezoelectric materials and devices applications in engineering and medical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaya, M S

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric Materials and Devices: Applications in Engineering and Medical Sciences provides a complete overview of piezoelectric materials, covering all aspects of the materials starting from fundamental concepts. The treatment includes physics of piezoelectric materials, their characteristics and applications. The author uses simple language to explain the theory of piezoelectricity and introduce readers to the properties and design of different types of piezoelectric materials, such as those used in engineering and medical device applications.This book: Introduces various types of dielect

  4. Social marketing: application to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S P; Greer, D S

    2001-01-16

    Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated.

  5. Medical Wearable Technologies: Applications, Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bostanci, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on wearable technologies which are increasingly being employed in the medical field. From smart watches to smart glasses, from electronic textile to data gloves; several gadgets are playing important roles in diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. The threats posed by these technologies are another matter of concern that must be seriously taken into account. Numerous threats ranging from data privacy to big data problems are facing us as adverse effe...

  6. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater

  7. Detection of bla KPC-2 in Proteus mirabilis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Borges Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing isolates pose a major worldwide public health problem today. METHODS : A carbapenem-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate was investigated for plasmid profiles and the occurrence of β-lactamase genes. RESULTS : The isolate exhibited resistance to ertapenem and imipenem and was susceptible to meropenem, polymyxin, and tigecycline. Five plasmids were identified in this isolate. DNA sequencing analysis revealed the presence of bla KPC-2 and bla TEM-1 genes. An additional PCR using plasmid DNA confirmed that bla KPC-2 was present in one of these plasmids. Conclusions: We report the detection of bla KPC-2 in P. mirabilis in Brazil for the first time. This finding highlights the continuous transfer of bla KPC between bacterial genera, which presents a serious challenge to the prevention of infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  8. An H-module linear actuator for medical equipment applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Wu, Keyuan; ye, yunyue;

    2012-01-01

    An H-module linear actuator (HMLA) is proposed in this paper for medical equipment applications. Compared to the existing linear actuators used in medical equipment, the proposed H-module linear actuator has much lower normal force, which makes use of an additional air-suspension system unnecessa...

  9. [Current problems of information technologies application for forces medical service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Korneenkov, A A; Bogomolov, V D; Borisov, D N; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-06-01

    The modern information technologies are the key factors for the upgrading of forces medical service. The aim of this article is the analysis of prospective information technologies application for the upgrading of forces medical service. The authors suggested 3 concepts of information support of Russian military health care on the basis of data about information technologies application in the foreign armed forces, analysis of the regulatory background, prospects of military-medical service and gathered experience of specialists. These three concepts are: development of united telecommunication network of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation medical service, working out and implementation of standard medical information systems for medical units and establishments, monitoring the military personnel health state and military medical service resources. It is noted that on the assumption of sufficient centralized financing and industrial implementation of the military medical service prospective information technologies, by the year 2020 the united information space of the military medical service will be created and the target information support effectiveness will be achieved.

  10. Brain-Computer Interfaces : Beyond Medical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Lotte, F.; Tangermann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction has already moved from assistive care to applications such as gaming. Improvements in usability, hardware, signal processing, and system integration should yield applications in other nonmedical areas.

  11. Coexistence of blaNDM-1 、blaKPC-2 、blaDHA-1 、blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 genes in a clinical ST11 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in chi-na%首例同时携带 blaNDM-1、blaKPC-2、blaDHA-1、blaTEM-1和 blaOXA-1基因的 ST11肺炎克雷伯菌临床株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    油丽萍; 陈爱文; 秦萍; 徐茶; 赵辉; 吴春梅; 朱元祺

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the molecular mechanism of the clinical carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumon-iae isolates.Methods The strains identification and antibiotic susceptibilities were performed by VITEK-2 compact system.The genes of AmpC,ESBLs,MBL and KPCβ-lactamases were screened by specific PCR.And genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing.PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)were performed.Results 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were resistant to all antibiotics tested.Genotyping(PFGE)clustered 5 K .pneumoniae isolates into a single clonal type and MLST assigned them to sequence type 11.The blaKPC-2 ,baTEM-1 ,blaCTXG 9 and rmtB genes were present in four isolates.And Molecular testing verified the presence of blaNDM-1 ,blaKPC-2 ,blaDHA-1 ,blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 genes in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.Conclusion To our knowledge,this is first report of coexistence of blaNDM-1 , blaKPC-2 ,blaDHA-1 ,blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 genes in a clinical Klebsiella pneumonia isolate.It may herald the emergence of a new pattern of drug resistance.Surveillance of metallo-β-lactamases in enterobacteriaceae is urgently needed to control and prevent the spread of these isolates.%目的:探讨产碳青霉烯酶肺炎克雷伯菌的耐药机制,为医院感染控制提供依据。方法法国 VITEK-2 Compact 对细菌进行鉴定和药敏试验;改良 Hodge 试验初筛肺炎克雷伯菌是否产碳青霉烯酶;多重 PCR 对菌株进行β-内酰胺类耐药基因和16S rRNA 甲基化酶基因的检测,测序确认基因型;多位点序列分型和脉冲场凝胶电泳实验进行细菌的同源性分析。结果5株肺炎克雷伯菌多位点序列分型是 ST11型,其中4株都同时携带有 blaKPC-2、blaTEM-1、blaCTXG 9和16S rRNA 甲基化酶 rmtB 基因,另外1株(HD03)肺炎克雷伯菌同时携带 blaNDM-1、blaKPC-2、blaDHA-1、blaTEM-1和 blaOXA-1基因。脉冲场凝胶电泳显示,除了 HD04菌株多一条带外,其余带型5株菌完

  12. Capillary waveguide optrodes for Medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslinger, Dietmar; Weigl, Bernhard H.; Draxler, Sonja; Lippitsch, Max E.

    1997-01-01

    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. The capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Different optical setups have been investigated and compared regarding its waveguiding properties.

  13. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  14. Improved Strategies for Parallel Medical Image Processing Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kun; WANG Xiao-ying; LI San-li; CHEN Ying

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of high efficient and real-time computer assisted diagnosis as well as screening in medical area, to improve the efficacy of parallel medical image processing is of great importance. This article proposes improved strategies for parallel medical image processing applications,which is categorized into two genera. For each genus individual strategy is devised, including the theoretic algorithm for minimizing the exertion time. Experiment using mammograms not only justifies the validity of the theoretic analysis, with reasonable difference between the theoretic and measured value, but also shows that when adopting the improved strategies, efficacy of medical image parallel processing is improved greatly.

  15. Current Advances in the Medical Application of Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Slevin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology promises new medical therapies, more rapid and sensitive diagnostic and investigative tools for normal and diseased tissues, and new materials for tissue engineering. This e-book highlights the major current uses, new technologies and future perspectives of nanotechnology in relation to medical applications. Sections in this e-book include nanobiological approaches to imaging, diagnosis and treatment of disease using targeted monoclonal antibodies and siRNA, the medical use of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and possible future applications of molecular nanotechnolo

  16. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  17. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2016-10-15

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  18. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORITA, Akio; SORA, Shigeo; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; HARADA, Kanako; SUGITA, Naohiko; SAITO, Nobuhito; MITSUISHI, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care. PMID:27464471

  19. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Weber Michael; Niethard Fritz U; Paar Othmar; Marx Rudolf; Erli Hans J; Wirtz Dieter C

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties) usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers t...

  20. Residency Applicants Misinterpret Their United States Medical Licensing Exam Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger C.; Desbiens, Norman A.

    2009-01-01

    Proper interpretation of the results of the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is important for program directors, residents, and faculty who advise applicants about applying for residency positions. We suspected that applicants often misinterpreted their performance in relationship to others who took the same examination. In 2005, 54…

  1. Applications of computational tools in biosciences and medical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

     This book presents the latest developments and applications of computational tools related to the biosciences and medical engineering. It also reports the findings of different multi-disciplinary research projects, for example, from the areas of scaffolds and synthetic bones, implants and medical devices, and medical materials. It is also shown that the application of computational tools often requires mathematical and experimental methods. Computational tools such as the finite element methods, computer-aided design and optimization as well as visualization techniques such as computed axial tomography open up completely new research fields that combine the fields of engineering and bio/medical. Nevertheless, there are still hurdles since both directions are based on quite different ways of education. Often even the “language” can vary from discipline to discipline.

  2. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  3. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the ISAba1-bla OXA-23, 51 and ISAba1-bla ADC-7 genes in Monteria, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/bla OXA-23, ISAba1/bla OXA-51 and ISAba1/bla ADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2-7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried bla OXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the bla ADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1 /ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.

  4. Direct detection of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles by multiplex-touchdown PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M-Y; Geng, J-L; Chen, Y-J; Song, Y; Sun, M; Liu, H-Z; Hu, C-J

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and ESBL(Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase)-producing bacteria are the most important resistant pathogens in sepsis. In this study, a new multiplex-touchdown PCR method (MT-PCR) was developed to detect rapidly and simultaneously the presence of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles. The technique showed a sensitivity of 10(3 ) CFU ml(-1) for mecA detection and of 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) for other genes, and 100% specificity in the detection of all genes. All genes were detected in the spiked blood culture bottles artificially contaminated with reference strains. Three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), two methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) and 32 ESBL-producing bacteria, were isolated from the clinical blood culture specimens in 48 h by standard microbiological procedures. The corresponding genes were detected directly in the three MRSA, two MRSE and 29 ESBL-producing bacteria from the clinical blood culture specimens in 4 h by MT-PCR assay. None of the blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in three other bottles with ESBL-producing bacteria because of other ESBL genotypes in the pathogens. Likewise, all bottles proven negative by culture remained negative by PCR. The proposed method was rapid, sensitive and specific, and was able to directly detect the genes of MRS and ESBL-producing bacteria from the blood culture bottles.

  5. Nanomedicine: application of nanobiotechnology in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K K

    2008-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanobiotechnologies to medicine. This article starts with the basics of nanobiotechnology, followed by its applications in molecular diagnostics, nanodiagnostics, and improvements in the discovery, design and delivery of drugs, including nanopharmaceuticals. It will improve biological therapies such as vaccination, cell therapy and gene therapy. Nanobiotechnology forms the basis of many new devices being developed for medicine and surgery such as nanorobots. It has applications in practically every branch of medicine and examples are presented of those concerning cancer (nanooncology), neurological disorders (nanoneurology), cardiovascular disorders (nanocardiology), diseases of bones and joints (nanoorthopedics), diseases of the eye (nanoophthalmology), and infectious diseases. Safety issues of in vivo use of nanomaterials are also discussed. Nanobiotechnology will facilitate the integration of diagnostics with therapeutics and facilitate the development of personalized medicine, i.e. prescription of specific therapeutics best suited for an individual. Many of the developments have already started and within a decade a definite impact will be felt in the practice of medicine.

  6. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  7. Detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M antibiotic resistance genes in randomly selected bacterial pathogens from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Marthie M; Veldsman, Chrisna; Makgotlho, Eddy P; Dove, Michael G; Hoosen, Anwar A; Kock, Marleen M

    2009-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are considered to be one of the most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms. This study reported the ESBL-producing genes in 53 randomly selected clinical bacterial isolates from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital. The presence of the bla(SHV), bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) genes was determined, and the overall prevalence of these genes detected in this study was 87% (46/53) in comparison with the literature; these results were higher when compared with 33% for Escherichia coli in Europe and 0.8% in Denmark for similar pathogens. These research findings indicated that it is crucial to routinely monitor the prevalence of these resistance genes.

  8. Present and perspective medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misu - Moscovici

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-twentieth century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan - as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan – in capsules and oral care products. Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a

  9. Present and future medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Misu

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-20th century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan - as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan - in capsules and oral care products). Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment, or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well-suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral) characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a broad future ahead.

  10. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  11. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. (Oregon Medical Laser Center, Portland, OR (United States))

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland, OR, Houston, TX, and Galveston, TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulation of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  12. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  13. Wearable power Harvester for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terlecka G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent biomedical clothes combine health problem prevention, comfort, convenience, entertainment and communication with fashion and make everyday life easier. Homecare and healthcare applications wireless, mobile networks and wireless sensors improve the existing monitoring capabilities especially for the elderly, children, chronically ill and also for athletes. Sensor nodes are generally battery-powered devices. Batteries add size, weight and inconvenience to portable electronic devices and require periodical replacement. Nowadays the human power is an alternative and attractive energy source. Energy, which is generated during routine and seemingly insignificant human motions, shows promise as an alternative to power embedded wireless, mobile networks and wireless sensors. This paper describes the prototype of a smart garment and offers several alternative integration places of generator's parts, which are based on the principle of operation of the electromagnetic generator. Seven variants of location are proposed, which are tested and analysed. During the research, analysis of the most optimal placement of generator's part in garment has been performed.

  14. Nickel-free Stainless Steel for Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibin REN; Ke YANG; Bingchun ZHANG; Yaqing WANG; Yong LIANG

    2004-01-01

    BIOSS4 steel is essentially a nickel-free austenitic stainless steel developed by the Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in response to nickel allergy problems associated with nickel-containing stainless steels that are widely used in medical applications. The high nitrogen content of this steel effectively maintains the austenitic stability and also contributes to the high levels of corrosion resistance and strength. BIOSS4 steel possesses a good combination of high strength and toughness, better corrosion resistance, and better blood compatibility, in comparison with the medical 316L stainless steel. Potential applications of BIOSS4 steel can include medical implantation material and orthodontic or orthopedic devices, as well as jewelries and other decorations.

  15. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  16. Trusted data management for Grid-based medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, G.J.; Olabarriaga, S.D.; Koot, M.R.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Udoh, E.

    2011-01-01

    Existing Grid technology has been foremost designed with performance and scalability in mind. When using Grid infrastructure for medical applications, privacy and security considerations become paramount. Privacy aspects require a re-thinking of the design and implementation of common Grid middlewar

  17. Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Liangpeng Ge,1–5,* Qingtao Li,2,3,6,* Meng Wang,2,3 Jun Ouyang,6 Xiaojian Li,7 Malcolm MQ Xing2,31Chongqing Academy of Animal Sciences, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; 3Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada; 4Key Laboratory of Pig Industry Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 5Key Laboratory of Pig Industry Sciences, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 6School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 7Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanosilver particles (NSPs, are among the most attractive nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a range of biomedical applications, including diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, medical device coating, and for personal health care. With the increasing application of NSPs in medical contexts, it is becoming necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms of NSPs' biological interactions and their potential toxicity. In this review, we first introduce the synthesis routes of NSPs, including physical, chemical, and biological or green synthesis. Then the unique physiochemical properties of NSPs, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activity, are discussed in detail. Further, some recent applications of NSPs in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in medical fields are described. Finally, potential toxicology considerations of NSPs, both in vitro and in vivo, are also addressed.Keywords: nanosilver particles, synthesis, biomedical application, toxicity

  18. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.

  19. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  20. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN.

  1. Carbon nanotubes: potential medical applications and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Valeria; Aschberger, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique atomic structure, as well as outstanding thermal, mechanical, and electronic properties, making them extremely attractive materials for several different applications. Many research groups are focusing on biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, however the application of CNTs to the biomedical field is not developing as fast as in other areas. While CNTs-based products are already being used in textiles, polymer matrices to strengthen materials, sports articles, microelectronics, energy storage, etc., medicinal products and medical devices for in vivo application based on CNTs have not been commercialized yet. However, CNTs for biomedical application, i.e., CNTs conjugated to siRNA for cancer therapy, or CNTs for imaging of colorectal cancer and many other products may enter clinical trials in the next years. Concerns related to the toxicity of CNTs must be overcome in order to have these products commercialized in a near future. This article reviews emerging biomedical applications of CNTs, specifically for therapy. It also deals with challenges associated with possible medical applications of CNTs, such as their not fully understood toxicological profile in the human body.

  2. Application of medical physical culture at extensive deep burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjacheslav Meleshkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: describe the role of medical physical culture at extensive deep combustions for prophylaxis of development of congestive pneumonia, contractures and a muscular atrophy, and also for restoration of adaptation of an organism to household and labor loads after an dermoplastika. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature. Results: the main agent of physical aftertreatment – medical physical culture is considered; its application at treatment of patients with extensive deep combustions is proved; techniques of medical physical culture during the periods of a septicotoxemia and reconvalescence are described in detail. Conclusions: it is established that functional treatment will promote restoration of function of a locomotorium, the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

  3. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  4. First Report of bla(IMP-8) in Raoultella planticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Pin; Wang, Jann-Tay; Liang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Pei-Shan; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Two carbapenem-resistant Raoultella planticola clinical isolates were isolated from patients with pneumonia and Port-A catheter-related bacteremia, respectively, in Taiwan. These isolates remained susceptible to fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and colistin. Though the two isolates had the same antibiogram, plasmidic carbapenemase blaIMP-8, class 1 integron cassette (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2), and qnrB2, they had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, plasmid sizes, and outer membrane protein loss profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaIMP-8 found in R. planticola. Interestingly, blaIMP-8 is the most common carbapenemase found in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. In the literature, carbapenemase genes in R. planticola in each country were also found in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the same country.

  5. Coexistence of blaOXA-48 and Truncated blaNDM-1 on Different Plasmids in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lianyan; Dou, Yi; Zhou, Kaixin; Chen, Yue; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes. Plasmid DNA was sequenced using Pacbio RS II and annotated using RAST. Results: K. pneumoniae RJ119, carrying both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1, was resistant to almost all carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides and belonged to ST307. blaOXA-48 was located on a 61,748-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid, which displayed overall nucleotide identity (99%) to pKPN-E1-Nr.7. blaNDM-1 was located on a 335,317-bp conjugative plasmid, which was a fusion of a blaNDM-1-harboring InA/C plasmid pNDM-US (140,825 bp, 99% identity) and an IncFIB plasmid pKPN-c22 (178,563 bp, 99% identity). The transconjugant RJ119-1 harboring blaNDM-1 was susceptible to carbapenem, and there was an insertion of IS10 into the blaNDM-1 gene. Conclusion: This is the first report of the coexistence of blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 in one K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in China. OXA-48 in RJ119 contributed to the majority to its high resistance to carbapenems, whereas NDM-1 remained unexpressed, most likely due to the insertion of IS10. Our results provide new insight for the relationship between genetic diagnosis and clinical treatment. They also indicate that increased surveillance of blaOXA-48 is urgently needed in China. PMID:28210248

  6. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  7. Application of Traditional Medical Ideas to Geriatric Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Seki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Japan is a superaging society, with the percentage of persons aged >65 years increasing year after year. Traditional medicine (TM for elderly has been practiced worldwide for thousands of years. Treatment methods for aspiration pneumonia, gait disorder, glaucoma, and bowel symptoms have been developed. The ideas of acupuncture, moxibustion, and herbal medicine have been implemented in modern medical settings, and medical devices using heat transfer engineering and nanotechnology have been developed. An ultrasound scanner can be used for the evaluation of effects and indications for these therapeutic measures. Objectives. To review published literature and our studies that evaluated medical treatments for the elderly on the basis of ideas of TM. Search Methods. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and reference lists of relevant clinical trials. Authors’ Conclusions. Many studies were found. But there are insufficient data on the effects of traditional medical therapies and further research is needed. TM therapies vary widely and studies of these therapies that ascertain practical application are essential for the utilization of ideas of TM in modern medicine. Moreover, to verify practical application, a quantitative evaluation index is necessary. Nonetheless, modalities using ideas of TM may be promising treatments for some diseases in the elderly.

  8. RF linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hanna, Samy

    2012-01-01

    This unique resource offers you a clear overview of medical and industrial accelerators. Using minimal mathematics, this book focuses on offering thorough explanations of basic concepts surrounding the operation of accelerators. you find well illustrated discussions designed to help you use accelerator-based systems in a safer, more productive, and more reliable manner.This practical book details the manufacturing process for producing accelerators for medical and industrial applications. You become knowledgeable about the commonly encountered real-world manufacturing issues and potential sources of defects which help you avoid costly production problems. From principles of operation and the role of accelerators in cancer radiation therapy, to manufacturing techniques and future trends in accelerator design and applications, this easy-to-comprehend volume quickly brings you up-to-speed with the critical concepts you need to understand for your work in the field.

  9. Application of Knitted Fabrics in Technical and Medical Textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly; LáZáR

    2010-01-01

    Knitted fabrics and knitting technology play very important role on the fields of technical and medical textiles and their importance is ever greater. Experts estimate that their annual consumption is increasing by 3,8 % in average and it can reach about 24 million tons in 2010. Within this the consumption of each sector is increasing. Roughly one third of the world’s fibre consumption is used for production of technical textiles.The term "technical textiles" covers many fields of application that are mirrored in the terminology of Techtextil which is very much used generally when grouping these products. Techtextil differentiates 11 groups and knitted fabrics and products made by knitting technologies can be found in each of them.The lecture introduces such applications on many examples. We think that use of knitting technologies in the development of technical and medical textiles can help this sector to survive this difficult period of the European textile industry.

  10. Laser heating of dielectric particles for medical and biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We consider the general problem of laser pulse heating of a spherical dielectric particle embedded in a liquid. The discussed range of the problem parameters is typical for medical and biological applications. We focus on the case, when the heat diffusivity in the particle is of the same order of magnitude as that in the fluid. We perform quantitative analysis of the heat transfer equation based on interplay of four characteristic scales of the problem, namely the particle radius, the charact...

  11. Porous structures based on nanopolysaccharides for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the use of bio-based nanomaterials has attracted much interest in medical applications due to their cytocompatibility, good moisture stability, good mechanical properties, hydrophilic surfaces and their ability to form porous structures. The aim of this work is to develop porous nanocomposites based on nanochitin and nanocellulose with controlled pore size and porosity in order to facilitate cell growth and interconnectivity and to investigate their potential in wound dressing and c...

  12. Modern compact accelerators of cyclotron type for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V.; Vorozhtsov, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ion beam therapy and hadron therapy are types of external beam radiotherapy. Recently, the vast majority of patients have been treated with protons and carbon ions. Typically, the types of accelerators used for therapy were cyclotrons and synchrocyclotrons. It is intuitively clear that a compact facility fits best to a hospital environment intended for particle therapy and medical diagnostics. Another criterion for selection of accelerators to be mentioned in this article is application of superconducting technology to the magnetic system design of the facility. Compact isochronous cyclotrons, which accelerate protons in the energy range 9-30 MeV, have been widely used for production of radionuclides. Energy of 230 MeV has become canonical for all proton therapy accelerators. Similar application of a carbon beam requires ion energy of 430 MeV/u. Due to application of superconducting coils the magnetic field in these machines can reach 4-5 T and even 9 T in some cases. Medical cyclotrons with an ironless or nearly ironless magnetic system that have a number of advantages over the classical accelerators are in the development stage. In this work an attempt is made to describe some conceptual and technical features of modern accelerators under consideration. The emphasis is placed on the magnetic and acceleration systems along with the beam extraction unit, which are very important from the point of view of the facility compactness and compliance with the strict medical requirements.

  13. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  14. Design of a compact synchrotron for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harbi, N A

    2003-01-01

    An optimal design of a low energy (300 MeV) proton synchrotron for medical applications is addressed. The machine has the following properties: (1) The transition energy is higher than the targets final proton beam energy of 300 MeV; (2) the betatron tunes are chosen such that the machine is free of systematic resonances; (3) the machine can accommodate both slow and fast extraction systems; and (4) the machine can provide rapid cycling operations depending on the rf cavity voltage. Applications of this low energy synchrotron are discussed. (10 refs).

  15. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  16. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated...

  17. 77 FR 74168 - Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... history including vaccination history, previous and current illnesses or conditions that may affect... Forest Service Information Collection: Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History AGENCY... information collection, OMB 0596- 0084, Youth Conservation Corps Application and Medical History....

  18. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  19. Properties and medical applications of shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniţă, Daniela; Tarniţă, D N; Bîzdoacă, N; Mîndrilă, I; Vasilescu, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    One of the most known intelligent material is nitinol, which offers many functional advantages over conventional implantable alloys. Applications of SMA to the biomedical field have been successful because of their functional qualities, enhancing both the possibility and the execution of less invasive surgeries. The biocompatibility of these alloys is one of their most important features. Different applications exploit the shape memory effect (one-way or two-way) and the super elasticity, so that they can be employed in orthopedic and cardiovascular applications, as well as in the manufacture of new surgical tools. Therefore, one can say that smart materials, especially SMA, are becoming noticeable in the biomedical field. Super elastic NiTi has become a material of strategic importance as it allows to overcome a wide range of technical and design issues relating to the miniaturization of medical devices and the increasing trend for less invasive and therefore less traumatic procedures. This paper will consider just why the main properties of shape memory alloys hold so many opportunities for medical devices and will review a selection of current applications.

  20. Nanolithography for oxide nanoarrays and their application in medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttge, Regina

    2010-03-01

    Using lithographic patterning techniques, normally we aim for the integration of structural elements into a more complex apparatus, which can be at various length scales, for example hand-held equipment. Nanoscale fabricated pillars, holes or wires have shown unique properties already and ordering these in specific arrangements results in novel phenomena normally not present in natural occuring materials. Such materials are called nanoarrays. Engineered nanoarrays belong therefore to the class of metamaterials. One example of a metamaterial is a material with a negative refractive index created by design of artificial structure. These exciting material properties bring about also new opportunities for applications. A functional device or system demanding some level of ordering in a material also requires a carefully designed manufacturing process. Here, we will present an overview of nanolithographic techniques for oxide nanoarrays. Bio-inspired templated nanoarrays will be described in perspective to other nanolithography techniques. These nanostructures can deliver new functionality, too. Moreover, (nano)structured materials can deliver specific functionality at the interface with biological material. Developing these materials, subsequently, we can look for medical applications where the properties of oxide nanoarrays are explored. Photonic crystals, for example, can be applied in medical diagnostic devices. In this paper, therefore oxide nanoarrays are introduced and the emerging technology for modification and tuning of medical device performance utilizing oxide nanoarrays is discussed.

  1. Accelerators for Medical Applications Accelerators for Medical Application: What is so Special?

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the requirements of the accelerated beam differ from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. The way of operating such a medical device requires not only operators, but also the possibility to have a safe machine operation by non accelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). It will be shown that the organisation and role of the control/interlock system can be considered as being the most dedicated in a particle-therapy providing facility.

  2. User Interface Design in Medical Distributed Web Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Mada, Leonard; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lacramioara

    2016-01-01

    User interfaces are important to facilitate easy learning and operating with an IT application especially in the medical world. An easy to use interface has to be simple and to customize the user needs and mode of operation. The technology in the background is an important tool to accomplish this. The present work aims to creating a web interface using specific technology (HTML table design combined with CSS3) to provide an optimized responsive interface for a complex web application. In the first phase, the current icMED web medical application layout is analyzed, and its structure is designed using specific tools, on source files. In the second phase, a new graphic adaptable interface to different mobile terminals is proposed, (using HTML table design (TD) and CSS3 method) that uses no source files, just lines of code for layout design, improving the interaction in terms of speed and simplicity. For a complex medical software application a new prototype layout was designed and developed using HTML tables. The method uses a CSS code with only CSS classes applied to one or multiple HTML table elements, instead of CSS styles that can be applied to just one DIV tag at once. The technique has the advantage of a simplified CSS code, and a better adaptability to different media resolutions compared to DIV-CSS style method. The presented work is a proof that adaptive web interfaces can be developed just using and combining different types of design methods and technologies, using HTML table design, resulting in a simpler to learn and use interface, suitable for healthcare services.

  3. Medical and biological applications for ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubatschowski, Holger; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Will, Fabian; Singh, Ajoy I.; Serbin, Jesper; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kermani, Omid; Heermann, R.; Welling, Herbert; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2003-02-01

    Due to the low energy threshold of photodisruption with fs laser pulses, thermal and mechanical side effects are limited to the sub μm range. The neglection of side effects enables the use of ultrashort laser pulses in a broad field of medical applications. Moreover, the interaction process based on nonlinear absorption offers the opportunity to process transparent tissue three dimensionally inside the bulk. We demonstrate the feasibility of surgical procedures in different fields of medical interest: In ophthalmology intrastromal cutting and preparing of corneal flaps for refractive surgery in living animals is presented. Besides, the very low mechanical side effects enables the use of fs-laser in otoralyngology to treat ocecular bones. Moreover, the precise cutting quality can be used in fields of cardiovascular surgery for the treatment of arteriosclerosis as well as in dentistry to remove caries from dental hard tissue.

  4. Medical Application Using Multi Agent System - A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Chakraborty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have projected on the involvement of multi-agent system in medical or health care domain. The objective of this study is to provide future researchers more resourceful and focused review of various research papers in this domain. Multi-agent system is most suitable for healthcare paradigm, as the properties of agent based systems deals with heterogeneous multiple agents. Data distribution and data management in a dynamic and distributed environment with multi-user cooperation, made multi-agent system more significant in this field. The disposition of this paper is classified on the basis of theoretical and application approach. We have tried to cover few relevant papers published on last decade. The main aim of this literature survey is to provide a complete road map on multi agent system based research on medical health care platform.

  5. Medical applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit eDosanjh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centres: from imaging technologies, to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with a specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT, whose coordination office is at CERN.

  6. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  7. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  8. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  9. Scanning Micromirror Platform Based on MEMS Technology for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakkachai Pengwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This topical review discusses recent development and trends on scanning micromirrors for biomedical applications. This also includes a biomedical micro robot for precise manipulations in a limited volume. The characteristics of medical scanning micromirror are explained in general with the fundamental of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS for fabrication processes. Along with the explanations of mechanism and design, the principle of actuation are provided for general readers. In this review, several testing methodology and examples are described based on many types of actuators, such as, electrothermal actuators, electrostatic actuators, electromagnetic actuators, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy. Moreover, this review provides description of the key fabrication processes and common materials in order to be a basic guideline for selecting micro-actuators. With recent developments on scanning micromirrors, performances of biomedical application are enhanced for higher resolution, high accuracy, and high dexterity. With further developments on integrations and control schemes, MEMS-based scanning micromirrors would be able to achieve a better performance for medical applications due to small size, ease in microfabrication, mass production, high scanning speed, low power consumption, mechanical stable, and integration compatibility.

  10. ``Low Power Wireless Technologies: An Approach to Medical Applications''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido O., Francisco J.; González R., Miguel; Moreno M., Antonio; de La Cruz F, José Luis

    Wireless communication supposed a great both -quantitative and qualitative, jump in the management of the information, allowing the access and interchange of it without the need of a physical cable connection. The wireless transmission of voice and information has remained in constant evolution, arising new standards like BluetoothTM, WibreeTM or ZigbeeTM developed under the IEEE 802.15 norm. These newest wireless technologies are oriented to systems of communication of short-medium distance and optimized for a low cost and minor consume, becoming recognized as a flexible and reliable medium for data communications across a broad range of applications due to the potential that the wireless networks presents to operate in demanding environments providing clear advantages in cost, size, power, flexibility, and distributed intelligence. About the medical applications, the remote health or telecare (also called eHealth) is getting a bigger place into the manufacturers and medical companies, in order to incorporate products for assisted living and remote monitoring of health parameteres. At this point, the IEEE 1073, Personal Health Devices Working Group, stablish the framework for these kind of applications. Particularly, the 1073.3.X describes the physical and transport layers, where the new ultra low power short range wireless technologies can play a big role, providing solutions that allow the design of products which are particularly appropriate for monitor people’s health with interoperability requirements.

  11. A Review of Semantic Network based System Architecture for Remote Medical Applications: Efficacy & Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar S Kemkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the evolution of wireless communication and network technologies enables remote medical services to be available everywhere in the world. In this paper, a semantic network-based system architecture adopting wireless personal area network, body area network (BAN protocol and 3G communication networks for remote medical applications is proposed. In the proposed system, the number and type of medical sensors are scalable depending on individual needs. This feature allows the system to be flexibly applied in several medical applications. Furthermore, a differentiated service using priority scheduling and data compression is introduced. This scheme can not only reduce transmission delay for critical physiological signals and enhance bandwidth utilization at the same time, but also decrease power consumption of the hand-held personal server. Our research combines ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology. We use wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the wellbeing of high risk patients.

  12. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the bla OXA-72 gene in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge LM; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region. PMID:27653364

  13. The Clinical Application of Hydrogen as a Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Atsuyoshi; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Knaup, Emily; Naito, Hiromichi; Nishiyama, Chihiro; Yamakawa, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Kohei; Terado, Michihisa; Sato, Keiji; Ugawa, Toyomu; Nakao, Atsunori

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that molecular hydrogen is a particularyl effective treatment for various disease models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury; as a result, research on hydrogen has progressed rapidly. Hydrogen has been shown to be effective not only through intake as a gas, but also as a liquid medication taken orally, intravenously, or locally. Hydrogen's effectiveness is thus multifaceted. Herein we review the recent research on hydrogen-rich water, and we examine the possibilities for its clinical application. Now that hydrogen is in the limelight as a gaseous signaling molecule due to its potential ability to inhibit oxidative stress signaling, new research developments are highly anticipated.

  14. A New Application of MSPIHT for Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmane ZITOUNI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new application for medical imaging to image compression based on the principle of Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree algorithm (SPIHT. Our approach called , the modified SPIHT (MSPIHT, distributes entropy differently than SPIHT and also optimizes the coding. This approach can produce results that are a significant improvement on the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR and compression ratio obtained by SPIHT algorithm, without affecting the computing time. These results are also comparable with those obtained using the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree (SPIHT and Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPG2 algorithms.

  15. Biocompatibility and applications of carbon nanotubes in medical nanorobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Andrei M; Lozovik, Yurii E; Fiorito, Silvana; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2007-01-01

    The set of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) based on relative motion of carbon nanotubes walls is proposed for use in medical nanorobots. This set includes electromechanical nanothermometer, jet nanoengine, nanosyringe (the last can be used simultaneously as nanoprobe for individual biological molecules and drug nanodeliver). Principal schemes of these NEMS are considered. Operational characteristics of nanothermometer are analyzed. The possible methods of these NEMS actuation are considered. The present-day progress in nanotechnology techniques which are necessary for assembling of NEMS under consideration is discussed. Biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes is analyzed in connection with perspectives of their application in nanomedicine.

  16. Detection of blaIMP4 and blaNDM1 harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a university hospital in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzati Hamzan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods: A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results: All together, 13 isolates (4.05% were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (bla KPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA, only two, bla IMP4 (1.87% and bla NDM1 (2.18%, were detected in our setting. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians.

  17. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database. In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases.

  18. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-01-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Light, Visible and Invisible and its Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newing, Angela

    2000-09-01

    This book is based on various lectures given by Professor Newing over the last few years covering the centenaries of the discovery of x-rays, radioactivity, the electron and radium. It is a splendid follow-up read after studying the more formal presentations in A-level textbooks. The theory of each technique is touched on and the reader is provided with a full list of references for deeper analysis. Intermittently within the text are paragraphs of historical and developmental details, illustrated by contemporary drawings and photographs. These passages, which appear in a different typeface, add greatly to the enjoyment of the book, but could be skipped by an impatient reader seeking to gain an appropriate review knowledge of the subject of medical radiation physics. The areas of physiological measurement and medical engineering are not covered, neither is medical computing. Chapters discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of x-rays. Different methods of scanning are outlined and the appropriateness of techniques brought up-to-date. Treatment with ionizing radiations is expanded to touch on electron radiotherapy, neutron therapy and brachytherapy. Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are considered in the section on treatments using non-ionizing radiations. The story starts with evidence from the ancient worlds of Egypt and Greece, accelerating through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the many treatments around today. The laser is shown to be a versatile and exact tool, available in a complete range of wavelengths for different surgical uses. The scientific principles and current applications of nuclear medicine, ultrasound and MRI are described. For each type of procedure, the author includes comments on advantages, disadvantages and operational safety. Dosimetry and quality assurance are touched upon. The book reflects Professor Newing's enthusiasm for her role as a medical physicist both as practitioner and teacher. To any students studying

  20. Interactions between cyclodextrins and cellular components: Towards greener medical applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Leclercq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of host–guest chemistry, some of the most widely used hosts are probably cyclodextrins (CDs. As CDs are able to increase the water solubility of numerous drugs by inclusion into their hydrophobic cavity, they have been widespread used to develop numerous pharmaceutical formulations. Nevertheless, CDs are also able to interact with endogenous substances that originate from an organism, tissue or cell. These interactions can be useful for a vast array of topics including cholesterol manipulation, treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, control of pathogens, etc. In addition, the use of natural CDs offers the great advantage of avoiding or reducing the use of common petroleum-sourced drugs. In this paper, the general features and applications of CDs have been reviewed as well as their interactions with isolated biomolecules leading to the formation of inclusion or exclusion complexes. Finally, some potential medical applications are highlighted throughout several examples.

  1. Novel light diffusing fiber for use in medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubben, W. Spencer; Logunov, Stephan L.; Fewkes, Edward J.; Mooney, Jeff; Then, Paul M.; Wigley, Peter G.; Schreiber, Horst; Matias, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Cynthia J.; Ocampo, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    Fiber-based cylindrical light diffusers are often used in photodynamic therapy to illuminate a luminal organ, such as the esophagus. The diffusers are often made of plastic and suffer from short diffusion lengths and low transmission efficiencies over a broad spectrum. We have developed FibranceTM, a glass-based fiber optic cylindrical diffuser which can illuminate a fiber from 0.5 cm to 10 meters over a broad wavelength range. With these longer illumination lengths, a variety of other medical applications are possible beyond photodynamic therapy. We present a number of applications for Fibrance ranging from in situ controllable illumination for Photodynamic Therapy to light guided anatomy highlighting for minimally invasive surgery to mitigating hospital acquired infections and more.

  2. Properties and medical applications of polylactic acid: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hamad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA, one of the well-known biodegradable polyesters, has been studied extensively for tissue engineering and drug delivery systems, and it was also used widely in human medicine. A new method to synthesize PLA (ring-opening polymerization, which allowed the economical production of a high molecular weight PLA polymer, broadened its applications, and this processing would be a potential substitute for petroleum-based products. This review described the principles of the polymerization reactions of PLA and, then, outlined the various materials properties affecting the performance of PLA polymer, such as rheological, mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties as well as the processing technologies which were used to fabricate products based on PLA. In addition, the biodegradation processes of products which were shaped from PLA were discussed and reviewed. The potential applications of PLA in the medical fields, such as tissue engineering, wound management, drugs delivery, and orthopedic devices, were also highlighted.

  3. [Bacterial genomics and metagenomics: clinical applications and medical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, S M; Bertelli, C; Pillonel, T; Schrenzel, J; Greub, G

    2014-11-12

    New sequencing technologies provide in a short time and at low cost high amount of genomic sequences useful for applications such as: a) development of diagnostic PCRs and/or serological tests; b) detection of virulence factors (virulome) or genes/SNPs associated with resistance to antibiotics (resistome) and c) investigation of transmission and dissemination of bacterial pathogens. Thus, bacterial genomics of medical importance is useful to clinical microbiologists, to infectious diseases specialists as well as to epidemiologists. Determining the microbial composition of a sample by metagenomics is another application of new sequencing technologies, useful to understand the impact of bacteria on various non-infectious diseases such as obesity, asthma, or diabetes. Genomics and metagenomics will likely become a specialized diagnostic analysis.

  4. Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels for pharmaceutical and medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Stojanović Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are three-dimensional cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that swell in water and aqueous solutions without dissolving in them. They are very sensitive to environmental stimulus, which is manifested by a sharp phase transition. This feature is important for their application in the pharmaceutical field, especially for making formulations with controlled release of active ingredients, with the correction of the solubility, degradation and their toxicity reducing. Because of the compatibility with living tissues, hydrogels can be used in different medical purposes (for making contact lenses, stents, balloon catheters, artificial muscles, substitutes for arteries and veins, trachea, oviduct. This work presents methods (chemical and physical for obtaining hydrogels, their properties and sensitivity to environmental stimuli (temperature, pH, magnetic field, as well as their potential application in medicine and pharmacy.

  5. Nanowire-Based Sensors for Biological and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Lee, Suwon; Koo, Kyo; Kim, Keekyoung

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterials such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles have already led to breakthroughs in the field of biological and medical sensors. The quantum size effects of the nanomaterials and their similarity in size to natural and synthetic nanomaterials are anticipated to improve sensor sensitivity dramatically. Nanowires are considered as key nanomaterials because of their electrical controllability for accurate measurement, and chemical-friendly surface for various sensing applications. This review covers the working principles and fabrication of silicon nanowire sensors. Furthermore, we review their applications for the detection of viruses, biomarkers, and DNA, as well as for drug discovery. Advances in the performance and functionality of nanowire sensors are also surveyed to highlight recent progress in this area. These advances include the improvements in reusability, sensitivity in high ionic strength solvent, long-term stability, and self-powering. Overall, with the advantages of ultra-sensitivity and the ease of fabrication, it is expected that nanowires will contribute significantly to the development of biological and medical sensors in the immediate future.

  6. Advanced Medical Technology Capacity Building and the Medical Mentoring Event: A Unique Application of SOF Counterinsurgency Medical Engagement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Dan; Tate, Charmaine; Wey, Pierre-Francois; Batjom, Emmanuel; Nicholas, Thomas A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) is a military commander?s tool developed during the Vietnam War to gain access to and positively influence an indigenous population through the provision of direct medical care provided by military medical personnel, particularly in Counter Insurgency Operations (COIN). An alternative to MEDCAPs is the medical seminar (MEDSEM). The MEDSEM uses a Commander?s military medical assets to share culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population in order to create a sustainable training resource for the local population?s health system. At the heart of the MEDSEM is the ?train the trainer? concept whereby medical information is passed to indigenous trainers who then pass that information to an indigenous population. The MEDSEM achieves the Commander?s objectives of increasing access and influence with the population through a medical training venue rather than direct patient care. Previous MEDSEMS conducted in Afghanistan by military forces focused on improvement of rural healthcare through creation of Village Health Care Workers. This model can also be used to engage host nation (HN) medical personnel and improve medical treatment capabilities in population centers. The authors describe a modification of the MEDSEM, a Medical Mentorship (MM), conducted in November 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan, at the Afghan National Army (ANA) National Medical Hospital. This training was designed to improve intubation skills in Afghan National Army Hospitals by ANA medical providers, leave residual training capability, and build relationships within the institution that not only assist the institution, but can also be leveraged to foster Commanders? objectives, such as health and reconstruction initiatives and medical partnering for indigenous corps and medical forces described below. Methods We, the authors, developed a culturally appropriate endotracheal intubation training package including a Dari and

  7. Wet chemical synthesis of quantum dots for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Pérez, E. I.; López-Luke, T.; Pérez-Mayen, L.; Hidalgo, Alberto; de la Rosa, E.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana L.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the use of nanoparticles in medical applications has boomed. This is because the various applications that provide these materials like drug delivery, cancer cell diagnostics and therapeutics [1-5]. Biomedical applications of Quantum Dots (QDs) are focused on molecular imaging and biological sensing due to its optical properties. The size of QDs can be continuously tuned from 2 to 10 nm in diameter, which, after polymer encapsulation, generally increases to 5 - 20 nm diminishing the toxicity. The QDs prepared in our lab have a diameter between 2 to 7 nm. Particles smaller than 5 nm can interact with the cells [2]. Some of the characteristics that distinguish QDs from the commonly used fluorophores are wider range of emission, narrow and more sharply defined emission peak, brighter emission and a higher signal to noise ratio compared with organic dyes [6]. In this paper we will show our progress in the study of the interaction of quantum dots in live cells for image and Raman spectroscopy applications. We will also show the results of the interaction of quantum dots with genomic DNA for diagnostic purposes.

  8. [Design and application of implantable medical device information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaoping; Yin, Chunguang; Zhao, Zhenying

    2013-03-01

    Through the establishment of implantable medical device information management system, with the aid of the regional joint sharing of resources, we further enhance the implantable medical device traceability management level, strengthen quality management, control of medical risk.

  9. Identifying ionic interactions within a membrane using BLaTM, a genetic tool to measure homo- and heterotypic transmembrane helix-helix interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Christoph; Schmidt, Fabian C.; Breckner, Patrick; Teese, Mark G.; Langosch, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of integral membrane protein complexes is frequently supported by transmembrane domain (TMD) interactions. Here, we present the BLaTM assay that measures homotypic as well as heterotypic TMD-TMD interactions in a bacterial membrane. The system is based on complementation of β-lactamase fragments genetically fused to interacting TMDs, which confers ampicillin resistance to expressing cells. We validated BLaTM by showing that the assay faithfully reports known sequence-specific interactions of both types. In a practical application, we used BLaTM to screen a focussed combinatorial library for heterotypic interactions driven by electrostatic forces. The results reveal novel patterns of ionizable amino acids within the isolated TMD pairs. Those patterns indicate that formation of heterotypic TMD pairs is most efficiently supported by closely spaced ionizable residues of opposite charge. In addition, TMD heteromerization can apparently be driven by hydrogen bonding between basic or between acidic residues. PMID:28266525

  10. Characterization of a novel blaIMP gene, blaIMP-58, using whole genome sequencing in a Pseudomonas putida isolate detected in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Hansen, Frank; Hasman, Henrik;

    2017-01-01

    A multidrug-resistant strain of Pseudomonas putida was isolated from the urine of a 65-year-old women hospitalized for serious clinical conditions. Using whole genome sequencing a novel blaIMP gene, blaIMP-58 was discovered and characterized....

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli blaSHV genes in a Chinese teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Yang, Guangjian; Li, Ailing; Zong, Li; Dong, Zhaoguang; Lu, Junwan; Zhang, Kaibo; Cheng, Cong; Chang, Qingli; Wu, Xiuying; Ying, Jianchao; Li, Xianneng; Ding, Li; Zheng, Haixiao; Yu, Junping; Ying, Jun; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Peizhen; Li, Kewei; Wu, Songquan; Bao, Qiyu; Wang, Junrong

    2017-02-05

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly reside in human intestine and most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes cause serious food poisoning. This study identified and molecularly characterized blaSHV genes from 490 E. coli strains with multi-drug resistance in a hospital population. PCR and molecular cloning and southern blot were performed to assess functions and localizations of this resistant E. coli gene and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was utilized to demonstrate the clonal relatedness of the positive E. coli strains. The data showed that 4 of these 490 E. coli strains (4/499, 0.8%) carried blaSHV genes that included EC D2485 (blaSHV-5), EC D2487 (blaSHV-5), EC D2684 (blaSHV-11) and EC D2616 (blaSHV-195, a novel blaSHV). Analysis of blaSHV open-reading frame showed that blaSHV-5 had a high hydrolysis activity to the broad-spectrum penicillin (ampicillin or piperacillin), ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam. blaSHV-195 and blaSHV-11 had similar resistant characteristics with high hydrolysis activities to ampicillin and piperacillin, but low activities to cephalosporins. Moreover, the two blaSHV-5 genes were located on a transferable plasmid (23kb), whereas the other two blaSHV variants (blaSHV-11 and blaSHV-195) seemed to be located in the chromosomal material. Both EC D2485 and EC D2487 clones isolated in 2010 had the same DNA finger printing profile and they might be the siblings of clonal dissemination. The data from the current study suggest that the novel blaSHV and clonal dissemination may be developed, although blaSHV genes were infrequently identified in this hospital population. The results of the work demonstrate the necessity for molecular surveillance in tracking blaSHV-producing strains in large teaching hospital settings and emphasize the need for epidemiological monitoring.

  12. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  13. Can We Trust Computational Modeling for Medical Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Lealem; Walton, Marlei; Nelson, Emily; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Operations in extreme environments such as spaceflight pose human health risks that are currently not well understood and potentially unanticipated. In addition, there are limited clinical and research data to inform development and implementation of therapeutics for these unique health risks. In this light, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is leveraging biomedical computational models and simulations (M&S) to help inform, predict, assess and mitigate spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. To ensure that these M&S can be applied with confidence to the space environment, it is imperative to incorporate a rigorous verification, validation and credibility assessment (VV&C) processes to ensure that the computational tools are sufficiently reliable to answer questions within their intended use domain. In this presentation, we will discuss how NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) have successfully adapted NASA's Standard for Models and Simulations, NASA-STD-7009 (7009) to achieve this goal. These VV&C methods are also being leveraged by organization such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to establish new M&S VV&C standards and guidelines for healthcare applications. Similarly, we hope to provide some insight to the greater aerospace medicine community on how to develop and implement M&S with sufficient confidence to augment medical research and operations.

  14. Positron scattering measurements for application to medical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James

    2015-09-01

    While the use of positrons in medical imaging is now well established, there is still much to learn regarding the transport of positrons through the body, and the subsequent damage induced. Current models of dosimetry use only a crude approximation of the collision physics involved, and at low energies misrepresent the thermalisation process to a considerable degree. Recently, collaborative work has commenced to attempt to refine these models, incorporating a better representation of the underlying physics and trying to gain a better understanding of the damage done after the emission of a positron from a medical radioisotope. This problem is being attacked from several different angles, with new models being developed based upon established techniques in plasma and swarm physics. For all these models, a realistic representation of the collision processes of positrons with relevant molecular species is required. At the Australian National University, we have undertaken a program of measurements of positron scattering from a range of molecules that are important in biological systems, with a focus on analogs to DNA. This talk will present measurements of positron scattering from a range of these molecules, as well as describing the experimental techniques employed to make such measurements. Targets have been measured that are both liquid and solid at room temperature, and new approaches have been developed to get absolute cross section data. The application of the data to various models of positron thermalisation will also be described.

  15. CAS Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and MedAustron jointly organised a course on Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria between 26 May and 5 June 2015. The course was held at the Eventhotel Pyramide on the outskirts of Vienna, and was attended by 76 participants from 29 countries, coming from as far away as Canada, China, Lithuania, Thailand, Ukraine and Russia.       The intensive programme comprised 37 lectures. The emphasis was on using charged particle beams for cancer therapy and the programme began by covering the way in which particles interact with biological material, how this translates into the dose needed for treatment and how this dose is best delivered. The different accelerator options for providing the particles needed were then presented in some detail. The production of radioisotopes and how these are used for diagnostics and therapy was also covered, together with a look at novel acceleration techniques that may play a role i...

  16. Biomimetic Adhesive Materials Containing Cyanoacryl Group for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueng Hwan Jo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  17. Medical beam monitor—Pre-clinical evaluation and future applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frais-Kölbl, H; Schreiner, T; Georg, D; Pernegger, H

    2007-01-01

    Future medical ion beam applications for cancer therapy which are based on scanning technology will require advanced beam diagnostics equipment. For a precise analysis of beam parameters we want to resolve time structures in the range of microseconds to nanoseconds. A prototype of an advanced beam monitor was developed by the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt and its research subsidiary Fotec in co-operation with CERN RD42, Ohio State University and the Jožef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. The detector is based on polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamond substrates and is equipped with readout electronics up to 2 GHz analog bandwidth. In this paper we present the design of the pCVD-detector system and results of tests performed in various particle accelerator based facilities. Measurements performed in clinical high energy photon beams agreed within 1.2% with results obtained by standard ionization chambers.

  18. Biomimetic adhesive materials containing cyanoacryl group for medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sueng Hwan; Sohn, Jeong Sun

    2014-10-17

    For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  19. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  20. Increasing secondary bacterial infections with Enterobacteriaceae harboring blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6 in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma:an emerging point of concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Abida Malik; Rakesh Bhargava

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To look for secondary bacterial infections in bronchogenic carcinoma (BCA) with resistant organisms harboring bla genes considering the paucity of relevant studies. Methods:A total of 137 confirmed cases of BCA and 34 healthy volunteers were studied for the occurrence and prevalence of blaCTX-M and and blaAmpC harboring-enterobacteriaceae. A subset of these patients (n=69) was previously reported for the secondary infection with the Aspergillus species. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were subjected for bacterial and fungal cultures and the bacterial isolates were screened by multiplex PCRs for the presence of blaCTX-M and blaAmpC. The isolates were also screened for the association of insertion sequence (IS26) by PCR and characterized by RAPD for any clonal relatedness. Results: A total of 143 bacterial isolates were obtained from 137 BAL specimens of BCA patients. The Enterobacteriaceae-isolates were multidrug-resistant showing concomitant resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Both blaCTX-M and blaAmpC of CIT family were detected in 77.4% and 27.4% isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6. Twenty one percent of the isolates were simultaneously harboring blaampC and blaCTX-M-15. IS26 PCR and RAPD typing revealed the presence of diverse bacterial population but no predominant clone was identified. The present study also suggests strong association of aspergillosis with lung cancer and further strengthens the potential use of non-validated serological tests suggested earlier. Conclusions: We emphasize that all patients of bronchogenic carcinoma should also be screened for secondary bacterial infections, along with secondary fungal infections, so as to introduce early and specific antimicrobial therapy and to prevent unwanted deaths.

  1. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  2. The Research of Medical Safety Information Engineering in Hospital Application Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hao; Fan, Zhang; Li-nong, Yu; Jie, Wang; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

    Objective-Explore and research the application effect of medical security information engineering in the hospital. Methods-Based on the real examples of the medical security hidden danger, the transportation module system of medical security is set up. By the all survival cycle's theory and IOP modeling method, four modules of structure model are developed, which are disposal of medical hidden danger. Results-The medical information system is developed, which includes four-in-one modules of structure model of integrated medical security transportation system, disputes evaluation system, protocol handling system, medical case analysis and handling system. And it is applied in the implementation of hospital management. Conclusions-The application of the research in the implementation of hospital management can find security hidden danger of hospital timely, the objective existence of medical disputes problems timely. And it can solve medical disputes timely and appropriately, and achieve ideal result, which is worth popularizing and applying in the hospital management.

  3. Drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and detection of blaOXA gene%鲍氏不动杆菌耐药性及blaOXA基因检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉英; 赵志军; 师志云; 李刚; 贾伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解鲍氏不动杆菌(ABA)的耐药特点及blaOXA基因类型,为临床合理使用抗菌药物、有效控制医院感染的发生提供科学依据。方法收集医院自2006年1月-2009年12月临床感染标本分离的鲍氏不动杆菌309株采用K-B法进行药敏试验;利用PCR技术检测 blaOX A-23、blaOX A-24、blaOX A-51和 blaOX A-58基因。结果309株ABA对亚胺培南、美罗培南的耐药率最低,分别为19.7%、20.4%,其次是米诺环素29.5%,阿米卡星39.9%,对其余17种抗菌药物的耐药率均在>45.0%;blaOX A-23基因阳性46株,占14.9%,OX A-51基因阳性302株,占97.7%,未检测到blaOX A-24、blaOX A-58基因型。结论鲍氏不动杆菌耐药情况严重,blaOX A-23型碳青酶烯酶基因的产生是鲍氏不动杆菌耐药的重要机制之一。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristics of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and observe the blaOXA genotypes so as to provide scientific bases for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics and effective control of nosocomial infections .METHODS From Jan 2006 to Dec 2009 ,totally 309 strains of A .baumannii isolated from infectious specimens were collected ,then the drug susceptibility testing was performed with the use of K-B meth-od ,and the PCR technique was employed to detect the blaOXA-23 ,blaOXA-24 ,blaOXA-51 ,and blaOXA-58 gene .RESULTS The drug resistance rate of the 309 strains of A .baumannii to imipenem was 19 .7% ,meropenem 20 .4% ,minocycline 29 .5% ,amikacin 39 .9% ;the drug resistance rates to other 17 antibiotics were more than 45 .0% .There were 46 (14 .9% ) strains with blaOXA-23 tested positive and 302 (97 .7% ) strains with blaOXA-51 tested positive ,while the genotypes of blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58 have not been detected .CONCLUSION The A .baumannii strains are highly drug resistant ,and the production of carbapenemase gene blaOXA-23 is one of the important mechanisms of resistance

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Medical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

  5. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  6. Application of integral imaging autostereoscopic display to medical training equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    We applied an autostereoscopic display based on the integral imaging method (II method) to training equipment for medical treatment in an attempt to recover the binocular vision performance of strabismus or amblyopia (lazy eye) patients. This report summarizes the application method and results. The point of the training is to recognize the parallax using both eyes. The strabismus or amblyopia patients have to recognize the information on both eyes equally when they gaze at the display with parallax and perceive the stereo depth of the content. Participants in this interactive training engage actively with the image. As a result, they are able to revive their binocular visual function while playing a game. Through the training, the observers became able to recognize the amount of parallax correctly. In addition, the training level can be changed according to the eyesight difference between a right eye and a left eye. As a result, we ascertained that practical application of the II method for strabismus or amblyopia patients would be possible.

  7. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  8. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after...

  9. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  10. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... of self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected...

  11. The application of Aronson's taxonomy to medication errors in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Medication administration is a frequent nursing activity that is prone to error. In this study of 318 self-reported medication incidents (including near misses), very few resulted in patient harm-7% required intervention or prolonged hospitalization or caused temporary harm. Aronson's classification system provided an excellent framework for analysis of the incidents with a close connection between the type of error and the change strategy to minimize medication incidents. Taking a behavioral approach to medication error classification has provided helpful strategies for nurses such as nurse-call cards on patient lockers when patients are absent and checking of medication sign-off by outgoing and incoming staff at handover.

  12. blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV inEnterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital:high occurrence of combination genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Anuradha Singh; Farrukh Sobia; Mohammad Rashid; Abida Malik; Indu Shukla; Haris Manzoor Khan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To delineate the frequency of occurrence ofblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV in Enterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital.Methods: A random collection of a subset of45Escherichia coli (E. coli) and28Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) that was resistant to a third generation cephalosporin and obtained during2007-2008 was selected for detailed screening forblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV by monoplexPCRs. The isolates demonstrating the presence of blaCTX-M alleles were characterized for the specificCTX-M-genogroup by using a multiplexPCR.Results:Resistance to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and piperacillin was 100% each inK. pneumoniae isolates, whereas these resistance-rates forE. coli isolates were93.1%, 83.8%, 91.9%, 93.6%, 97.3% and97.1%, respectively. Concomitant resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and aztreonam was also noticed. Presence of any of the bla genes (blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV) was noticed in a total of28 (38.4%) isolates of the73isolates studied. Many isolates demonstrated occurrence of these genes in various combinations.blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV were noticed in 28.8%,10.9% and13.7% isolates, respectively. MultiplexPCR inblaCTX-Mharboring isolates demonstrated the presence ofCTX-M-Genogroup-1 and sequencing for the specificCTX-M-type revealed presence ofCTX-M-15 type. RAPD typing showed wide diversity in isolates.Conclusions:This is amongst the premier report describing the simultaneous occurrence ofblaTEM,blaSHV, andblaampC in IndianEnterobacteriaceae and that wider dissemination of these genes, as demonstrated by diversity of isolates, raises concern and emphasizes a need for extensive search for the presence of these gene pools in Indian subcontinent.

  13. Complete sequencing of an IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-5 allele reveals an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Krishnaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterisation of the blaNDM plasmids and to understand the mechanism of its spread among pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six non-repetitive carbapenem-resistant isolates which were collected during Nov 2011 to April 2013 from four hospitals in Chennai were analyzed for the presence of the blaNDM gene by PCR. Further, the genetic context of the blaNDM gene was analyzed by PCR specific to ISAba125 and bleMBL gene. One of the blaNDM plasmid was completely sequenced in the Illumina HiSeq platform. Results: Twenty-three isolates consisting of 8 Escherichia coli, 8 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Klebsiella oxytoca, 3 Acinetobacter baumanii and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to carry the blaNDM gene. In 18 isolates the blaNDM gene was associated with a bleMBL gene and the ISAba125 element. The complete sequencing of pNDM-MGR194 revealed an IncX3 replication type plasmid, with a length of 46,253 bp, an average GC content of 47% and 59 putative ORFs. The iteron region contained the blaNDM5 gene and the bleMBL , trpF and dsbC genes downstream and an IS5 inserted within the ISAba125 element upstream. Conclusion: This is the first report where the blaNDM gene insertion in a plasmid is not accompanied by other resistance gene determinants. These observations suggest that the IncX3 plasmid pNDM-MGR194 is an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM .

  14. High prevalence of multidrug-resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and dissemination of carbapenemase-encoding genes blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like and blaNDM-1 in Algiers hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khadidja Khorsi; Yamina Messai; Moufida Hamidi; Houria Ammari; Rabah Bakour

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess and characterize antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strains recovered from 5 health-care facilities in Algiers. Methods:Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing, and molecular typing of isolates was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR). Results:Among 125 tested isolates, 117 (93.6%) were multidrug-resistant, of which 94 (75.2%) were imipenem resistant. The blaADC and blaOXA-51-like genes were detected in all isolates, in association with ISAba1 sequence in 84%and 8%(imipenem resistant) of isolates, respectively. The blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-24-like carbapenemase genes were detected in 67.02%and 20.21%of imipenem-resistant isolates, respectively. The blaOXA-23-like gene is linked to ISAba1 or ISAba4 elements. The metallo-β-lactamase NDM-1 gene was found in 10 (10.6%) imipenem-resistant strains from three hospitals, it is linked to ISAba125 element in nine strains. Extended spectrumβ-lactamases production was not detected. Imipenem and cefotaxime resistance phenotypes could not be transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation. Outer membrane protein CarO gene was not detected in four imipenem-resistant isolates. The aac(6’)-Ib, sul1, sul2, tetA and tetB genes were present in 5.31%, 36.17%, 77.65%, 1.06%and 65.92%of strains, respectively. Class 1 integrons were detected in 23.4%strains. ERIC-PCR typing showed a genetic diversity among blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-24-like positive strains, while clonality was observed among blaNDM-1 positives. Conclusions:This study highlighted the high prevalence of imipenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii in Algiers hospitals mediated mainly by blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, and blaNDM-1 genes.

  15. [Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, A B; Chepur, S V; shestakov, S V

    2013-06-01

    Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces. Further development of the medical service is inseparably associated with the implementation of robot technology into the practice of medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian federation. For this purpose it is necessary to create a clinical scientific research centre of robot technology and interdepartmental scientific research simulation training center on the basis of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. It is also necessary to provide development of medical robotic complexes of tactical level of the medical service.

  16. Medical visualization based on VRML technology and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meng; Luo, Qingming; Lu, Qiang; Sheng, Rongbing; Liu, Yafeng

    2003-07-01

    Current high-performance computers and advanced image processing capabilities have made the application of three dimensional visualization objects in biomedical images facilitate the researches on biomedical engineering greatly. Trying to cooperate with the update technology using Internet, where 3-D data are typically stored and processed on powerful servers accessible by using TCP/IP, we held the results of the isosurface be applied in medical visualization generally. So in this system we use the 3-D file format VRML2.0, which is used through the Web interface for manipulating 3-D models. In this program we implemented to generate and modify triangular isosurface meshes by marching cubes algorithm, using OpenGL and MFC techniques to render the isosurface and manipulate voxel data. This software is more adequate visualization of volumetric data. The drawbacks are that 3-D image processing on personal computers is rather slow and the set of tools for 3-D visualization is limited. However, these limitations have not affected the applicability of this platform for all the tasks needed in elementary experiments in laboratory or data preprocessed. With the help of OCT and MPE scanning image system, applying these techniques to the visualization of rabbit brain, constructing data sets of hierarchical subdivisions of the cerebral information, we can establish a virtual environment on the World Wide Web for the rabbit brain research from its gross anatomy to its tissue and cellular levels of detail, providng graphical modeling and information management of both the outer and the inner space of the rabbit brain.

  17. Motion tracking in infrared imaging for quantitative medical diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Herman, Cila

    2014-01-01

    In medical applications, infrared (IR) thermography is used to detect and examine the thermal signature of skin abnormalities by quantitatively analyzing skin temperature in steady state conditions or its evolution over time, captured in an image sequence. However, during the image acquisition period, the involuntary movements of the patient are unavoidable, and such movements will undermine the accuracy of temperature measurement for any particular location on the skin. In this study, a tracking approach using a template-based algorithm is proposed, to follow the involuntary motion of the subject in the IR image sequence. The motion tacking will allow to associate a temperature evolution to each spatial location on the body while the body moves relative to the image frame. The affine transformation model is adopted to estimate the motion parameters of the template image. The Lucas-Kanade algorithm is applied to search for the optimized parameters of the affine transformation. A weighting mask is incorporated into the algorithm to ensure its tracking robustness. To evaluate the feasibility of the tracking approach, two sets of IR image sequences with random in-plane motion were tested in our experiments. A steady-state (no heating or cooling) IR image sequence in which the skin temperature is in equilibrium with the environment was considered first. The thermal recovery IR image sequence, acquired when the skin is recovering from 60-s cooling, was the second case analyzed. By proper selection of the template image along with template update, satisfactory tracking results were obtained for both IR image sequences. The achieved tracking accuracies are promising in terms of satisfying the demands imposed by clinical applications of IR thermography.

  18. [The management of implantable medical device and the application of the internet of things in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Implantable medical device is a special product which belongs to medical devices. It not only possesses product characteristics in common, but also has specificity for safety and effectiveness. Implantable medical device must be managed by the relevant laws and regulations of the State Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, we have used cardiac pacemakers as an example to describe the significance of the management of implantable medical device products and the application of the internet of things in hospitals.

  19. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  20. Diversity, evolution and medical applications of insect antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Muhammed, Maged; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short proteins with antimicrobial activity. A large portion of known AMPs originate from insects, and the number and diversity of these molecules in different species varies considerably. Insect AMPs represent a potential source of alternative antibiotics to address the limitation of current antibiotics, which has been caused by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. To get more insight into AMPs, we investigated the diversity and evolution of insect AMPs by mapping their phylogenetic distribution, allowing us to predict the evolutionary origins of selected AMP families and to identify evolutionarily conserved and taxon-specific families. Furthermore, we highlight the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a whole-animal model in high-throughput screening methods to identify AMPs with efficacy against human pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumanii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus We also discuss the potential medical applications of AMPs, including their use as alternatives for conventional antibiotics in ectopic therapies, their combined use with antibiotics to restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and their use as templates for the rational design of peptidomimetic drugs that overcome the disadvantages of therapeutic peptides.The article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'.

  1. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... § 552.26 Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. (a) In immediate...

  2. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1977-01-01

    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from a New York City Hospital Belonging to Sequence Type 258 and Carrying blaKPC-2 and blaVIM-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Mills, Janet C; Jones, Ronald N; Soave, Rosemary; Jenkins, Stephen G; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2016-01-04

    Among 69 of 139 (49.6%) carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae carrying blaKPC, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae was also positive for blaVIM. The isolate belonged to sequence type 258 (ST258) and carried blaKPC-2 on a copy of Tn4401a and blaVIM-4 on a class 1 integron. Genes were located on distinct plasmids belonging to Inc types A/C and FII. Elevated expression of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC (acrA, 15.3 times) and reduced expression of outer membrane protein genes ompK35 and ompK37 (0.16 and 0.081 times, respectively) associated with various amino acid alterations on OmpK37 were observed. The presence of two carbapenemases in ST258 K. pneumoniae is of great concern due to the ability of this organism to widely disseminate.

  4. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  5. β-Lactam Resistance Genes: Characterization, Epidemiology, and First Detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry in Brazil-Brazil Ministry of Agriculture's Pathogen Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Fernanda Marques; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Oliveira, Vinicius Gomes Sales; Gaspari, Marcus Vinicius; Dos Santos, Amaury; de Freitas, Josinete Barros; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread in nature; however, human infections occur mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, specially poultry and eggs. In Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) oversees food production in general, with the goal of preventing transmission of pathogens through the food chain. In 2004, MAPA initiated a program to monitor and control levels of Salmonella in poultry during slaughter. This study analyzes isolates from MAPA's program for β-lactam resistance and the resistance genes involved, as well as the geographic distributions of potentially clonal populations of resistant isolates within Brazil. Initially, 1,939 Salmonella spp. isolated between 2004 and 2011 were examined. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and 100 isolates resistant or intermediate to ampicillin and ceftriaxone were screened initially for the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPSA, blaCMY-1, and blaCMY-2 genes. There were 55 isolates whose resistance genes were not identified by this panel and these isolates are the subject of this report. These 55 isolates were differentiated into 31 distinct ribogroups, with multiple β-lactam resistance genes, including AmpC blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaCTX-M-14. Isolates carrying variants of blaCTX-M were identified in three geographic regions. Salmonella carrying particular genetic variants of blaCTX-M and belonging to the same ribogroup were identified from multiple poultry slaughtering facilities. In some instances, these presumptive clonal-related isolates were from facilities over 300 miles apart, indicating potential clonal spread between two geographic regions. This is the first report of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella in Brazil.

  6. Keeping Up with Healthcare Trends: IcHeart as a Medication Management Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2016-11-01

    According to the US governments, more than 125,000 people die each year due to failure to manage their medications, leading to approximately USD100 billion in preventable costs to healthcare systems. The core failure in medication management is attributed by patients failing to adhere their medication regimens, whether by accident, negligence, or intentional. Recognizing the importants of vigilant monitoring in medication management, this paper is set to review the latest android-based healthcare trends and propose a new mobile medication reminder application called IcHeart.

  7. [Mobile phone-computer wireless interactive graphics transmission technology and its medical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuo; Liu, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Application of clinical digital medical imaging has raised many tough issues to tackle, such as data storage, management, and information sharing. Here we investigated a mobile phone based medical image management system which is capable of achieving personal medical imaging information storage, management and comprehensive health information analysis. The technologies related to the management system spanning the wireless transmission technology, the technical capabilities of phone in mobile health care and management of mobile medical database were discussed. Taking medical infrared images transmission between phone and computer as an example, the working principle of the present system was demonstrated.

  8. Telelearning standards and their application in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikolaj

    2004-01-01

    Medial education, both on the graduate and postgraduate levels, has become a real challenge nowadays. The volume of information in medical sciences grows so rapidly that many health professionals experience essential problems in keeping track of the state of the art in this domain. e-learning offers important advantages to medical education continuation due to its universal availability and opportunity for implementation of flexible patterns of training. An important trace of medical education is developing practical skills. Some examples of standardization efforts include: the CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology (WSLT), the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC), Education Network Australia (EdNA) and PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in European Society (PROMETEUS). Sun Microsystems' support (Sun ONE, iPlanetTM ) for many of the above-mentioned standards is described as well. Development of a medical digital video library with recordings of invasive procedures incorporating additional information and commentary may improve the efficiency of the training process in interventional medicine. A digital video library enabling access to videos of interventional procedures performed in the area of thoracic medicine may be a valuable element for developing practical skills. The library has been filled with video resources recorded at the Department of Interventional Pulmonology; it enhances training options for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons. The main focus was put on demonstration of bronchofiberoscopic and videothoracoscopic procedures. The opportunity to browse video recordings of procedures performed in the specific field also considerably enhances the options for training in other medical specialties. In the era of growing health consumer awareness, patients are also perceived as the target audience for medical digital libraries. As a case study of Computer-Based Training systems, the Medical Digital Video Library is

  9. Application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan alzahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Alikhani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Survey of application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan Alzahra hospital show there is no P.M system. Implementing a complete P.M system for this medical center is crucial to preventing cause problems for these medical equipment and decreasing maintenance costs and gaining uptime. Researchers of this article have tried to provide PM, use of texts, web and experts.

  10. [Application of advanced engineering technologies to medical and rehabilitation fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Masakatsu

    2012-07-01

    The words "Japan syndrome" can now be heard increasingly through the media. Facing the approach of an elderly-dominated society, Robot Technology(RT)is expected to play an important role in Japan's medical, rehabilitation, and daily support fields. The industrial robot, which has already spread through the world with a great success in certain isolated environments by doing the work which is specialized for the thing with the hard known characteristic. By comparison, in the medical and rehabilitation fields, environments always change intricately, and individual characteristics differ from person to person. Furthermore, there are many times when a robot will be asked to directly interact with people. Moreover, the relation between a robot and a person turns into a relation which should involve contact flexibly according to a situation, and also turns into a relation which should avoid contact. In our group, we have so far developed practical rehabilitation and medical robots which can respond to difficulties such as environmental change and individual specificity. In developing rehabilitation robots, it is especially important to consider intuitive operability and individual differences. In addition, in developing medical robots, it is important to replace the experimental knowledge of surgeons to the mechanical quantitative properties. In this article, we introduce some practical examples of rehabilitation and medical robots interweaving several detailed technologies we have so far developed.

  11. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaubitzer Erwin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Emerging applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in medical microbiology field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Köhler, Gottfried; Knapp, Martin; Gaubitzer, Erwin; Puchinger, Martin; Edetsberger, Michael

    2009-11-26

    There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. But, almost all these techniques and methods have some limitations or inconvenience. Most of these techniques are laborious, time consuming and with chances of false positive or false negative results. It warrants the need of a diagnostic technique which can overcome these limitations and problems. At present, there is emerging trend to use Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic as well as research tool in many fields of medical sciences. Here, we will critically discuss research studies which propose that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent diagnostic as well as excellent research tool in medical microbiology field with high sensitivity and specificity.

  13. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... (76 FR 40401). The workers of Beacon Medical Services are engaged in activities related ] to the... Employment and Training Administration Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon...

  14. Taking decision general theory and its application in the medical assistance field (I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is a necessary element in the medical work. This article is a part of a series of articles that is aimed at divulging some theoretical aspects about decision making and their concrete application in the medical assistance. This paper analyses the classic (rational and behavioural theories in decision making.

  15. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... certification that the facility will establish and maintain all records required by regulation or order issued... verification of such records. (7) A commitment that current approved or index listed Type B and/or Type...

  16. The Application of Partial Differential Equations in Medical Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madadpour Inallou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are the foundation of biomedical computing. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs in Medical Imaging is concerned with acquiring images of the body for research, diagnosis and treatment. Biomedical Image Processing and its influence has undergoing a revolution in the past decade. Image processing has become an important component in contemporary science and technology and has been an interdisciplinary research field attracting expertise from applied mathematics, biology, computer sciences, engineering, statistics, microscopy, radiologic sciences, physics, medicine and etc. Medical imaging equipment is taking on an increasingly critical role in healthcare as the industry strives to lower patient costs and achieve earlier disease prediction using noninvasive means. The subsections of medical imaging are categorized to two: Conventional (X-Ray and Ultrasound and Computed (CT, MRI, fMRI, SPECT, PET and etc. This paper is organized as fallow: First section describes some kind of image processing. Second section is about techniques and requirements, and in the next sections the proceeding of Analyzing, Smoothing, Segmentation, De-noising and Registration in Medical Image Processing Equipment by PDEs Framework will be regarded

  17. The prospects of medical application of metal-based nanoparticles and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekman, I S; Ulberg, Z R; Gorchakova, N O; Nebesna, T Yu; Gruzina, T G; Priskoka, A O; Doroshenko, A M; Simonov, P V

    2011-01-01

    Current studies, dedicated to metallic (gold, silver, iron, and copper) nanomaterials are reviewed in this paper. This metals own unique physical and chemical properties which determine their application. The medical application of metallic nanomaterials includes therapy and prophylaxis of diseases, development of new drugs and improvement of conventional ones, nanodiagnostics. Nevertheless some aspects concerning the introduction of the nanometals into medical practice need further profound research.

  18. The Medical Microrobot Control System Design via Fuzzy Logic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yuschenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is the development of the instruments and technologies for diagnostics and treatment of tube-like human’s organs such as blood vessels and intestines. The medical microrobots may be applied to move along the tube-like organs by the same way as a worm. Such microrobots had been presented in some works in Russia and abroad among them is a project of BMSTU. The control system of the robot has to adapt the movement process to the peculiarity of the biology environment. The safety of the application of robotic device inside the human body is the main requirement to the construction.An experimental model of microrobot has three segments which contracting successively to ensure progressive movement of the device. The diameter of the robot is smaller than the same of the blood vessel. So it is pressed to the internal cover of the vessel by the special planes to avoid the thrombosis of the vessel. Every segment of robot contain three contact elements, pressure sensors and a regulator to control the pressure of the elements to the internal surface of the vessel. Aboard the robot is a micro-video camera has been mounted to inform the surgeon of the situation inside the vessel and other micro-devices. The supporting plates carry tens metric sensors to control the contact forces. The driver of the robot is of hydraulic type with physiologic solution to avoid the danger of embolism.Microrobot is a part of the robotic system including also a hydro-driver mounted in the stationary part of the system and intelligent interface of the operator. The surgeon-operator has opportunity to observe the inner surface of the vessel by the sensors mounted aboard the robot and to control the robot movement along the vessel. The construction of the microrobot has to guarantee the stable position of the robot in the moving blood flow and its movement inside the vessel without any damage of the inner surface.The peculiarity of the microrobot

  19. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains carrying the bla(OxA-23) and the bla(GES-11) genes in a neonatology center in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi-Kessis, Karama; Mansour, Wejdene; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Mastouri, Maha; Nordmann, Patrice; Aouni, Mahjoub; Poirel, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant and difficult-to-treat Acinetobacter baumannii may be responsible for nosocomial infections. The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) of the GES type possessing a carbapenemase activity has been increasingly reported worldwide in A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms of two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered in a neonatology center in the center-east of Tunisia. Two carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolates were recovered. The first isolate co-harbored the blaGES-11 ESBL gene and the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene. Analyses of the genetic location indicated that the blaGES-11 gene was plasmid located (Gr6). However, the blaOxA-23 gene was located on the chromosome. The second strain had only the blaOxA-23 CHDL gene, which was plasmid located. This study showed the first description of the GES-type β-lactamase in A. baumannii in Tunisia.

  20. Impact of a recruitment campaign on students’ applications to medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Vrdoljak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Medical schools might benefit if they have information about the activities that may help them to increase the number of applicants with superior academic qualifications. Methods. The study was carried out at the Split University School of Medicine, Croatia. Medical school applicants were surveyed in 2007 and 2009. Promotional activities consisted of presentations on medical education covering six general high-schools in 2008, and a presentation on regional television, aired in 2008 and 2009 shortly before the admission term. Results. The survey response rate was 79% (299/379. The number of applicants in 2009 increased by 37% and the percentage of applicants from general high schools increased by 10%, in relation to 2007. The percentage of students with the best grades in all four years of high school was 42% in the both surveys. Presumed quality was a major influencing factor for choosing Split University Medical School. However, the medical school in the Croatian capital remained the first choice for students. Only a few applicants stated that the medical schools’ promotional campaigns influenced their decision about where to study; 9.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Presentations in elected general high schools and a television campaign should be further explored as possible activities that regional schools may use to recruit potential applicants.

  1. Carbon nanotubes: potential medical applications and safety concerns

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique atomic structure, as well as outstanding thermal, mechanical and electronic properties, making them extremely attractive materials for several different applications. Many research groups are focusing on biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, however the application of CNTs to the biomedical field is not developing as fast as in other areas. While CNTs-based products are already being used in textiles, polymer matrices to strengthen material...

  2. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  3. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Kotuła; Paulina Sobstyl; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Chwil; Karol Terlecki; Jolanta Karwat; Paulina Gil-Kulik; Alicja Niedojadło; Janusz Kocki

    2014-01-01

    Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 an...

  4. Micro fibre optic flow checker for the medical analysis application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danping

    2007-01-01

    Two micro fibre optic flow checkers are presented in this paper. They are used for a medical analysis to control a solvent flow up to 1microl/min resolution. A fibre optic sensor as well as a hydraulic system are the principle components of these flow checkers. This paper describes the principle and the experiment setup. It gives the linearity, the repeatability and the stability results.

  5. Processing of hyperspectral medical images applications in dermatology using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new methods of analyzing and processing hyperspectral medical images, which can be used in diagnostics, for example for dermatological images. The algorithms proposed are fully automatic and the results obtained are fully reproducible. Their operation was tested on a set of several thousands of hyperspectral images and they were implemented in Matlab. The presented source code can be used without licensing restrictions. This is a valuable resource for computer scientists, bioengineers, doctoral students, and dermatologists interested in contemporary analysis methods.

  6. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

  7. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  8. Multilevel Modeling and Policy Development: Guidelines and Applications to Medical Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garzon, Eduardo; Zhukovsky, Peter; Haller, Elisa; Plakolm, Sara; Fink, David; Petrova, Dafina; Mahalingam, Vaishali; Menezes, Igor G.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Medical travel has expanded rapidly in recent years, resulting in new markets and increased access to medical care. Whereas several studies investigated the motives of individuals seeking healthcare abroad, the conventional analytical approach is limited by substantial caveats. Classical techniques as found in the literature cannot provide sufficient insight due to the nested nature of data generated. The application of adequate analytical techniques, specifically multilevel modeling, is scarce to non-existent in the context of medical travel. This study introduces the guidelines for application of multilevel techniques in public health research by presenting an application of multilevel modeling in analyzing the decision-making patterns of potential medical travelers. Benefits and potential limitations are discussed. PMID:27252672

  9. Application of Knitted Fabrics in Technical and Medical Textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly L(A)Z(A)R

    2010-01-01

    @@ Importance of technical textiles is great and increasing.Experts estimate that annual rising ratio of this application of textile materials is3.8 % in average and consumption in each filed of this group of applications is anticipated as growing.Roughly one third of the quantity of the world's fibre consumption is used in production of technical textiles.

  10. Sequential isolation in a patient of Raoultella planticola and Escherichia coli bearing a novel ISCR1 element carrying blaNDM-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 has been reported to be transmitted via plasmids which are easily transferable and capable of wide distribution. We report the isolation of two NDM-1 producing strains and possible in vivo transfer of blaNDM-1 in a patient. METHODS: Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing from a patient during a 34-day hospitalization. The presence of blaNDM-1 was detected by PCR and sequencing. Plasmids of interest were sequenced. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of association between the administration of antibiotics and the acquisition of the NDM-1 resistance. RESULTS: A NDM-1 positive Raoultella planticola was isolated from blood on the ninth day of hospitalization without administration of any carbapenem antibiotics and a NDM-1 positive Escherichia coli was isolated from feces on the 29th day of hospitalization and eight days after imipenem administration. The blaNDM-1 was carried by a 280 kb plasmid pRpNDM1-1 in R. planticola and a 58 kb plasmid pEcNDM1-4 in E. coli. The two plasmids shared a 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element which was found to be excisable from the plasmid as a free form and transferrable in vitro to a NDM-1 negative plasmid from E. coli. CONCLUSION: blaNDM-1 was embedded in an ISCR1 complex class 1 integron as a novel 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element. The element was found to be able to self excise to become a free form, which may provide a new vehicle for NDM-1 dissemination. This mechanism could greatly accelerate the spread of NDM-1 mediated broad spectrum β-lactam resistance.

  11. Ethics and the comprehensive application of epistemology in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaosavasdi, Sukhit; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Tannirandorn, Yuen; Uerpairojkit, Boonchai; Thamkhantho, Manopchai; Pruksapong, Chumsak; Kanjanapitak, Aurchart; Phupong, Vorapong

    2005-12-01

    Our simple definition of ethics is good thought, speak and action. Epistemology means the hypothesis of facts about thought, speech and action. Medical practice is all means of medicine. Medicine classifies people into normal and abnormal. The abnormal are the sick. They loose some organs or those normal looking organs are dysfunctional. They are social problems, some can be treated, and some do not get the appropriate care. The problems of society of normal people are overeating and obesity, abortion, drug abuse, promiscuity, torture, terrorism, disobeying rules and order, corruption, brain-washing and unethical advertisements, etc. On the other hand, the social problems of the abnormal are down, deafness, blindness, dumb, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and cancer, etc. An example of the social-doctor problem is the mal distribution of doctors in rural areas. It was reported by the ministry of public health that the ratio of doctor to population to be 1:800 in Bangkok and 1:5, 700 in some rural areas in the north eastern part of Thailand. The doctors, themselves, are at a high grade of worker and intelligent quotient. They know all the problem and, at the same time, create problems, both, faster than the general population can do. It affects good and bad in the society. In the past, present and the foreseeable future the medical students get their studies in the western style. Their medical schools are situated in big cities. These schools are old and famous. They learn their medical procedure in a big hospital of more than 400 beds in the inpatient department wards. Their instructors and professors are highly qualified, are middle class people and well accepted in the society. Their families are lovely and warm. Their children study in the first class schools in town. The medical students feel very happy and appreciate seeing their professors in television routinely at prime time. In conclusion, their professors are an example of role model

  12. New IEEE standard enables data collection for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, R J; Wittenber, J

    1994-01-01

    The IEEE has gone to ballot on a "Standard for Medical Device Communications", IEEE P1073. The lower layer, hardware portions of the standard are expected to be approved by the IEEE Standards Board at their December 11-13, 1994 meeting. Other portions of the standard are in the initial stages of the IEEE ballot process. The intent of the standard is to allow hospitals and other users to interface medical electronic devices to host computer systems in a standard, interchangeable manner. The standard is optimized for acute care environments such as ICU's, operating rooms, and emergency rooms. [1] IEEE General Committee and Subcommittee work has been on-going since 1984. Significant amounts of work have been done to discover and meet the needs of the patient care setting. Surveys performed in 1989 identified the following four key user requirements for medical device communications: 1) Frequent reconfiguration of the network. 2) Allow "plug and play" operation by users. 3) Associate devices with a specific bed and patient. 4) Support a wide range of hospital computer system topologies. Additionally, the most critical difference in the acute care setting is patient safety, which has an overall effect on the standard. The standard that went to ballot meets these requirements. The standard is based on existing ISO standards. P1073 is compliant with the OSI seven layer model. P1073 specifies the entire communication stack, from object-oriented software to hospital unique connectors. The standard will be able to be put forward as a true international standard, much in the way that the IEEE 802.x family of standards (like Ethernet) were presented as draft ISO standards.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Occurrence of blaNDM-1 & absence of blaKPC genes encoding carbapenem resistance in uropathogens from a tertiary care centre from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The bla NDM-1 gene was absent in our isolates obtained during 2008 but was present amongst Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2012. The bla KPC gene was also not found. Nine isolates obtained during the two years had multiple genes encoding carbapenemases confirming the previous reports of emergence of GNB containing genes encoding multiple carbapenemases. Typing using BOX-PCR indicated that this emergence was not because of clonal expansion of a single strain, and multiple strains were circulating at a single point of time.

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Medical Models--Applications in Rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, Pero; Klapan, Ivica; Galeta, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we are introducing guidelines and suggestions for use of 3D image processing SW in head pathology diagnostic and procedures for obtaining physical medical model by additive manufacturing/rapid prototyping techniques, bearing in mind the improvement of surgery performance, its maximum security and faster postoperative recovery of patients. This approach has been verified in two case reports. In the treatment we used intelligent classifier-schemes for abnormal patterns using computer-based system for 3D-virtual and endoscopic assistance in rhinology, with appropriate visualization of anatomy and pathology within the nose, paranasal sinuses, and scull base area.

  15. Multilingual medical dialog system developed as smartphone/tablet application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Akira; Takasu, Kento; Kojima, Takehito; Miyao, Masaru; Sugita, Namiho; Sakai, Yuki; Kato, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    Along with the concomitant rise in foreign residents in Japan has come the need to improve understanding at several social levels. The need for clear communication is most immediate in the area of the emergency or health care fields. Several types of apps exist that can be used to assist with communication between Japanese medical staff and foreign patients. However, there are problems with ease of use. This study asked 34 subjects to evaluate three types of touch designs with the "ExLanguage Nurse" to improve the usability of such multilingual apps. Results indicate that touch designs on the apps are related to ease of usability.

  16. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain harboring blaOXA-72 from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Thiago Pavoni Gomes; Tavares E Oliveira, Thamirys Rachel; D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Asensi, Marise Dutra

    2017-02-06

    In this study, we report the isolation of OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter pittii in Brazil. A carbapenem-resistant A. pittii strain was recovered from a hospitalized female patient from Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. PCR screening and DNA sequencing allowed us to identify the presence of blaOXA-72. We observed blaOXA-72 in a ~11kb plasmid and flanked by XerC/XerD-binding sites.

  17. Nano-Antenna For Terahertz (THz) Medical Imaging Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As a result of technological breakthroughs, research and applications in the Terahertz (THz) radiation system are experiencing explosive growth. The non-ionizing...

  18. Development of tunable Fabry-Perot spectral camera and light source for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarre, M.; Kivi, S.; Panouillot, P. E.; Saari, H.; Mäkynen, J.; Sorri, I.; Juuti, M.

    2013-05-01

    VTT has developed a fast, tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter component and applied it in making small, lightweight spectral cameras and light sources. One application field where this novel technology is now tested is medical field. A demonstrator has been made to test the applicability of FP based spectral filtering in the imaging of retina in visible light wavelength area.

  19. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. 515.25 Section 515.25 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.25 Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking...

  20. Evaluation of LAMP assay using phenotypic tests and conventional PCR for detection of blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes among carbapenem-resistant clinical Gram-negative isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rachana; Vanjari, Lavanya; Ede, Nagapriyanka; Gungi, Akhila; Soory, Amarendranath; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2013-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant pathogens cause infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the use of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and cost-effective detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in comparison with conventional PCR and existing phenotypic methods. A total of 60 carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates [Escherichia coli (15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22), Acinetobacter baumannii (23)] were screened for the presence of carbapenemases (bla(KPC) and bla(NDM-1)) using phenotypic methods such as the modified Hodge test (MHT) and combined disc test (CDT) and molecular methods such as conventional PCR and LAMP assay. In all, 47/60 isolates (78.3%) were MHT positive while 48 isolates were positive by CDT [46.6% positive with EDTA, 30% with 3' aminophenylboronic acid (APB) plus EDTA and 1.6% with APB alone]. Isolates showing CDT positivity with EDTA or APB contained bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes, respectively. bla(NDM-1) was present as a lone gene in 28 isolates (46.7%) and present together with the bla(KPC) gene in 19 isolates (31.7%). Only one E. coli isolate had a lone bla(KPC) gene. The LAMP assay detected either or both bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC) genes in four isolates that were missed by conventional PCR. Neither gene could be detected in 12 (20%) isolates. The LAMP assay has greater sensitivity, specificity and rapidity compared to the phenotypic methods and PCR for the detection of bla(NDM-1) and bla(KPC). With a turnaround time of only 2-3 h, the LAMP assay can be considered a point-of-care assay.

  1. Application of Functional Nano-Patterning to Polymer Medical Micro Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Biondani, Francesco Giuseppe; Tang, P.T.;

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of cells adhesion to medical implants can be achieved through specific surface nano-patterns. The application of nano-patterns to planar surfaces can be obtained in a number of ways. However, the application of functional nano-patterns to complex 3D surfaces is a challenging task....... In this paper the application of a nano-pattern deriving from aluminium anodizing to 3D micro mould inserts for replication of polymer medical micro implants is described. A process chain earlier developed at DTU was applied, where the main steps include the fabrication of an aluminium master, anodizing...

  2. Application of a medical image processing system in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Hua Fang; Xiao-Feng Li; Zhou Li; Ying-Fang Fan; Chao-Min Lu; Yan-Peng Huang; Feng-Ping Peng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, imaging is used not only to show the form of images, but also to make three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and visual simulations based on original data to guide clinical surgery. This study aimed to assess the use of a medical image-processing system in liver transplantation surgery. METHODS: The data of abdominal 64-slice spiral CT scan were collected from 200 healthy volunteers and 37 liver cancer patients in terms of hepatic arterial phase, portal phase, and hepatic venous phase. A 3D model of abdominal blood vessels including the abdominal aorta system, portal vein system, and inferior vena cava system was reconstructed by an abdominal image processing system to identify vascular variations. Then, a 3D model of the liver was reconstructed in terms of hepatic segmentation and liver volume was calculated. The FreeForm modeling system with a PHANTOM force feedback device was used to simulate the real liver transplantation environment, in which the total process of liver transplantation was completed. RESULTS: The reconstructed model of the abdominal blood vessels and the liver was clearly demonstrated to be three-dimensionally consistent with the anatomy of the liver, in which the variations of abdominal blood vessels were identiifed and liver segmentation was performed digitally. In the model, liver transplantation was simulated subsequently, and different modus operandi were selected successfully. CONCLUSION: The digitized medical image processing system may be valuable for liver transplantation.

  3. Medical image registration algorithms assesment Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Pennec, X

    2006-01-01

    Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grids to tackle such computations on medical image databases. We demonstrate MOTEUR, a service-based workflow engine optimized for dealing with data intensive applications. MOTEUR eases the enactment of the Bronze Standard and similar applications on the EGEE production grid infrastructure. It is a generic workflow engine, based on current standards and freely available, that can be used to instrument legacy application code at low cost.

  4. User experience integrated life-style cloud-based medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2015-01-01

    Having a modern application capable to automatically collect and process data from users, based on information and lifestyle answers is one of current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to integrate user experience design (UXD) in a cloud-based medical application to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. The process consists of collecting traditional and new data from patients and users using online questionnaires. A questionnaire dynamically asks questions about the user's current diet and lifestyle. After the user will introduce the data, the application will formulate a presumptive nutritional plan and will suggest different medical recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, and calculates a risk factor for diseases. This software application, by design and usability will be an efficient tool dedicated for fitness, nutrition and health professionals.

  5. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yasufumi; Pitout, Johann D D; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A; Motyl, Mary R; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade.

  6. Datenschutz- und Medizinprodukterecht bei Ubiquitous Computing-Anwendungen im Gesundheitssektor / Data protection and medical product law with respect to medical ubiquitous computing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skistims, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to ubiquitous computing there is a great potential of application, particularly in medicine and health care. This work deals with the legal problems which ubiquitous computing is facing in these areas. At the beginning, issues with respect to data protection and professional secrecy are treated. Afterwards the problem of applicability of medical product law for medical ubiquitous computing applications as well as the resulting requirements for manufactures, operators and users will be discussed.

  7. A Review of Wireless Body Area Networks for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Ullah, Niamat; Saleem, Shahnaz; Higgins, Henry; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28093

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wire-less communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time, and provide real-time updates of the patients status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applications. We present a WBAN infrastructure that provides solutions to on-demand, emergency, and normal traffic. We further discuss in-body antenna design and low-power MAC protocol for a WBAN. In addition, we briefly outline some of the WBAN applications with examples. Our discussion realizes a need for new power-efficient solutions towards in-body and on-body sensor networks.

  8. SVM for density estimation and application to medical image segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao; ZHANG Su; ZHANG Chen-xi; CHEN Ya-zhu

    2006-01-01

    A method of medical image segmentation based on support vector machine (SVM) for density estimation is presented. We used this estimator to construct a prior model of the image intensity and curvature profile of the structure from training images. When segmenting a novel image similar to the training images, the technique of narrow level set method is used. The higher dimensional surface evolution metric is defined by the prior model instead of by energy minimization function. This method offers several advantages. First, SVM for density estimation is consistent and its solution is sparse. Second, compared to the traditional level set methods, this method incorporates shape information on the object to be segmented into the segmentation process.Segmentation results are demonstrated on synthetic images, MR images and ultrasonic images.

  9. An evaluation on CT image acquisition method for medical VR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seong-wook; Ko, Junho; Yoo, Yon-sik; Kim, Yoonsang

    2017-02-01

    Recent medical virtual reality (VR) applications to minimize re-operations are being studied for improvements in surgical efficiency and reduction of operation error. The CT image acquisition method considering three-dimensional (3D) modeling for medical VR applications is important, because the realistic model is required for the actual human organ. However, the research for medical VR applications has focused on 3D modeling techniques and utilized 3D models. In addition, research on a CT image acquisition method considering 3D modeling has never been reported. The conventional CT image acquisition method involves scanning a limited area of the lesion for the diagnosis of doctors once or twice. However, the medical VR application is required to acquire the CT image considering patients' various postures and a wider area than the lesion. A wider area than the lesion is required because of the necessary process of comparing bilateral sides for dyskinesia diagnosis of the shoulder, pelvis, and leg. Moreover, patients' various postures are required due to the different effects on the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, in this paper, we perform a comparative experiment on the acquired CT images considering image area (unilateral/bilateral) and patients' postures (neutral/abducted). CT images are acquired from 10 patients for the experiments, and the acquired CT images are evaluated based on the length per pixel and the morphological deviation. Finally, by comparing the experiment results, we evaluate the CT image acquisition method for medical VR applications.

  10. An integrated medical image database and retrieval system using a web application server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengyu; Hashiba, Masao; Akazawa, Kouhei; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuto, Takayuki

    2003-08-01

    We developed an Integrated Medical Image Database and Retrieval System (INIS) for easy access by medical staff. The INIS mainly consisted of four parts: specific servers to save medical images from multi-vendor modalities of CT, MRI, CR, ECG and endoscopy; an integrated image database (DB) server to save various kinds of images in a DICOM format; a Web application server to connect clients to the integrated image DB and the Web browser terminals connected to an HIS system. The INIS provided a common screen design to retrieve CT, MRI, CR, endoscopic and ECG images, and radiological reports, which would allow doctors to retrieve radiological images and corresponding reports, or ECG images of a patient simultaneously on a screen. Doctors working in internal medicine on average accessed information 492 times a month. Doctors working in cardiological and gastroenterological accessed information 308 times a month. Using the INIS, medical staff could browse all or parts of a patient's medical images and reports.

  11. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  12. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  13. An automated scanning system for particle physics and medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lellis, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' Federico II' di Napoli, Complesso Universitario Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.de.lellis@cern.ch

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we present the performance of a fully automated microscope aimed at very precise spatial and angular measurement with the nuclear emulsion technology. We show in particular its application to the study of the fragmentation of carbon ions used in the oncological hadrontherapy.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods and Their Applications in Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalewski Wojciech; Roszak Magdalena; Kołodziejczak Barbara; Ren-Kurc Anna; Bręborowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    As defined by the National Institutes of Health: “Biomedical engineering integrates physical, chemical, mathematical, and computational sciences and engineering principles to study biology, medicine, behavior, and health”. Many issues in this area are closely related to fluid dynamics. This paper provides an overview of the basic concepts concerning Computational Fluid Dynamics and its applications in medicine.

  15. Carbon nanotubes: properties, synthesis, purification, and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatemadi, Ali; Daraee, Hadis; Karimkhanloo, Hamzeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Abasi, Mozhgan; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-08-01

    Current discoveries of different forms of carbon nanostructures have motivated research on their applications in various fields. They hold promise for applications in medicine, gene, and drug delivery areas. Many different production methods for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been introduced; functionalization, filling, doping, and chemical modification have been achieved, and characterization, separation, and manipulation of individual CNTs are now possible. Parameters such as structure, surface area, surface charge, size distribution, surface chemistry, and agglomeration state as well as purity of the samples have considerable impact on the reactivity of carbon nanotubes. Otherwise, the strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes make them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures, which suggests they will have a significant role in nanotechnology engineering.

  16. Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Eugene [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), B.Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation) and Forimtech S.A., Route de Malagnou 32, Geneva 1208 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: grigoriev@forimtech.ch; Akindinov, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), B.Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Breitenmoser, Marco [Forimtech S.A., Route de Malagnou 32, Geneva 1208 (Switzerland); Buono, Stefano [Advanced Accelerator Applications S.A (AAA), 20 rue Diesel, 01630 St. Genis Pouilly (France); Charbon, Edoardo [Ecole Politechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), AQUA Group, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Niclass, Cristiano [Ecole Politechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), AQUA Group, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Desforges, Iris [Forimtech S.A., Route de Malagnou 32, Geneva 1208 (Switzerland); Rocca, Roberto [Advanced Accelerator Applications S.A (AAA), 20 rue Diesel, 01630 St. Genis Pouilly (France)

    2007-02-01

    Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) have been used for photon counting since the 1960s, but only in the recent decade multi-pixel structures based on SPAD-arrays and silicon photomultipliers have been developed. These devices are finding more and more applications in many fields, where detection of light at the level of a single photon is needed. Due to their exclusive properties (fast response, low operating voltage, single photon sensitivity at room temperature, extremely high gain, stability, compactness, robustness and low price), such sensors are successfully replacing traditional vacuum photomultipliers in many devices. The paper briefly describes the state of the art and suggests some new applications in biology and medicine.

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy bioanalytical, biomolecular and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Procházka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an overview of recent developments in RS and SERS for sensing and biosensing considering also limitations, possibilities and prospects of this technique. Raman scattering (RS) is a widely used vibrational technique providing highly specific molecular spectral patterns. A severe limitation for the application of this spectroscopic technique lies in the low cross section of RS. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy overcomes this problem by 6-11 orders of magnitude enhancement compared with the standard RS for molecules in the close vicinity of certain rough metal surfaces. Thus, SERS combines molecular fingerprint specificity with potential single-molecule sensitivity. Due to the recent development of new SERS-active substrates, labeling and derivatization chemistry as well as new instrumentations, SERS became a very promising tool for many varied applications, including bioanalytical studies and sensing. Both intrinsic and extrinsic SERS biosensing schemes have been employed to...

  18. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Macaskill

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in h...

  19. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidar, Michael, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Neurological Surgery, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Robert, Eric [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orleans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  20. Preface to Special Topic: Plasmas for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Robert, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Intense research effort over last few decades in low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasma application in bioengineering led to the foundation of a new scientific field, plasma medicine. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) produce various chemically reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). It has been found that these reactive species play an important role in the interaction of CAP with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells triggering various signaling pathways in cells.

  1. All-silica nonsolarizing optical fibers for UV medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnik, Bolesh J.; Foley, Brian

    1999-04-01

    Optical fibers and fiber bundles have been developed for UV applications in general but have specific benefits for UV applications within medicine such as excimer angioplasty and UV perforation of the heart wall in heart bypass operations. Optical fibers have been tested for transmission changes at 193 nm, 214 nm, 253 nm and 365 nm. Whereas standard synthetic silica optical fibers developed color centers within 10,000 pulses of 193 nm energy, the new CeramOptec fibers were observed to experience only minimal changes in attenuation after 100,000 pulses. Similarly under constant irradiation by a high power deuterium lamp only minor changes in the attenuation at both 214 nm and 253 nm were observed for the 'non-solarizing' UV fibers after 121 hours, whereas standard UV fibers lost up to 50% after only 24 hours of exposure. Fiber bundles have been produced which can stand up to the elevated temperatures experienced at the source end when strong UV sources are needed for specific applications. Test results and information on the testing as well as some information on the fibers tested is given below.

  2. Carbon nano tubes -Buckypaper- radiation studies for medical physics application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanazi, A.; Alkhorayef, M.; Dalton, A.; Bradley, D. A. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, College for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Guildford, Surrey GR2 7XH (United Kingdom); Alzimami, K. [King Saud University, Department of Radiological Sciences, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Abuhadi, N., E-mail: a.alanazi@surrey.ac.uk [Jazan University, Faculty of Medical Applied Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology Department, P. O. Box 114, Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    Radiation dosimetry underpins safe and effective clinical applications of radiation. Many materials have been used to measure the radiation dose deposited in human tissue, their radiation response requiring the application of correction factors to account for various influencing factors, including sensitivity to dose and energy dependence. In regard to the latter, account needs to be taken of difference from the effective atomic number of human tissue, soft or calcified. Graphite ion chambers and semiconductor diode detectors have been used to make measurements in phantoms but these active devices represent a clear disadvantage when considered for in vivo dosimetry. In both circumstances, dosimeters with atomic number similar to human tissue are needed. Carbon nano tubes have properties that potentially meet the demand, requiring low voltage in active devices and an atomic number similar to adipose tissue. In this study, single-wall carbon nano tubes buckypaper has been used to measure the beta particle dose deposited from a strontium-90 source, the medium displaying thermoluminescence at potentially useful sensitivity. As an example, the samples show a clear response for a dose of 2 Gy. This finding suggests that carbon nano tubes can be used as a passive dosimeter specifically for the high levels of radiation exposures used in radiation therapy. Furthermore, the finding points towards further potential applications such as for space radiation measurements, not least because the medium satisfies a demand for light but strong materials of minimal capacitance. (Author)

  3. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation.

  4. Deployment of a Grid-based Medical Imaging Application

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Frate, C; Gálvez, J; Hassan, W; Hauer, T; Manset, D; McClatchey, R; Odeh, M; Rogulin, D; Solomonides, T; Warren, R

    2005-01-01

    The MammoGrid project has deployed its Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)-based Grid application in a real environment comprising actual participating hospitals. The resultant setup is currently being exploited to conduct rigorous in-house tests in the first phase before handing over the setup to the actual clinicians to get their feedback. This paper elaborates the deployment details and the experiences acquired during this phase of the project. Finally the strategy regarding migration to an upcoming middleware from EGEE project will be described. This paper concludes by highlighting some of the potential areas of future work.

  5. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  6. Advances in wearable technology and its medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The concept of monitoring individuals in the home and community settings was introduced more than 50 years ago, when Holter monitoring was proposed (in the late 1940s) and later adopted (in the 1960s) as a clinical tool. However, technologies to fully enable such vision were lacking and only sporadic and rather obtrusive monitoring techniques were available for several decades. Over the past decade, we have witnessed a great deal of progress in the field of wearable sensors and systems. Advances in this field have finally provided the tools to implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. These technologies provide the tools to achieve early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are focused on the development of systems enabling clinical applications. The current focus on developing and deploying wearable systems targeting specific clinical applications has the potential of leading to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years.

  7. Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.

  8. How to identify Raoultella spp. including R. ornithinolytica isolates negative for ornithine decarboxylase? The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walckenaer, Estelle; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-12-01

    Although Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica were described more than 20 years ago, identifying them remains difficult. The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene for this identification was evaluated in comparison with that of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes in 35 Raoultella strains from different origins. Of the 26 strains previously identified as R. planticola by biochemical tests alone or in association with molecular methods, 21 harboured a bla gene with 99.8% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. ornithinolytica strains (bla(ORN) gene) and 5 harboured a bla gene with 99.2% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. planticola strains (bla(PLA) gene). The 9 isolates previously identified as R. ornithinolytica harboured a bla(ORN) gene. The bla gene-based identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA and rpoB sequencing. The 21 isolates newly identified as R. ornithinolytica had a test negative for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Molecular experiments suggested one copy of ODC-encoding gene in both ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and R. planticola strains and two copies in ODC-positive R. orninthinolytica strains. Analysis of the 35 bla genes allowed us (i) to confirm an identity of only 94% between the bla genes of the two Raoultella species while this identity was > 98% for rpoB and > 99% for 16S rDNA genes and (ii) to develop and successfully apply a bla PCR RFLP assay for Raoultella spp. identification. Overall, this study allowed us to discover ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and to provide a reliable Raoultella identification method widely available as not requiring sequencing equipment.

  9. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii by detection of the blaOXA-51-like carbapenemase gene intrinsic to this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Woodford, Neil; Glover, Judith; Yarde, Susannah; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2006-08-01

    bla(OXA-51-like) was sought in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species in a multiplex PCR, which also detects bla(OXA-23-like) and class 1 integrase genes. All isolates that gave a band for bla(OXA-51-like) identified as A. baumannii. This gene was detected in each of 141 isolates of A. baumannii but not in those of 22 other Acinetobacter species.

  10. A μ-biomimetic flow sensor for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Simon; Bleckmann, Horst; Herzog, Hendrik; Klein, Adrian; Schulze, Elisabeth; Taetzner, Simon; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2015-08-01

    Flow sensing is pivotal in many medical and pharmaceutical applications. Most commercial flow sensors are either expensive, complex, or consume a lot of energy, while low cost sensors usually lack sensitivity, robustness, or long-term stability. In addition, the maintenance and sterilization of most commercial flow sensors is difficult to perform. Here, we present a new μ-biomimetic flow sensor based on the fish lateral line. It measures flow velocity and detects the transition between laminar and turbulent flow, thereby fulfilling most requirements for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, it has a modular setup featuring a screened or passive bypass configuration, enabling it not only to meter flow in medical applications but also under harsh or well-defined environmental conditions, such as found in pharmaceutical applications. The sensor is robust and can be easily cleaned. Individual parts of the sensor can even be replaced or sterilized. In sum, this sensor opens up a whole new field of applications in the area of medical and pharmaceutical related flow monitoring.

  11. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  12. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  13. Point Application of Medicated Cakes for Treatment of Asthma in Children—— A Report of 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lisheng; Wang Mingming; Chen Huili

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the therapeutic effects of point application of medicated cakes for prevention and treatment of recurrent asthma in children.Methods:Point application of medicated cakes was performed in 60 asthmatic children at the remission stage,with its effect compared with that of ketotifen used in the control group of 30 cases.Results:With a total effective rate of 85%,the point application of medicated cakes was found to be superior to that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Point application of medicated cakes is a simple,effective and safe therapy for asthmatic children.

  14. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination.

  15. Medical imaging in clinical applications algorithmic and computer-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bhateja, Vikrant; Hassanien, Aboul

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises of 21 selected chapters, including two overview chapters devoted to abdominal imaging in clinical applications supported computer aided diagnosis approaches as well as different techniques for solving the pectoral muscle extraction problem in the preprocessing part of the CAD systems for detecting breast cancer in its early stage using digital mammograms. The aim of this book is to stimulate further research in medical imaging applications based algorithmic and computer based approaches and utilize them in real-world clinical applications. The book is divided into four parts, Part-I: Clinical Applications of Medical Imaging, Part-II: Classification and clustering, Part-III: Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Tools and Case Studies and Part-IV: Bio-inspiring based Computer Aided diagnosis techniques. .

  16. Radiation protection in medical applications; La proteccion radiologica en las aplicaciones medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado M, H. [Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica A. C., Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in

  17. Internet of Vehicles for E-Health Applications in View of EMI on Medical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless technologies are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, RF transmission in wireless technologies can lead to electromagnetic interference (EMI on medical sensors under a healthcare scenario, and a high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors. In view of EMI to medical sensors, we propose a joint power and rate control algorithm under game theoretic framework to schedule data transmission at each of wireless sensors. The objective of such a game is to maximize the utility of each wireless user subject to the EMI constraints for medical sensors. We show that the proposed game has a unique Nash equilibrium and our joint power and rate control algorithm would converge to the Nash equilibrium. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  18. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  19. Medical applications of phytoestrogens from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-03-01

    Pueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et Suvatabandhu is a medicinal plant endemic to Thailand. It has been used in Thai folklore medicine for its rejuvenating qualities in aged women and men for nearly one hundred years. Indeed, it has been claimed that P. mirifica contains active phytoestrogens (plant substances with estrogen-like activity). Using high performance liquid chromatography, at least 17 phytoestrogens, mainly isoflavones, have been isolated. Thus, fairly considerable scientific researches, both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in various species of animals including humans, have been conducted to date to address its estrogenic activity on the reproductive organs, bones, cardiovascular diseases and other climacteric related symptoms. The antioxidative capacity and antiproliferative effect on tumor cell lines have also been assessed. In general, P. mirifica could be applicable for preventing, or as a therapeutic for, the symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in menopausal women as well as in andropausal men. However, the optimal doses for each desirable effect and the balance to avoid undesired side effects need to be calculated before use.

  20. Carbon nanotubes buckypaper radiation studies for medical physics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid; Jurewicz, Izabela; Abuhadi, Nouf; Dalton, Alan; Bradley, D A

    2016-11-01

    Graphite ion chambers and semiconductor diode detectors have been used to make measurements in phantoms but these active devices represent a clear disadvantage when considered for in vivo dosimetry. In such circumstance, dosimeters with atomic number similar to human tissue are needed. Carbon nanotubes have properties that potentially meet the demand, requiring low voltage in active devices and an atomic number similar to adipose tissue. In this study, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) buckypaper has been used to measure the beta particle dose deposited from a strontium-90 source, the medium displaying thermoluminescence at potentially useful sensitivity. As an example, the samples show a clear response for a dose of 2Gy. This finding suggests that carbon nanotubes can be used as a passive dosimeter specifically for the high levels of radiation exposures used in radiation therapy. Furthermore, the finding points towards further potential applications such as for space radiation measurements, not least because the medium satisfies a demand for light but strong materials of minimal capacitance.

  1. Nano forsterite biocomposites for medical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtos, Gabriel; Naghiu, Marieta-Adriana; Declercq, Heidi; Gorea, Maria; Prejmerean, Cristina; Pana, Ovidiu; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain and to investigate nano forsterite and nano forsterite biocomposites for biomedical application. New self-curing forsterite biocomposites were obtained by mixing nano forsterite powder (5, 15, 30, 50, 70 wt %) with 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. The new nano forsterite biocomposites were investigated for mechanical properties: compressive strength (CS) (143-147.12 MPa), compressive modulus (CM) (1.67-2.75 GPa), diametral tensile strength (DTS) (27.33-31.55 MPa), flexural strength (FS) (59.47-83.20 MPa) and flexural modulus (FM) (2.05-8.60 GPa). Increases of CS, DTS, FS with increasing amount of forsterite were observed up to 50 wt %. The highest CM and FM values were registered for 70 wt % and a direct correlation between the forsterite volume fraction (%) was observed. SEM micrographs revealed the morphology of surface of fractured biocomposites after CS test. XPS indicated that these biocomposites promoted the hydroxyapatite formation on their surface immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). AFM images showed that the growth of the hydroxyapatite layer occurs with a preferred orientation on the surface of forsterite biocomposites after immersion in SBF. Incorporation of nano forsterite in the polymer matrix (bis-GMA/TEGDMA) did show osteoblast adhesion and proliferation was improved on nano forsterite biocomposites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1290-1301, 2016.

  2. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann

    2016-09-07

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research.

  3. Amorphous selenium flat panel detectors for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Hunt, D. C.; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Rowlands, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Different technologies for making X-ray sensitive active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPI) are reviewed for applications in digital radiography and fluoroscopy. Aspects of imaging performance requiring improvement are identified and potential new detector concepts addressing these issues are briefly described. The rationale is given for the investigation of a new detector concept—an indirect conversion FPI with avalanche gain—for low-dose X-ray imaging. This detector consists of an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor optically coupled to a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. Under an electric field ESe, the a-Se is sensitive to light and converts the optical photons emitted from CsI into electronic signal that can be stored and read out in the same fashion as in existing AMFPI. When ESe is increased to >90 V/μm, avalanche multiplication occurs. The avalanche gain ranges between 1-800 depending on ESe and the thickness of the a-Se layer. The avalanche a-Se photoconductor is referred to as High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor. The feasibility of two detector configurations based on avalanche gain, each using a different image readout method, are under investigation. Their advantages are compared to other AMPFI technologies for digital radiography and fluoroscopy.

  4. Development of Porous Piezoceramics for Medical and Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Ringgaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of porosity to modify the functional properties of piezoelectric ceramics is well known in the scientific literature as well as by the industry, and porous ceramic can be seen as a 2-phase composite. In the present work, examples are given of applications where controlled porosity is exploited in order to optimise the dielectric, piezoelectric and acoustic properties of the piezoceramics. For the optimisation efforts it is important to note that the thickness coupling coefficient kt will be maximised for some non-zero value of the porosity that could be above 20%. On the other hand, with a good approximation, the acoustic velocity decreases linearly with increasing porosity, which is obviously also the case for the density. Consequently, the acoustic impedance shows a rather strong decrease with porosity, and in practice a reduction of more than 50% may be obtained for an engineered porous ceramic. The significance of the acoustic impedance is associated with the transmission of acoustic signals through the interface between the piezoceramic and some medium of propagation, but when the porous ceramic is used as a substrate for a piezoceramic thick film, the attenuation may be equally important. In the case of open porosity it is possible to introduce a liquid into the pores, and examples of modifying the properties in this way are given.

  5. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus--basic components of the bone apatite--occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element.

  6. What Features of Smartphone Medication Applications Are Patients with Chronic Diseases and Caregivers Looking for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yisi; Wang, Liuyu; Chang, Polun; Lamb, Karen V; Cui, Yanyan; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We explored the desired features of medication applications for patients with chronic disease and their caregivers with a questionnaire survey, 50 from patients and 50 from their caregivers. Although the majority of people (75%) are willing to use medication apps, the actual usage rate is quite low (11%). Worrying about privacy of personal information seems to be the main reason of not using applications. The overall score desired for use was 3.29 ± 1.02 (out of 5). Searching medications and diseases and assistance with making doctors' appointments are the most wanted categories. Online shopping for drugs and delivery were the least desired items. The main concerns for people who do not want certain features include: they are not useful, worrying about buying counterfeit drugs and reliability of content. Compared with patients, caregivers seems to be more concerned on nutrition tips for chronic illness, fall detection, and privacy protection (P < 0.05 for all).

  7. From theory to application and back again: implications of research on medical expertise for psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoffrey

    2005-03-01

    Research directed at an understanding of medical expertise is about 30 years old, and many developments in this literature parallel progress in cognitive psychology. Over the past 15 years or so, this research became much more closely identified with particular psychological theories. Initial forays into medicine were essentially direct applications of methods developed in the psychology lab to the more natural domain of medicine, with varying degrees of success. These attempts were followed by a second wave that took the psychological theories themselves more seriously in a more thoughtful application of psychological methods to the medical domain. I will argue in the present paper that the methods and theories used in the study of medical expertise have advanced to the point that there is some reverse flow and they are providing a unique and valuable perspective on the nature of thinking.

  8. Scalable medical data compression and transmission using wavelet transform for telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chine, Ching-Fung; Li, Kuo-Jung

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, a novel medical data compression algorithm, termed layered set partitioning in hierarchical trees (LSPIHT) algorithm, is presented for telemedicine applications. In the LSPIHT, the encoded bit streams are divided into a number of layers for transmission and reconstruction. Starting from the base layer, by accumulating bit streams up to different enhancement layers, we can reconstruct medical data with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and/or resolutions. Receivers with distinct specifications can then share the same source encoder to reduce the complexity of telecommunication networks for telemedicine applications. Numerical results show that, besides having low network complexity, the LSPIHT attains better rate-distortion performance as compared with other algorithms for encoding medical data.

  9. Use of a Rich Internet Application Solution to Present Medical Images

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Shiau, Cheng-Ying; Yu-ming LIU; Chao, Max Min; Lien, Chung-Yueh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Yen, Sang-Hue; Tang, Shih-Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Browser with Rich Internet Application (RIA) Web pages could be a powerful user interface for handling sophisticated data and applications. Then the RIA solutions would be a potential method for viewing and manipulating the most data generated in clinical processes, which can accomplish the main functionalities as general picture archiving and communication system (PACS) viewing systems. The aim of this study is to apply the RIA technology to present medical images. Both Digital Imaging and C...

  10. Medical Geography: a Promising Field of Application for Geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, P

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socio-economic, behavioral or demographic factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. It presents, however, several methodological challenges that arise from the fact that data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e. population size). This paper presents an overview of recent developments in the field of health geostatistics, with an emphasis on three main steps in the analysis of areal health data: estimation of the underlying disease risk, detection of areas with significantly higher risk, and analysis of relationships with putative risk factors. The analysis is illustrated using age-adjusted cervix cancer mortality rates recorded over the 1970-1994 period for 118 counties of four states in the Western USA. Poisson kriging allows the filtering of noisy mortality rates computed from small population sizes, enhancing the correlation with two putative explanatory variables: percentage of habitants living below the federally defined poverty line, and percentage of Hispanic females. Area-to-point kriging formulation creates continuous maps of mortality risk, reducing the visual bias associated with the interpretation of choropleth maps. Stochastic simulation is used to generate realizations of cancer mortality maps, which allows one to quantify numerically how the uncertainty about the spatial distribution of health outcomes translates into uncertainty about the location of clusters of high values or the correlation with covariates. Last, geographically-weighted regression highlights the non-stationarity in the explanatory power of covariates: the higher mortality values along the coast are better explained by the two covariates than the lower risk recorded in Utah.

  11. Medical application of in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) was clearly established at an IAEA panel meeting in Vienna in 1972. It is best demonstrated by the studies involving the measurement of total-body calcium. This measurement provides data useful for the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disorders. It should be emphasized, however, that while most of the applications to date have involved calcium and phosphorus, the measurement of sodium, chlorine and nitrogen also appear to be useful clinically. Total-body calcium measurements utilizing TBNAA have been used in studies of osteoporosis to establish absolute and relative deficits of calcium in patients with this disease in comparison to a normal contrast population. Changes in total-body calcium (skeletal mass) have also been useful for quantitating the efficacy of various therapies in osteoporosis. Serial measurements over periods of years provide long-term balance data by direct measurement with a higher precision (+- 2%) than is possible by the use of any other technique. In the renal osteodystrophy observed in patients with renal failure, disorders of both calcium and phosphorus, as well as electrolyte disturbances, have been studied. The measure of total-body levels of these elements gives the clinician useful data upon which to design dialysis therapy. The measurement of bone changes in endocrine dysfunction has been studied, particularly in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. In parathyroidectomy, the measurement of total-body calcium, post-operatively, can indicate the degree of bone resorption. Skeletal metabolism and body composition in acromegaly and Cushing's disease have also been investigated by TBNAA. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidney have also been measured in-vivo by prompt-gamma neutron activation and associated with hypertension, emphysema and cigarette smoking.

  12. Coating of gold nanoparticles for medical application: UV-VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Ramírez, Nayem Amtanus Chequer; Funes Oliva, Luis Enrique; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro; Bernal Alvarado, Jesús; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo; Núñez, Anita Rosa Elvira

    2014-11-01

    The use of nanostructured materials has gained strength in recent years in the biomedical area; new applications such as the detection of components in living cells have been used in pharmaceutical area, specifically to study the interaction of various antitumor drugs in living tissues, the detection of genes that are closely related to some type of cancer, as well as the detections of protein biomarkers for diseases also have been studied in various research laboratories around of the world. In this work, we characterize the variation of the absorbance of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with different concentration of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. We use GNPS of 60 nm of the trademark-TED PELLA, the BSA protein trademark of Sigma Aldrich and based on that proposed protocol by Chithrani et al., 2009 with purposes to obtain an alternative model to determine the optimal stability of the nanoparticles coated with the protein. The colloidal solutions were prepared with BSA at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% M/V), and were centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 90 minutes (centrifuge Model Z383K) and a constant temperature of 25 °C. All the spectra sets were obtained within the range from 400 to 700 nm using an UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific Model 51118650). The results showed a R2 of 0.99 for an exponential curve correlation between the concentration of BSA, and the absorbance measured. We found at higher concentrations of BSA, there is a decrease in the intensity of the absorption spectra in the plasmon resonance. This preliminary model obtained can be used in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles with different proteins of biomedical interest in future experiments and support for functionalization of GNPs with specific membrane markers.

  13. Medical applications of membranes: Drug delivery, artificial organs and tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamatialis, Dimitrios F.; Papenburg, Bernke J.; Gironès, Miriam; Saiful, Saiful; Bettahalli, Srivatsa N.M.; Schmitmeier, Stephanie; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    This paper covers the main medical applications of artificial membranes. Specific attention is given to drug delivery systems, artificial organs and tissue engineering which seem to dominate the interest of the membrane community this period. In all cases, the materials, methods and the current stat

  14. 76 FR 43689 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Mobile Medical Applications; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  15. 78 FR 59038 - Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Mobile Medical Applications; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance...

  16. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  17. Research on application for integer wavelet transform for lossless compression of medical image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zude; Li, Quan; Long, Quan

    2003-09-01

    This paper proposes an approach based on using lifting scheme to construct integer wavelet transform whose purpose is to realize the lossless compression of images. Then researches on application of medical image, software simulation of corresponding algorithm and experiment result are presented in this paper. Experiment shows that this method could improve the compression ration and resolution.

  18. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  19. Radioactive implants for medical applications; Radioaktive Implantate fuer medizinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The long-term success of surgery is often diminished by excessive wound healing, which makes another intervention necessary. Locally applied radionuclides with short range radiation can prevent such benign hyperproliferation. As pure electron emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days and a mean energy of 694.9 keV (E{sub max}=1710.48 keV) {sup 32}P is a suitable radionuclide which can be produced from the stable {sup 31}P by the capture of thermal neutrons (1 x 10{sup 14} /s/cm{sup 2}) in a nuclear reactor. After a typical irradiation time (14 days) the ratio of {sup 32}P to {sup 31}P is 1.4 x 10{sup -5} to 1. Implants made of polymer and/or bioabsorbable material functioning as a carrier of the radioactive emitter allow - as opposed to metallic implants - for new applications for this type of radiotherapy. In this thesis a manufacturing method for previously not available organic, radioactive implants has been developed and a corresponding dosimetry system has been established. By means of ion implantation, {sup 32}P ions with up to 180 keV can be shot some 100 nm deep into organic implant materials. For a typical dose (15 Gy over 7 days, 1 mm distance from the implant) an activity of 75 kBq is needed corresponding to 1.3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 32}P ions. The sputter ion gun, which has been optimized for this application, creates an ion beam with high beam current (> 14 {mu}A P{sup -}) and low emittance (< 4 {pi} mm mrad {radical}(MeV)). Because of the good beam quality also small implants (<1 mm{sup 2}) can be manufactured with high efficiency. The unintentionally co-implanted portion of molecules and nuclides of the same mass (e.g. {sup 31}PH, {sup 16}O{sub 2} and {sup 32}S) could be reduced from approximately 500 to 50 by an improvement of the isotope selection at {sup 32}P beam creation. Hence, in comparison with the best hitherto existing implantation methods, the radiation dose of the implant could be reduced by an order of magnitude. With regard to the beta

  20. Initial Assessment of the Molecular Epidemiology of blaNDM-1 in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Laura J.; Wright, Meredith S.; De La Cadena, Elsa; Motoa, Gabriel; Hujer, Kristine M.; Villegas, Maria V.

    2016-01-01

    We report complete genome sequences of four blaNDM-1-harboring Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from Colombia. The blaNDM-1 genes were located on 193-kb Inc FIA, 178-kb Inc A/C2, and 47-kb (unknown Inc type) plasmids. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that these isolates belong to sequence type 10 (ST10) (Escherichia coli), ST392 (Klebsiella pneumoniae), and ST322 and ST464 (Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, respectively). Our analysis identified that the Inc A/C2 plasmid in E. coli contained a novel complex transposon (Tn125 and Tn5393 with three copies of blaNDM-1) and a recombination “hot spot” for the acquisition of new resistance determinants. PMID:27067339

  1. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection and classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (bla KPC) variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, José R; Endimiani, Andrea; Rosenthal, Marnie E; Zhao, Yanan; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2011-02-01

    Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (bla(KPC)) have been reported, with KPC-2 (bla(KPC-2)) and KPC-3 (bla(KPC-3)) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identification of bla(KPC) variants. The assay consists of six molecular beacons and two oligonucleotide primer pairs, allowing for detection and classification of all currently described bla(KPC) variants (bla(KPC-2) to bla(KPC-11)). The MB-PCR detection limit was 5 to 40 DNA copies per reaction and 4 CFU per reaction using laboratory-prepared samples. The MB-PCR probes were highly specific for each bla(KPC) variant, and cross-reactivity was not observed using DNA isolated from several bacterial species. A total of 457 clinical Gram-negative isolates were successfully characterized by our MB-PCR assay, with bla(KPC-3) and bla(KPC-2) identified as the most common types in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan region. The MB-PCR assay described herein is rapid, sensitive, and specific and should be useful for understanding the ongoing evolution of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. As novel bla(KPC) variants continue to emerge, the MB-PCR assay can be modified in response to epidemiologic developments.

  2. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna (INDOOR Bio.); (VCU); (NIH)

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  3. Patient-specific modelling of pulmonary airflow using GPU cluster for the application in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, T; Wang, X; Aoki, T; Imai, Y; Ishikawa, T; Takase, K; Yamaguchi, T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel patient-specific method of modelling pulmonary airflow using graphics processing unit (GPU) computation that can be applied in medical practice. To overcome the barriers imposed by computation speed, installation price and footprint to the application of computational fluid dynamics, we focused on GPU computation and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The GPU computation and LBM are compatible due to the characteristics of the GPU. As the optimisation of data access is essential for the performance of the GPU computation, we developed an adaptive meshing method, in which an airway model is covered by isotropic subdomains consisting of a uniform Cartesian mesh. We found that 4(3) size subdomains gave the best performance. The code was also tested on a small GPU cluster to confirm its performance and applicability, as the price and footprint are reasonable for medical applications.

  4. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhlen, T.T.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.P.W. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fassò, A. [ELI Beamlines, Harfa Office Park Ceskomoravská 2420/15a, 190 93 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Ferrari, A., E-mail: alfredo.ferrari@cern.ch [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ortega, P.G. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mairani, A. [Unità di Fisica Medica, Fondazione CNAO, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Sala, P.R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Smirnov, G.; Vlachoudis, V. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  5. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Chin, M P W; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ortega, P G; Mairani, A; Sala, P R; Smirnov, G; Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  6. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlen, T. T.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M. P. W.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ortega, P. G.; Mairani, A.; Sala, P. R.; Smirnov, G.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  7. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems.

  8. PLZT-Modified Relaxor Piezoelectric Ceramic System for Medical Diagnostic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koduri Ramam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric ceramic system [Pb0.978–yLa0.012Ba0.01Sry][(Zr0.534Ti0.4660.987Nb0.008]O3 (PLBSZNT has been fabricated for use in medical diagnostics applications. The fundamental pre-requisites are high-density, high dielectric constant and high piezoelectric properties that serve as compatible ceramic materials for medical diagnostic applications. It is essential for sensitive transducers that the piezoelectric ceramics must efficiently convert between electrical and mechanical energy, and so the electromechanical coupling coefficients should be high, as the fabrication process of tiny elements for medical arrays must be carried out without damaging the material and its properties. In our study, Sr-modified PLBZNT had shown single ferroelectric tetragonal phase. An analysis of different Sr doping concentration is reported, and the high dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss along with high electromechanical properties indicate that PLBSZNT is suitable for medical diagnostic applications as well as sensors and actuators.

  9. A clean bill of health for CERN’s medical applications office

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Many of you will have had the opportunity to follow the seminar on medical applications given by two members of our new International Strategy Committee for medical applications on 20 November. This occasion gives me a good opportunity to take stock of what’s been achieved since we set up our office for medical applications under Steve Myers almost a year ago.   It’s already an impressive list of achievements, and one that’s poised to grow. The International Strategy Committee is perhaps the most visible part of it. Meeting for the first time last week, the Committee will help us focus and prioritise our efforts so we can extract the maximum benefit. The existence of the office itself is already a major step in this direction: today, instead of having seven separate medical initiatives at CERN, we have a single coordinated approach and each component benefits. Let’s take a look at the current state of progress. The study to develop LEIR into the OPENM...

  10. XML Determination of Phylogenetic Group and Prevalence of blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 Genes in Escherichia Coli Isolates from Intestinal and Urinary Tract Infections in under Five- Year- Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momeni, F. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases is a rapidly expanding group of enzymes encountered with increasing fre‌quency, especially, in Escherichia coli (E. coli. There are a few reports on phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from clinical sources of under five-year- old children in Iran. The purpose of this study was phylotyping of E. coli isolates having blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes from under five-year- old children with diarrhea and urinary tract infection (UTI. Material and Methods: A total of 121 E. coli isolates (75 diarrheas and 46 UTI were obtained and identified as E. coli based on standard bacteriological tests. DNA was extracted from E. coli isolates by alkaline lysis method. PCR assay was used because of high frequency of blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes in the isolates and also determination of phylogenetic group/subgroups by detection of yjaA and chuA genes and fragment TspE4.C2. Results: The isolates belonged to four phylogenetic groups A (48.77%, B1 (14.04%, B2 (11.57%, and D (25.62%. In the diarrheic isolates,17.37% were positive for blaCTX-M and 14.04% of isolates possessed both blaCTX-M and blaCTX-15genes.Out of 46 UTI isolates, 21.73% were positive for blaCTX-M and 15.21% for blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes. Conclusion: A rather high prevalence of E. coli isolates with blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes was observed in fewer than five-year- old children in Khoramabad city. Phylotyping of isolates possessing blaCTX-M and blaCTX-15genes showed that most of them belonge to A and D phylo-groups

  11. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Avian Isolate from France Cocarrying the bla(VIM-1) and bla(VIM-4) Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Barraud, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Vittecoq, Marion; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    We describe here a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate producing both VIM-1 and VIM-4 carbapenemases. It was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern France. The blaVIM genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota.

  12. An Overview of Recent Application of Medical Infrared Thermography in Sports Medicine in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical infrared thermography (MIT is used for analyzing physiological functions related to skin temperature. Technological advances have made MIT a reliable medical measurement tool. This paper provides an overview of MIT´s technical requirements and usefulness in sports medicine, with a special focus on overuse and traumatic knee injuries. Case studies are used to illustrate the clinical applicability and limitations of MIT. It is concluded that MIT is a non-invasive, non-radiating, low cost detection tool which should be applied for pre-scanning athletes in sports medicine.

  13. [The Application of the Fault Tree Analysis Method in Medical Equipment Maintenance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the traditional fault tree analysis method is presented, detailed instructions for its application characteristics in medical instrument maintenance is made. It is made significant changes when the traditional fault tree analysis method is introduced into the medical instrument maintenance: gave up the logic symbolic, logic analysis and calculation, gave up its complicated programs, and only keep its image and practical fault tree diagram, and the fault tree diagram there are also differences: the fault tree is no longer a logical tree but the thinking tree in troubleshooting, the definition of the fault tree's nodes is different, the composition of the fault tree's branches is also different.

  14. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-10-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  15. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  16. Rough-fuzzy pattern recognition applications in bioinformatics and medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Pradipta

    2012-01-01

    Learn how to apply rough-fuzzy computing techniques to solve problems in bioinformatics and medical image processing Emphasizing applications in bioinformatics and medical image processing, this text offers a clear framework that enables readers to take advantage of the latest rough-fuzzy computing techniques to build working pattern recognition models. The authors explain step by step how to integrate rough sets with fuzzy sets in order to best manage the uncertainties in mining large data sets. Chapters are logically organized according to the major phases of pattern recognition systems dev

  17. iPhones, iPads, and medical applications for antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Debra A

    2012-07-01

    One of the most important antimicrobial stewardship activities of the infectious diseases pharmacist and physician is to provide education and clinical information about antimicrobials to health care professionals and patients; however, clinician training and continuing education in appropriate antimicrobial use in the United States are highly variable and nonstandardized. The iPhone, iPad, and the availability of more than 12,000 medical applications (referred to as "apps") allow stewardship programs the ability to integrate novel technology with point-of-care education. This article reviews medical apps for antimicrobial stewardship programs to use on the iPhone or iPad.

  18. Application of Medical Internet of Things in the Medical Waste Management%医疗物联网在医疗垃圾管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆荦

    2014-01-01

    随着近年来不断出现新的大型突发性公共卫生事件,医疗废物处理问题备受到了社会的广泛关注。医疗废物管理不仅是医院管理的难题,而且也是一个重要的公共卫生问题。随着信息技术尤其是医疗物联网的发展,基于RFID的物联网医疗垃圾处理管理系统采用射频识别技术、网络技术,对医疗垃圾产生、回收、运输、处理等全过程进行监控追踪。我院通过实施医疗物联网在医疗垃圾管理中的应用,实现了垃圾的电子标签化管理、电子监控和在线监测等,对医疗垃圾处理进行全程监管。%In recent years, the continuous emergence of new large public health emergencies, medical waste disposal problem preparation has been widespread concern in society. Medical waste management is not only the problem of hospital management, but also an important public health problem. Along with the information technology, especial y the development of medical Internet of things, RFID Internet of things based on medical waste management system uses a network of radio frequency identification technology, technology, the whole process of medical waste generation, recycling, transportation, processing, monitoring and tracking. Our hospital through the implementation of medical Internet of things applications in medical waste management, realize the electronic label management, waste electronic monitoring and online monitoring, process monitoring of medical waste disposal.In recent years, the continuous emergence of new large public health emergencies, medical waste disposal problem preparation has been widespread concern in society. Medical waste management is not only the problem of hospital management, but also an important public health problem. Along with the information technology, especially the development of medical Internet of things, RFID Internet of things based on medical waste management system uses a network of radio

  19. Security Issues in Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs. PMID:22368458

  20. Security issues in healthcare applications using wireless medical sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare applications are considered as promising fields for wireless sensor networks, where patients can be monitored using wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs). Current WMSN healthcare research trends focus on patient reliable communication, patient mobility, and energy-efficient routing, as a few examples. However, deploying new technologies in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. Moreover, the physiological data of an individual are highly sensitive. Therefore, security is a paramount requirement of healthcare applications, especially in the case of patient privacy, if the patient has an embarrassing disease. This paper discusses the security and privacy issues in healthcare application using WMSNs. We highlight some popular healthcare projects using wireless medical sensor networks, and discuss their security. Our aim is to instigate discussion on these critical issues since the success of healthcare application depends directly on patient security and privacy, for ethic as well as legal reasons. In addition, we discuss the issues with existing security mechanisms, and sketch out the important security requirements for such applications. In addition, the paper reviews existing schemes that have been recently proposed to provide security solutions in wireless healthcare scenarios. Finally, the paper ends up with a summary of open security research issues that need to be explored for future healthcare applications using WMSNs.

  1. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Jian-Feng; Fu, Ying; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-09-01

    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence. A bla(NDM-1)-positive C. freundii with high resistance to carbapenems was separated from a clinical patient suffering from a urinary tract infection. S1 nuclease-based plasmid analysis followed by Southern blot hybridization, a conjugation experiment and electrotransformation confirmed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a plasmid. High-throughput sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive plasmid (pCFNDM-CN) showed that it was a 54 kb IncX-type plasmid and contained a backbone region and a variable region with two β-lactamase genes (bla(NDM-1) and bla(SHV-12)). The NDM-1 composite transposon in the variable region was surrounded by IS26 and IS5-truncated ISAba125, and shared a high sequence similarity to the bla(NDM-1) surrounding structure in Acinetobacter spp. Our research suggested that the NDM-1 composite transposon might play an essential role in mobilization of the bla(NDM-1) gene from Acinetobacter spp. to Enterobacteriaceae.

  2. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to ...

  3. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  4. First Indian report of IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in Escherichia coli from bloodstream infection: potential for rapid dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanga Ragupathi, N K; Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, D P; Gajendiran, R; Daniel, J L K; Walia, K; Veeraraghavan, B

    2017-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 is only infrequently observed. Self-transmissible plasmids carrying the blaNDM gene increase the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in developing countries. This study investigates the whole genome sequence of a blaNDM-7-positive Escherichia coli. The isolate was an extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer by combined disc diffusion test and carbapenemase producer by CarbaNP method. Sequencing results revealed the isolate as E. coli ST-167 with IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in addition to blaTEM-1 and blaCMY-42 genes. The identification of IncX3-blaNDM-7 combination is the first report in India where blaNDM-7 is known to cause higher resistance to carbapenems compared to its variants.

  5. Genetic Structure Associated with blaOXA-18, Encoding a Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum Oxacillinase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Thierry; Namdari, Fatemeh; Bogaerts, Pierre; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The genetic environment of the blaOXA-18 gene encoding a peculiar clavulanic acid-inhibitable Ambler class D extended-spectrum β-lactamase was determined from the prototype OXA-18-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa MUS clinical isolate. An 8.2-kb genomic DNA fragment containing blaOXA-18 was cloned from P. aeruginosa MUS. Although most oxacillinases are located in integrons, blaOXA-18 lacked gene cassette-specific features. It was bracketed by two duplicated sequences containing ISCR19, a novel insertion sequence of the ISCR family of mobile elements; ΔintI1, a truncated integrase gene; and a truncated Δaac6′-Ib gene cassette. It is likely that ISCR19 was at the origin of the blaOXA-18 gene mobilization by a rolling-circle transposition event followed by homologous recombination. Furthermore, analysis of the cloned genomic DNA fragment revealed the presence of the integron-containing blaOXA-20 gene. Concomitantly, three P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, displaying a synergy image as determined by double-disk diffusion tests on cloxacillin-containing plates, were isolated from three patients hospitalized in different wards over a 9-month period at the Saint-Luc University hospital (Brussels, Belgium). These isolates were positive by PCR for blaOXA-18 and blaOXA-20 genes, genetically related to P. aeruginosa MUS as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and carried the same blaOXA-18/blaOXA-20-associated genetic structures. This report characterized the genetic elements likely at the origin of blaOXA-18 gene mobilization in P. aeruginosa and suggests the spread of oxacillin-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases in P. aeruginosa at the Saint-Luc University hospital of Brussels, Belgium. PMID:18663027

  6. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  7. The application of use case modeling in designing medical imaging information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Farzi, Jebraeil; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Goodini, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The essay at hand is aimed at examining the application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing information systems to support Medical Imaging services. Methods. The application of use case modeling in analyzing and designing health information systems was examined using electronic databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) resources and the characteristics of the modeling system and its effect on the development and design of the health information systems were analyzed. Results. Analyzing the subject indicated that Provident modeling of health information systems should provide for quick access to many health data resources in a way that patients' data can be used in order to expand distant services and comprehensive Medical Imaging advices. Also these experiences show that progress in the infrastructure development stages through gradual and repeated evolution process of user requirements is stronger and this can lead to a decline in the cycle of requirements engineering process in the design of Medical Imaging information systems. Conclusion. Use case modeling approach can be effective in directing the problems of health and Medical Imaging information systems towards understanding, focusing on the start and analysis, better planning, repetition, and control.

  8. 医疗大数据的应用%The Application of Medical Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕊; 彭龑

    2015-01-01

    近几年来,医疗数据的类型和规模正以前所未有的速度增长,医疗卫生领域已迎来"大数据时代"潮流.本文介绍了大数据的概念、特点和医疗大数据的来源,分析医疗大数据在医药研发、临床诊断、医生评价、个人健康管理新模式等方面的机遇,综述其在技术应用及具体实施中遇到的挑战.%In recent years,the type and scale of medical and health data have been expanding rapidly, which means the era of big data has coming. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of big data were introduced, and the source of medical big data was described. In addition, we analyzed the application of medical big data in medical research, clinical diagnosis, physician evaluation, personal health management, etc. Finally, we summarized the challenges in its application and implementation.

  9. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martison Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm, 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%, followed by MIC determination (85.5%, but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%. The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%. However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%. The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  10. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  11. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perks, J [UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Rasmussen, K [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Bakic, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  12. Admission Control Over Internet of Vehicles Attached With Medical Sensors for Ubiquitous Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Di; Labeau, Fabrice; Yao, Yuanzhe; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Tang, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Wireless technologies and vehicle-mounted or wearable medical sensors are pervasive to support ubiquitous healthcare applications. However, a critical issue of using wireless communications under a healthcare scenario rests at the electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radio frequency transmission. A high level of EMI may lead to a critical malfunction of medical sensors, and in such a scenario, a few users who are not transmitting emergency data could be required to reduce their transmit power or even temporarily disconnect from the network in order to guarantee the normal operation of medical sensors as well as the transmission of emergency data. In this paper, we propose a joint power and admission control algorithm to schedule the users' transmission of medical data. The objective of this algorithm is to minimize the number of users who are forced to disconnect from the network while keeping the EMI on medical sensors at an acceptable level. We show that a fixed point of proposed algorithm always exists, and at the fixed point, our proposed algorithm can minimize the number of low-priority users who are required to disconnect from the network. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve robust performance against the variations of mobile hospital environments.

  13. blaKPC RNA Expression Correlates with Two Transcriptional Start Sites but Not Always with Gene Copy Number in Four Genera of Gram-Negative Pathogens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Amanda L.; Kurpiel, Philip M.; Lister, Philip D.; Hanson, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms are therapeutically and diagnostically challenging. It is possible that blaKPC gene expression plays a role in the variability observed in clinical susceptibility testing. blaKPC transformants together with 10 clinical isolates representing four genera were evaluated for blaKPC copy number and gene expression and correlated with β-lactam MIC data. The data suggest that mechanisms other than gene copy number and expression of blaKPC...

  14. First report of the blaVIM gene in environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical bacteria. However, in environmental isolates, few works have reported on these enzymes. In this study, we report for the first time two environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp. recovered from chrysanthemum plantations in Brazil containing blaVIM gene and producing MBLs.

  15. Identification of bla KPC-2 on different plasmids of three Morganella morganii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, D-S; Wang, W-P; Kuai, S-G; Shao, H-F; Huang, M

    2012-05-01

    Three Morganella morganii strains resistant to carbapenems were recovered from the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in our hospital. Carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were respectively detected by the modified Hodge test and the modified Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory test in all isolates. Amplification of whole-cell and plasmid DNAs extracted from isolates with primers specific for the bla (KPC) produced an amplicon confirmed to be bla (KPC-2) by sequence analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed that three isolates belonged to two closely related types. Plasmids electrophoresis and restriction analysis revealed that the bla (KPC-2) was located on different plasmids. The transfer of carbapenem resistance from the three original isolates to Escherichia coli EC600 was successful by conjugation. An examination of the outer membrane proteins showed a lack of a 38-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) compared with M. morganii susceptible to carbapenems. The production of KPC-2 and ESBLs, combined with OMP deficiency, resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance in the M. morganii strains. The genetic environment around bla (KPC-2) analysis revealed that this β-lactamase was located on the same mobile genetic elements which could transfer between different plasmids.

  16. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    NS) and Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin. Methods: blaZ was detected in 143 strains of penicillin-resistant S. aureus and CoNS from five Danish cattle herds (n = 25/23), random CoNS isolates from Denmark (n = 37), a collection of S. aureus from six different countries (n = 52), humans in Denmark (n = 3) and beta...... and sequences retrieved from public databases were compared. A phylogenetic tree showed that blaZ exists in three evolutionary lines: one group was of plasmid origin, one group was of chromosomal origin and one intermediate group. Sixty-nine sequence types were demonstrated. They translated into 11 BlaZ protein...... types. The major types all contained strains of both human and bovine origin, and more than one Staphylococcus species, demonstrating a shared gene pool. In a comparison of S. aureus and CoNS obtained from five Danish cattle herds, the same type of blaZ was only detected in one case. Conclusions...

  17. Features of application of medical physical culture for the children of patients by bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina A.I.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work consists in generalization of scientific recommendations of scientists in relation to application of medical physical culture for children with bronchial asthma. The problem of bronchial asthma is analysed, as an enough widespread disease in the world, the basic tendencies of his prevalence, range of measures instrumental in diagnostics and treatment, are certain. It is presented statistical information about prevalence of bronchial asthma on Ukraine among children. Principal reasons of origin of disease and role of physical exercises in the process of rehabilitation of patients with bronchial asthma are certain. The features of the use and influencing of respiratory gymnastics on the method of Buteyko, Strel'nikovoy, drainage exercises, sound gymnastics, exercises of aerobic character are analysed. The necessity of application of medical physical culture at this disease is grounded.

  18. Early-career researchers in medical applications @ CERN | 6 June | Main Auditorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

      Discover how technological advances for high-energy physics have become essential tools for modern medicine. CERN seeks to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, and this mission naturally contributes to advancing the frontiers of technology. State-of-the-art techniques developed for particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing have applications beyond the high-energy physics community in the medical field. These applications now have an essential role in clinical practices and medical research centres: from imaging devices, accelerator-technology dedicated to cancer therapy, to simulations and data science tools. This knowledge transfer from the high energy physics community to innovation in other fields is an inherent component of CERN’s mission and culture. It fuels scientific collaboration and technological advances, and drives innovation. In addition, it motivates future generations of scientists, and contributes to the public awareness of the impact of fu...

  19. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  20. Plasma Sources for Medical Applications - A Comparison of Spot Like Plasmas and Large Area Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Plasma applications in life science are currently emerging worldwide. Whereas today's commercially available plasma surgical technologies such as argon plasma coagulation (APC) or ablation are mainly based on lethal plasma effects on living systems, the newly emerging therapeutic applications will be based on selective, at least partially non-lethal, possibly stimulating plasma effects on living cells and tissue. Promising results could be obtained by different research groups worldwide revealing a huge potential for the application of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma in fields such as tissue engineering, healing of chronic wounds, treatment of skin diseases, tumor treatment based on specific induction of apoptotic processes, inhibition of biofilm formation and direct action on biofilms or treatment of dental diseases. The development of suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapies requires an in-depth knowledge of their physics, chemistry and parameters. Therefore much basic research still needs to be conducted to minimize risk and to provide a scientific fundament for new plasma-based medical therapies. It is essential to perform a comprehensive assessment of physical and biological experiments to clarify minimum standards for plasma sources for applications in life science and for comparison of different sources. One result is the DIN-SPEC 91315, which is now open for further improvements. This contribution intends to give an overview on the status of commercial cold plasma sources as well as cold plasma sources still under development for medical use. It will discuss needs, prospects and approaches for the characterization of plasmas from different points of view. Regarding the manageability in everyday medical life, atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) are of special interest. A comprehensive risk-benefit assessment including the state of the art of commercial sources for medical use

  1. Provisioning of medical quality of services for HSDPA and mobile WiMAX in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, Robert H; Philip, Nada Y

    2009-01-01

    Mobile healthcare, or m-health, is an evolutionary concept that provides both mobility and an 'always connected' healthcare functionality. The development of this concept depends on how best the available bandwidth in (HSDPA/HSUPA) and emerging (Mobile WiMAX) networks can be correlated with the relevant medical quality of services issues. In this paper we address and discuss some of these issues and challenges. We also provide an example of a bandwidth demanding application to verify such provision mechanisms.

  2. Validation and verification of MCNP6 as a new simulation tool useful for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-06

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX has been Validated and Verified (V&V) against different experimental data and results by other codes relevant to medical applications. In the present work, we V&V MCNP6 using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.02 and LAQGSM03.03. We found that MCNP6 describes well data of interest for medical applications measured on both thin and thick targets and agrees very well with similar results obtained with other codes; MCNP6 may be a very useful tool for medical applications We plan to make MCNP6 available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge in the middle of 2011 but we are allowed to provide it to friendly US Beta-users outside LANL already now.

  3. Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations on GPU for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Julien; Perez-Ponce, Hector; El Bitar, Ziad; Jan, Sébastien; Boursier, Yannick; Vintache, Damien; Bonissent, Alain; Morel, Christian; Brasse, David; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2013-08-21

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) plays a key role in medical applications, especially for emission tomography and radiotherapy. However MCS is also associated with long calculation times that prevent its use in routine clinical practice. Recently, graphics processing units (GPU) became in many domains a low cost alternative for the acquisition of high computational power. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient framework for the implementation of MCS on GPU architectures. Geant4 was chosen as the MCS engine given the large variety of physics processes available for targeting different medical imaging and radiotherapy applications. In addition, Geant4 is the MCS engine behind GATE which is actually the most popular medical applications' simulation platform. We propose the definition of a global strategy and associated structures for such a GPU based simulation implementation. Different photon and electron physics effects are resolved on the fly directly on GPU without any approximations with respect to Geant4. Validations have shown equivalence in the underlying photon and electron physics processes between the Geant4 and the GPU codes with a speedup factor of 80-90. More clinically realistic simulations in emission and transmission imaging led to acceleration factors of 400-800 respectively compared to corresponding GATE simulations.

  4. [Application Status of Evaluation Methodology of Electronic Medical Record: Evaluation of Bibliometric Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Jialin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yong; Huang, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide a reference and theoretical guidance of the evaluation of electronic medical record (EMR) and establishment of evaluation system in China, we applied a bibliometric analysis to assess the application of methodologies used at home and abroad, as well as to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of them. We systematically searched international medical databases of Ovid-MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, EI, EMBASE, PubMed, IEEE, and China's medical databases of CBM and CNKI between Jan. 1997 and Dec. 2012. We also reviewed the reference lists of articles for relevant articles. We selected some qualified papers according to the pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria, and did information extraction and analysis to the papers. Eventually, 1 736 papers were obtained from online database and other 16 articles from manual retrieval. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were retrieved and assessed. In the evaluation of EMR, US counted for 54.28% in the leading place, and Canada and Japan stood side by side and ranked second with 8.58%, respectively. For the application of evaluation methodology, Information System Success Model, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Innovation Diffusion Model and Cost-Benefit Access Model were widely applied with 25%, 20%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively. In this paper, we summarize our study on the application of methodologies of EMR evaluation, which can provide a reference to EMR evaluation in China.

  5. An introduction to future truly wearable medical devices--from application to ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Alexander J; Logesparan, Lojini; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    This talk will provide an introduction to the "Towards future truly wearable medical devices: from application to ASIC" mini-symposium. For user comfort and acceptance long term physiological sensors must be discrete, comfortable and easy to use. These requirements place stringent limits on all aspects of the system design: from the overall application aim, to power generation issues, to low power electronic design techniques. For successful devices design issues in all of these areas must be solved simultaneously. The work here presents an overview and introduction to these topics.

  6. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Lin-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Lugovtsov, Andrei; Priezzhev, Alexander; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2016-07-12

    Nanodiamonds (ND) have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC). The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds' safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood's physiological conditions.

  7. Nanodiamonds for Medical Applications: Interaction with Blood in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Wei Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanodiamonds (ND have emerged to be a widely-discussed nanomaterial for their applications in biological studies and for medical diagnostics and treatment. The potentials have been successfully demonstrated in cellular and tissue models in vitro. For medical applications, further in vivo studies on various applications become important. One of the most challenging possibilities of ND biomedical application is controllable drug delivery and tracing. That usually assumes ND interaction with the blood system. In this work, we study ND interaction with rat blood and analyze how the ND surface modification and coating can optimize the ND interaction with the blood. It was found that adsorption of a low concentration of ND does not affect the oxygenation state of red blood cells (RBC. The obtained in vivo results are compared to the results of in vitro studies of nanodiamond interaction with rat and human blood and blood components, such as red blood cells and blood plasma. An in vivo animal model shows ND injected in blood attach to the RBC membrane and circulate with blood for more than 30 min; and ND do not stimulate an immune response by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α with ND injected into mice via the caudal vein. The results further confirm nanodiamonds’ safety in organisms, as well as the possibility of their application without complicating the blood’s physiological conditions.

  8. Genetic structures at the origin of acquisition of the beta-lactamase bla KPC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Thierry; Cuzon, Gaelle; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Quinn, John P; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Genetic structures surrounding the carbapenem-hydrolyzing Ambler class A bla KPC gene were characterized in several KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from the United States, Colombia, and Greece. The bla KPC genes were associated in all cases with transposon-related structures. In the K. pneumoniae YC isolate from the United States, the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene was located on a novel Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. Tn4401 was 10 kb in size, was delimited by two 39-bp imperfect inverted repeat sequences, and harbored, in addition to the beta-lactamase bla KPC-2 gene, a transposase gene, a resolvase gene, and two novel insertion sequences, ISKpn6 and ISKpn7. Tn4401 has been identified in all isolates. However, two isoforms of this transposon were found: Tn4401a was found in K. pneumoniae YC and K. pneumoniae GR from the United States and Greece, respectively, and differed by a 100-bp deletion, located just upstream of the bla KPC-2 gene, compared to the sequence of Tn4401b, which was found in the Colombian isolates. In all isolates tested, Tn4401 was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication, the signature of a recent transposition event, and was inserted in different open reading frames located on plasmids that varied in size and nature. Tn4401 is likely at the origin of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC mobilization to plasmids and its further insertion into various-sized plasmids identified in nonclonally related K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa isolates.

  9. 医疗移动应用程序评价%Evaluation on medical mobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骁; 方振威; 林阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价市场上主流医疗移动应用程序的功能,分析其易用性及可能存在的问题。方法检索中国区ITunes Store和Google Play Store,将纳入的移动应用程序按功能进行分析。结果共纳入6款移动应用程序,其中3款为集成功能类(用药助手,用药参考,集博),3款为单一功能类(临床指南,医学计算公式,检验助手)。功能包含药品信息、医学计算、药物相互作用、临床用药指南、药品资讯、患者指导及化验值标准范围。单一功能类应用程序在数据信息的数量、文献资料的广度及内容的深度上优于集成功能类。集成功能类应用程序中,用药助手具备全面的药物信息解读;用药参考可定制本院处方集,使处方信息个性化,并提供快捷的药物审查;集博从药品说明书的角度出发,突出其法律地位。结论医疗移动程序功能全面、使用便捷,可以为医务工作者提供一定的参考;但各软件数据来源各异,缺乏统一的标准,其权威性和准确性尚需进一步验证。%Objective To evaluate the functions of medical mobile applications in market, and analyze the availability and potential pro-blems, and to provide reference for medical practitioners.Methods The search for medical applications was conducted in China region of iTunes Store and Google Play Store, and the eligible applications were analyzed in the light of their functions.Results Six medical applications were concluded after screening in terms of the criteria of inclusion and exclusion, in which three of them belong to the category of integrated functions and the rest single function.Functions of the medical applica-tions involved at least one of the following elements:medicine informa-tion, medicine calculation, medicine interactions, clinical guide, medi-cine advertisement, patient′s guidance and standard range of laboratory values.Applications with single

  10. Application of COMPONT Medical Adhesive Glue for Tension-Reduced Duraplasty in Decompressive Craniotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yujia; Wang, Gesheng; Liu, Jialin; Du, Yong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. Material/Methods A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded. Results No wound infection, epidural or subdural hematoma, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, or other complications associated with the procedure occurred, and there were no allergic reactions to the COMPONT medical adhesive glue. The second-phase surgery of cranioplasty was performed at 3 to 6 months after the decompressive craniotomy in 32 out of the 56 cases. During the cranioplasty we observed no adherence of the artificial dura mater patch to the skin flap, no residual COMPONT glue, or hydropic or contracture change of tissue at the surgical sites. Additionally, no defect or weakening of the adherence between the artificial dura mater patch and the self dura matter occurred. Conclusions COMPONT medical adhesive glue is a safe and reliable tool for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. PMID:27752035

  11. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  12. Hydrolysis of Clavulanate by Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-Lactamase BlaC Harboring a Canonical SDN Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Daria; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Dubée, Vincent; Triboulet, Sébastien; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Compain, Fabrice; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Combinations of β-lactams with clavulanate are currently being investigated for tuberculosis treatment. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a broad spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC, the success of this approach could be compromised by the emergence of clavulanate-resistant variants, as observed for inhibitor-resistant TEM variants in enterobacteria. Previous analyses based on site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC have led to the conclusion that this risk was limited. Here, we used a different approach based on determination of the crystal structure of β-lactamase BlaMAb of Mycobacterium abscessus, which efficiently hydrolyzes clavulanate. Comparison of BlaMAb and BlaC allowed for structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of BlaC and identification of the G132N substitution that was sufficient to switch the interaction of BlaC with clavulanate from irreversible inactivation to efficient hydrolysis. The substitution, which restored the canonical SDN motif (SDG→SDN), allowed for efficient hydrolysis of clavulanate, with a more than 104-fold increase in kcat (0.41 s−1), without affecting the hydrolysis of other β-lactams. Mass spectrometry revealed that acylation of BlaC and of its G132N variant by clavulanate follows similar paths, involving sequential formation of two acylenzymes. Decarboxylation of the first acylenzyme results in a stable secondary acylenzyme in BlaC, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the G132N variant. The SDN/SDG polymorphism defines two mycobacterial lineages comprising rapidly and slowly growing species, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the efficacy of β-lactam–clavulanate combinations may be limited by the emergence of resistance. β-Lactams active without clavulanate, such as faropenem, should be prioritized for the development of new therapies. PMID:26149997

  13. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailan, Alexander M; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K; Sartor, Anna L; Williamson, Deborah A; Forde, Brian M; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Partridge, Sally R

    2016-07-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family.

  14. High prevalence of blaCTX-M group genes in Aeromonas dhakensis isolated from aquaculture fish species in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Won; Chung, Tae-Ho; Joh, Seong-Joon; Park, Chul; Park, Byoung-Yong; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B) and bla(CTX-M). In the results, the bla(TEM-1) gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored bla(OXA) gene. In the case of bla(CTX-M) gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the bla(CTX-M) positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for bla(CTX-M) genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including bla(CTX-M-33) from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health.

  15. Medical application of fuzzy logic: fuzzy patient state in arterial hypertension analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Aleksandra; Duckstein, Lucien

    1993-12-01

    A few existing applications of fuzzy logic in medicine are briefly described and some potential applications are reviewed. The problem of classification of patient states and medical decision making is discussed more in detail and illustrated by the example of a fuzzy rule based model developed to elicit, analyze and reproduce the opinions of multiple medical experts in the case of arterial hypertension. The goal was to reproduce the average coded answers using an adequate fuzzy procedure, here a fuzzy rule. State categories and the initial set of experimental parameters were defined according to medical practice. The fuzzy set membership functions were then assessed for each parameter in each category and a small subset of representative and pertinent parameters selected for each question. The data were split into two sets of 50 patient files each, the calibration set and the validation set. Two evaluation criteria were used: the sum of squared deviations and the sum of deviations. Fuzzy rules were then sought that reproduced the target, which was the average coded answer. Only one fuzzy rule `and' appeared to be necessary to describe the patient state in a continuous way and to approach the target as closely as the majority of experts.

  16. Functional Characterization of Tn4401, a Tn3-Based Transposon Involved in blaKPC Gene Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    G Cuzon; Naas, T; Nordmann, P

    2011-01-01

    The carbapenemase gene blaKPC, which is rapidly spreading worldwide, is located on a Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. In a transposition-conjugation assay, Tn4401 was able to mobilize blaKPC-2 gene at a frequency of 4.4 × 10−6/recipient cell. A 5-bp target site duplication was evidenced upon each insertion without target site specificity. This study demonstrated that Tn4401 is an active transposon capable of mobilizing blaKPC genes at high frequency.

  17. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Gene (blaKPC) Variants▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, José R.; Endimiani, Andrea; Rosenthal, Marnie E.; Zhao, Yanan; Robert A Bonomo; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2011-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance mediated by plasmid-borne Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) is an emerging problem of significant clinical importance in Gram-negative bacteria. Multiple KPC gene variants (blaKPC) have been reported, with KPC-2 (blaKPC-2) and KPC-3 (blaKPC-3) associated with epidemic outbreaks in New York City and various international settings. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay using molecular beacons (MB-PCR) for rapid and accurate identific...

  18. A novel classification and online platform for planning and documentation of medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Jukka; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Vehviläinen, Juho; Björkstrand, Roy; Salmi, Mika; Huotilainen, Eero; Kontio, Risto; Rouse, Stephen; Gibson, Ian; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2014-12-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies are widely used in industrial settings and now increasingly also in several areas of medicine. Various techniques and numerous types of materials are used for these applications. There is a clear need to unify and harmonize the patterns of their use worldwide. We present a 5-class system to aid planning of these applications and related scientific work as well as communication between various actors involved in this field. An online, matrix-based platform and a database were developed for planning and documentation of various solutions. This platform will help the medical community to structurally develop both research innovations and clinical applications of additive manufacturing. The online platform can be accessed through http://www.medicalam.info.

  19. Metal nanoparticles (other than gold or silver) prepared using plant extracts for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Roxana-Diana; Santa, Szabolcs; Racz, Levente Zsolt; Racz, Csaba Pal

    2016-12-01

    There are many modalities to prepare metal nanoparticles, but the reducing of the metal ions with plant extracts is one of the most promising because it is considerate less toxic for the environment, suitable for the use of those nanoparticles in vivo and not very expensive. Various metal ions have been already studied such as: cobalt, copper, iron, platinum, palladium, zinc, indium, manganese and mercury and the number of plant extracts used is continuously increasing. The prepared systems were characterized afterwards with a great number of methods of investigation: both spectroscopic (especially UV-Vis spectroscopy) and microscopic (in principal, electron microscopy-TEM) methods. The applications of the metal nanoparticles obtained are diverse and not completely known, but the medical applications of such nanoparticles occupy a central place, due to their nontoxic components, but some diverse industrial applications do not have to be forgotten.

  20. Smart sensors and systems innovations for medical, environmental, and IoT applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan; Lin, Youn-Long

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoT). The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from materials, process, circuits, and big data domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc. Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book provides a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms. Profiles active research on smart sensors based on CMOS microelectronics; Describes applications of sensors and sensor systems in cyber physical systems, the social information infrastructure in our modern world; Includes coverage of a variety of related information technologies supporting the application of sensors; Discusses the integration of computation, networking, actuation, database...

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy for medical applications: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu

    2016-04-01

    The near-infrared radiation (NIR) window, also known as the "optical window" or "therapeutic window", is the range of wavelengths that has the maximum depth of penetration in tissue. Indeed, because NIR is minimally absorbed by water and hemoglobin, spectra readings can be easily collected from the body surface. Recent reports have shown the potential of NIR spectroscopy in various medical applications, including functional analysis of the brain and other tissues, as well as an analytical tool for diagnosing diseases. The broad applicability of NIR spectroscopy facilitates the diagnosis and therapy of diseases as well as elucidating their pathophysiology. This review introduces recent advances and describes new studies in NIR to demonstrate potential clinical applications of NIR spectroscopy.

  2. Establishment and application of medication error classification standards in nursing care based on the International Classification of Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Zhu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Application of this classification system will help nursing administrators to accurately detect system- and process-related defects leading to medication errors, and enable the factors to be targeted to improve the level of patient safety management.

  3. MCNP6 Simulation of Reactions of Interest to FRIB, Medical, and Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2014-01-01

    The latest, production, version of the Los Alamos Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code MCNP6 has been used to simulate a variety of particle-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions of academic and applied interest to the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), medical isotope production, space-radiation shielding, cosmic-ray propagation, and accelerator applications, including several reactions induced by radioactive isotopes, analyzing production of both stable and radioactive residual nuclei. Here, we discuss examples of validation and verification of MCNP6 compared to recent neutron spectra measured at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan; to spectra of light fragments from several reactions measured recently at GANIL, France; INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy; COSY of the Julich Research Center, Germany; and to cross sections of products from several reactions measured lately at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany; ITEP, Moscow, Russia; LANSCE, LANL, Los Alamos, USA. As a rule, MCNP6 provi...

  4. Design & Performance of Wearable Ultra Wide Band Textile Antenna for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The concept of wearable products such as textile antenna are being developed which are capable of monitoring, alerting and demanding attention whenever hospital emergency is needed, hence minimizing labour and resource. In the proposed work by using textile material as a substrate the ultra wideband antenna is designed especially for medical applications.Simulated and measured results here shows that the proposed antenna design meets the requirements of wide working bandwidth and provides 13.08 GHz bandwidth with very small size, washable (if using conductive thread for conductive parts) and flexible materials. Results in terms of bandwidth, radiation pattern, return loss as well as gain and efficiency are presented to validate the usefulness of the current proposed design. The work done here has many implications for future research and it could help patients with such flexible and comfortable medical monitoring techniques.

  5. New trends in medical and service robots theory and integrated applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bleuler, Hannes; Rodic, Aleksandar; Vaida, Calin; Pisla, Adrian; First International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots

    2014-01-01

    This book contains mainly the selected papers of the First International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in 2012. The high quality of the scientific contributions is the result of a rigorous selection and improvement based on the participants’ exchange of opinions and extensive peer-review. This process has led to the publishing of the present collection of 16 independent valuable contributions and points of view and not as standard symposium or conference proceedings.  The addressed issues are: Computational Kinematics, Mechanism Design, Linkages and Manipulators, Mechanisms for Biomechanics, Mechanics of Robots, Control Issues for Mechanical Systems, Novel Designs, Teaching Methods, all of these being concentrated around robotic systems for medical and service applications.  The results are of interest to researchers and professional practitioners as well as to Ph.D. students in the field of mechanical and electrical engineering.  This volume marks the start of a s...

  6. Review of radio wave for power transmission in medical applications with safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John; Geddis, Demetris; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of biosensors with radio frequency (RF) wireless power transmission devices is becoming popular, but there are challenges for implantable devices in medical applications. Integration and at the same time miniaturization of medical devices in a single embodiment are not trivial. The research reported herein, seeks to review possible effects of RF signals ranging from 900 MHz to 100 GHz on the human tissues and environment. Preliminary evaluation shows that radio waves selected for test have substantial influence on human tissues based on their dielectric properties. In the advancement of RF based biosensors, it is imperative to set up necessary guidelines that specify how to use RF power safely. In this paper, the dielectric properties of various human tissues will be used for estimation of influence within the selected RF frequency ranges.

  7. An innovative calibration based integral photography rendering algorithm for medical application and its evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guowen; Zhang, Xinran; Fan, Zhencheng; Liao, Hongen

    2015-01-01

    Autostereoscopic has long been proposed to fulfill medical display in image-guided surgery and clinical education to provide more intuitive position information of clinical interest zone thus improving surgery safety and accuracy. As one category of flexible autostereoscopic 3D display, computer generated integral photography (CGIP) has been studied in medical application by many researches for its convenience and cost-efficiency. However, IP still suffers from inaccurate light field reconstruction, which limits its practicality in surgery. In this paper, we propose and apply a flexible fish-eye model based micro lens array (MLA) distortion calibration method and pre-distorted retracing rendering algorithm to render elemental image array (EIA) of CGIP. Furthermore, we also evaluate light field of the proposed algorithm in depth cue, and signal noise ratio of IP images by phantom experiment.

  8. Failure modes and effects criticality analysis and accelerated life testing of LEDs for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, M.; Christou, A.

    2012-12-01

    While use of LEDs in Fiber Optics and lighting applications is common, their use in medical diagnostic applications is not very extensive. Since the precise value of light intensity will be used to interpret patient results, understanding failure modes [1-4] is very important. We used the Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) tool to identify the critical failure modes of the LEDs. FMECA involves identification of various failure modes, their effects on the system (LED optical output in this context), their frequency of occurrence, severity and the criticality of the failure modes. The competing failure modes/mechanisms were degradation of: active layer (where electron-hole recombination occurs to emit light), electrodes (provides electrical contact to the semiconductor chip), Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) surface layer (used to improve current spreading and light extraction), plastic encapsulation (protective polymer layer) and packaging failures (bond wires, heat sink separation). A FMECA table is constructed and the criticality is calculated by estimating the failure effect probability (β), failure mode ratio (α), failure rate (λ) and the operating time. Once the critical failure modes were identified, the next steps were generation of prior time to failure distribution and comparing with our accelerated life test data. To generate the prior distributions, data and results from previous investigations were utilized [5-33] where reliability test results of similar LEDs were reported. From the graphs or tabular data, we extracted the time required for the optical power output to reach 80% of its initial value. This is our failure criterion for the medical diagnostic application. Analysis of published data for different LED materials (AlGaInP, GaN, AlGaAs), the Semiconductor Structures (DH, MQW) and the mode of testing (DC, Pulsed) was carried out. The data was categorized according to the materials system and LED structure such as AlGaInP-DH-DC, Al

  9. Design and Implementation of a Laser-Based Ammonia Breath Sensor for Medical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2012-06-01

    Laser-based sensors can be used as non-invasive monitoring tools to measure parts per billion (ppb) levels of trace gases. Ammonia sensors are useful for applications in environmental pollutant monitoring, atmospheric and combustion kinetic studies, and medical diagnostics. This sensor was specifically designed to measure ammonia in exhaled breath to be used as a medical diagnostic and monitoring tool, however, it can also be extended for use in other applications. Although ammonia is a naturally occurring species in exhaled breath, abnormally elevated levels can be an indication of adverse medical conditions. Laser-based breath diagnostics have many benefits since they are cost effective, non-invasive, painless, real time monitors. They have the potential to improve the quality of medical care by replacing currently used blood tests and providing immediate feedback to physicians. This sensor utilizes a Quantum Cascade Laser and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic detection in a 76 m multi-pass absorption cell to measure ppb levels of ammonia with improved sensitivity over previous sensors. Initial measurements to determine the ammonia absorption line parameters were performed using direct absorption spectroscopy. This is the first experimental study of the ammonia absorption line transitions near 1103.46 cm1 with absorption spectroscopy. The linestrengths were measured with uncertainties less than 10%. The collisional broadening coefficients for each of the ammonia lines with nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide were also measured, many of which had uncertainties less than 5%. The sensor was characterized to show a detectability limit of 10 ppb with an uncertainty of less than 5% at typical breath ammonia levels. Initial breath test results showed that some of the patients with chronic kidney disease had elevated ammonia levels while others had ammonia levels in the same range as expected for healthy

  10. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  11. Role of Radiation Processing in Production of Hydrogels for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Darwis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hydrophilic polymer gel (hydrogel for application in medical fields has attracted much attention of researchers due to its unique properties which can resemble human living organs. Wound dressing, contact lenses and drug delivery system are among their applications in medical field. High energy radiation especially gamma ray and electron beam is often used for synthesis and modification of hydrogel. Through radiation crosslinking and or grafting process, hydrogel with specialty properties for specific application can be made. The advantage of radiation synthesized hydrogel over conventional methods is very pure products are obtained since the present of chemical initiators are not required; The preparation of sample does not require special sterile production rooms but still enables to obtain a sterile product; The irradiation process is easily controlled; Synthetis of new polymers and bulk or surface modification of commercial products can be accomplished with additional advantage of possibility of a concurrent sterilization. The future prospect of hydrogel seems to be in tissue engineering and diagnostic fields

  12. The effects of proton radiation on UHMWPE material properties for space flight and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Chad S.; Lucas, Eric M.; Marro, Justin A.; Kieu, Tri M.; DesJardins, John D.

    2011-11-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymer widely used as a radiation shielding material in space flight applications and as a bearing material in total joint replacements. As a long chain hydrocarbon based polymer, UHMWPE's material properties are influenced by radiation exposure, and prior studies show that gamma irradiation is effective for both medical sterilization and increased wear resistance in total joint replacement applications. However, the effects of space flight radiation types and doses on UHMWPE material properties are poorly understood. In this study, three clinically relevant grades of UHMWPE (GUR 1020, GUR 1050, and GUR 1020 blended with Vitamin E) were proton irradiated and tested for differences in material properties. Each of the three types of UHMWPE was irradiated at nominal doses of 0 Gy (control), 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy, and 35 Gy. Following irradiation, uniaxial tensile testing and thermal testing using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were performed. Results show small but significant changes in several material properties between the control (0 Gy) and 35 Gy samples, indicating that proton irradiation could have a effect on the long term performance of UHMWPE in both medical and space flight applications.

  13. Application of Medical Imaging Software to 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Borkin, M; Halle, M; Alan, D; Borkin, Michelle; Goodman, Alyssa; Halle, Michael; Alan, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    The AstroMed project at Harvard University's Initiative in Innovative Computing (IIC) is working on improved visualization and data sharing solutions applicable to the fields of both astronomy and medicine. The current focus is on the application of medical imaging visualization and analysis techniques to three-dimensional astronomical data. The 3D Slicer and OsiriX medical imaging tools have been used to make isosurface and volumetric models in RA-DEC-velocity space of the Perseus star forming region from the COMPLETE Survey of Star Forming Region's spectral line maps. 3D Slicer, a brain imaging and visualization computer application developed at Brigham and Women's Hospital's Surgical Planning Lab, is capable of displaying volumes (i.e. data cubes), displaying slices in any direction through the volume, generating 3D isosurface models from the volume which can be viewed and rotated in 3D space, and making 3D models of label maps (for example CLUMPFIND output). OsiriX is able to generate volumetric models fr...

  14. Isolation of Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-3 genes recovered from a hospital Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Pignanelli, Salvatore; Vollaro, Adriana; Esposito, Matilde; Iula, Vita Dora; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata Amy; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes has recently emerged as an important hospital pathogen. In this study, we showed the emergence of E. aerogenes isolates carrying the blaKPC gene in patients colonized by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Two multiresistant E. aerogenes isolates were recovered from bronchial aspirates of two patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit at the "Santa Maria della Scaletta" Hospital, Imola. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed the high resistance to carbapenems and double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of KPC and AmpC production. Other investigation revealed that ESBL and blaKPC genes were carried on the conjugative pKpQIL plasmid. This is a relevant report in Italy that describes a nosocomial infection due to the production of KPC beta-lactamases by an E. aerogenes isolate in patients previously colonized by K. pneumoniae carbapenem-resistant. In conclusion, it's necessary a continuous monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains for the detection of any KPC-producing bacteria that could expand the circulation of carbapenem-resistant pathogens.

  15. blaGES carrying Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. P. C. Pellegrino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa class-1 integrons from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed the blaGES gene in one isolate. We screened isolates of two widespread PFGE genotypes, A and B, at a public hospital in Rio, for the presence of blaGES. The gene was detected in all seven P. aeruginosa isolates belonging to genotype B. Three of the seven genotype-B isolates were resistant to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. The other four isolates were resistant to all these agents, except gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. A synergistic effect between ceftazidime and imipenem or clavulanic acid suggested the production of GES-type ESBL.

  16. Characterization of blaOXA-143 variants in Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter pittii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Esther; Bonnin, Rémy A; Seifert, Harald; Higgins, Paul G

    2014-05-01

    The acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase (OXA) OXA-143 has thus far been detected only in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize three OXA-143 variants: OXA-231 and OXA-253 from carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates and OXA-255 in a carbapenem-susceptible Acinetobacter pittii isolate originating from Brazil, Honduras, and the United States, respectively. The 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique identified the same transcription initiation site for all blaOXA-143-like genes and revealed differences in the putative promoter regions. However, all cloned OXA-143 variants conferred carbapenem resistance on A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and OXA-255 conferred carbapenem resistance on A. pittii SH024, which was correlated with blaOXA-255 gene expression. This is the first description of OXA-143-like outside A. baumannii. Detection of OXA-143-like in the United States and Honduras indicates its dissemination through the American continent.

  17. Non-linear quantization for arbitrary distributions and applications to Medical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tannous, C

    2002-01-01

    We report the development of a scalar quantization approach that helps build tables of decision and reconstruction levels for any probability density function (pdf). Several example pdf's are used for illustration: Uniform, Gaussian, Laplace, one-sided Rayleigh, and Gamma (One sided and double-sided symmetrical). The main applications of the methodology are principally aimed at Multiresolution Image compression where generally the Stretched Exponential pdf is encountered. Specialising to this important case, we perform quantization and information entropy calculations from selected medical MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) pictures of the human brain. The image histograms are fitted to a Stretched exponential model and the corresponding entropies are compared.

  18. MediFrame: A Tablet Application to Plan, Inform, Remind and Sustain Older Adults Medication Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Lea Gulstav; Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare activities in private home settings that are not supervised by a healthcare professional can challenge older adults. To support such unsupervised care activities, an increasingly number of reminders and monitoring systems are designed. However, most of these systems target a specific...... treatment or a specific condition. In this paper, we discuss experiences from designing the tablet-based application MediFrame. MediFrame is a personal medication management system to support older adults in non-clinical settings such as the home. The paper describes the user-centered design process...

  19. [The application of forensic medical knowledge for the reconstruction of historical events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Molin, Yu A; Gorshkov, A N; Smolyanitsky, A G; Mazurova, E A; Vorontsov, G A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the results of many year investigations on the application of forensic medical methods and experience for the reconstruction of historical events including identification of the ancient Russian saints' hallows and statesmen's remains, elucidation of the genuine causes of death of the members of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs based on the recently discovered archival materials, restoration of the character of the injuries suffered by Aleksander II, M.I. Kutuzov, P. Demidov, G. Gapon., and G. Rasputin, the attribution A.S. Pushkin's memorial belongings based on the biological traces, and the like.

  20. Methods for producing Cu-67 radioisotope with use of a ceramic capsule for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehst, David A.; Willit, James L.

    2016-04-12

    The present invention provides a method for producing Cu67 radioisotope suitable for use in medical applications. The method comprises irradiating a metallic zinc-68 (Zn68) target within a sealed ceramic capsule with a high energy gamma ray beam. After irradiation, the Cu67 is isolated from the Zn68 by any suitable method (e.g. chemical and or physical separation). In a preferred embodiment, the Cu67 is isolated by sublimation of the zinc in a ceramic sublimation tube to afford a copper residue containing Cu67. The Cu67 can be further purified by chemical means.

  1. High duty-cycle, high-efficiency QCW stacks for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, A.; Schröder, M.; Werner, E.; Seidel, S.; Wölz, M.; Loyo-Maldonado, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser stacks emitting short light pulses are ideally suited for medical and cosmetic applications. Developing enhanced, stable and reliable assembly processes, Jenoptik is reaching for higher energy densities and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper an improved technology for actively cooled QCW stacks is presented. Based on simulations and experimental data, the impacts on the laser stack performance are described and shown as power-current and thermal impedance plots. We show that the bar-to-bar pitch can be reduced from 1.7 mm to 1.2 mm without detrimental thermal effects for pulse durations up to 100 ms.

  2. Development of a PVA Hydrogel for Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Stent and Other Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.F.Zhang; A.J.Hui; D.R.Boughner; G.Campbell; W.K.Wan

    2000-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel (15%w/w) was processed by freezing and thawing from one through six thermal cycles to obtain wide range of mechanical properties. The materials were tested under uniaxial tension and results show that matching mechanical properties to that of porcine aortic root can be achieved. A fatigue machine for elastomer materials and tissues was built and fatigue test on PVA sample was carried out. The test results show that the PVA has good fatigue property. The stent prototype was designed and successfully made by mold casting method. Some potential medical applications are discussed.

  3. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to advanced pattern classifiers and machine learning models. Finally, these approaches are extended in multi-classifier models under the scope of Game Theory and optimum collective deci-sion, in order to produce efficient solutions for combining classifiers with minimum computational costs for advanced diagnostic systems. The material covered in this thesis is related to a total of 18 published papers, 6 in scientific journals and 12 in international conferences.

  4. Application of RFID technology in patient tracking and medication traceability in emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, María; Cabrero-Canosa, Mariano; Vizoso Hermida, José; Carrajo García, Lino; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Vázquez González, Guillermo; Martín Herranz, Isabel

    2012-12-01

    One of the most important factors that directly affects the quality of health care is patient safety. Minimize the occurrence of adverse events is one of the main challenges for health professionals. This requires continuous tracking of the patient by different areas and services, a process known as traceability and proper patient identification and medication prescribed. This article presents an information system for patient tracking and drugs developed for the Emergency Department of Hospital A Coruña. The systems use RFID technology to perform various tasks: (1) locate patients in different areas; (2) measure patient care times and waiting times; (3) identify unitary doses of medication; and (4) ensure the correct matching between the patient and the medication prescribed by the doctor. The hardware infrastructure as well as the optimal configuration of devices interconnected via a wireless network was determined by conducting a detailed coverage study. To support all the functionality needed, specific tools were designed and integrated with proprietary software applications. The RFID system was evaluated positively by staff from different professional profiles involved in its development or subsequent implementation.

  5. Smart Medical Systems with Application to Nutrition and Fitness in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Babs R.; Cabrera, Marco; Smith, Scott M.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    Smart medical systems are being developed to allow medical treatments to address alterations in chemical and physiological status in real time. In a smart medical system sensor arrays assess subject status, which are interpreted by computer processors which analyze multiple inputs and recommend treatment interventions. The response of the subject to the treatment is again assessed by the sensor arrays, closing the loop. An early form of "smart medicine" has been practiced in space to assess nutrition. Nutrient levels are assessed with food frequency questionnaires, which are interpreted by flight surgeons to recommend in-flight alterations in diet. In the future, sensor arrays will directly probe body chemistry. Near infrared spectroscopy can be used to noninvasively measure several blood and tissue parameters which are important in the assessment of nutrition and fitness. In particular, this technology can be used to measure blood hematocrit and interstitial fluid pH. The noninvasive measurement of interstitial pH is discussed as a surrogate for blood lactate measurement for the development and real-time assessment of exercise protocols in space. Earth-based application of these sensors are also described.

  6. Distribution of allelic variants of the chromosomal gene bla OXA-114-like in Achromobacter xylosoxidans clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traglia, German Matías; Almuzara, Marisa; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Papalia, Mariana; Galanternik, Laura; Radice, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Centrón, Daniela; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2013-11-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is increasingly being documented in cystic fibrosis patients. The bla(OXA-114) gene has been recognized as a naturally occurring chromosomal gene, exhibiting different allelic variants. In the population under study, the bla(OXA-114)-like gene was found in 19/19 non-epidemiological-related clinical isolates of A. xylosoxidans with ten different alleles including 1 novel OXA-114 variant.

  7. ELIMED: MEDICAL APPLICATION AT ELI-BEAMLINES. STATUS OF THE COLLABORATION AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Schillaci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ELI-Beamlines is one of the four pillars of the ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure pan-European project. It will be an ultrahigh-intensity, high repetition-rate, femtosecond laser facility whose main goal is to generate and apply high-brightness X-ray sources and accelerated charged particles. In particular, medical applications are treated by the ELIMED task force, which has been launched by collaboration between ELI and INFN researchers. ELIMED aims to demonstrate the clinical applicability of laser accelerated ions. In this article, the state of the ELIMED project and the first scientific results are reported. The design and realisation of a preliminary beam handling system and of an advanced spectrometer for diagnostics of high energy (multi-MeV laser-accelerated ion beams will also be briefly presented.

  8. Applications of the Generalized X-ray Diffraction Enhanced Imaging in the Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Anton; Hashimoto, Eiko; Ando, Masami; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The X-ray Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) is the analyzer-based X-ray imaging technique which allows extraction of the "pure refraction" and "apparent absorption" contrasts from two images taken on the opposite sides of the rocking curve of the analyzing crystal. The refraction contrast obtained by this method shows many advantages over conventional absorption contrast. It was successfully applied in medicine, technique and other fields of science. However, information provided by the method is rather qualitative than quantitative. This happens because either side of the rocking curve of the analyzer is approximated as a straight line what limits the ranges of applicability and introduces additional error. One can easily overcome this problem considering the rocking curve as is instead of it's Taylor's expansion. This report is dedicated to the application of this idea in medical imaging and especially computed tomography based on the refraction contrast. The results obtained via both methods are presented and compared.

  9. Medical assistance as a process. Application of a systemic approach to the study of the medical assistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Corona Martínez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the concepts that give theoretical support to the character of the medical assistance as a process. From this point of view the analysis of the process is carried out following a systemic approach, allowing the identification of the components of the process: object- subject- objective-problem- method- content- material aids teaching form and result s, all of which form the eternal structure of the process. Teaching, investigative and assistencial implications of this process are present as well as its contribution for the medical practice of the new doctors.

  10. Investigation of signal transduction routes within the sensor/transducer protein BlaR1 of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Michael W; Frederick, Thomas E; Natarajan, Sivanandam V; Wilson, Brian D; Tanner, Carol E; Ruggiero, Steven T; Mobashery, Shahriar; Peng, Jeffrey W

    2015-03-03

    The transmembrane antibiotic sensor/signal transducer protein BlaR1 is part of a cohort of proteins that confer β-lactam antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [Fisher, J. F., Meroueh, S. O., and Mobashery, S. (2005) Chem. Rev. 105, 395-424; Llarrull, L. I., Fisher, J. F., and Mobashery, S. (2009) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4051-4063; Llarrull, L. I., Toth, M., Champion, M. M., and Mobashery, S. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 38148-38158]. Specifically, BlaR1 regulates the inducible expression of β-lactamases that hydrolytically destroy β-lactam antibiotics. The resistance phenotype starts with β-lactam antibiotic acylation of the BlaR1 extracellular domain (BlaRS). The acylation activates the cytoplasmic protease domain through an obscure signal transduction mechanism. Here, we compare protein dynamics of apo versus antibiotic-acylated BlaRS using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our analyses reveal inter-residue interactions that relay acylation-induced perturbations within the antibiotic-binding site to the transmembrane helix regions near the membrane surface. These are the first insights into the process of signal transduction by BlaR1.

  11. A descriptive and historical review of bibliometrics with applications to medical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Walker, Cheri K

    2015-06-01

    The discipline of bibliometrics involves the application of mathematical and statistical methods to scholarly publications. The first attempts at systematic data collection were provided by Alfred Lotka and Samuel Bradford, who subsequently established the foundational laws of bibliometrics. Eugene Garfield ushered in the modern era of bibliometrics with the routine use of citation analysis and systematized processing. Key elements of bibliometric analysis include database coverage, consistency and accuracy of the data, data fields, search options, and analysis and use of metrics. A number of bibliometric applications are currently being used in medical science and health care. Bibliometric parameters and indexes may be increasingly used by grant funding sources as measures of research success. Universities may build benchmarking standards from bibliometric data to determine academic achievement through promotion and tenure guidelines in the future. This article reviews the history, definition, laws, and elements of bibliometric principles and provides examples of bibliometric applications to the broader health care community. To accomplish this, the Medline (1966-2014) and Web of Science (1945-2014) databases were searched to identify relevant articles; select articles were also cross-referenced. Articles selected were those that provided background, history, descriptive analysis, and application of bibliometric principles and metrics to medical science and health care. No attempt was made to cover all areas exhaustively; rather, key articles were chosen that illustrate bibliometric concepts and enhance the reader's knowledge. It is important that faculty and researchers understand the limitations and appropriate uses of bibliometric data. Bibliometrics has considerable potential as a research area for health care scientists and practitioners that can be used to discover new information about academic trends, pharmacotherapy, disease, and broader health sciences

  12. Smartphone Medical Applications for Women’s Health: What Is the Evidence-Base and Feedback?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Derbyshire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Smartphone medical applications have a major role to play in women’s health with their roles being very broad, ranging from improving health behaviours to undertaking personalised tests. Objective(s. Using Medline, Web of Knowledge, and the PRISMA guidelines 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified, with mobile interventions being tested on 1603 females, in relation to key aspects of health. Using a similar systematic approach an iPhone database search identified 47 applications (apps developed to improve women’s health. Findings. Ten RCTs used text messaging or app interventions to support weight loss, with significant improvements being observed in eight studies. For other aspects of women’s health RCTs are needed to determine possible health benefits. iPhone store data analysis identified that a substantial number of women’s health apps did not have star ratings or feedback comments (68 and 49 per cent, resp., raising concerns about their validity. Conclusion. Peer-review systems, supporting statements of evidence, or certification standards would be beneficial in maintaining the quality and credibility of future health-focused apps. Patient groups should also ideally be involved in the development and testing of mobile medical apps.

  13. Embedded Control in Wearable Medical Devices: Application to the Artificial Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Zavitsanou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant increases in processing power, coupled with the miniaturization of processing units operating at low power levels, has motivated the embedding of modern control systems into medical devices. The design of such embedded decision-making strategies for medical applications is driven by multiple crucial factors, such as: (i guaranteed safety in the presence of exogenous disturbances and unexpected system failures; (ii constraints on computing resources; (iii portability and longevity in terms of size and power consumption; and (iv constraints on manufacturing and maintenance costs. Embedded control systems are especially compelling in the context of modern artificial pancreas systems (AP used in glucose regulation for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Herein, a review of potential embedded control strategies that can be leveraged in a fully-automated and portable AP is presented. Amongst competing controllers, emphasis is provided on model predictive control (MPC, since it has been established as a very promising control strategy for glucose regulation using the AP. Challenges involved in the design, implementation and validation of safety-critical embedded model predictive controllers for the AP application are discussed in detail. Additionally, the computational expenditure inherent to MPC strategies is investigated, and a comparative study of runtime performances and storage requirements among modern quadratic programming solvers is reported for a desktop environment and a prototype hardware platform.

  14. Fabrication and characterizations of thin film metallic glasses: Antibacterial property and durability study for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Jinn P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tz-Yah; Li, Chia-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hao [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason S.C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ming-Jen; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Chien [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10449, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-30

    Metallic glasses with the disordered atomic structure have unique properties of high strength, high toughness, good corrosion and abrasion resistances. These materials are thus potentially useful for medical application. In this work, we evaluate the antibacterial property and durability of materials sputter-coated with Zr-based (Zr{sub 53}Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 9}Ta{sub 5}) and Cu-based (Cu{sub 48}Zr{sub 42}Ti{sub 4}Al{sub 6}) thin film metallic glasses (TFMGs). Good adhesive coating of Zr-based TFMG on the dermatome gives rise to blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%, substantial surface roughness reduction of ∼ 66% and smoother incised wound on the pig skin. As compared to 48.8° on the bare Si wafer, the water contact angles of 119.5° and 106.6° for Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs, respectively, reveal the hydrophobic characteristic of the coated surfaces. The bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to both Zr- and Cu-based TFMGs is hindered to different extents. - Highlights: • Thin film metallic glass (TFMG) coatings are evaluated for medical application. • Good adhesive TFMG on the dermatome yields blade sharpness improvement of ∼ 27%. • A reduction of ∼ 66% in surface roughness is observed after coating with TFMG. • Water contact angle measurement reveals the hydrophobic characteristic for TFMGs. • Bacterial adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus to TFMGs is hindered.

  15. Radiation stability and modification of gelatin for biological and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haema, Kamonwon; Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2014-10-01

    Gelatin is used in various biological and medical fields, including drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. In the context of these applications, radiation sterilization of gelatin was evaluated in terms of radiation stability. The molecular weight of gelatin powder irradiated by electron beams (EB) was analyzed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). We found that irradiation decomposed the gelatin and that the weight-averaged molar mass (Mw) decreased by approximately 7-10% with sterilization doses in the range of 5-25 kGy. Also, we found that the hydrolysis rate in body and cell culture environments (37 °C water) was affected by irradiation. Although gelatin powder underwent chain scission when irradiated, crosslinking was predominantly induced when the gelatin was irradiated in water solution. Radiation-crosslinked (RX) gelatin hydrogel was fabricated without using any crosslinkers. In this case, fabrication and radiation sterilization were performed simultaneously. Using gel fraction and GPC analysis of the eluted sol, it was determined that the RX-gelatin hydrogel was stable for 7 days in water at 37 °C. These results provide important data for evaluating the feasibility of biological and medical applications of gelatin and RX-gelatin hydrogel.

  16. Cyto- and hemocompatibility of a biodegradable 3D-scaffold material designed for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Vincent; Simonet, Marc; Bittermann, Anne Greet; Neuenschwander, Peter; Hall, Heike

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the polyester urethane Degrapol (DP) was explored for medical applications. Electrospun DP-fiber fleeces were characterized with regard to fiber morphology, swelling, and interconnectivity of interfiber spaces. Moreover, DP was assayed for cell proliferation and hemocompatibility being a prerequisite to any further in vivo application. It was shown that DP-fiber fleeces produced at different humidity while spinning affects interconnectivity of interfiber spaces, such that the higher the humidity the looser the resulting fiber fleeces. When the spinning target was cooled with dry ice, the resulting DP-fibers remained less fused to each other. However, permeability for fluorescent beads was not significantly increased. Fibroblast adhesion and proliferation occurred in a comparable manner on native as well as on fibronectin or collagen I adsorbed DP-fiber fleeces. On DP-surfaces fibroblasts proliferated equally well as compared with glass or PLGA surfaces or DP-surfaces adsorbed with fibronectin or collagen I. In contrast, human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferated only after adsorption of DP-surfaces with fibronectin or collagen I, indicating that different cell types respond differently to DP-surfaces. Furthermore, hemocompatibility of DP-surfaces was found to be similar or better to PLGA or stainless steel, both medically used materials. These experiments indicate that DP-fiber fleeces or surfaces might be useful for tissue engineering.

  17. Medical Application of Free Electron Laser Trasmittance using Hollow Optical Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sachiko; Ishii, Katsonuri

    2004-01-01

    Mid-infrared Free Electron Laser (FEL) is expected as new application for biomedical surgery. However, delivery of MIR-FEL into the body is difficult because the common glass optical fibers have strong absorption at MIR region. A good operational and flexible line for FEL is required at medical field. A Hollow optical fiber is developed for IR laser and high-power laser delivery. We evaluated the fiber for FEL transmission line. This fiber is coated with cyclic olefin polymer (COP) and silver thin film on the inside of glass capillary tube. It is 700 μm-bore and 1m in lengths. The fiber transmission loss of the measured wavelength region of 5.5 μm to 12 μm is less than 1dB/m when the fiber is straight and 1.2 dB/m when bent to radius of 20 cm. Additionally, the output beam profile and the pulse structure is not so different form incidence beam. In conclusion, the fiber is suitable for delivery of the FEL energy for applications in medical and laser surgery.

  18. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  19. Integrated support for medical image analysis methods: from development to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Snel, Jeroen G; Botha, Charl P; Belleman, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided image analysis is becoming increasingly important to efficiently and safely handle large amounts of high-resolution images generated by advanced medical imaging devices. The development of medical image analysis (MIA) software with the required properties for clinical application, however, is difficult and labor-intensive. Such development should be supported by systems providing scalable computational capacity and storage space, as well as information management facilities. This paper describes the properties of distributed systems to support and facilitate the development, evaluation, and clinical application of MIA methods. First, the main characteristics of existing systems are presented. Then, the phases in a method's lifecycle are analyzed (development, parameter optimization, evaluation, clinical routine), identifying the types of users, tasks, and related computational issues. A scenario is described where all tasks are performed with the aid of computational tools integrated into an ideal supporting environment. The requirements for this environment are described, proposing a grid-oriented paradigm that emphasizes virtual collaboration among users, pieces of software, and devices distributed among geographically dispersed healthcare, research, and development enterprises. Finally, the characteristics of the existing systems are analyzed according to these requirements. The proposed requirements offer a useful framework to evaluate, compare, and improve the existing systems that support MIA development.

  20. Nanostructured Titanium-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-Ag Composite Foams for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jurczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an investigation on the effectiveness of nanostructured titanium-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composite foams as a novel class of antibacterial materials for medical applications. The Ti-based composite foams were prepared by the combination of mechanical alloying and a “space-holder” sintering process. In the first step, the Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag powder synthesized by mechanical alloying and annealing mixed with 1.0 mm diameter of saccharose crystals was finally compacted in the form of pellets. In the next step, the saccharose crystals were dissolved in water, leaving open spaces surrounded by metallic-bioceramic scaffold. The sintering of the scaffold leads to foam formation. It was found that 1:1 Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag/sugar ratio leads to porosities of about 70% with pore diameter of about 0.3–1.1 mm. The microstructure, corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution of the produced foams were investigated. The value of the compression strength for the Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag foam with 70% porosity was 1.5 MPa and the Young’s modulus was 34 MPa. Silver modified Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass composites possess excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Porous Ti-10 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% foam could be a possible candidate for medical implants applications.

  1. Experimental studies on 3D printing of barium titanate ceramics for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schult Mark

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the 3D printing of porous barium titanate ceramics. Barium titanate is a biocompatible material with piezoelectric properties. Due to insufficient flowability of the starting material for 3D printing, the barium titanate raw material has been modified in three different ways. Firstly, barium titanate powder has been calcined. Secondly, flow additives have been added to the powder. And thirdly, flow additives have been added to the calcined powder. Finally, a polymer has been added to the three materials and specimens have been printed from these three material mixtures. The 3D printed parts were then sintered at 1320°C. The sintering leads to shrinkage which differs between 29.51–71.53% for the tested material mixtures. The porosity of the parts is beneficial for cell growth which is relevant for future medical applications. The results reported in this study demonstrate the possibility to fabricate porous piezoelectric barium titanate parts with a 3D printer that can be used for medical applications. 3D printed porous barium titanate ceramics can especially be used as scaffold for bone tissue engineering, where the bone formation can be promoted by electrical stimulation.

  2. Brief Analysis of Application of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Graduation Exams of Clinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yihua; Yu, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Tingting

    2011-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and analyzes developmental progress of OSCE at both home and abroad and standardized patients' application in OSCE. Also, this article expounds application of OSCE in graduation exam of clinical medical students. Finally, this article summarizes…

  3. Rare Earth Doped Silica Optical Fibre Sensors for Dosimetry in Medical and Technical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chiodini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioluminescence optical fibre sensors are gaining importance since these devices are promising in several applications like high energy physics, particle tracking, real-time monitoring of radiation beams, and radioactive waste. Silica optical fibres play an important role thanks to their high radiation hardness. Moreover, rare earths may be incorporated to optimise the scintillation properties (emission spectrum, decay time according to the particular application. This makes doped silica optical fibres a very versatile tool for the detection of ionizing radiation in many contexts. Among the fields of application of optical fibre sensors, radiation therapy represents a driving force for the research and development of new devices. In this review the recent progresses in the development of rare earth doped silica fibres for dosimetry in the medical field are described. After a general description of advantages and challenges for the use of optical fibre based dosimeter during radiation therapy treatment and diagnostic irradiations, the features of the incorporation of rare earths in the silica matrix in order to prepare radioluminescent optical fibre sensors are presented and discussed. In the last part of this paper, recent results obtained by using cerium, europium, and ytterbium doped silica optical fibres in radiation therapy applications are reviewed.

  4. Near field communications technology and the potential to reduce medication errors through multidisciplinary application

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Connell, Emer

    2016-07-01

    Patient safety requires optimal management of medications. Electronic systems are encouraged to reduce medication errors. Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may be used to develop novel medication management systems.

  5. Radioactive indicators in biology and their medical applications; Indicateurs radioactifs en biologie et leurs applications medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F

    1950-12-01

    This talk was given at the society of promotion of the national industry on December 1, 1949. The report is a pre-print of an article published in L'Industrie Nationale no.2 (1950). It presents the state-of-the-art of the use of artificial radioisotopes in biology and medicine: 1 - definitions (isotopes, decay, radiation emission); 2 - modalities of the use of radioisotopes in biology: basic instrumentation (Geiger-Mueller counter, counting techniques, photography, auto-histo-radiography); 3 - applications in physiology (digestive absorption, excretion, vascular exchanges, tracer techniques) and biochemistry (metabolism, thyroxine synthesis and fixation indicators, tracer techniques for drugs); 4 - radiotherapy, internal and external irradiation. (J.S.)

  6. Iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon in lithium-ion batteries, medical, catalytic, and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Kemp, Kingsley Christian; Kim, Kwang Soo; Zbořil, Radek

    2014-08-26

    Owing to the three different orbital hybridizations carbon can adopt, the existence of various carbon nanoallotropes differing also in dimensionality has been already affirmed with other structures predicted and expected to emerge in the future. Despite numerous unique features and applications of 2D graphene, 1D carbon nanotubes, or 0D fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon quantum dots, which have been already heavily explored, any of the existing carbon allotropes do not offer competitive magnetic properties. For challenging applications, carbon nanoallotropes are functionalized with magnetic species, especially of iron oxide nature, due to their interesting magnetic properties (superparamagnetism and strong magnetic response under external magnetic fields), easy availability, biocompatibility, and low cost. In addition, combination of iron oxides (magnetite, maghemite, hematite) and carbon nanostructures brings enhanced electrochemical performance and (photo)catalytic capability due to synergetic and cooperative effects. This work aims at reviewing these advanced applications of iron-oxide-supported nanocarbon composites where iron oxides play a diverse role. Various architectures of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposites, their synthetic procedures, physicochemical properties, and applications are discussed in details. A special attention is devoted to hybrids of carbon nanotubes and rare forms (mesoporous carbon, nanofoam) with magnetic iron oxide carriers for advanced environmental technologies. The review also covers the huge application potential of graphene/iron oxide nanocomposites in the field of energy storage, biomedicine, and remediation of environment. Among various discussed medical applications, magnetic composites of zero-dimensional fullerenes and carbon dots are emphasized as promising candidates for complex theranostics and dual magneto-fluorescence imaging.

  7. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Kuan eLin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging Processing (DIP requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and digital imaging processing service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1 automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI to RAW formats; (2 speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3 display high level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle- layer database, a stand-alone DIP server and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data a multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

  8. Medical applications of VIS/NIR spectroscopy of human tissue surfaces by a novel portable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas; Stock, Volker; Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Liebold, Kristin; Fassler, Dieter; Wollina, Uwe; Fritzsch, Uwe; Gessner, Thomas

    2001-11-01

    In medical diagnostics, non invasive optical techniques will become common at a variety of applications because they contribute to objectivity and precision. The spectral properties of human tissue are an important field of interest. They offer opportunities of detection of skin diseases and of evaluation of chronic wounds. In the visible range, the hemoglobin absorption corresponds to blood microcirculation and the melanin absorption to the skin-type. Two types of diode-array equipment will be described: a combined VIS-NIR spectrometer system from J&M Aalen/Germany (400 nm to 1600 nm) and a stand-alone spectrometer from COLOUR CONTROL Farbmesstechnik Chemnitz/Germany (400 nm to 1000 nm). Non-contacting sensing is essential for investigating chronic wounds (no disturbances of blood microcirculation by contact pressure). The spectroscopic VIS-NIR readings of chronic wounds mainly depend on the absorption of hemoglobin and water. Multivariate analysis was applied for an objective spectral classification of eight different wound scores. Some results regarding spectral measurements of wounds and skin will be discussed. The spectrometer of COLOUR CONTROL was tested in dental surgery. To select dentures, its color has to be determined exactly to meet beauty culture demands. Color determination by dentist is not sufficient enough because of possible metameric effects of illumination. Results of spectral evaluation of denture material and human teeth will be given. Medical examination requires portable and ease equipment suitable for precise measurements. This is solved by a modular measurement system comprising microcomputer, display, light source, fiber probe, and diode-array spectrometer. It is efficient to process primary spectral data to appropriate medical interpretations.

  9. Application of Web 2.0 Tools in Medical Librarianship to Support Medicine 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vishwa Mohan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is almost a decade that social networking technology along with its tools such as blogs, wikis, slidesharing/videosharing and photosharing softwares, podcasts, RSS feeds, mashups, folksonomies, and bookmarks has developed its influence on all human fields of study/activity. It is obvious that these tools are increasingly growing, in different languages, regions and fields, due to social dynamic and liberal characteristic of Web 2.0 technologies. Medical sciences and library science also are not exception to this influence. Consequently, library 2.0 and newly coined concepts of Medicine 2.0, and Health 2.0 have become the buzzwords in the Internet culture. In spite of proliferation of such social tools listed above, there is no aggregation and harmony for the utilization of the potential of these technologies in specific subject areas and the sources of information on the Web is almost proliferating and uncontrolled. This gives rise to the problem of webliographic control due to which the information seekers find difficulties in information retrieval. The paper presents application of Web 2.0 in medical libraries to support Medicine 2.0 emphasizing the above-mentioned problems. Considering the nature of an original article the experience of the authors, as a medical librarian and a faculty member in Library and Information Science, through observation of the needs, problems and prospects, played an important role in forming the idea and presentation. The study also used secondary data collected from related literatures. Standardization and webliographic control would solve the problem. In addition, governmental support and creating awareness at the management level in the organizations is also crucial.

  10. Chromosomal Integration of the Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase Gene, blaKPC, in Klebsiella Species Is Elusive but Not Rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Weidong; Carroll, Joanne; Barry, Katie; Cherunvanky, Anita; Sebra, Robert; Kasarskis, Andrew; Peto, Tim E.; Walker, A. Sarah; Sifri, Costi D.; Crook, Derrick W.; Sheppard, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbapenemase genes in Enterobacteriaceae are mostly described as being plasmid associated. However, the genetic context of carbapenemase genes is not always confirmed in epidemiological surveys, and the frequency of their chromosomal integration therefore is unknown. A previously sequenced collection of blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae from a single U.S. institution (2007 to 2012; n = 281 isolates from 182 patients) was analyzed to identify chromosomal insertions of Tn4401, the transposon most frequently harboring blaKPC. Using a combination of short- and long-read sequencing, we confirmed five independent chromosomal integration events from 6/182 (3%) patients, corresponding to 15/281 (5%) isolates. Three patients had isolates identified by perirectal screening, and three had infections which were all successfully treated. When a single copy of blaKPC was in the chromosome, one or both of the phenotypic carbapenemase tests were negative. All chromosomally integrated blaKPC genes were from Klebsiella spp., predominantly K. pneumoniae clonal group 258 (CG258), even though these represented only a small proportion of the isolates. Integration occurred via IS15-ΔI-mediated transposition of a larger, composite region encompassing Tn4401 at one locus of chromosomal integration, seen in the same strain (K. pneumoniae ST340) in two patients. In summary, we identified five independent chromosomal integrations of blaKPC in a large outbreak, demonstrating that this is not a rare event. blaKPC was more frequently integrated into the chromosome of epidemic CG258 K. pneumoniae lineages (ST11, ST258, and ST340) and was more difficult to detect by routine phenotypic methods in this context. The presence of chromosomally integrated blaKPC within successful, globally disseminated K. pneumoniae strains therefore is likely underestimated. PMID:28031204

  11. Rough-Set-Based Attribute Dependencies: Foundations and Bio-Medical Data Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominik Slezak

    2006-01-01

    Theory of rough sets, proposed by Zdzislaw Pawlak in 1982, is a model of approximate reasoning. In applications, rough set methodology focuses on approximate representation of knowledge derivable from data. It leads to significant results in many areas including, for example, finance, industry, multimedia, medicine, and most recently bioinformatics. One of the key notions of rough sets is a reduct, an optimal subset of attributes providing enough information about pre-defined target concepts or whole data sources. Proposed originally within the framework of rough set approximations, it was extended regarding different application needs, using concepts of, for example, Boolean reasoning, Bayesian reasoning, and information theory. There have been developed efficient tools extracting reducts from data, based, for instance, on greedy heuristics and evolutionary algorithms. In this talk, we present foundations of rough sets, as well as current trends in rough-setbased attribute reduction, understood as the means for representation of multi-attribute approximate dependencies in real-world data. We pay a special attention to case studies of rough set applications to bio-medical problems, including MRI segmentation, geneexpression data analysis, as well as the cancer therapy survival analysis.

  12. Technical Standards and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Medical School Applicants and Students: Interrogating Sensory Capacity and Practice Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenyi, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Applicants to medical schools who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHoH) or who have other disabilities face significant barriers to medical school admission. One commonly cited barrier to admission is medical schools' technical standards (TS) for admission, advancement, and graduation. Ethical values of diversity and equity support altering the technical standards to be more inclusive of people with disabilities. Incorporating these values into admissions, advancement, and graduation considerations for DHoH and other students with disabilities can contribute to the physician workforce being more representative of the diverse patients it serves and better able to care for them.

  13. Development and examination of a rubric for evaluating point-of-care medical applications for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Robyn; MacKinnon, Martin; Gadd, Kathleen; LeBlanc-Duchin, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development and updates of mobile medical resource applications (apps) highlight the need for an evaluation tool to assess the content of these resources. The purpose of the study was to develop and test a new evaluation rubric for medical resource apps. The evaluation rubric was designed using existing literature and through a collaborative effort between a hospital and an academic librarian. Testing found scores ranging from 23% to 88% for the apps. The evaluation rubric proved able to distinguish levels of quality within each content component of the apps, demonstrating potential for standardization of medical resource app evaluations.

  14. A medical application integrating remote 3D visualization tools to access picture archiving and communication system on mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Longjun; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2014-04-01

    With computing capability and display size growing, the mobile device has been used as a tool to help clinicians view patient information and medical images anywhere and anytime. However, for direct interactive 3D visualization, which plays an important role in radiological diagnosis, the mobile device cannot provide a satisfactory quality of experience for radiologists. This paper developed a medical system that can get medical images from the picture archiving and communication system on the mobile device over the wireless network. In the proposed application, the mobile device got patient information and medical images through a proxy server connecting to the PACS server. Meanwhile, the proxy server integrated a range of 3D visualization techniques, including maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reconstruction and direct volume rendering, to providing shape, brightness, depth and location information generated from the original sectional images for radiologists. Furthermore, an algorithm that changes remote render parameters automatically to adapt to the network status was employed to improve the quality of experience. Finally, performance issues regarding the remote 3D visualization of the medical images over the wireless network of the proposed application were also discussed. The results demonstrated that this proposed medical application could provide a smooth interactive experience in the WLAN and 3G networks.

  15. A Novel Method for Enhancing Network Monitoring in Remote Medical Applications Using Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important way for providing health in a large population, particularly developing countries, is developing efficient health care services such that everyone can use the services equally and justly. Telemedicine is a new area which uses modern communication technology for exchanging medical information. This communication might be between a patient and a doctor or two medical centers for consultation. Implementation of a Telemedicine system requires creating the necessary infrastructures, among which network monitoring is one of the most important ones. From hundreds to thousands of computers, hubs to switched networks, and Ethernet to either ATM or 10Gbps Ethernet, administrators need more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in order to deal with development. These tools are needed, not only to fix network problems on time, but also to prevent network failure, to detect inside and outside threats, and make good decisions for network planning. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on Telemedicine and network monitoring is performed. Afterward, network monitoring techniques and methods in current networks are discussed. Finally, an efficient architecture based on Software Defined Networks (SDNs in remote surgical applications is presented which significantly improves monitoring of the communication networks. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  17. New Trends in the Design of Enzyme-based Biosensors for Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor is a self-contained integrated device, which is capable of providing specific quantitative or semiquantitative analytical information using a biological (or biomimetic) recognition element, which is retained in direct spatial contact with an electrochemical transduction element. One of the main features of biosensors is the remarkable selectivity that their biological components confer on them. Enzymes are the most common and well-developed recognition system of the family known as catalytic biosensors. This mini-review is focused on enzyme-based biosensors for medical applications. In particular, the new trends for the technology are described. A special emphasis is devoted to the non-invasive and painless monitoring of body metabolites, such as glucose.

  18. A Real time Data Acquisition and Monitoring Device for Medical Applications based on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin Krishnan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An android based real time data acquisition and monitoring device is presented here. The system finds its initial application in medical field .it serves as a remote monitor for measuring and analysing along with logging of data from patients. The system comprises of two parts. A data acquisition (DaQ part connected to patient side and an android based display device on the receiving end. The Data Acquisition part contains sensors for picking up the vital signs from the patients, signal conditioning circuits and a Bluetooth transceiver to transmit data wirelessly to the display device. The Display Device then displays the data received from the transmitter in a readable form and also logs the data into a excel form so that it can be taken out digitally and analysed.

  19. Development of a Peristaltic Micropump for Bio-Medical Applications Based on Mini LIPCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanh Tung Nguyen; My Pham; Nam Seo Goo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a peristaltic micropump. The micropump is composed of two layers fabricated from Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The first layer has a rectangular channel and two valve seals. Three rectangular mini lightweight piezo-composite actuators are integrated in the second layer, and used as actuation parts.Two layers are bonded, and covered by two Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) plates, which help increase the stiffness of the micropump.A maximum flow rate of 900 uL·min-1 and a maximum backpressure of 1.8 kPa are recorded when water is used as pump liquid. We measured the power consumption of the micropump. The micropump is found to be a prom- ising candidate for bio-medical application due to its bio-compatibility, portability, bidirectionality, and simple effective design.

  20. Preliminary results of an extensive study of fragmentation measurements for medical and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Calabretta, L; Cirrone, G A P C; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Fiorini, F; Giacoppo, F; Mairani, A; Morone, M C; Patera, V; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Ricciardi, V; Romano, F; Sala, P; Sciubba, A

    2010-01-01

    Here we report on preliminary results of an extensive study of fragmentation cross sections measurements useful for medical and space applications. In particular, we looked at the hadrontherapy and space radiation research. Indeed, the measure of fragmentation cross sections is an important information to estimate how this process modifies dose distributions and biological effectiveness, both inside human body and spacecraft. In this picture we started to measure the fragmentation of 12C beam accelerated by the Superconducting Cyclotron at 32 AMeV, 62 AMeV on 12C, 207Pb and 197Au at the INFN Laboratory Nazionali del Sud in Catania (Italy). Preliminary comparison between absolute cross-sections measured for the systems: 12C+207Pb at 32AMeV and for 12C+197Au at 62AMeV is performed.

  1. ASIC design of a digital fuzzy system on chip for medical diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Roy, Aniruddha; Saha, Hiranmay

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the ASIC design of a digital fuzzy logic circuit for medical diagnostic applications. The system on chip under consideration uses fuzzifier, memory and defuzzifier for fuzzifying the patient data, storing the membership function values and defuzzifying the membership function values to get the output decision. The proposed circuit uses triangular trapezoidal membership functions for fuzzification patients' data. For minimizing the transistor count, the proposed circuit uses 3T XOR gates and 8T adders for its design. The entire work has been carried out using TSMC 0.35 µm CMOS process. Post layout TSPICE simulation of the whole circuit indicates a delay of 31.27 ns and the average power dissipation of the system on chip is 123.49 mW which indicates a less delay and less power dissipation than the comparable embedded systems reported earlier.

  2. The application and evaluation of adaptive hypermedia techniques in Web-based medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muan Hong Ng

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design issues involved in delivering Web-based learning materials. An existing application in the medical domain - JointZone - is used to illustrate how personalization and an interactive environment can be incorporated into Web-based learning. This work applies the combination of an adaptive hypermedia, situated-learning approach and hypermedia linking concepts to facilitate online learning. A usability study was carried out on the work described and an evaluation was undertaken to measure the effect of personalization on various learning factors. The evaluation outcome was analysed subjectively and objectively. The results proved to be contradictory but, nevertheless, the work gives new insights into the use of technology to support learning

  3. Application of Multiprotocol Medical Imaging Communications and an Extended DICOM WADO Service in a Teleradiology Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George V. Koutelakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiprotocol medical imaging communication through the Internet is more flexible than the tight DICOM transfers. This paper introduces a modular multiprotocol teleradiology architecture that integrates DICOM and common Internet services (based on web, FTP, and E-mail into a unique operational domain. The extended WADO service (a web extension of DICOM and the other proposed services allow access to all levels of the DICOM information hierarchy as opposed to solely Object level. A lightweight client site is considered adequate, because the server site of the architecture provides clients with service interfaces through the web as well as invulnerable space for temporary storage, called as User Domains, so that users fulfill their applications' tasks. The proposed teleradiology architecture is pilot implemented using mainly Java-based technologies and is evaluated by engineers in collaboration with doctors. The new architecture ensures flexibility in access, user mobility, and enhanced data security.

  4. The attractions of medicine: the generic motivations of medical school applicants in relation to demography, personality and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona Cornelius

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivational and other factors used by medical students in making their career choices for specific medical specialities have been looked at in a number of studies in the literature. There are however few studies that assess the generic factors which make medicine itself of interest to medical students and to potential medical students. This study describes a novel questionnaire that assesses the interests and attractions of different aspects of medical practice in a varied range of medical scenarios, and relates them to demographic, academic, personality and learning style measures in a large group of individuals considering applying to medical school. Methods A questionnaire study was conducted among those attending Medlink, a two-day conference for individuals considering applying to medical school for a career in medicine. The main outcome measure was the Medical Situations Questionnaire, in which individuals ranked the attraction of three different aspects of medical practise in each of nine detailed, realistic medical scenarios in a wide range of medical specialities. As well as requiring clear choices, the questionnaire was also designed so that all of the possible answers were attractive and positive, thereby helping to eliminate social demand characteristics. Factor analysis of the responses found four generic motivational dimensions, which we labelled Indispensability, Helping People, Respect and Science. Background factors assessed included sex, ethnicity, class, medical parents, GCSE academic achievement, the 'Big Five' personality factors, empathy, learning styles, and a social desirability scale. Results 2867 individuals, broadly representative of applicants to medical schools, completed the questionnaire. The four generic motivational factors correlated with a range of background factors. These correlations were explored by multiple regression, and by path analysis, using LISREL to assess direct and

  5. Localized Energy-Based Normalization of Medical Images: Application to Chest Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, R H H M; Maduskar, P; Hogeweg, L; Melendez, J; Sánchez, C I; van Ginneken, B

    2015-09-01

    Automated quantitative analysis systems for medical images often lack the capability to successfully process images from multiple sources. Normalization of such images prior to further analysis is a possible solution to this limitation. This work presents a general method to normalize medical images and thoroughly investigates its effectiveness for chest radiography (CXR). The method starts with an energy decomposition of the image in different bands. Next, each band's localized energy is scaled to a reference value and the image is reconstructed. We investigate iterative and local application of this technique. The normalization is applied iteratively to the lung fields on six datasets from different sources, each comprising 50 normal CXRs and 50 abnormal CXRs. The method is evaluated in three supervised computer-aided detection tasks related to CXR analysis and compared to two reference normalization methods. In the first task, automatic lung segmentation, the average Jaccard overlap significantly increased from 0.72±0.30 and 0.87±0.11 for both reference methods to with normalization. The second experiment was aimed at segmentation of the clavicles. The reference methods had an average Jaccard index of 0.57±0.26 and 0.53±0.26; with normalization this significantly increased to . The third experiment was detection of tuberculosis related abnormalities in the lung fields. The average area under the Receiver Operating Curve increased significantly from 0.72±0.14 and 0.79±0.06 using the reference methods to with normalization. We conclude that the normalization can be successfully applied in chest radiography and makes supervised systems more generally applicable to data from different sources.

  6. Application of RFID Technology in Medical Management%RFID技术在医疗管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史今驰; 于敏; 王彦

    2012-01-01

    从实用的角度分析了RFID技术在医疗管理中的可行性,简要阐述了RFID的控制、存储以及通信电路,在此基础上分别介绍了医疗设备管理和患者信息管理的RFID技术具体应用,最后通过对上位机通信终端和医疗管理信息平台的设计,构成了以RFID技术为核心的医疗管理系统,提高了医护人员的工作效率,降低了医疗事故和医疗成本,保证了医疗系统运行的安全性.%The feasibility of RFID technology in medical management is analyzed from a practical point. The control, storage and communication circuit of RFID is described briefly. On this basis, the application of RFID technology in medical equipment management and patient's information management is introduced respectively. At last, through the design of the upper machine communication terminal and medical management information platform, the medical management system using RFID technology as the core is constructed, which improves the working efficiency of the medical staff, reduces the medical malpractice and medical costs, and ensures the running security of the health care system. [Chinese Medical Equipment Journal, 2012,33(6):120-122

  7. The Clinical Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa MMA83 Carries Two Copies of the blaNDM-1 Gene in a Novel Genetic Context

    OpenAIRE

    Jovčić, Branko; Lepsanović, Zorica; Begović, Jelena; Rakonjac, Bojan; Perovanović, Jelena; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Kojić, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The genetic context of the blaNDM-1 gene in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MMA83 was investigated. Sequencing of the cosmid selected for the blaNDM-1 gene revealed the presence of two blaNDM-1 copies in the genome of P. aeruginosa MMA83 in a unique genetic environment. Additionally, mating assays, DNA-DNA hybridization, and an S1 nuclease assay strongly suggest that the blaNDM-1 gene in P. aeruginosa MMA83 is chromosome borne.

  8. bla(KPC) RNA expression correlates with two transcriptional start sites but not always with gene copy number in four genera of Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Amanda L; Kurpiel, Philip M; Lister, Philip D; Hanson, Nancy D

    2011-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms are therapeutically and diagnostically challenging. It is possible that bla(KPC) gene expression plays a role in the variability observed in clinical susceptibility testing. bla(KPC) transformants together with 10 clinical isolates representing four genera were evaluated for bla(KPC) copy number and gene expression and correlated with β-lactam MIC data. The data suggest that mechanisms other than gene copy number and expression of bla(KPC) contribute to variability in susceptibility when testing KPC-producing isolates.

  9. Characterization of a novel plasmid type and various genetic contexts of bla OXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. from multiple cities in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several studies have described the epidemiological distribution of blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter baumannii in China. However, there is limited data concerning the replicon types of blaOXA-58-carrying plasmids and the genetic context surrounding blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve non-duplicated blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from six hospitals in five different cities between 2005 and 2010. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was carried out using PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and plasmid replicase genes were identified by PCR. The genetic location of blaOXA-58 was analyzed using S1-nuclease method. Plasmid conjugation and electrotransformation were performed to evaluate the transferability of blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids. The genetic structure surrounding blaOXA-58 was determined by cloning experiments. The twelve isolates included two Acinetobacter pittii isolates (belong to one pulsotype, three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates (belong to two pulsotypes and seven Acinetobacter baumannii isolates (belong to two pulsotypes/sequence types. A. baumannii ST91 was found to be a potential multidrug resistant risk clone carrying both blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-23. blaOXA-58 located on plasmids varied from ca. 52 kb to ca. 143 kb. All plasmids can be electrotransformed to A. baumannii recipient, but were untypeable by the current replicon typing scheme. A novel plasmid replicase named repAci10 was identified in blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids of two A. pittii isolates, three A. nosocomialis isolates and two A. baumannii isolates. Four kinds of genetic contexts of blaOXA-58 were identified. The transformants of plasmids with structure of IS6 family insertion sequence (ISOur1, IS1008 or IS15-ΔISAba3-like element-blaOXA-58 displayed carbapenem nonsusceptible, while others with structure of intact ISAba3-like element-bla

  10. Medical educational culture: introducing patients to applicants as part of the medical school interview: feasibility and initial impact show and tell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Madani Sims

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The College of Medicine at our institution underwent a major curricular revision in order to develop a patient-centered context for learning. The admission process was revised to reflect this change, adopting a holistic review process, with the hope of attracting students who were particularly well suited to a patient-centered curriculum and learning culture. Methods: Patients from a single practitioner, who were accustomed to working with medical students, were asked if they would like to select the next generation of physicians. The patient's experience included a brief didactic presentation related to the patient's diagnosis and treatment. This was followed by an informal session with the applicants and the physician, where they shared their story in a small group setting. They were encouraged to share their experiences with the healthcare system, both positive and negative. The goal was to allow applicants to glean the importance of the human aspects of disease in our institutional culture of learning. Results: The response and experience were overwhelmingly positive for the patients who donated their time to participate and for our applicants. Follow-up surveys indicated that our applicants found the experience to be unique and positive. Many of the students who chose to attend our university cited the interview experience and learning culture as factors that influenced their choice of medical schools. In addition, the Liaison Committee on Medical Education cited the favorability of the admission process in their recent site visit. Discussion: Now in its fifth year, we can say that the inclusion of patients as part of the interview day is feasible as part of our admission process. We continue to make changes and monitor our progress, and we have added several other faculty members and specialties in order to ensure the program is sustainable.

  11. Application of Cervical Collars - An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kreinest

    Full Text Available The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars.Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire.The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8% and emergency physicians (12.5%. The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61% and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%. 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%. No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians or the participation in certified trauma courses.Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded.

  12. Application of Cervical Collars – An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinest, Michael; Goller, Sarah; Rauch, Geraldine; Frank, Christian; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Wölfl, Christoph G.; Matschke, Stefan; Münzberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars. Material and Methods Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. Results The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8%) and emergency physicians (12.5%). The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61%) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%). 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians) or the participation in certified trauma courses. Conclusion Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded. PMID:26587650

  13. The emerge of a new superbug gene blaNDM-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kaiji

    2011-01-01

    @@ NDM-- 1 in detail: NDM-1, which is the abbreviation of 'New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase', is a recently dis-covered enzyme that is produced by some gram-negative Enterobaeteriaceae such as E coil (Esehe-riehia toll) and Klebsiella pneumonia.It is named after 'New Delhi', which is the capital of India, be-cause the first patient who was diagnosed to be colo-nized by bacteria with blaNDM-1 gene had gone toa hospital in New Delhi for cosmetic surgery not long before he was diagnosed.

  14. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  15. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP. Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery.

  16. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  17. The application of computer aided product development techniques in medical modelling topic: rehabilitation and prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, R; Brown, R

    2000-01-01

    When considering reconstructive surgery it is often difficult to ascertain the exact nature of affected internal anatomy. Although advances in Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have enabled the generation of 3D reconstructions of internal anatomy, they are often only available as fixed 2D images. These may obscure important details or prove ambiguous depending upon the angle of view. Another problem is maintaining accuracy of reconstruction that may involve osteotomy, tissue grafts or implants. In such circumstances the ability to plan and rehearse complex procedures can prove invaluable, greatly improving surgical results whilst helping to eliminate potential errors and reducing theatre time. In this context 3D scan data can be treated as the equivalent of Computer Aided Design (CAD) data and can be applied to the production of accurate physical models. The approach undertaken by the DERC is based on close collaboration with surgical departments and enables the rapid and economic production of medical models based on CT/MRI data. This paper illustrates the transfer of product design technologies into a clinical context. Specifically, the use of 3D surface scanning and rapid prototyping technologies as an aid to post operative reconstruction is described. An evaluation of the application of product development tools within a clinical context is presented. The paper concludes with an assessment of likely future application in this area.

  18. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-09-12

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery.

  19. Recent advances of basic materials to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    The most important applications of electrospun polymeric nanofibers are by far those from biomedical field. From the biological point of view, almost all the human tissues and organs consist of nanofibroas structures. The examples include the bone, dentine, cartilage, tendons and skin. All these are characterized through different fibrous structures, hierarchically organized at nanometer scale. Electrospinning represents one of the nanotechnologies that permit to obtain such structures for cell cultures, besides other technologies, such as selfassembling and phase separation technologies. The basic materials used to produce electrospun nanofibers can be natural or synthetic, having polymeric, ceramic or composite nature. These materials are selected depending of the nature and structure of the tissue meant to be regenerated, namely: for the regeneration of smooth tissues regeneration one needs to process through electrospinning polymeric basic materials, while in order to obtain the supports for the regeneration of hard tissues one must mainly use ceramic materials or composite structures that permit imbedding the bioactive substances in distinctive zones of the matrix. This work presents recent studies concerning basic materials used to obtain electrospun polymeric nanofibers, and real possibilities to produce and implement these nanofibers in medical bioengineering applications.

  20. Recent Advances in Dendritic Macromonomers for Hydrogel Formation and Their Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobril, Cynthia; Rodriguez, Edward K; Nazarian, Ara; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-04-11

    Hydrogels represent one of the most important classes of biomaterials and are of interest for various medical applications including wound repair, tissue engineering, and drug release. Hydrogels possess tunable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and similarity to natural soft tissues. The need for hydrogels with specific properties, based on the design requirements of the in vitro, in vivo, or clinical application, motivates researchers to develop new synthetic approaches and cross-linking methodologies to form novel hydrogels with unique properties. The use of dendritic macromonomers represents one elegant strategy for the formation of hydrogels with specific properties. Specifically, the uniformity of dendrimers combined with the control of their size, architecture, density, and surface groups make them promising cross-linkers for hydrogel formation. Over the last two decades, a large variety of dendritic-based hydrogels are reported for their potential use in the clinic. This review describes the state of the art with these different dendritic hydrogel formulations including their design requirements, the synthetic routes, the measurement and determination of their properties, the evaluation of their in vitro and in vivo performances, and future perspectives.

  1. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  2. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from poultry in North Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lalzampuia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to record the association of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing enteric bacteria with diarrhea of poultry birds in Mizoram, India. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds with the history of diarrhea from different parts of Mizoram. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity assays. Phenotypically, ESBLs production ability was determined by double discs synergy test (DDST method. ESBLs producing isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of ESBLs genes. Plasmids were cured by acridine orange. Transfer of resistance from donor to recipient strains was done by in vitro horizontal method. Results: A total of 134 enteric bacteria was isolated, of which 102 (76.12%, 21 (15.67% and 11 (8.21% were E. coli, Salmonella spp. and K. pneumoniae, respectively. By DDST 7 (5.22% isolates (6 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae were ESBLs producer. PCR analysis confirmed 5 (3.73% (4 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae isolates harboured blaCTX-M-1 gene and/or blaTEM gene. All the isolates were carrying plasmids ranging between 0.9 kb and ~30 kb. Of the 4 isolates positive for blaCTX-M-1 and/or blaTEM, 2 (1.84% were confirmed for blaCTX-M-1 gene in their plasmid. No blaTEM gene was detected from plasmid. The resistance plasmid could not be transferred to the recipient by in vitro horizontal gene transfer method. Conclusion: ESBLs producing enteric bacteria are circulating in poultry in North Eastern Region of India. As poultry is one of the most common food animals in this region, these organisms may enter in human population through them.

  3. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone. PMID:28152085

  4. SysBioMed report: advancing systems biology for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, O; Fell, D; De Meyts, P; Blüthgen, N; Herzel, H; Le Novère, N; Höfer, T; Schürrle, K; van Leeuwen, I

    2009-05-01

    The following report selects and summarises some of the conclusions and recommendations generated throughout a series of workshops and discussions that have lead to the publication of the Science Policy Briefing (SPB) Nr. 35, published by the European Science Foundation. (Large parts of the present text are directly based on the ESF SPB. Detailed recommendations with regard to specific application areas are not given here but can be found in the SPB. Issues related to mathematical modelling, including training and the need for an infrastructure supporting modelling are discussed in greater detail in the present text.)The numerous reports and publications about the advances within the rapidly growing field of systems biology have led to a plethora of alternative definitions for key concepts. Here, with 'mathematical modelling' the authors refer to the modelling and simulation of subcellular, cellular and macro-scale phenomena, using primarily methods from dynamical systems theory. The aim of such models is encoding and testing hypotheses about mechanisms underlying the functioning of cells. Typical examples are models for molecular networks, where the behaviour of cells is expressed in terms of quantitative changes in the levels of transcripts and gene products. Bioinformatics provides essential complementary tools, including procedures for pattern recognition, machine learning, statistical modelling (testing for differences, searching for associations and correlations) and secondary data extracted from databases.Dynamical systems theory is the natural language to investigate complex biological systems demonstrating nonlinear spatio-temporal behaviour. However, the generation of experimental data suitable to parameterise, calibrate and validate such models is often time consuming and expensive or not even possible with the technology available today. In our report, we use the term 'computational model' when mathematical models are complemented with information

  5. Radiation detector developments in medical applications: inorganic scintillators in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Carel W E

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new gamma-ray scintillators are commercially available. These scintillators are either derived from known scintillators, e.g. Lu1-xYxAlO3: Ce (LuYAP) from LuAlO3:Ce and Lu(2(1-x))Y2xSiO5:Ce (LYSO) from Lu2SiO5:Ce or are the result of new discoveries, e.g. LaCl3:Ce and LaBr3:Ce. The first two materials are primarily of interest because of the relatively high detection efficiency and fast response; LYSO has found application in time-of-flight (TOF) positron-emission tomography (TOF PET) and the LuYAP-LYSO combination is used in small-animal PET. The halide scintillators have an excellent energy resolution of approximately 3% at 662 keV and they have a relatively high light yield. LaBr3:Ce is being studied for application in TOF PET. At the same time, the search for and research on new scintillator materials are going on. For example, LuI3:Ce is a new material with a very high light yield (approximately 90,000 photons MeV(-1)). Other examples of new materials are (C6H13NH3)2PbI4 and (C3H7NH3)2PbBr4, organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, of which the former has a very fast sub-nanosecond response. The new scintillators show great promise for new developments in medical applications, in particular, for PET systems.

  6. Radiated EMC immunity investigation of common recognition identification platform for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jorge; Cabral, Jorge; Ravelo, Blaise; Wagner, Stefan; Pedersen, Christian F.; Memon, Mukhtiar; Mathiesen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    An innovative e-healthcare platform named common recognition and identification platform (CRIP) was developed and tested as part of the CareStore project. CareStore and CRIP aims at delivering accurate and safe disease management by minimising human operator errors in hospitals and care facilities. To support this, the CRIP platform features fingerprint biometrics and near field communication (NFC) for user identification; and Bluetooth communication support for a range of telemedicine medical devices adhering to the IEEE 11073 standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) immunity of the CRIP platform in order to validate it for medical application use. The first prototype of CRIP was demonstrated to operate as expected by showing the user identification function feasibility, both via NFC and biometric, and by detection of Bluetooth devices via radio frequency (RF) scanning. The NFC module works in the 13.56 MHz band and the Bluetooth module work in the 2.4 GHz band, according to the IEEE 802.15.1 standard. The standard test qualification of the CRIP was performed based on the radiated EMC immunity with respect to the EN 61000-4-3 standard. The immunity tests were conducted under industrial EMC compliance with electric field aggression, with levels up to 10 V/m in both horizontal and vertical polarisations when the test antenna and the CRIP were placed at a distance of 3 m. It was found that the CRIP device complies with the European electromagnetic (EM) radiation immunity requirements.

  7. A different and safe method of split thickness skin graft fixation: medical honey application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2007-09-01

    Honey has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Its antibacterial effects have been established during the past few decades. Still, modern medical practitioners hesitate to apply honey for local treatment of wounds. This may be because of the expected messiness of such local application. Hence, if honey is to be used for medicinal purposes, it has to meet certain criteria. The authors evaluated its use for the split thickness skin graft fixation because of its adhesive and other beneficial effects in 11 patients. No complications such as graft loss, infection, and graft rejection were seen. Based on these results, the authors advised honey as a new agent for split thickness skin graft fixation. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in honey wound management. There are a range of regulated wound care products that contain honey available on the Drug Tariff. This article addresses key issues associated with the use of honey, outlining how it may be best used, in which methods of split thickness skin graft fixations it may be used, and what clinical outcomes may be anticipated. For this reason, 11 patients who underwent different diagnosis were included in this study. In all the patients same medical honey was used for the fixation of the skin graft. No graft loss was seen during both the first dressing and the last view of the grafted areas. As a result, it has been shown that honey is also a very effective agent for split thickness skin graft fixations. Because it is a natural agent, it can be easily used in all skin graft operation for the fixation of the split thickness skin grafts.

  8. Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring bla KPC-2 carbapenemase gene in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lavigne

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC is a carbapenemase increasingly reported worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to analyze the virulence of several KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The studied strains were (i five KPC-2 clinical strains from different geographical origins, belonging to different ST-types and possessing plasmids of different incompatibility groups; (ii seven transformants obtained after electroporation of either these natural KPC plasmids or a recombinant plasmid harboring only the bla KPC-2 gene into reference strains K. pneumoniae ATCC10031/CIP53153; and (iii five clinical strains cured of plasmids. The virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The clinical KPC producers and transformants were significantly less virulent (LT50: 5.5 days than K. pneumoniae reference strain (LT50: 4.3 days (p<0.01. However, the worldwide spread KPC-2 positive K. pneumoniae ST258 strains and reference strains containing plasmids extracted from K. pneumoniae ST258 strains had a higher virulence than KPC-2 strains belonging to other ST types (LT50: 5 days vs. 6 days, p<0.01. The increased virulence observed in cured strains confirmed this trend. The bla KPC-2 gene itself was not associated to increased virulence.

  9. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristine Kobs

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. METHODS: Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78, and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71. The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69 showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7 showed susceptibility to carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  10. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible under the statute. The statute also grants... Assistance Program (ADAP) and core medical services are available to all individuals identified and eligible... for submitting an application to waive the statutory requirement that a grantee spend at least...

  11. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  12. Molecular typing and genetic environment of the blaKPC gene in Chilean isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barría-Loaiza, Carla; Pincheira, Andrea; Quezada, Mario; Vera, Alejandra; Valenzuela, Pedro; Domínguez, Mariana; Lima, Celia A; Araya, Ingrid; Araya, Pamela; Prat, Soledad; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the genetic environment and transferability of blaKPC as well as the pulsotypes of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical samples in Chilean hospitals. Seventeen strains, principally isolated in Santiago (the capital of Chile) during the years 2012 and 2013, were included. The genetic environment of blaKPC was elucidated by PCR mapping and sequencing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Curing and conjugation experiments were performed with six strains of different sequence types (STs) and pulsotypes. Thirteen pulsotypes and six STs, mainly belonging to clonal complex 258, were found. In addition, seven strains belonged to a new ST assigned ST1161. The blaKPC sequence indicated that 16 strains had the KPC-2 variant; in only one strain (UC331) an amino acid change (R6P) was detected, corresponding to a new KPC variant designated KPC-24. Molecular characterisation of the blaKPC genetic environment revealed two distinct platforms, namely variant 1a and the Tn4401a isoform, with the first being the most common (11/17 strains). Mating experiments failed to produce transconjugants; however, loss of blaKPC was achieved by plasmid curing in all assayed strains. In conclusion, in Chilean strains of K. pneumoniae, blaKPC is primarily found associated with the variant 1a and is located in non-transferable plasmids. In addition, this study highlights the description of the new ST1161 and the new KPC-24 variant.

  13. Sequence and expression of Acinetobacter baumannii blaNDM-1 gene%鲍曼不动杆菌blaNDM-1基因序列分析及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈硕; 冯书章; 邱少富; 夏力亮; 王中强; 刘军; 柳楠; 祝令伟; 孙洋; 宋宏彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究NDM-1鲍曼不动杆菌厦门分离株耐药性产生的分子机制.方法 Vitek32测定耐药谱.根据GenBank发表blaNDM-1基因序列设计合成引物,利用PCR技术扩增NDM-1鲍曼不动杆菌的blaNDM-1结构基因及其上下游调控序列片段,连接T载体,转化至大肠杆菌E.coli DH5α,序列测定并进行BLAST分析比对.测定始发菌株与重组菌株对美洛培南的最小抑菌浓度.结果 药敏试验结果 显示,该菌株对碳青霉烯类及β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药.NDM-1鲍曼不动杆菌厦门分离株blaNDM-1基因与HK-01同源性为100%;与KP-05-506相比,在blaNDM-1和trpF之间有24 bp的插入.美洛培南最小抑菌浓度测定结果 表明,重组菌株E.coli DH5α(pMD18-T::blaNDM-1)MIC值比始发菌株E.coli DH5α升高256倍.结论 获得blaNDM-1基因的大肠杆菌能够表达碳青霉烯酶,该基因是碳青霉烯类抗生素耐药性产生的分子基础,该基因具有跨种水平传播的可能.%The emergence of plasmid-mediated carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 in Enlerobacleriaceae is a major public health issue. The first NDM-1 producing AcineLobacLer baiunannii isolated in Xiamen was characterized. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed with Vitek32. The A. Baiunannii earring NDM-1 was resistant to carbapenems and |3-lactam antibiotics· And remained susceptible to aminoglycosides and flluoroquinolones. Gene transfer to E. Coli recipient was investigated by using PCR and transformation. Sequence analysis of blaNDM-1 encoding the metallo-fHactamase indicated that the blaNDM-1 of NDM-1 A. Baiunannii was 100% homology with E. Coli HK-01 from Hong Kong. And there was a 24bp insert sequence between blaNDM-1 and LrpF when compared with K. Pneumoniae KP-05-506 from India. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the recombination strain E. Coli DH5a (pMD18-T: blaNDM-1 ) was increased 256 times more than E. Coli DH5a to meropenem. The result suggests that the E. Coli acquired the blaNDM-1 could express

  14. Unhappiness and dissatisfaction in doctors cannot be predicted by selectors from medical school application forms: A prospective, longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal statements and referees' reports are widely used on medical school application forms, particularly in the UK, to assess the suitability of candidates for a career in medicine. However there are few studies which assess the validity of such information for predicting unhappiness or dissatisfaction with a career in medicine. Here we combine data from a long-term prospective study of medical student selection and training, with an experimental approach in which a large number of assessors used a paired comparison technique to predict outcome. Methods Data from a large-scale prospective study of students applying to UK medical schools in 1990 were used to identify 40 pairs of doctors, matched by sex, for whom personal statements and referees' reports were available, and who in a 2002/3 follow-up study, one pair member was very satisfied and the other very dissatisfied with medicine as a career. In 2005, 96 assessors, who were experienced medical school selectors, doctors, medical students or psychology students, used information from the doctors' original applications to judge which member of each pair of doctors was the happier, more satisfied doctor. Results None of the groups of assessors were significantly different from chance expectations in using applicants' personal statements and the referees' reports to predict actual future satisfaction or dissatisfaction, the distribution being similar to binomial expectations. However judgements of pairs of application forms from pairs of doctors showed a non-binomial distribution, indicating consensus among assessors as to which doctor would be the happy doctor (although the consensus was wrong in half the cases. Assessors taking longer to do the task concurred more. Consensus judgements seem mainly to be based on referees' predictions of academic achievement (even though academic achievement is not actually a valid predictor of happiness or satisfaction. Conclusion

  15. The innovations with the medical applications of white LEDs and the breakthrough for new business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Motohiro; Kawakami, Youichi; Tsuji, Kiyotsugu

    2006-02-01

    The distance between the LED and the surface of the target organ is about 4-5 cm, and we think this will become the "ultimate super-localized LED lighting". In an experiment with swine, we placed a LED module at the tip of the retractor. When compared to endoscopic lighting, this method illuminated the entire thoracic cavity more brightly. Since the light is emitted from the cylinder-shaped camera component, the light is unidirectional, and the shadows from the surgical instruments are moved to the side of the incision. Retractor LED lights provided enough light in the thoracic cavity. we believe that "medical white LEDs" can contribute in clinical settings as a light source for performing safe operations with bright surgical fields in the near future. Also, we use our LEDs for new real business. In the summer of 2004, LED lighting was world first used in the 1200 year-old Gion Festival for the first time in history as "a lighting device that does not destroy cultural assets by light heat". And the next is "Lighting at the "Diva status at diva gate" and the "Thousand Armed Avalokiteshwara in innermost sanctuary in the main hall" at Kiyomizudera in Kyoto". It was a great success, and we were invited back in the spring of 2005 and for future applications. We think this is the first real application of LEDs as an outdoor lighting device. The number of people who visit Kiyomizudera is 4000,000 annually, and LEDs were adopted to illuminate the diva gate.

  16. First descriptions of blaKPC in Raoultella spp. (R. planticola and R. ornithinolytica): report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; DiPersio, Joseph R; Kang, Julia; Weinstein, Melvin P; Jones, Ronald N

    2009-12-01

    Two strains of Raoultella planticola and one of Raoultella ornithinolytica showing carbapenem resistance were recovered from patients hospitalized in New Jersey and Ohio. All patients had received previous antimicrobial treatment, including carbapenems. These strains harbored bla(KPC-2) and bla(KPC-3). Carbapenemase genes were embedded in isoforms of Tn4401 and were plasmidic and chromosomal in location.

  17. CRISPR-Cas9 for medical genetic screens: applications and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Ji, Li-Juan; Gao, Ai-Mei; Liu, Ping; He, Jing-Dong; Lu, Xiao-Jie

    2016-02-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) systems have emerged as versatile and convenient (epi)genome editing tools and have become an important player in medical genetic research. CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants such as catalytically inactivated Cas9 (dead Cas9, dCas9) and scaffold-incorporating single guide sgRNA (scRNA) have been applied in various genomic screen studies. CRISPR screens enable high-throughput interrogation of gene functions in health and diseases. Compared with conventional RNAi screens, CRISPR screens incur less off-target effects and are more versatile in that they can be used in multiple formats such as knockout, knockdown and activation screens, and can target coding and non-coding regions throughout the genome. This powerful screen platform holds the potential of revolutionising functional genomic studies in the near future. Herein, we introduce the mechanisms of (epi)genome editing mediated by CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants, introduce the procedures and applications of CRISPR screen in functional genomics, compare it with conventional screen tools and at last discuss current challenges and opportunities and propose future directions.

  18. A force-controllable macro-micro manipulator and its application to medical robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Uecker, Darrin R.; Wang, Yulun

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an 8-degrees-of-freedom macro-micro robot. This robot is capable of performing tasks that require accurate force control, such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning. The design of the macro-micro mechanism, the control algorithms, and the hardware/software implementation of the algorithms are described in this paper. Initial experimental results are reported. In addition, this paper includes a discussion of medical surgery and the role that force control may play. We introduce a new class of robotic systems collectively called Robotic Enhancement Technology (RET). RET systems introduce the combination of robotic manipulation with human control to perform manipulation tasks beyond the individual capability of either human or machine. The RET class of robotic systems offers new challenges in mechanism design, control-law development, and man/machine interface design. We believe force-controllable mechanisms such as the macro-micro structure we have developed are a necessary part of RET. Work in progress in the area of RET systems and their application to minimally invasive surgery is presented, along with future research directions.

  19. Efficient Inference of Gaussian-Process-Modulated Renewal Processes with Application to Medical Event Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    The episodic, irregular and asynchronous nature of medical data render them difficult substrates for standard machine learning algorithms. We would like to abstract away this difficulty for the class of time-stamped categorical variables (or events) by modeling them as a renewal process and inferring a probability density over non-parametric longitudinal intensity functions that modulate the process. Several methods exist for inferring such a density over intensity functions, but either their constraints prevent their use with our potentially bursty event streams, or their time complexity renders their use intractable on our long-duration observations of high-resolution events, or both. In this paper we present a new efficient and flexible inference method that uses direct numeric integration and smooth interpolation over Gaussian processes. We demonstrate that our direct method is up to twice as accurate and two orders of magnitude more efficient than the best existing method (thinning). Importantly, our direct method can infer intensity functions over the full range of bursty to memoryless to regular events, which thinning and many other methods cannot do. Finally, we apply the method to clinical event data and demonstrate a simple example application facilitated by the abstraction.

  20. Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Fungi and Yeast: A Review of Their Preparation, Properties, and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boroumand Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. Among the many possible bio resources, biologically active products from fungi and yeast represent excellent scaffolds for this purpose. Since fungi and yeast are very effective secretors of extracellular enzymes and number of species grow fast and therefore culturing and keeping them in the laboratory are very simple. They are able to produce metal nanoparticles and nanostructure via reducing enzyme intracellularly or extracellularly. The focus of this review is the application of fungi and yeast in the green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Meanwhile the domain of biosynthesized nanoparticles is somewhat novel; the innovative uses in nano medicine in different areas including the delivery of drug, cancer therapy, antibacterial, biosensors, and MRI and medical imaging are reviewed. The proposed signaling pathways of nanoparticles induced apoptosis in cancerous cells and anti-angiogenesis effects also are reviewed. In this article, we provide a short summary of the present study universally on the utilization of eukaryotes like yeast and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs and their uses.

  1. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  2. Gaussian mixtures on tensor fields for segmentation: applications to medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Alberola-López, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for tensor field segmentation based on the definition of mixtures of Gaussians on tensors as a statistical model. Working over the well-known Geodesic Active Regions segmentation framework, this scheme presents several interesting advantages. First, it yields a more flexible model than the use of a single Gaussian distribution, which enables the method to better adapt to the complexity of the data. Second, it can work directly on tensor-valued images or, through a parallel scheme that processes independently the intensity and the local structure tensor, on scalar textured images. Two different applications have been considered to show the suitability of the proposed method for medical imaging segmentation. First, we address DT-MRI segmentation on a dataset of 32 volumes, showing a successful segmentation of the corpus callosum and favourable comparisons with related approaches in the literature. Second, the segmentation of bones from hand radiographs is studied, and a complete automatic-semiautomatic approach has been developed that makes use of anatomical prior knowledge to produce accurate segmentation results.

  3. Evolving a Bayesian Classifier for ECG-based Age Classification in Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, M; Saad, A; Litt, B; Vachtsevanos, G

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To classify patients by age based upon information extracted from their electro-cardiograms (ECGs). To develop and compare the performance of Bayesian classifiers. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We present a methodology for classifying patients according to statistical features extracted from their ECG signals using a genetically evolved Bayesian network classifier. Continuous signal feature variables are converted to a discrete symbolic form by thresholding, to lower the dimensionality of the signal. This simplifies calculation of conditional probability tables for the classifier, and makes the tables smaller. Two methods of network discovery from data were developed and compared: the first using a greedy hill-climb search and the second employed evolutionary computing using a genetic algorithm (GA). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The evolved Bayesian network performed better (86.25% AUC) than both the one developed using the greedy algorithm (65% AUC) and the naïve Bayesian classifier (84.75% AUC). The methodology for evolving the Bayesian classifier can be used to evolve Bayesian networks in general thereby identifying the dependencies among the variables of interest. Those dependencies are assumed to be non-existent by naïve Bayesian classifiers. Such a classifier can then be used for medical applications for diagnosis and prediction purposes.

  4. Analysis and Modeling of Linear-Switched Reluctance for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Llibre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis, the modeling and the control of a linear-switched reluctance motor. The application under consideration is medical, and the actuator is to be used as a left ventricular assist device. The actuator has a cylindrical or tubular shape, with a mechanical unidirectional valve placed inside the mover, which provides a pulsatile flow of blood. The analytical expression of the effort based on the linear behavior of the actuator is given. The identification of the characteristics of the prototype actuator and the principle of position control is performed. A modeling of the actuator is proposed, taking into account the variation of inductance with respect to the position. The closed-loop position control of the actuator is performed by simulation. A controller with integral action and anticipatory action is implemented in order to compensate the effects of disturbing efforts and tracking deviations. Moreover, a magic switch is performed in the controller to avoid overshoots. The results show that the closed-loop response of the actuator is satisfactory.

  5. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    For pt.I, see ibid., vol.52, no.2, p.177-91 (2005). In the first paper, the superiority of linear FM signals was shown in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robustness to tissue attenuation. This second paper in the series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ....... The paper also presents acquired images, using complementary Golay codes, that show the deleterious effects of attenuation on binary codes when processed with a matched filter, als- - o confirmed by the presented simulated images....... ultrasound presents design methods of linear FM signals and mismatched filters, in order to meet the higher demands on resolution in ultrasound imaging. It is shown that for the small time-bandwidth (TB) products available in ultrasound, the rectangular spectrum approximation is not valid, which reduces...... the effectiveness of weighting. Additionally, the distant range sidelobes are associated with the ripples of the spectrum amplitude and, thus, cannot be removed by weighting. Ripple reduction is achieved through amplitude or phase predistortion of the transmitted signals. Mismatched filters are designed...

  6. Multi-Modality Pulsed AC Source for Medical Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Daniel; Gilbert, James

    2014-10-01

    A burgeoning field has developed around the use of non-equilibrium (``cold'') plasmas for various medical applications, including wound treatment, surface sterilization, non-thermal hemostasis, and selective cell destruction. Proposed devices typically utilize pulsed DC power sources, which have no other therapeutic utility, and may encounter significant regulatory restrictions regarding their safety for use in patient care. Additionally, dedicated capital equipment is difficult for healthcare facilities to justify. In this work, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of non-equilibrium plasma using pulsed AC output from a specially-designed electrosurgical generator. The ability to power novel non-equilibrium plasma devices from a piece of equipment already ubiquitous in operating theatres should significantly reduce the barriers to adoption of plasma devices. We demonstrate the ability of a prototype device, coupled to this source, to reduce bacterial growth in vitro. Such a system could allow a single surgical instrument to provide both non-thermal sterilization and thermal tissue dissection.

  7. Medical applications of organic-inorganic hybrid materials within the field of silica-based bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet-Regí, María; Colilla, Montserrat; González, Blanca

    2011-02-01

    Research on bioceramics has evolved from the use of inert materials for mere substitution of living tissues towards the development of third-generation bioceramics aimed at inducing bone tissue regeneration. Within this context hybrid bioceramics have remarkable features resulting from the synergistic combination of both inorganic and organic components that make them suitable for a wide range of medical applications. Certain bioceramics, such as ordered mesoporous silicas, can exhibit different kind of interaction with organic molecules to develop different functions. The weak interaction of these host matrixes with drug molecules confined in the mesoporous channels allows these hybrid systems to be used as controlled delivery devices. Moreover, mesoporous silicas can be used to fabricate three (3D)-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this last case, different osteoinductive agents (peptides, hormones and growth factors) can be strongly grafted to the bioceramic matrix to act as attracting signals for bone cells to promote bone regeneration process. Finally, recent research examples of organic-inorganic hybrid bioceramics, such as stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems and nanosystems for targeting of cancer cells and gene transfection, are also tackled in this tutorial review (64 references).

  8. Depth of Interaction Enhanced Gamma-Ray Imaging for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lerche, C W

    2006-01-01

    A novel design for an inexpensive depth of interaction capable detector for gamma rays, suitable for nuclear medical applications, especially Positron Emission Tomography, has been developed. The design takes advantage of the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution in continuous crystals and the depth of interaction of the gamma-ray. For measuring the distribution width, an inexpensive modification of the commonly used charge dividing circuits that allows analogue and instantaneous computation of the 2nd moment has been developed and is presented in this work. The method has been tested with a detector made of a continuous LSO-scintillator of dimensions 42x42x10 cubic mm and optically coupled to the compact large area position sensitive photomultiplier H8500 from Hamamatsu. The mean resolution in all non-trivial moments was found to be smaller than 5% but their direct use as estimates for the three-dimensional photoconversion position turned out to be unsuitable. Standard ...

  9. [Comment on applications of data mining used in studies of heritage of experiences of national medical masters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Tang, Shi-Huan; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-02-01

    Data mining, as known as knowledge discovery in databases, is a non-trivial process of revealing the implied, previously unknown and potentially useful information from the massive data. In recently years, the applications of data mining in the field of pharmaceutical research of traditional Chinese medicine have widespread. Especially in the field of the heritage of experiences of na-tional medical masters, data mining plays an important role. In this study, we would expound of the use of methods of data mining in the heritage of experiences of national medical masters, and analyze their advantages and disadvantages, such as association rules, Bayesian networks, neural networks, and decision trees.

  10. Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Handa, Hiroshi; Abe, Masanori

    2010-11-05

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate-an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)-a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed-to a level of 2.0 pg ml(-1). We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe beads

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Handa, Hiroshi; Abe, Masanori

    2010-11-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate—an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)—a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed—to a level of 2.0 pg ml - 1. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe

  12. Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Adarsh [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Abe, Masanori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate-an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)-a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed-to a level of 2.0 pg ml{sup -1}. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer

  13. Research Internship on Pulse Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) and Microwave Applications for Deep Space Exploration Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Austin

    2016-01-01

    medical applications. This internship allowed me to further develop my technical skills as well as gain insight on the correct way to conduct testing and scientific experiments. It also provided me with the opportunity to work with experienced professionals both inside and outside of NASA to successfully complete my research. I gained valuable work experience in a wide range of biomedical topics that have reaffirmed my desire to continue to work in the biomedical engineering field in the future.

  14. Identificación genotípica de β-lactamasas de espectro espectro extendido (BLEE (blaTEM y blaSHV en Escherichia coli uropatógena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeffersson Grandas Franco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las infecciones de tracto urinario (ITU son consideradas un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial debido a su incidencia y morbilidad. Entre los agentes causales que se aíslan con mayor frecuencia, se encuentra E. coli, con una prevalencia que va desde 40% al 95%. Actualmente, la problemática de las ITU ha venido en aumento, debido a la aparición de resistencia bacteriana a agentes antimicrobianos, influenciado por la presión selectiva, la preexistencia de genes de resistencia y el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos. Objetivo: Identificar molecularmente β-lactamasas de espectro extendido (blaTEM y blaSHV, en E. coli uropatógena, aislada en pacientes ambulatorios que asisten a un laboratorio clínico de tercer nivel de complejidad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. En este trabajo se estudiaron 250 cepas de las cuales 120 eran presuntivas de producir β-lactamasas de acuerdo al método de Kirby-bauer que se realizó años anteriores por el semillero de Inmunidad e Infección. Los genes de interés se amplificaron mediante PCR. Se utilizó Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 como control positivo. Una vez amplificado el gen se llevó a cabo el corrido electroforético en gel de agarosa donde el producto amplificado fue de 470 pb en el caso de blaSHV y de 1080 pb para blaTEM. Los fenotipos compatibles con producción de β-lactamasas se analizaron por medio de distribución de frecuencia usando el software WHONET 5,6. La distribución de frecuencia de los genes analizados se calculó usando el software MedCalc versión 15.2.2 (Bélgica – Software BBVA. Resultados: De las cepas analizadas, el 52,8% portadoras del gen blaTEM y el 2,8% del gen blaSHV-2. Se encontró co-existencia de los genes blaSHV-2 y blaTEM en el 1,68% del total de las cepas. De todas las cepas presuntivas de producir BLEE (n=120, 94 fueron productoras de BLEE, lo que nos indicaría que las 21 cepas restantes, implementan

  15. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  16. Rapid discrimination of Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II lineage by pyrosequencing SNP analyses of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Satowa; Suzuki, Masato; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo

    2013-08-01

    We found that Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II generally possesses unique GTA sequence at nucleotide positions 106-108 in the bla(OXA-51-like) genes. We exploited this to develop an easy and rapid method for discrimination of international clone II from other A. baumannii by employing pyrosequencing analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  17. Identification of Achromobacter xylosoxidans by detection of the bla(OXA-114-like) gene intrinsic in this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Mustafa, Nazim; Shah, Jayesh; Hampton, Catherine V; Pike, Rachel; Kenna, Dervla T

    2011-07-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an emerging pathogen among patients with cystic fibrosis. Here we describe a specific PCR for identification of this organism, based on detection of bla(OXA-114-like). Comparison of isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed evidence of cross-infection in some cases, but most patients harbored their own strain.

  18. [Application of studies on popular words in the systematization of ancient medical books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D; Lai, W

    2000-07-01

    Based on the arrangement of Renho Temple edition of Taisu (Extremely Plain), as an example, it can be seen that by correcting the wrong popular words in ancient medical books, the causes of mistakes of ancient editions and solution for annotations of difficult terms of ancient words in the medical books are of significance.

  19. How Students Experience and Navigate Transitions in Undergraduate Medical Education: An Application of Bourdieu's Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F.; Richards, Boyd F.; Varpio, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theoretical model as a lens for analysis, we sought to understand how students experience the undergraduate medical education (UME) milieu, focusing on how they navigate transitions from the preclinical phase, to the major clinical year (MCY), and to the preparation for residency phase. Twenty-two medical students participated in…

  20. Development and application of measurement methods focusing on medication related problems in elderly hospitalised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Wierenga

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, elderly hospitalised patients form a patient group that is at higher risk for medication related problems compared to younger patients. In order to measure medication related problems in hospitalised elderly and to ultimately improve their pharmaceutical care we examined three possibl

  1. The Application of Corpus-based Teaching Approach to Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞君; 王连柱; 王兰英

    2009-01-01

    Insufficient vocabulary has become a barrier to reading comprehension and translation in the process of ME (medical English) study to the third-year students at medical universities or colleges.The current study was designed to investigate corpus- based teaching ap-proach to enlarging students'vocabulary in the course of higher learning of ML (medical literature).The study was carried out from 2006.9 to 2008.9 among third -year medical students in our college.Students were encouraged to augment their vocabulary by active practice,intensive learning,and comprehensive learning respectively through discovering study by using self-made ME corpuses (90,000 words).In doing so, their vocabulary was enlarged by actively using the essential vocabulary,attaching more attention to the difficult technical vocabulary,and getting familiar with medical terms,which eliminated their language barrier,improved their integrated language proficiency,and developed their sense of achievement.

  2. Application of the local similarity filter for the suppression of multiplicative noise in medical ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnik, Damian; Smolka, Bogdan; Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we address the problem of the reduction of multiplicative noise in digital images. This kind of image distortion, also known as speckle noise, severely decreases the quality of medical ultrasound images and therefore their effective enhancement and restoration is of vital importance for proper visual inspection and quantitative measurements. The structure of the proposed Pixel-Patch Similarity Filter (PPSF) is a weighted average of pixels in a processing block and the weights are determined calculating the sum of squared differences between the mean of a patch and the intensities of pixels of the local window at the block center. The structure of the proposed design is similar to the bilateral and non-local means filters, however we neglect the topographic distance between pixels, which decreases substantially its computational complexity. The new technique was evaluated on standard gray scale test images contaminated with multiplicative noise modelled using Gaussian and uniform distribution. Its efficiency was also assessed utilizing a set of simulated ultrasonographic images distorted by means of the Field II simulation software and real ultrasound images of a finger joint. The comparison with the state-of-the-art techniques revealed very high efficiency of the proposed filtering framework, especially for strongly degraded images. Visually, the homogeneous areas are smoother, while image edges and small details are better preserved. The experiments have shown that satisfactory results were obtained with patches consisting of only 9 samples belonging to a relatively small processing block of 7x7 pixels, which ensures low computational complexity of the proposed denoising scheme and allows its application in real-time image processing scenarios.

  3. New hybrid voxelized/analytical primitive in Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Julien; Lemaréchal, Yannick; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) applied in particle physics play a key role in medical imaging and particle therapy. In such simulations, particles are transported through voxelized phantoms derived from predominantly patient CT images. However, such voxelized object representation limits the incorporation of fine elements, such as artificial implants from CAD modeling or anatomical and functional details extracted from other imaging modalities. In this work we propose a new hYbrid Voxelized/ANalytical primitive (YVAN) that combines both voxelized and analytical object descriptions within the same MCS, without the need to simultaneously run two parallel simulations, which is the current gold standard methodology. Given that YVAN is simply a new primitive object, it does not require any modifications on the underlying MC navigation code. The new proposed primitive was assessed through a first simple MCS. Results from the YVAN primitive were compared against an MCS using a pure analytical geometry and the layer mass geometry concept. A perfect agreement was found between these simulations, leading to the conclusion that the new hybrid primitive is able to accurately and efficiently handle phantoms defined by a mixture of voxelized and analytical objects. In addition, two application-based evaluation studies in coronary angiography and intra-operative radiotherapy showed that the use of YVAN was 6.5% and 12.2% faster than the layered mass geometry method, respectively, without any associated loss of accuracy. However, the simplification advantages and differences in computational time improvements obtained with YVAN depend on the relative proportion of the analytical and voxelized structures used in the simulation as well as the size and number of triangles used in the description of the analytical object meshes.

  4. Critical overview of Nitinol surfaces and their modifications for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalovskaya, S; Anderegg, J; Van Humbeeck, J

    2008-05-01

    Nitinol, a group of nearly equiatomic shape memory and superelastic NiTi alloys, is being extensively explored for medical applications. Release of Ni in the human body, a potential problem with Nitinol implant devices, has stimulated a great deal of research on its surface modifications and coatings. In order to use any of the developed surfaces in implant designs, it is important to understand whether they really have advantages over bare Nitinol. This paper overviews the current situation, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of new surfaces as well as the limitations of the studies performed. It presents a comprehensive analysis of surface topography, chemistry, corrosion behavior, nickel release and biological responses to Nitinol surfaces modified mechanically or using such methods as etching in acids and alkaline solutions, electropolishing, heat and ion beam treatments, boiling in water and autoclaving, conventional and ion plasma implantations, laser melting and bioactive coating deposition. The analysis demonstrates that the presently developed surfaces vary in thickness from a few nanometers to micrometers, and that they can effectively prevent Ni release if the surface integrity is maintained under strain and if no Ni-enriched sub-layers are present. Whether it is appropriate to use various low temperature pre-treatment protocols (< or = 160 degrees C) developed originally for pure titanium for Nitinol surface modifications and coatings is also discussed. The importance of selection of original Nitinol surfaces with regard to the performance of coatings and comparative performance of controls in the studies is emphasized. Considering the obvious advantages of bare Nitinol surfaces for superelastic implants, details of their preparation are also outlined.

  5. New hybrid voxelized/analytical primitive in Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Julien; Lemaréchal, Yannick; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) applied in particle physics play a key role in medical imaging and particle therapy. In such simulations, particles are transported through voxelized phantoms derived from predominantly patient CT images. However, such voxelized object representation limits the incorporation of fine elements, such as artificial implants from CAD modeling or anatomical and functional details extracted from other imaging modalities. In this work we propose a new hYbrid Voxelized/ANalytical primitive (YVAN) that combines both voxelized and analytical object descriptions within the same MCS, without the need to simultaneously run two parallel simulations, which is the current gold standard methodology. Given that YVAN is simply a new primitive object, it does not require any modifications on the underlying MC navigation code. The new proposed primitive was assessed through a first simple MCS. Results from the YVAN primitive were compared against an MCS using a pure analytical geometry and the layer mass geometry concept. A perfect agreement was found between these simulations, leading to the conclusion that the new hybrid primitive is able to accurately and efficiently handle phantoms defined by a mixture of voxelized and analytical objects. In addition, two application-based evaluation studies in coronary angiography and intra-operative radiotherapy showed that the use of YVAN was 6.5% and 12.2% faster than the layered mass geometry method, respectively, without any associated loss of accuracy. However, the simplification advantages and differences in computational time improvements obtained with YVAN depend on the relative proportion of the analytical and voxelized structures used in the simulation as well as the size and number of triangles used in the description of the analytical object meshes.

  6. Influence of local application of glaucoma medications-travoprost eye drops on patients' tear film function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpu

    2015-03-01

    This study discussed about the influence of local application of glaucoma medications -- travoprost eye drops to patients' tear film function. We selected 24 patients, 45 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension. All of the patients topically used the travoprost eye drops for one time every night. After and before the pharmacy, we proceeded 1, 2, 3 mo lines symptom score and Schirmer's test (St), corneal fluorescein staining (FL), breakup time of tear film (BUT). Average value of symptom score and FL of all the patients before pharmacy were 1.32 ± 1. 55, 0.42 ± 0.68, and 1, 2, 3mo after pharmacy were respectively 2.68 ± 1.59, 0.96 ± 0.81; 4.97 ± 1.62, 1.46 ± 0.62; 6.21 ± 1.33, 1.88 ± 0.44. Symptom score and FL of 1, 2, 3 mo patients after pharmacy were all prominent higher than it before pharmacy (P=0.00), and it gradually increased. The average value of patients symptom BUT and St before pharmacy were (7.71 ± 0.87s), (8.32 ± 2.63mm /5min) and 1, 2, 3 mo after pharmacy were respectively (6.93 ± 1.17s), (7.69 ± 3. 33mm /5min); (5.48 ± 1.29s), (6.79 ± 2.94mm /5min); (4.33 ± 1.83s), (5.98 ± 3.11mm/5min). BUT and St value after pharmacy were prominent all lower than the level before pharmacy (P=0.00). And it gradually reduced. Short-term use of travoprost eye drops would aggravate the corneal irritation of patients, and decrease the tear film stability and tear secretion.

  7. An ultra-low-power RF transceiver for WBANs in medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhang; Xiaofei, Kuang; Nanjian, Wu

    2011-06-01

    A 2.4 GHz ultra-low-power RF transceiver with a 900 MHz auxiliary wake-up link for wireless body area networks (WBANs) in medical applications is presented. The RF transceiver with an asymmetric architecture is proposed to achieve high energy efficiency according to the asymmetric communication in WBANs. The transceiver consists of a main receiver (RX) with an ultra-low-power free-running ring oscillator and a high speed main transmitter (TX) with fast lock-in PLL. A passive wake-up receiver (WuRx) for wake-up function with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) CMOS rectifier is designed to offer the sensor node the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. The chip is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Its core area is 1.6 mm2. The main RX achieves a sensitivity of -55 dBm at a 100 kbps OOK data rate while consuming just 210 μA current from the 1 V power supply. The main TX achieves +3 dBm output power with a 4 Mbps/500 kbps/200 kbps data rate for OOK/4 FSK/2 FSK modulation and dissipates 3.25 mA/6.5 mA/6.5 mA current from a 1.8 V power supply. The minimum detectable RF input energy for the wake-up RX is -15 dBm and the PCE is more than 25%.

  8. An ultra-low-power RF transceiver for WBANs in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qi; Wu Nanjian [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Kuang Xiaofei, E-mail: nanjian@semi.ac.cn [College of Electronic Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A 2.4 GHz ultra-low-power RF transceiver with a 900 MHz auxiliary wake-up link for wireless body area networks (WBANs) in medical applications is presented. The RF transceiver with an asymmetric architecture is proposed to achieve high energy efficiency according to the asymmetric communication in WBANs. The transceiver consists of a main receiver (RX) with an ultra-low-power free-running ring oscillator and a high speed main transmitter (TX) with fast lock-in PLL. A passive wake-up receiver (WuRx) for wake-up function with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) CMOS rectifier is designed to offer the sensor node the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. The chip is implemented in a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. Its core area is 1.6 mm{sup 2}. The main RX achieves a sensitivity of -55 dBm at a 100 kbps OOK data rate while consuming just 210 {mu}A current from the 1 V power supply. The main TX achieves +3 dBm output power with a 4 Mbps/500 kbps/200 kbps data rate for OOK/4 FSK/2 FSK modulation and dissipates 3.25 mA/6.5 mA/6.5 mA current from a 1.8 V power supply. The minimum detectable RF input energy for the wake-up RX is -15 dBm and the PCE is more than 25%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Depth of Interaction Enhanced Gamma-Ray Imaging for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Christoph W.

    2006-11-01

    A novel design for an inexpensive depth of interaction capable detector for gamma rays, suitable for nuclear medical applications, especially Positron Emission Tomography, has been developed. The design takes advantage of the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution in continuous crystals and the depth of interaction of the gamma-ray. For measuring the distribution width, an inexpensive modification of the commonly used charge dividing circuits that allows analogue and instantaneous computation of the 2nd moment has been developed and is presented in this work. The method has been tested with a detector made of a continuous LSO-scintillator of dimensions 42x42x10 cubic mm and optically coupled to the compact large area position sensitive photomultiplier H8500 from Hamamatsu. The mean resolution in all non-trivial moments was found to be smaller than 5% but their direct use as estimates for the three-dimensional photoconversion position turned out to be unsuitable. Standard polynomial interpolation in higher dimensions has been adopted to reconstruct the impact positions of the gamma-rays from the measured moments. When using the reconstructed impact positions, the intrinsic mean spatial resolution of the detector was found to be 1.9 mm for the transverse components and 3.9 mm for the depth of interaction. Using directly the bare moments as position estimate, the intrinsic mean spatial resolution of the detector was found to be 3.4 mm and 4.9 mm, respectively. The cost for the required detector improvements are essentially negligible.

  10. Gay-related smartphone applications: potential and risk- a review of the medical literature in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the setting of difficulty in finding inter-relational partners for the individuals belonging to the LGBT community, a number of mobile phone applications provided with geo-tracking system have appeared in the last years, facilitating communication between gay individuals located in the nearby geographic areas, free applications which protect the identity of the users and indicate the relative distance between users and allow the sharing of information regarding physical characteristics (age, height, weight as well as image-type files. At present, it is worth acknowledging that all those applications addressed to the LGBT persons in search for partners are sex-specific, being polarized (applications for MSM/lesbians. Among those the most successful and renowned are Grindr, Planet Romeo (homosexuals, MSM and, respectively, Brenda (lesbians. In the medical literature there are recent studies that assess the STI risk-specific profile of these users, as well as the opportunities of behavioral study that these applications are presenting to the scientists, through the accessibility of interviewing gay persons and targeting them in HIV prevention programs. The present paper aims to look over the medical studies published to date which involved these types of internet type social networks, emphasizing on the potential represented by these applications and on the behavioral and risk profile of the users.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of an ampicillin-conjugated magnetic nanoantibiotic for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-08-01

    .3%. Drug release was also studied, and the total release equilibrium for amp from the amp-CS-MNPs was 100% over 400 minutes. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite was determined using agar diffusion and growth inhibition assays against Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite was determined against bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The synthesized nanocomposites exhibited antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as antimycobacterial effects. Thus, this study introduces a novel ß-lactam antibacterial-based nanocomposite that can decrease fungus activity on demand for numerous medical applications. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, chitosan, coating material, antibacterial activity, ß-lactam, and nanoantibiotics

  12. Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15 among Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the environment, livestock and human interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Glier, Melinda; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2015-07-15

    One of the currently most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae is based on the production of ESBL enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and monobactams by hydrolyzing their β-lactam ring. In humans, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme type is encoded by blaCTX-M-15. CTX-M-15 producing enterobacterial strains were also frequently isolated from environmental samples including surface water and freshwater fish. Plasmids, which can be grouped in different plasmid incompatibility types, play a key role in the horizontal spread of these multidrug resistance genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaCTX-M-15 genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the environment, livestock and human interface. In total, 81 blaCTX-M-15-harboring isolates collected between 2009 and 2014 were tested for its ability to transfer blaCTX-M-15 by conjugation. These plasmids were further typed. Transfer of a single blaCTX-M-15-harboring plasmid was observed in 32 (39.5%) of the isolates. The most frequent replicon types detected among these plasmids are IncF-type plasmids (n=12) (mostly multi replicon plasmids with a combination of following replicons: IncFII, IncFIA and IncFIB), followed by IncI1 (n=8), IncK (n=3) and IncR (n=1). A noticeable number of plasmids (n=8) could not be assigned to any of the tested replicon types. Knowledge about the plasmid types circulating in bacterial populations is indispensable for understanding epidemiological dynamics and for establishing intervention strategies to stop further dissemination of particular plasmids.

  13. IEEE 802.14.5/ZigBee Based WSNs - WPANs and Innovative Application in Medical Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    With recent developments in wireless networks field and in sensing technology, new and innovative medical applications based on the wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology are being developed in the research lab or commercial sectors. The key problem of WSN based application in the medical and health care domain is to get the message with the bounded delays and/or real-time data such as the signal of falls, the alarm of heart attacks traversed to the cluster at where the emergence unit located while delivering the steady flows of data with a certain level of Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper, we address this problem by proposing to use a periodic scheduling-Time Division Cluster Schedule (TDCS), to avoid the flow collision while meeting the end-to-end delay deadlines. The proposed scheduling mechanism has been studied on simulated Wireless sensor networks with a cluster tree topology on which the OPEN-ZB simulation model is adopted. The preliminary results shown that it is feasible to guarantee the real time medical data delivered on time over the low data rate wireless sensor networks when deployed at medical and/or health care domain, under the governance of the TDCS mechanism.

  14. Large-Scale medical image analytics: Recent methodologies, applications and Future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2016-10-01

    Despite the ever-increasing amount and complexity of annotated medical image data, the development of large-scale medical image analysis algorithms has not kept pace with the need for methods that bridge the semantic gap between images and diagnoses. The goal of this position paper is to discuss and explore innovative and large-scale data science techniques in medical image analytics, which will benefit clinical decision-making and facilitate efficient medical data management. Particularly, we advocate that the scale of image retrieval systems should be significantly increased at which interactive systems can be effective for knowledge discovery in potentially large databases of medical images. For clinical relevance, such systems should return results in real-time, incorporate expert feedback, and be able to cope with the size, quality, and variety of the medical images and their associated metadata for a particular domain. The design, development, and testing of the such framework can significantly impact interactive mining in medical image databases that are growing rapidly in size and complexity and enable novel methods of analysis at much larger scales in an efficient, integrated fashion.

  15. Medical applications of ionizing radiation; Aplicaciones medicas de las radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, M. L.; Prieto, C.; Garcia, P.; Bejar, M. J.

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is nowadays widely used for both diagnosis and therapy mainly in nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology specialities. Benchmark techniques and advanced equipment like multislice CT in diagnostic radiology, PET-CT in nuclear medicine or IMRT or IGRT in radiotherapy are currently becoming regular in daily practice at hospitals. Medical exposures are by far the largest artificial source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. although concentrated in a relatively small percentage of the worlds population, these medical exposures continue to grow in a significant way, especially in developed countries. This fact makes it necessary to keep on working in radiological protection and safety at medical facilities. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diop

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants' stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL. blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella.

  17. Chromosomal blaCTX-M-₁₅ associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates.

  18. Discovery and Development of Synthetic and Natural Biomaterials for Protein Therapeutics and Medical Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew J.

    Controlling nonspecific protein interactions is important for applications from medical devices to protein therapeutics. The presented work is a compilation of efforts aimed at using zwitterionic (ionic yet charge neutral) polymers to modify and stabilize the surface of sensitive biomedical and biological materials. Traditionally, when modifying the surface of a material, the stability of the underlying substrate. The materials modified in this dissertation are unique due to their unconventional amorphous characteristics which provide additional challenges. These are poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) rubber, and proteins. These materials may seem dissimilar, but both have amorphous surfaces, that do not respond well to chemical modification. PDMS is a biomaterial extensively used in medical device manufacturing, but experiences unacceptably high levels of non-specific protein fouling when used with biological samples. To reduce protein fouling, surface modification is often needed. Unfortunately conventional surface modification methods, such as Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings, do not work for PDMS due to its amorphous state. Herein, we demonstrate how a superhydrophilic zwitterionic material, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), can provide a highly stable nonfouling coating with long term stability due to the sharp the contrast in hydrophobicity between pCBMA and PDMS. Biological materials, such as proteins, also require stabilization to improve shelf life, circulation time, and bioactivity. Conjugation of proteins with PEG is often used to increase protein stability, but has a detrimental effect on bioactivity. Here we have shown that pCBMA conjugation improves stability in a similar fashion to PEG, but also retains, or even improves, binding affinity due to enhanced protein-substrate hydrophobic interactions. Recognizing that pCBMA chemically resembles the combination of lysine (K) and glutamic acid (E) amino acids, we have shown how zwitterionic

  19. The successful application of business coaching to decrease preventable medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassatly, Michael G; Mitsch, Darelyn

    2011-01-01

    The number and cost of preventable medical injuries and deaths continue to rise in the U.S. healthcare system despite many attempts to avert such occurrences. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has prudently decided to deny claims for the healthcare costs incurred in treating certain preventable injuries. With the passage of a the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the list of denied healthcare procedures to correct preventable medical injuries will grow, resulting in a further squeezing of the profit margins of medical institutions and providers. In this article, we show that business coaching of the healthcare team is successful in reversing the alarming growth rate of medical errors, thus ensuring the financial success of healthcare institutions adopting business coaching practices.

  20. Teaching medical information retrieval and application courses in Chinese universities: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam W; Li, Hong-Mei

    2010-12-01

    An important aspect of Chinese academic health science libraries is their involvement in teaching medical information retrieval courses as part of the medical curriculum. Health science librarians in China have a more formal teaching role than is generally found in Western countries, including many full-time teaching positions. This article provides a case study of Kunming Medical University Library, where courses are provided as credit units at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The teaching practices of Chinese health science libraries are compared with teaching experiences reported in Western countries. It is noted that Chinese government's educational policy is similar to that of the United States in promoting the role of the library in teaching subjects as part of the medical curriculum. In China, this has lead to the development of teaching departments within health science libraries and the appointment of full and part-time teacher librarians.

  1. Application of Fisher Score and mRMR Techniques for Feature Selection in Compressed Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsidhar Enireddy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays there is a large increase in the digital medical images and different medical imaging equipments are available for diagnoses, medical professionals are increasingly relying on computer aided techniques for both indexing these images and retrieving similar images from large repositories. To develop systems which are computationally less intensive without compromising on the accuracy from the high dimensional feature space is always challenging. In this paper an investigation is made on the retrieval of compressed medical images. Images are compressed using the visually lossless compression technique. Shape and texture features are extracted and best features are selected using the fisher technique and mRMR. Using these selected features RNN with BPTT was utilized for classification of the compressed images.

  2. English-to-Dari and Dari-to-English Medical Phrasebook Android Application Software System Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    special trainer’s edition of a medical reference manual, the need for a bilingual English-Dari glossary of technical medical terms became very...RelativeLayout. A RelativeLayout allows child widgets and other views to specify their position relative to each or their parent. The buttons are contained...orientation to vertical and force the child buttons to be set to the same width and height (android:layout_weight = “1”). The english_button is used

  3. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, M A; Tay, S K

    2014-06-01

    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed.

  4. Class 1 integrons in non-clonal multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from Iran, description of the new blaIMP-55 allele in In1243.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Omid; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Badmasti, Farzad; Modarresi, Farzan; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Mansouri, Shahla; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2016-09-01

    Infections and outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) are prevalent and have been reported worldwide over the past 20 or more years. Class 1 integron in MDR-AB plays an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings. This study has been conducted to evaluate the detection of metallo-β-lactamase, characterization of class 1 integron and determination of clonal relatedness among A. baumannii hospital isolates. Sixty-five clinical isolates of MDR-AB were recovered from two Iranian hospital's intensive care units from February to August 2013. Integrase (intI1) and blaIMP genes were detected in 70.8 % (n=46/65) and 9.23 % (n=6/65) of the isolates using PCR assay, respectively. No other metallo-β-lactamase genes (blaVIM, blaSIM and blaNDM) were detected. PCR sequencing of integron gene cassette revealed the following arrays: blaOXA10-aacA4-blaIMP-55-cmlA5 (as a novel array was designated In1243), aacC1 and aadA1. Analysis of blaIMP gene revealed a new allele designated as blaIMP-55. Gene transfer experiment by conjugation showed the 36 kb conjugative plasmid harbouring In1243. The clonal assessment by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR demonstrated a high-degree relatedness among the strains, but strains harbouring In1243 displayed a different repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR profile. In this study, we found that a novel class 1 integron (In1243) that encoded a new blaIMP allele resided on a transferable plasmid in non-clonal strains of MDR-AB.

  5. Dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China: main roles of conjugative plasmid pAZJ221 and transposon Tn2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Lin; Ji, Shu-Juan; Ruan, Zhi; Fu, Ying; Fu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Yan-Fei; Yu, Yun-Song

    2015-04-01

    Production of the OXA-23 carbapenemase is the most common reason for the increasing carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. This study was conducted to reveal the genetic basis of blaOXA-23 dissemination in Acinetobacter spp. in China. A total of 63 carbapenem-resistant OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter sp. isolates, representing different backgrounds, were selected from 28 hospitals in 18 provinces for this study. Generally, two patterns of plasmids carrying blaOXA-23 were detected according to S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. A ca. 78-kb plasmid, designated pAZJ221, was found in 23 Acinetobacter baumannii and three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates, while a novel ca. 50-kb plasmid was carried by only two other A. baumannii isolates. Three of these isolates had an additional copy of blaOXA-23 on the chromosome. Transformation of the two plasmids succeeded, but only pAZJ221 was conjugative. Plasmid pAZJ221 was sequenced completely and found to carry no previously known resistance genes except blaOXA-23. The blaOXA-23 gene of the remaining 35 isolates was chromosome borne. The blaOXA-23 genetic environments were correlated with Tn2009 in 57 isolates, Tn2008 in 5 isolates, and Tn2006 in 1 isolate. The MIC values for the carbapenems with these isolates were not significantly associated with the genomic locations or the copy numbers of blaOXA-23. Overall, these observations suggest that the plasmid pAZJ221 and Tn2009 have effectively contributed to the wide dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China and that horizontal gene transfer may play an important role in dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene.

  6. Application of the zoning decree in the medical sector: external radiotherapy and curietherapy; Application de l'arrete zonage dans le domaine medical: Radiotherapie externe et curietherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierrat, N. [Service de physique medicale, Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The author presents some requirements about access to external radiotherapy rooms and curietherapy rooms according the application of a decree requiring zoning for radiotherapy practices. She also indicates some technical characteristics (radioactive sources, authorized radioactivity level). As far as curietherapy is concerned, she makes a distinction between treatments with or without a source projector, and also (in the case with a source projector) between low dose rate with caesium 137, pulsed radiation with indium 192 and high dose rate with indium 192

  7. [Genetic Investigation of bla(CTX-M)-typing in Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Specimens and Commercially Available Chicken Liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Miki; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Kitao, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic investigation consisting of the bla(CTX-M) typing was performed using 40 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver and 43 ESBL-producing E. coli and 42 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients. The types were determined using a sequence analysis. In 31 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-1) group, there were 13 with the bla(CTX-M-1) and all were from chicken liver. Nine E. coli isolates from chicken liver and one E. coli isolate from patients were found to be bla(CTX-M-55). In the bla(CTX-M-15), there were 6 E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate from patients. All 39 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-2) group had the blac(CTX-M-2). Fifty-five isolates were found in the bla(CTX-M-9) group, the highest detection frequency, with 36 possessing bla(CTX-M-14) : 20 E. coli and 13 K. pneumoniae from patients and 3 E. coli from chicken liver. There were 17 bla(CTX-M-27) isolates, including 10 E. coli and 7 K. pneumoniae from patients. One bla(CTX-M-90) K. pneumoniae isolate and one bla(CTX-M-9) E. coli isolate were also obtained from patients. These results indicate that the E. coli isolates from chicken liver consist of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-55) ; the E. coli isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27) ; and the K. pneumoniae isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27). Therefore, the bla(CTX-M) type differs in isolates from chicken liver and those from humans. These results suggest that it is unlikely that ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken liver are firmly established in the human intestinal tract.

  8. Genetic Environment of the blaKPC-2 Gene in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate That May Have Been Imported to Russia from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageevets, Vladimir; Sopova, Julia; Lazareva, Irina; Malakhova, Maya; Ilina, Elena; Kostryukova, Elena; Babenko, Vladislav; Carattoli, Alessandra; Lobzin, Yuri; Uskov, Alexander; Sidorenko, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a blaKPC-2-harboring plasmid (pKPCAPSS) from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 isolated in Saint Petersburg, Russia, from a patient with history of recent travel to Vietnam is presented. This 127,970-bp plasmid possessed both IncFII and IncR replicons. blaKPC-2 was localized on a hypothetical mobile element. This element was flanked by 38-bp inverted Tn3 repeats and included a Tn3-specific transposase gene, macrolide resistance operon (mphA-mrx-mphR), and a fragment of blaTEM with unique polymorphisms.

  9. Complete sequence of the IncT-type plasmid pT-OXA-181 carrying the blaOXA-181 carbapenemase gene from Citrobacter freundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Laura; Carattoli, Alessandra; Nordmann, Patrice; Carta, Claudio; Poirel, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The gene encoding the carbapenemase OXA-181 (an OXA-48 variant) was identified from a Citrobacter freundii isolate coproducing NDM-1. The whole sequence of plasmid pT-OXA-181 bearing the blaOXA-181 gene was determined and revealed a 84-kb mobilizable but non-self-conjugative IncT-type plasmid. It totally differs from the 7.6-kb ColE-type and blaOXA-181-bearing plasmid recently identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. However, in both plasmids, insertion sequence ISEcp1 might have played a role in acquisition of the blaOXA-181 gene.

  10. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2015-11-02

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid.

  11. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route.

  12. Application of probabilistic and fuzzy cognitive approaches in semantic web framework for medical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Huszka, Csaba; De Roo, Jos; Douali, Nassim; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Colaert, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to focus on medical knowledge representation and reasoning using the probabilistic and fuzzy influence processes, implemented in the semantic web, for decision support tasks. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs), as dynamic influence graphs, were applied to handle the task of medical knowledge formalization for decision support. In order to perform reasoning on these knowledge models, a general purpose reasoning engine, EYE, with the necessary plug-ins was developed in the semantic web. The two formal approaches constitute the proposed decision support system (DSS) aiming to recognize the appropriate guidelines of a medical problem, and to propose easily understandable course of actions to guide the practitioners. The urinary tract infection (UTI) problem was selected as the proof-of-concept example to examine the proposed formalization techniques implemented in the semantic web. The medical guidelines for UTI treatment were formalized into BBN and FCM knowledge models. To assess the formal models' performance, 55 patient cases were extracted from a database and analyzed. The results showed that the suggested approaches formalized medical knowledge efficiently in the semantic web, and gave a front-end decision on antibiotics' suggestion for UTI.

  13. SeCD electronic folder: CADMIO's application for the medical folder of a service for the care of drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, R M; Baldoni, A; De Rossi, M; Ferri, F

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the SeCD (Service for the Care of Drug addicts) electronic folder, a specific application of CADMIO [1] (Computer Aided Design for Medical Information Objects) system. CADMIO is a system for the definition, construction and management of multimedia clinical folders. The Ser.T. (Servizio per la Tossicodipendenza/Service for Drug Addicts) has earned a very special place within the Italian clinical structures as well as any service for drug addicts has done in the rest of the world. Such a structure has special needs and the characteristics of its medical folders are very different from any other folder. Actually, a Ser.T. has to keep updated the patient situation either from the clinical point of view as well as the psychiatric one. Moreover, it must keep track of the clinician subjective considerations about the patient psychic state and his situation in regard of the law. So, we had to redesign some of the features of the existing CADMIO application, to accommodate such highly not structured data into objects easily manipulated by an informative system. The objectives we hope to achieve were mainly two: To show that a well designed adaptive system can be easily exploited to support even very complex and poorly structured data types and actions To design data structures able to accommodate medical, psychiatric and administrative data in an homogeneous manner.

  14. Prevalence of ESBL phenotype,blaCTX-M-1,blaSHV andblaTEM genes among uropathogenicEscherichia coli isolates from 3 military hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Nojoomi; Abdolmajid Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and prevalence ofblaCTX-M-1,blaSHV andblaTEM genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli(UPEC) isolates from 3 military hospitals of Tehran during 2015–2016. Methods: One-hundred and eleven isolates were adopted. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The combine disk was used for phenotypicESBL production. The ceftazidimeMIC was conducted with the micro-broth dilution test. ThePCR assay was used to detect theblaCTX-M-1,blaSHV and blaTEM genes. Results:In the broth microdilution method, 103 (92.7%) isolates showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)≥1µg/mL, and also in the combined disk method, 89 (80.1% of all) wereESBL positive. On the other hand, among 91 ceftazidime resistant isolates, 86 (77.4% of all) wereESBLpositive. The difference between the two methods forESBL confirmation was not significant. The result ofMIC was similar to the disk diffusion method in the detection of phenotypicESBL production. AmongESBLproducer isolates, the prevalence ofblaCTX-M-1, blaSHV andblaTEM was 77.4% (n= 86), 47.4% (n= 53) and 2.4% (n= 2), respectively. These genes were amplified in a wide rangeMIC of ceftazidime. Conclusions:The prevalence of multi-drug resistantUPEC andESBL positive isolates was high in military hospitals. The majority ofUPEC isolates amplifiedblaCTX-M-I andblaSHV typeβ-lactamase genes. One-third of isolates were positive in presence of both these genes. There was no relation between ceftazidimeMIC and presence of beta-lactamase genes.

  15. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, D.; Carvajal, I.; Perez, Y.; Hart, M.; Perez, J.; Garcia, S.; Salazar, D.; Ghosh, S.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Aung, M.S.; Kobayashi, N.

    2015-01-01

    As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%). Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%). The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba. PMID:26236494

  16. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Quiñones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%. Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%. The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba.

  17. Application of Traditional Chinese Medical Herbs in Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract, which, in the absence of effective management, causes millions of cases of severe illness per year. Many of these infections develop into fatal pneumonia. In a review of English and Chinese medical literature, recent traditional Chinese medical herb- (TCMH- based progress in the area of prevention and treatment was identified, and the potential anti-RSV compounds, herbs, and formulas were explored. Traditional Chinese medical herbs have a positive effect on inhibiting viral attachment, inhibiting viral internalization, syncytial formation, alleviation of airway inflammation, and stimulation of interferon secretion and immune system; however, the anti-RSV mechanisms of TCMHs are complicated, which should be further investigated.

  18. Methodology case study of the application of haptics to combat medic training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Kong, Lingjun; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Of the available training methods for emergency responders, including other methods based on computer technology, virtual reality video game training with haptics (tactile) features will be shown to provide the most effective transfer of skills to real-world emergency situations, providing a model for the development of new training products for combat medics and civilian first responders. This paper aims to provide a methodological case study of haptics use in medical training programs and highlight achievements in terms of performance. Review of these cases show that the addition of haptics to an existing simulation-based training program increases user performance in terms of completion time, error rates, and learning rate. With this case study, haptics can be further incorporated into training programs designed for military combat medics.

  19. Is the pass/fail system applicable to a medical school in Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Young

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent reason for objection was the potential decrease in learning achievement. A pass/fail system should be considered after persuasion of the students and faculty to think positively of this system.

  20. [The teaching and application of alternative medicine in medical education programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Han-Sun

    2014-12-01

    The history of alternative medicine is perhaps as long as the history of human medicine. The development of evidence-based medicine has not annihilated alternative medicine. On the contrary, more people turn to alternative medicine because this approach to treatment serves as an effective remedial or supportive treatment when used in conjunction with evidence-based medicine. In contemporary healthcare, alternative medicine is now an essential part of integrated medicine. In Taiwan, most professional medical practitioners have not received proper education about alternative medicine and therefore generally lack comprehensive knowledge on this subject. While alternative medicine may be effective when used with some patients, it may also impart a placebo effect, which helps restore the body and soul of the patients. Medical staff with advanced knowledge of alternative medicine may not only help patients but also improve the doctor-patient relationship. There is great diversity in alternative medicine, with some alternative therapies supported by evidence and covered by insurance. However, there also remain fraudulent medical practices that may be harmful to health. Medical staff must be properly educated so that they can provide patients and their family a proper understanding and attitude toward alternative medicine. Therefore, alternative medicine should be included in the standard medical education curriculum. Offering classes on alternative medicine in university for more than 10 years, the author shares his experiences regarding potential content, lecture subjects, group experience exercises, and in-class activities. This article is intended to provide a reference to professors in university medical education and offer a possible model for alternative medicine education in Taiwan.