WorldWideScience

Sample records for application aux irradiations

  1. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  2. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  3. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so that the commodities can be shipped out of quarantined areas. Ionizing irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment that is in- creasing in use worldwide. Almost 19000 metric tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits plus a small amount of curry leaf are irradiated each year in 6 countries, including the United States, to control a number of plant quarantine pests. Advantages over other treatments include tolerance by most fresh commodities, ability to treat in the final packaging and in pallet loads, and absence of pesticide residues. A regulatory disadvantage is lack of an independent verification of treatment efficacy because pests may be found alive during commodity inspection, although they will not complete development or reproduce. High-energy X-rays generated by electron beam are ideal for sterilizing large packages and pallet loads of food. The directional concentration and high penetration capability as well as excellent dose uniformity of X-rays allows disinfest efficiently. Application of irradiation phytosanitary in China still in its infancy. (authors)

  4. Industrial application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past three years the author has been irradiating foodstuffs with the Gammaster facility which was originally designed for the sterilization of medical equipment. A great diversity of products have been irradiated. In spite of some limitations of the facility, the process has proved to be very satisfactory. The technology for medical sterilization is directly applicable. At present, besides the sterilization of medical equipment, an average of twenty tonnes of foodstuffs, mainly spices, grains, herbs and fish products, are being irradiated every week. The Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation handles a similar quantity. The construction of the JS 7200, the JS 8500, and the JS 9000 irradiator is discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers; Contraintes, microstructure et sollicitation sous irradiation aux ions de films minces elabores par pulverisation ionique: modelisation et application a l'etude des effets interfaciaux dans des multicouches metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelle, A

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress ({approx} 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a{sub 0}, solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a{sub 0} values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  6. CEFR Irradiation Test and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) has completed physics start-up tests in 2010 and connected the grid on 40%FP in 2011. During start-up tests, the special irradiation test subassembly has been developed for measurement of distribution of reaction rate, spectrum index and neutron spectrum by using activation method in lower power. Characteristic of neutron field for irradiation in CEFR has been researched by calculation and experiments. In future, CEFR will been operated as an irradiation test facility for fuel, material and other application, and some irradiation projects, such as irradiation of cladding material, MOX fuel and (U, Np)O2 pellet have been planned. Now some irradiation rigs have been developed. (author)

  7. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennouf, Adil

    de ciment a permis d'ameliorer la resistance a l'adherence. (6) Il existe une relation lineaire entre la charge maximum et la longueur ancree des tendons. Des equations sont proposees. (7) La capacite a l'arrachement des ancrages injectes augmente avec l'augmentation du module d'elasticite du milieu encaissant. (8) Les mono-tendons et multi-tendons en materiaux composites injectes sur 1000 mm ont montre des comportements a l'arrachement acceptables conformement aux codes. (9) Les rigidites apparentes des tendons a base de fibres d'aramide sont de trois a cinq fois inferieures a celles des tendons a base de fibres de carbone. (10) L'amorce de la decohesion en haut de la zone ancree ne semble se produire qu'au-dela d'une charge de 0,35 fpu pour les tendons a base de fibres de carbone alors qu'elle prend naissance des l'application de la charge pour les tendons a base de fibres d'aramide. (11) Le taux de fluage depend du niveau de chargement ainsi que des caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques de l'ancrage (type de fibres, fini de surface, nombre de tendons, etc.). (12) Des equations regissant le comportement au fluage des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete etablies pour une periode d'essai de 60 mn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  8. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments; Application des chargeurs solaires aux appareils de prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [French] L'utilisation de piles classiques presente certains inconvenients. C'est pourquoi, dans tous les appareils de prospection, les piles fournissant des tensions elevees ont ete remplacees au fur et a mesure par des alimentations a base de transistors, utilisant des sources d'energie moins encombrantes. Toutefois, il faut tout de meme avoir des tensions faibles et l'utilisation de ces piles entraine dans les pays chauds ou humides une consommation disproportionnee par rapport aux services rendus. C'est pourquoi l'emploi de l'energie solaire presente de reels avantages. Cet expose decrit, apres un rappel de notion de base sur les semi-conducteurs, une batterie solaire a base de selenium qui a ete realisee par la Societe des freins et signaux Westinghouse. (auteur)

  9. Irradiation effects on hydrases for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ohashi, Isao; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2000-03-01

    To apply an irradiation technique to sterilize 'Hybrid' biomedical materials including enzymes, we selected papain, a well-characterized plant endopeptidase as a model to examine durability of enzyme activity under the practical irradiation condition in which limited data were available for irradiation inactivation of enzymes. Dry powder and frozen aqueous solution of papain showed significant durability against {sup 60}Co-gamma irradiation suggesting that, the commercial irradiation sterilizing method is applicable without modification. Although irradiation of unfrozen aqueous papain solution showed an unusual change of the enzymatic activity with the increasing doses, and was totally inactivated at 15 kGy, we managed to keep the residual activity more than 50% of initial activity after 30-kGy irradiation, taking such optimum conditions as increasing enzyme concentration from 10 to 100 mg/ml and purging with N{sub 2} gas to suppress the formation of free radicals. (author)

  10. Tolérance aux fautes dans les applications J2EE: Une solution scalable et générique

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchenak, Sara; Krakowiak, Sacha; De Plama, Noël

    2005-01-01

    La plate-forme J2EE définit un modèle pour développer des applications réparties dans une architecture multi-tiers, telles que les applications Web de commerce électronique. Avec la multiplication des couches logicielles et intergicielles, les applications Internet sont encore plus sujettes aux défaillances ; ces défaillances étant, pour la majorité, causées par des fautes logicielles ou des fautes de l'opérateur. Dans cet article, nous proposons un système de tolérance aux fautes qui traite ...

  11. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  12. Application of real-time RT-PCR quantification to evaluate differential expres sion of Arabidopsis Aux/IAAgenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The molecular techniques including Northern blot, dot blot, in situ hybridization, etc. have been success fully used to estimate semi-quantitatively mRNA levels in plant samples. In this study, we employed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay using SYBR Green Ifluorescence methodology to evaluate accurate quant itation and sequence specific detection of Aux/IAA mRNA levels in Arabidopsis. Results obtained indicate a linear dynamic range of 102-106 Aux/IAA mRNA copies with standard de viations of generally less than 15%. As a model experiment,the outcome of analysis of expression patterns of five Aux/IAA genes in Arabidopsis under various chemical and temperature treatments is presented. The method presented here provides a sensitive and rapid technique to evaluate plant Aux/IAA mRNA expression levels in nanogram order.

  13. Pancreatin irradiation for medical and pharmaceutical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatin is an enzyme mix conformed substance used in medical and pharmaceutical applications principally. Due to its origin and processing method, pancreatin possibly requires to undergo a decontamination process. Thus, sample of powered pancreatin were packed in polyethylene bags and gamma irradiated at 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13 y 25 kGy. Microbiological and physico-chemical tests specified in the US Pharmacopea were performed to the irradiated samples and control in order to determine the optimum decontamination dose which will permit the commercial use of the product. It was determined that 5 kGy as minimum dose was adequate to reduce in 3 log cycles the initial bioburden of the product, which was composed principally by aerobic mesophiles, specifically sporulated bacilli. Moreover, results of assays involved loss of drying, enzymatic activity, colour and odour performed in irradiated samples showed no significant alterations respecting the control. (author)

  14. The general application of irradiation technology in quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications that necessity of irradiation used for quarantine treatment, the principle and effect on insecticidal action and sterilization, the influence of irradiation to product quality, the economic feasibility of the irradiation and so on, were introduced in this article. And several suggestions were proposed that energetically apply irradiation as a quarantine treatment method in our country. (authors)

  15. Determination of a PWR key neutron parameters uncertainties and conformity studies applications; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustible et applications aux etudes de conformite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and lifetime. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimised. (author)

  16. Matériaux solide conducteur thermodurcissable : Application aux plaques bipolaires pour pile à combustible

    OpenAIRE

    Dessertenne, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Among the new technologies for energy for sustainable development, PEM fuel cells offer seducing aspects. However, in order to make this technology fit large scale application requirements, it has to comply with stringent cost, performance, and durability criteria. While metal bipolar plates are penalized by their corrosion resistance and those based on graphite by their mechanical properties and cost (due to machining phases of the channels), the composite bipolar plates appear attractive be...

  17. Innovations - potential applications for an irradiator for pumpable liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful operation of the irradiator built by PURIDEC/NUKEM for the Malaysian Institute of Technology for the radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex indicates that similar designs of irradiation plant might find application in other processes involving pumpable liquids. The authors review these applications and describe the benefits offered by the new irradiator design

  18. Localisation par vision multi-spectrale. Application aux systèmes embarqués

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    The SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problematic is widely studied from years at LAAS. The aimed application is the development of a helping rolling system for planes on airports. This system has to work under any visibility and weather conditions ("SART" project, funding by DGE, with FLIR Systems, Thalès and Latecoère). During some weather conditions (fog, rain, darkness), one only visible camera is not enough to complete this task of SLAM. Firstly, in this thesis, we will study ...

  19. Application des ultrasons aux procédés de transformation des produits agroalimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Pingret de Sousa, Daniella,

    2012-01-01

    L’utilisation des ultrasons dans l’industrie agro-alimentaire présente de nombreux avantages, tels que l’augmentation de la productivité et la diminution des coûts et des impacts environnementaux. Dans la première partie de ce travail, une brève introduction sur la théorie des ultrasons et ses applications en agro-alimentaire et l’utilisation de ces derniers pour l’extraction des polyphénols de marc de pomme en solution aqueuse seront présentés. Cette étude a été optimisée et présente d’excel...

  20. Application of food irradiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panel on the Application of Food Irradiation in Developing Countries was convened in Vienna by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1964. The members of this panel examined the problem of food preservation in geographical areas where much food was lost through spoilage, deterioration and insect infestation. It was thought, that radiation treatment should be used to solve these preservation problems. The attendees included 13 experts, four observers from research organizations, and 2 representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome. The members of the panel examined the use of ionizing radiation to preserve fish, fruits, and vegetables and to inactivate disease producing viruses which are closely associated with animal products. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Practical application of food irradiation in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first regional seminar on food irradiation in Asia was held in Tokyo in 1981. In view of several significant international developments on food irradiation it was considered timely to convene the second seminar in this field to assess practical application of food irradiation in the Asian and Pacific region. Over 70 papers were submitted for the Seminar. Eight technical sessions covering practical aspects of food irradiation (e.g. technology transfer, legislation and control, food irradiation facilities and their economics, transportation trials, market testing and consumer acceptance, commercial development of food irradiation, etc.) were included in the Seminar programme. A Working Group to assess the present situation and future application of food irradiation in the region was convened during the Seminar. The report of the Working Group is included in the Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  3. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  4. Applicability of the Sunna dosimeter for food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quick development concerning the commercial application of food irradiation in the USA recently resulted in growing marketing of irradiated red meat as well as irradiated fresh and dried fruits. These gamma and electron irradiation technologies require specific dosimetry systems for process control. The new version of the Sunna dosimeter has been characterized in gamma, electron and bremsstrahlung radiation fields by measuring the optically stimulated luminescence (osl) at 530 nm both below and above 1 kGy, i.e. for disinfestation and for meat irradiation purposes. No humidity and no significant dose rate effect on the green osl signal was observed. The temperature coefficient was determined from 0 deg. C up to about 40 deg. C and to stabilize the osl signal after irradiation a heat treatment method was introduced. Based on these investigations the Sunna 'gamma' film is a suitable candidate for dose control below and above 1 kGy for food irradiation technologies

  5. Applicability of the Sunna dosimeter for food irradiation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.; Miller, S.; Murphy, M.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Slezsák, I.; Kovács, A. I.

    2002-03-01

    The quick development concerning the commercial application of food irradiation in the USA recently resulted in growing marketing of irradiated red meat as well as irradiated fresh and dried fruits. These gamma and electron irradiation technologies require specific dosimetry systems for process control. The new version of the Sunna dosimeter has been characterized in gamma, electron and bremsstrahlung radiation fields by measuring the optically stimulated luminescence (osl) at 530 nm both below and above 1 kGy, i.e. for disinfestation and for meat irradiation purposes. No humidity and no significant dose rate effect on the green osl signal was observed. The temperature coefficient was determined from 0°C up to about 40°C and to stabilize the osl signal after irradiation a heat treatment method was introduced. Based on these investigations the Sunna 'gamma' film is a suitable candidate for dose control below and above 1 kGy for food irradiation technologies.

  6. Contribution to the study of recoil species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite des especes de recul dans le ferrocyanure de potassium irradie aux neutrons thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriadec Vernier de Byans, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The chemical species produced by potassium ferrocyanide neutron irradiation were separated and identified. The study of their behaviour upon thermal annealing has allowed to establish a scheme of reaction as well as a kinetic treatment of the data. Activation energies are determined in different conditions and the effects of radiation dose, oxygen and water of crystallisation upon the activation energies were studied. Preliminary E.S.R. data and its relevance to the decomposition process is also discussed. (authors) [French] On a separe et identifie les differentes especes chimiques produites par irradiation neutronique de ferrocyanure de potassium. L'etude de leur comportement au cours du recuit thermique a permis l'application de differentes cinetiques et l'etablissement d'un schema de reaction. On a deterrmine la valeur des energies d'activation dans differentes conditions de recuit ainsi que l'influence de la dose de radiations, de l'oxygene et de l'eau de cristallisation sur ces energies. Une serie de mesures de resonance paramagnetique electronique a complete cette etude. (auteurs)

  7. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  8. Applications of irradiation in horticultural produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of horticultural produce, the usefulness of irradiation is selective and irradiation may be most beneficial when used in conjunction with other preservative treatments such as mild refrigeration. Big benefits may be derived from energy saving in the degree of chilling required, in extended shelf-life and in quality retention with particular reference to mushrooms and strawberries. Research in the Irish context is urgently required

  9. Irradiation update: Pork approval could launch major commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In review of recent FDA actions and the probability of FDA issuance of basic food low irradiation dose regulations, a brief discussion considers the possible application of irradiation to fruits and vegetables and how irradiated products might be labelled. Irradiation control insect infestation without the human health risk posed by fumigants and their residues. At low dose levels the sprouting of tubers (potatoes, onions) is inhibited and the ripening of certain fruits is delayed, promoting storage quality and life. At higher doses food pasteurization occurs, destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella. Important considerations in selecting the irradiation source include cost, availability, penetrating power, maintenance, and special shielding needs. These and other factors are discussed

  10. Application and industrialization of irradiation processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation processing technique is a new processing technique. At present, there are 40 sets of electron accelerators have been built or are building for industry are, total power comes to 1436 kw. The products provided have been 8 types and several ten kinds. Current status of radiation processing technique at home and abroad are reviewed

  11. The application of high dose food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyn, I. De [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa LTD, Building 2000, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, (South Africa)

    1997-12-31

    During the 1950`s to end 1970`s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive `dried cooked` taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  12. Advances in application and research of sterile insect irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect irradiation techniques have developed rapidly and achieved many results in the world in recent years. In practice, it has become one of the important measures to area-wide integrated pest management.Here the sterile insect irradiation techniques were reviewed, including their strategy, mechanism and quality control. How to break through the constraints in the practical application of the sterile insects was also discussed in this paper

  13. Application of Continuous Thermodynamics to Natural-Gas Mixtures Application de la thermodynamique continue aux mélanges de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prausnitz J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews recent progress in the application of continuous thermodynamics towards calculation of phase equilibria in natural-gas mixtures. In such mixtures, there may be too many components to identify each component individually. Continuous thermodynamics provides a theoretical framework for representing the composition of a portion of the natural-gas mixture by a continuous distribution function. Advances in continuous thermodynamics are discussed in three areas :(1 Characterization and representation of composition in a many-component mixture(2 Development and application of molecular-thermodynamic models for continuous mixtures, and(3 Implementation of efficient numerical techniques for solving material-balance and phase-equilibrium equations. While continuous thermodynamics provides a useful tool for calculation of phase equilibria in natural-gas mixtures, successful implementation requires better chemical-analytical characterization methods. Further, improved semi-theoretical techniques must be developed to relate experimental characterization information to physically significant parameters in molecular-thermodynamic models. Ce travail examine les récents développements de l'application de la thermodynamique continue au calcul des équilibres de phases de mélanges de gaz naturel. Dans ces mélanges, les composants sont souvent en trop grand nombre pour qu'on puisse les identifier individuellement. La thermodynamique continue fournit un schéma théorique permettant de représenter la composition d'une partie de mélange de gaz naturel par une fonction de distribution continue. Les progrès de la thermodynamique continue sont examinés dans les trois domaines suivants : 1 caractérisation et représentation de la composition d'un mélange de plusieurs produits; 2 mise au point et application des modèles de thermodynamique moléculaire aux mélanges continus; 3 mise en oeuvre de techniques numériques efficaces pour r

  14. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  15. The proposed irradiation facility and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As early as 1972, the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission proposed the setting up of a radiation facility for the sterilization of medical products. A result of a market survey with the assistance of an IAEA expert was conducted to determine the market potential for such venture. With the Food Terminal, Inc. (FTI) a government agro-industrial fair which explored the economic benefits of project, encouraging results have been obtained with finances from FAO and IAEA. The proposed pilot plant will serve as a multi purpose facility for the sterilization of medical and laboratory products, irradiation of food and agricultural produce and manufacture of wood plastic compositions for the textile and furniture industries. With the benefits derived from the said project, it is hoped that its early installation be pushed through. (author)

  16. Irradiation effects in materials for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As accelerated activity in space, both manned and unmanned, will focus attention on the consequences of operations in a space radiation environment. The Mission to Planet Earth and the Mission from Planet Earth (The Space Exploration Initiative) will require man and machine to survive long periods of time in a varied radiation field. The materials response to this radiation is poorly characterized, especially the radiobiological response to high-energy high-Z cosmic ions. The issues are now being defined. The level of effort, the division of responsibility between participating agencies, and the definition and possible construction of irradiation facilities that meet the needs of this program that extends well into the next century are all in a formative stage. In this paper the main issues are outlined and possible facility scenarios discussed

  17. Irradiation application of electronic beam accelerator NBL-1010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of electronic beam accelerator NBL-1010 in semiconductor denature, gem coloring, waster treatment, chemical synthesize of radiation, degrading of agricultural waster, sterilization of one-off medical treatment, sterilization of herbs, food preservation, crystal coloring and preservation of commodities was studied for its effects equaled with cobalt gamma irradiation

  18. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated glasses: Application in nuclear dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims to study the effects of ionizing radiation on silicate glasses in order to develop a new dosimetry system simple, precise, stable and inexpensive. Indeed, changes in mechanical properties, optical and paramagnetic glasses when subjected to ionizing radiation. The prediction of long-term behavior, physical aging under irradiation, the glass is paramount. many studies have brought many ways to avoid obscuring glass windows used in nuclear reactors or hot cells and optical devices. Recently, much work has concentrated on the application of the color induced by irradiation for developing a recyclable glass in the glass industry is of great interest economically and environmentally.

  19. Conception and test of an integrated circuit (ASIC): application to multiwire chambers and photomultipliers of the GRAAL experience; Conception et test d`un circuit integre (ASIC): application aux chambres multifils et aux photomultiplicateurs de l`experience GRAAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnet, H.

    1995-11-21

    The nuclear physics project GRAAL (GRenoble Anneau Accelerateur Laser) located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble produces a high energy photon beam with a maximum energy of 1.5 GeV. This gamma beam is obtained by Compton backscattering and can be polarized easily. It permits to probe, in an original way, the structure of the nucleon. The associated detector system includes multiwire proportional chambers and scintillator hodoscopes. A kit of six ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) has been developed and used for the signal processing and data conditioning up to the level of the data acquisition. This integrated electronics can be mounted right on the detectors. Obvious advantages, due to the reduction of the length of the wires and the number of connections, are an improvement of the signal quality and an increase of the reliability. The Wire Processor (WP), ASIC designed and tested during this thesis, treats the signals from the chamber wires and the photomultipliers. In one chip, there are two identical channels permitting the amplification, the amplitude discrimination, the generation of a programmable delay and the writing in a two state memory in case of coincidence with an external strobe signal. The measurement of the multiwire chamber efficiency demonstrates the functioning of the WP, the data conditioning electronics, the data acquisition and the chamber itself. (author). 62 refs., 111 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Critère de fatigue polycyclique pour des matériaux anisotropes : application aux monocristaux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Florian; Constantinescu, Andrei; Maitournam, Habibou

    2004-02-01

    The high-cycle fatigue criteria based on a macroscopic-mesoscopic scale interpretation, initiated by Dang Van, were used essentially for polycrystalline materials. In the existing criteria the material isotropy at both mesoscopic and macroscopic scales plays a key role. The purpose of this paper is to revisit the macroscopic to mesoscopic fatigue approach taking into account the material anisotropy and some results obtained by Bui. The possible applications are some anisotropic steels or monocrystalline structures such as stitanium turbine blades. To cite this article: F. Cano et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  1. Commercial Applications at FRM II Based on Neutron Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberg, H.; Draack, A.; Kastenmuller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its design as a heavy water moderated reactor with a very compact core FRM II, Germany's most modern and most powerful research reactor, offers excellent conditions for basic research using beam tubes. On the other hand it is equipped with various irradiation facilities to be used mainly for industrial purposes. From the very beginning of reactor operation a dedicated department had been implemented in order to provide a neutron irradiation service to interested parties on a commercial basis. As of today the most widely used application is Si doping. The semiautomatic doping facility accepts ingots with diameters between 125 mm and 200 mm and a maximum height of 500 mm. The irradiation channel is located deep in the heavy water tank and exhibits a ratio of thermal/fast neutron flux density of > 1000. This value allows the doping of Si to a target resistivity as high as 1100 Ωcm within the tight limits regarding accuracy and homogeneity specified by the customer. Typically the throughput of Si doped in FRM II sums up to about 15 t/year. Another topic of growing importance is the use of FRM II aiming the production of radioisotopes mainly for the radiopharmaceutical industry. The maybe most challenging example is the production of Lu-177 n. c. a. based on the irradiation of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to a high fluence of thermal neutrons of typically 1.5E20 cm{sup -2}. The Lu-177 activity delivered to the customer is in the range of 750 GBq. With respect to further processing it turned out to be a highly advantageous to have the laboratories of ITG, the company extracting the Lu-177 from the freshly irradiated Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} on site FRM II. Further irradiation facilities are available at FRM II in order to allow the activation of samples for analytical purposes or to irradiate samples for geochronological investigations using the fission track technique. Finally a project on the future installation of a facility dedicated to the irradiation of U-targets for

  2. External irradiation facilities open for biological studies - progress in july 2005; Les installations d'irradiation externe accessibles aux etudes de biologie etat d'avancement juillet 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/Carmin), 92 (France); Authier, N.; Verrey, B. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Recherche sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Baldacchino, G.; Pin, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/DETECS/LNHB/LMD), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, 92 (France); Cortela, L. [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, 38 (France); Duval, D. [CEA Saclay, Schering - CIS bio International, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leplat, J.J. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DRR/LREG), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Poncy, J.L. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/DRR/SRCA), 92 (France); Testard, I. [CEA Caen (DSV/DRR/LRO-LARIA), 14 - Caen (France); Thuret, J.Y. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SBGM), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available for radiobiological studies especially at CEA. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  3. Tropical Fruit Irradiation-From Research to Commercial Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is an emerging technology for the 21st century. Extensive research and development worldwide in the past 40 years have proved the versatility and efficacy. With low, medium to high dose, and using either a gamma, electrons, or x-ray source, radiation can: 1) disinfest plant products and spices; 2) extend shelf life of tubers, bulbs, and selected tropical fruits; 3) decontaminate meats and seafood; 4) sterilize spices and special meals; and 5) improve product utilization. Criteria for testing its efficacy include effectiveness, efficiency, and the ability to retain product quality. The use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of tropical fruits is potentially attractive to countries growing these fruits. A two-prong research plan should aim at proving radiation's effectiveness in preventing emergence of all insect pests that might be on a fruit, and determining that all quality attributes of a host fruit are retained after irradiation, subsequent storage and shipment. ommercial application involves conducting an economical feasibility study; market research and testing; selection of radiation source and irradiator type; training of personnel for plant operations, radiation safety and dosimetry monitoring; designing of packages and choosing the most cost-effective means of transporting treated fruits to market destinations. When all of hese are achieved, it should lead to a continuous and profitable operation. Researchers at the University of Hawaii using a gamma irradiator from the mid-1960s to early 2000s had amassed a volume of data to prove the efficacy of radiation disinfestations. And installation of a commercial x-ray irradiator in 2000 on the Island of Hawaii has enabled fruit farmers and packers to use this technology for exporting tropical fruits to distant markets

  4. Application of electron beam irradiation, (1). Development and application of electron beam processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with characteristics, equipment (principle and kinds), present conditions, and future issues in the application of electron beam irradiation. Characteristics of electron beams are described in terms of the following: chemical and biological effects of radiation; energy and penetrating power of electron beams; and principle and kinds of electron beam accelerator. Industrial application of electron beam irradiation has advantages of high speed procedure and producibility, less energy, avoidance of poisonous gas, and extreme reduction of organic solvents to be used. The present application of electron beam irradiation cen be divided into the following: (1) hardening of resin or coated membrane; (2) improvement of macromolecular materials; (3) environmental protection; (4) sterilization; (5) food sterilization. The present equipment for electron beam irradiation is introduced according to low energy, medium energy, and high energy equipment. Finally, future issues focuses on (1) the improvement of traceability system and development of electron dosimetric techniques and (2) food sterilization. (N.K.)

  5. Observation et diagnostic de processus industriels à modèle non linéaire : application aux machines électriques

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamoud, Ayan

    2010-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur la définition d'une stratégie robuste pour le diagnostic des processus industriels à modèle non linéaire. La stratégie définie repose sur l'utilisation d'observateurs non linéaires non seulement pour le diagnostic mais aussi pour la commande de ces systèmes. L'objectif est triple. L'observateur synthétisé devra reconstruire les variables d'état, être sensible aux défauts pour le diagnostic tout en étant robuste aux perturbations et autres incertitudes paramétriques pour ...

  6. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a 60Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  7. Investigation of food irradiation technology for application to plant quarantine. Working group report of food irradiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi; Ito, Hitoshi; Takatani, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Haruki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hirano, Tsuyoshi; Tokunaga, Okihiro

    1999-06-01

    The commercialization of food irradiation in Japan was started in 1973 for the sprout inhibition of potatoes as the first successful food irradiation facility in the world. Since approval of potato irradiation, no items has been commercialized in Japan. However, international agreement for phase out of methyl bromide after 2005 and increasing incidences of foodborn diseases such as by Escherichia coli O157:H7 are forcing to have interesting to food irradiation. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment has long experiences on research of irradiation effect and engineering of food irradiation in Japan. From these back ground, working group of food irradiation was organized at August 1997 by some members of Department of Radiation Research for Environment and Resources and Advanced Technology Center for supporting technically on commercialization of food irradiation. This report presents the result of discussion in working group on generalization up to date researches of food irradiation, application fields and items, technical problems and future prospects of this technology in Japan. (author)

  8. Investigation of food irradiation technology for application to plant quarantine. Working group report of food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of food irradiation in Japan was started in 1973 for the sprout inhibition of potatoes as the first successful food irradiation facility in the world. Since approval of potato irradiation, no items has been commercialized in Japan. However, international agreement for phase out of methyl bromide after 2005 and increasing incidences of foodborn diseases such as by Escherichia coli O157:H7 are forcing to have interesting to food irradiation. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment has long experiences on research of irradiation effect and engineering of food irradiation in Japan. From these back ground, working group of food irradiation was organized at August 1997 by some members of Department of Radiation Research for Environment and Resources and Advanced Technology Center for supporting technically on commercialization of food irradiation. This report presents the result of discussion in working group on generalization up to date researches of food irradiation, application fields and items, technical problems and future prospects of this technology in Japan. (author)

  9. Irradiated cobra (Naja naja) venom for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause damage to proteins in aqueous solutions in a selective manner, thereby producing remarkable changes in their properties. Since venoms are very rich in proteins, it was felt that they would also show such changes upon irradiation. It was of interest to know if one could get rid of the toxicity and retain the immunogenicity of the venom by suitable choice of radiation dose and strength of venom solution. If so, the method could be profitably exploited for the rapid preparation of venom toxoid and this could be expected to have many applications in the biological sciences. Accordingly, laboratory investigations were undertaken on the effect of gamma radiation on cobra (Naja naja) venom. To avoid drastic changes, solutions of cobra venom having low protein content were irradiated with gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source. The results obtained with 0.01 to 1.0% venom solutions are found to be encouraging. The solutions did not manifest any toxicity in mice. For the immunogenicity test, guinea pigs were immunized with varying doses of the irradiated cobra venom and the immunized guinea pigs were found to survive when challenged with as big a dose as 10 MLD (i.e. minimum lethal dose, approximately 1 mg). The paper describes the experimental details and the results of the observations. (author)

  10. Dosimetry in radiodiagnosis. Individual irradiation card. Dosimetric application of electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with a radiodiagnosis dosimetry, and contains two parts. First of all, the combination between a dosimetric data acquisition from an ionization chamber and a micro-computer allows the realization of individual irradiation card for a well established examination. The method is extensible to almost totality of radiological examinations. The second part describes the following of an original work about the application of electrets in radiodiagnosis dosimetry. At least a theorical study is shown; it takes account of different involving phenomena and allows a starting interpretation of experimental results

  11. ESTIMATION DES PERTES FER DANS LES MACHINES ELECTRIQUES.
    MODELE D'HYSTERESIS LOSS SURFACE ET APPLICATION AUX MACHINES SYNCHRONES A AIMANTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Gautreau, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Suite aux directives européennes incitant les constructeurs de moteurs électriques à supprimerde leur offre, les moteurs à faible rendement, une politique de conception de moteurs à hautrendement est engagée. Toutefois, l'évaluation préalable, en simulation, de ce paramètre, etnotamment des pertes fer de la machine reste aujourd'hui un problème difficile. Dans cetteoptique, depuis quelques années, un modèle, nommé « Loss Surface », de calcul a posteriorides pertes fer sous le logiciel élément...

  12. Evaluation of uncertainties of key neutron parameters of PWR-type reactors with slab fuel, application to neutronic conformity; Determination des incertitudes liees aux grandeurs neutroniques d'interet des reacteurs a eau pressurisee a plaques combustibles et application aux etudes de conformite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate uncertainties of key neutron parameters of slab reactors. Uncertainties sources have many origins, technologic origin for parameters of fabrication and physical origin for nuclear data. First, each contribution of uncertainties is calculated and finally, a factor of uncertainties is associated to key slab parameter like reactivity, isotherm reactivity coefficient, control rod efficiency, power form factor before irradiation and life-time. This factors of uncertainties were computed by Generalized Perturbations Theory in case of step 0 and by directs calculations in case of irradiation problems. One of neutronic conformity applications was about fabrication and nuclear data targets precision adjustments. Statistic (uncertainties) and deterministic (deviations) approaches were studied. Then, neutronics key slab parameters uncertainties were reduced and so nuclear performances were optimized. (author)

  13. Progresses in irradiating SBS for road asphalt applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical developments at SINAP to improve properties of SBS, a styrene-butadiene- styrene copolymer, for road asphalt applications are reviewed. In an attempt to better solve problems related to undesirable compatibility of SBS to asphalt components, we proposed a new method to modify the SBS molecular chains with ionizing radiations through radiation graft copolymerization and radiation crosslinking. Grafting a monomer with polar functional groups onto SBS molecules improves compatibility of SBS to polar components of asphalt, hence enhanced storage stability of the polymer modified asphalt (PMA), while crosslinks of SBS molecular chains endues increased physical properties to the PMA. Mechanisms of the radiation effects were studied with a series of SBS samples irradiated by 60Co γ-rays or electron beams. The PMA and macadam-blended PMA samples showed higher performance than the control, i.e. SBS-modified asphalt by conventional approaches. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. The grafted SBS enhances thermostability of saturates and aromatics, the two asphalt components that exhibit the biggest SBS-swelling effect. The resins of asphalt, however, can hardly be absorbed by SBS, and the SBS is in a phase-separation status with the resins. Therefore, it is crucial to strengthen reactions between SBS and the resins to obtain stable and high quality PMA. 2. SBS molecular chains can be crosslinked with irradiation of a few tens of kGy. The crosslinking effect was evidenced by increased molecular weight of SBS and wider distribution of the molecular weight in GPC measurement of the irradiated SBS samples, and by decreased activation energy of viscosity in rheological measurement, in which the storage modulus G' increased and the loss modulus G' declined with increasing doses, indicating a larger elastic component and smaller viscous component in the irradiated SBS. Correspondingly, temperature sensitivity of the irradiated SBS reduced. Blended with SBS

  14. Contribution à la conception de circuits intégrés analogiques en technologie CMOS basse tension pour application aux instruments d'observation de la Terre

    OpenAIRE

    Standarovski, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Le présent mémoire de thèse s'inscrit dans la problématique d'intégration de chaînes pour traitement du signal vidéo issu d'un capteur CCD dédiées aux instruments d'observation de la Terre. La solution présentée à travers cette étude consiste à concevoir des circuits intégrés spécifiques (ASIC) analogiques avec des technologies CMOS sub-microniques basse-tension, principalement développées pour les circuits numériques complexes. Dans une première partie, nous présentons le contexte de l'étude...

  15. Etude, analyse et modélisation physique de la production de la parole avec applications aux troubles liés à une surdité profonde

    OpenAIRE

    Delebecque, Louis

    2015-01-01

    L’apprentissage du langage parlé nécessite un contrôle musculaire très précis des différents organes intervenant dans la production de la parole. La production de sons voisés, qui résulte de l’auto-oscillation des cordes vocales, est notamment influencée par l’ensemble du système phonatoire, du diaphragme jusqu’aux lèvres. Les travaux réalisés dans le cadre de cette thèse s’inscrivent dans un contexte de modélisation physique de la parole. Les objectifs s’articulent autour de la compréhension...

  16. Approach of combined cancer gene therapy and radiation: response of promoters to ionizing radiation; Approche de therapie genique anti-cancereuse combinee a l'irradiation: etude de la reponse de promoteurs aux radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, A

    2005-09-15

    Gene therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality. We are interested in developing a radiation-inducible gene therapy system to sensitize the tumor vasculature to the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. An expression system based on irradiation-inducible promoters will drive the expression of anti-tumor genes in the tumor vasculature. Solid tumors are dependent on angio genesis, a process in which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature. Vascular endothelial cells are un transformed and genetically stable, thus avoiding the problem of resistance to the treatments. Vascular endothelial cells may therefore represent a suitable target for this therapeutic gene therapy strategy.The identification of IR-inducible promoters native to endothelial cells was performed by gene expression profiling using cDNA micro array technology. We describe the genes modified by clinically relevant doses of IR. The extension to high doses aimed at studying the effects of total radiation delivery to the tumor. The radio-inductiveness of the genes selected for promoter study was confirmed by RT-PCR. Analysis of the activity of promoters in response to IR was also assessed in a reporter plasmid. We found that authentic promoters cloned onto a plasmid are not suitable for cancer gene therapy due to their low induction after IR. In contrast, synthetic promoters containing repeated sequence-specific binding sites for IR-activated transcription factors such as NF-{kappa}B are potential candidates for gene therapy. The activity of five tandemly repeated TGGGGACTTTCCGC elements for NF-{kappa}B binding in a luciferase reporter was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the response to fractionated low doses was improved in comparison to the total single dose. Thus, we put present evidence that a synthetic promoter for NF-{kappa}B specific binding may have application in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancer. (author)

  17. Application of ultraviolet irradiation of blood in dermatological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that for certain dermatological patients the normalization of vegetative regulation, immunological reactivity and clinical picture is observed only 2-3 months after the course of autotransfusion of UV-irradiated blood. Bearing it in mind, autotransfusion of UV-irradiated blood is recommended for use in dermatological practice. Technical possibilities of the Izolda MD-73M apparatus permit to develop individual approach to the traetment by means of UV-irradiation regime regulation

  18. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P; Espinar, B.; Geuder, Norbert; Gueymard, Christian A.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Reinhardt, Bernhard; Renné, David; Sengupta, M

    2014-01-01

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometer...

  19. Development of interface tracking method. Two-phase flows applications; Developpement d'une methode de suivi d'interface. Applications aux ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, S.

    2004-11-15

    Spray formation mechanisms study from a liquid-gas flow is a fundamental research subject, which industrial applications are large, especially in combustion and propulsion field. Numerical simulation of such flows appear as an essential complement to experimental and theoretical studies, for comprehension and accurate prediction of such physical processes. In this study we developed an numerical interface tracking technique with a Navier-Stokes solver to study accurately the liquid-gas interface dynamics. We describe Level Set method which has been used to track interface motion, and numerical methods for solving Navier-Stokes equations. Different numerical schemes have been tested to improve the computation accuracy. Ghost Fluid Method enables a robust and accurate treatment of discontinuities across the liquid-gas interface. The codes developed (2D, 3D, parallelization MPI) are then used to study droplets collisions. Comparisons with experimental results show that simulations are realistic and predictive. Next, feasibility studies are done on more complex configurations. Droplets spray formation from primary atomization of a liquid jet seems to be especially a promising investigation field for such simulations. Finally, reactive interfaces propagation, as liquid vaporization and premixed combustion have also been studied using Ghost Fluid Method to impose specific jump conditions. (author)

  20. Manual of Good Practice in Food Irradiation. Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Other Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensuring that the process of irradiating food delivers the desired result consistently is essential for the correct application of the technology and will help to inspire consumer confidence in irradiated food. This publication aims to help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices and also to provide detailed, yet straightforward, technical information for stakeholders such as food regulators, manufacturers and traders, who also need to understand ‘good practice’

  1. Application of Microwave Irradiation to Rapid Organic Inclusion Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Microwave irradiation has been used in chemical laboratories for moisture analysis and wet asking procedures of biological and geological materials for a number of years [1]. More recently the microwave irradiation also widely used for rapid organic synthesis [2]. However, there have not yet been any reports concerning the ultilisatioin of microwave ovens in the routine organic inclusion complex regularly in chemical research.

  2. Application of food irradiation processes to developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, D.Is.; Wolters, Th.C.; Cramwinckel, A.B.; Stegeman, H.

    1987-01-01

    The losses in potato tubers during storage are mainly due to sprouting and rotting. Gamma irradiation effectively inhibits sprouting and extends the storage life of potatoes. Rotting can not be controlled within the sprout inhibition close range, but irradiation increases, however, the rot by distur

  3. High dose ionizing irradiation induces an early and transient increase in peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells; L`exposition aigue aux radiations ionisantes induit un recrutement transitoire des progeniteurs hematopoietiques au niveau du sang peripherique: implications therapeutiques potentielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Vetillard, J.; Chauvelot, F.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Herodin, F. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nonhuman primates exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit an early and transient increase in peripheral blood committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental irradiation could be based in part on the re-infusion of those circulating autologous progenitors following a period of ex vivo expansion with cytokines. (authors)

  4. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation ( Pcake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control ( Pcake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products ( P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  5. The application of irradiation techniques to food and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish concrete infrastructure required for food irradiation commercialization, the project was designed to investigate the efficiency of irradiation techniques, such as preserving boiled-dried anchovy and improving its safety, improving the physical quality of soybeans and microbial-immobilization with radiation-induced polymer. Dried anchovies could be kept in a sanitary quality for over one year at cooling conditions (<10 deg C) instead of freezing by using 5 KGy-irradiation and airtight packaging(NY/PE). Gamma irradiation below 10 KGy was significantly effective for improving the hydration and cooking properties of soybeans. Immobilized microorganisms showed an increased-catalytic activity, producing lactic acid 15 times higher than that of free culture. (Author)

  6. Application of Microwave Irradiation to Rapid Organic Inclusion Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used in chemical laboratories for moisture analysis and wet asking procedures of biological and geological materials for a number of years [1]. More recently the microwave irradiation also widely used for rapid organic synthesis [2]. However, there have not yet been any reports concerning the ultilisatioin of microwave ovens in the routine organic inclusion complex regularly in chemical research.  ……

  7. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  8. Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is 60Co γ-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

  9. Irradiation applications in vegetables and fruits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Tsarouhas, Panagiotis

    2009-05-01

    There is an increasing trend both in advanced countries and many developing countries to centrally process fresh fruits and vegetables, properly packaged, for distribution and marketing. Irradiation technology proved to be effective in reducing post-harvest losses, and controlling the stored product insects and the microorganisms. Gamma irradiation was employed to restrain potato sprouting and kill pests in grain. Irradiation proved to be extremely beneficial in terms of prolonging the fruit and vegetable shelf life by 3-5 times. In order not to expose fruits and vegetables to high irradiation doses another approach is to use the "hurdle technology," that is to apply more than one technology toward better quality and longer shelf life. This review summarizes a) all the obtained results in this field (either irradiation on its own or in conjunction with other technologies) on fruits and vegetables in 11 figures and eight (8) very comprehensive tables, and b) provides an insight in the various methods (EPR, TL, Comet assay among others) for detection of irradiated foods. PMID:19399670

  10. Application of cytokine aiming at overcoming marrow control after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in hematopoietic stem cells exposed to irradiation in combination of cytokine were investigated aiming to prevent bone marrow suppression. Two cell lines; KM-3 and Reh cells derived human undifferentiated B lymphocyte lymphoma were transplanted to SCID mice, an immunodefficiency mouse and the grafted mice were used as a human pediatric lymphoma model. The subjects were exposed to radiation at 5.0 and 7.0 Gy. After the exposure, the mice were housed under SPF conditions and the surviving rate, tumor cell degeneration and changes in peripheral lymphocyte count were examined. In addition, kinetic changes of the myelo-precursor cells including hematopoietic stem cells were investigated. Although tumor degeneration by the radiation exposure was marked, bone marrow suppression was still distinct. For exposure to 7 Gy, the tumor cells almost disappeared, but bone marrow suppression was severe, resulting that most of the animals died of bone marrow suppression. However, when G-CSF was given in combination with the exposure, its effects on their surviving were marked for either of the doses tested. The number of CFU-S in the bone marrow was significantly decreased in the SCID mice exposed to 5 Gy or 7 Gy, but that of the mice exposed to it in combination with G-CSF was higher than that of the mice exposed without it. The number of CFU-GM showed similar tendency to that of CFU-S. Clinical application of G-CSF has been progressed because it was demonstrated that the cytokine has no adverse effects on human. The present study showed therapeutic efficacy of G-CSF in subjects exposed to radiation. (M.N.)

  11. Application of an alanine dosimetry system for industrial irradiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the application of alanine dosimetry in radiation processing. Continuous checks of the EPR measuring conditions as well as using high-quality alanine dosimeters and consistent technique for dose determination guarantee an accuracy of about ± 3% intermediate dose levels. The alanine dosimetry system was applied for dose mapping measurements during irradiator qualification and performance qualification of different products, routine dosimetry, and special radiation protection applications within the gamma irradiator. (author)

  12. UV irradiated PVA–Ag nanocomposites for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahal, Rishi Pal, E-mail: rishiphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Mahendia, Suman [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Tomar, A.K. [Department of Physics, S.A. Jain (P.G.) College, Ambala City 134003 (India); Kumar, Shyam [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Refractive index increases as a function of irradiation time. • Reflectance decreases with increasing exposure time to UV irradiation. • Optical energy gap decreases with increasing UV irradiation time. • SRP band intensity symmetry increases with increase of exposure time. • With increasing UV exposure interaction between Ag nanoparticles and PVA enhances. - Abstract: The present paper is focused on the in-situ prepared Poly (vinyl alcohol)–Silver (PVA–Ag) nanocomposites and tailoring their optical properties by means of UV irradiation in such a way that these can be used for anti-reflective coatings and bandpass filters. The reflectance from these irradiated nanocomposites has been found to decrease leading to the increase in refractive index (RI), with increasing UV exposure time, in the entire visible region. Decrease in optical energy gap of PVA film from 4.92 to 4.57 eV on doping with Ag nanoparticles has been observed which reduces further to 4.1 eV on exposure to UV radiations for 300 min. This decrease in optical energy gap can be correlated to the formation of charge transfer complexes within the base polymer network on embedding Ag nanoparticles, which further enhances with increasing exposure time. Such complexes may also be responsible for increased molecular density of the composite films which corresponds to decrease in reflectance corroborating the observed results.

  13. Application of irradiation techniques to food and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a comparative research on the decontaminating effects of ginseng leaf tea, ethylene oxide (EO) and 5 kGy gamma-irradiated groups could reduce microorganisms below the detectable level. And there is no growth of microoganisms after three months of storage at 30 deg C. The decimal reduction dose (D10 value) for microorganisms contaminated were 0.70 - 0.95 kGy. EO fumigation and irradiation at 5 kGy had little effects on soluble matters, sugar, amino acid, polyphenols and pigments. However, EO fumigation caused a significant change in the amount of ascorbic acid, free amino acid, moisture, pH and acidity of the sample. In the sensory evaluation, irradiated samples showed no significant difference from the non-treated control in overall flavor, taste, color and acceptability. The extracts of EO-fumigated samples, however, were significantly different in color and taste from other groups even after three months of storage. On the other hand, GC analysis tendency with storage time, resulting in the formation of significant amounts of the secondary products such as ethylene chlorohydrin and ethylene glycol. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that an optimum dose range (5kGy) of gamma irradiation effectively improves the microbiological quality of ginseng leaf tea, suggesting that irradiation techniques are a potential alternative to chemical fumigant, ethylene oxide. (author)

  14. Application of combined treatment for control of Botrytis cinerea in phytosanitary irradiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Koo; Yoon, Minchul; Park, Hae-Jun; Youll Lee, Kwang; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2014-06-01

    Phytosanitary treatments are required to disinfest quarantine pests and pathogens in agricultural commodities. Gray mold in fruit is caused by Botrytis cinerea, which is one of the major postharvest pathogen of apple and pear. Irradiation treatment is a viable alternative for phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical method for controlling pests and postharvest pathogens. An irradiation dose of over 0.4 kGy is used for the control of insects and fungal disease in fresh fruit, but a loss of firmness occurs. Combined treatments are needed to reduce the irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing. This study focuses on the application of combined treatments to reduce the loss of fruit quality when fresh fruit is irradiated for phytosanitary purposes. Comparing the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, while gamma irradiation showed no antifungal activity at a dose of 1.0 kGy, combined treatments (nano Ag particle, nano-sized silica silver) at a dose of 1.0 kGy showed the strongest antifungal activity. This study demonstrates the synergistic impacts of combined treatments in phytosanitary irradiation processing. Taken together, the combined treatments may affect reduction of fruit injury that occurred with irradiation only, meaning that the use of combined treatments with gamma irradiation is significantly effective for the preservation of fruit quality.

  15. Application of combined treatment for control of Botrytis cinerea in phytosanitary irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytosanitary treatments are required to disinfest quarantine pests and pathogens in agricultural commodities. Gray mold in fruit is caused by Botrytis cinerea, which is one of the major postharvest pathogen of apple and pear. Irradiation treatment is a viable alternative for phytosanitary purposes and a useful nonchemical method for controlling pests and postharvest pathogens. An irradiation dose of over 0.4 kGy is used for the control of insects and fungal disease in fresh fruit, but a loss of firmness occurs. Combined treatments are needed to reduce the irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing. This study focuses on the application of combined treatments to reduce the loss of fruit quality when fresh fruit is irradiated for phytosanitary purposes. Comparing the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, while gamma irradiation showed no antifungal activity at a dose of 1.0 kGy, combined treatments (nano Ag particle, nano-sized silica silver) at a dose of 1.0 kGy showed the strongest antifungal activity. This study demonstrates the synergistic impacts of combined treatments in phytosanitary irradiation processing. Taken together, the combined treatments may affect reduction of fruit injury that occurred with irradiation only, meaning that the use of combined treatments with gamma irradiation is significantly effective for the preservation of fruit quality

  16. Study on gamma irradiation of snail slime for cosmetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snail slime is a product used by the cosmetic industry for skin regeneration. Due to its origin and obtaining method, prior to be commercialized, it requires to be exposed to a decontaminated procedure. Samples of snail slime were provided by the manufacturer and were treated with gamma irradiation doses of 2, 3 and 5 kGy. Microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic tests, indicated by the product specifications, were performed to the irradiated and control samples in order to determine the optimal decontamination dose. IR spectra of the irradiated samples and control were also obtained. It was determined that the minimum dose of 3 kGy was enough to achieve decontamination of the product without significant changes of the physico-chemical properties. Likewise, at 3 kGy, appearance, color and odour of snail slime remained almost unchanged. (author)

  17. Application of skin thermography to partial irradiation diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin temperature was measured in rats after localized gamma irradiation (doses between 500 and 2000 rads) in order to exhibit a possible correlation between the absorbed doses and skin temperature modifications. In view of the experimentation in rats, thermography seems to be useful for the topographic diagnosis of partial irradiation beyond 500-600 rads. There is an early skin reaction which goes on for, at least, ten days. Nevertheless, thermography does not appear to be useful as a dosimetric tool in rat

  18. Irradiation effects in clays. Environmental and geological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation defects in minerals present at the earth surface gave rise to an important number of studies. Among these minerals, clays possessed properties (cationic exchange capacity, swelling properties) which make them suitable candidate for the retention of actinides in the context of high level radioactive waste storage. In order to insure the stability of the clay located around the waste, it is necessary to study their physico-chemical properties after irradiation. This thesis is divided in three parts that are related to this thematic. In the first part, we will discuss the effect of ionizing irradiation of alpha particles on the specific surface area of kaolinite and the consequences of such an irradiation on the observed spectra by IRTF. The second part is dealing with the solubility of amorphized smectite in alkaline conditions and more especially with the dissolution kinetics. We will present new results on this process. Finally, in the third part, we studied a natural analogue geo-system Nopal which is located in Chihuahua (Mexico). We will discuss how the kaolinite dosimeter can be a powerful tool to asses' ancient uranium migration in the U-deposit. (author)

  19. Development of a portable blood irradiator for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new design for the fully portable blood irradiator was completed and fabrication methods are being finalized. Initial tests indicate that this design overcomes thrombogenesis problems previously encountered; its use in A-V shunts is significantly simplified relative to previous models. Animal data are now being acquired

  20. Irradiation of animal products. Aspects and applications [sterilizing - preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1997, FDA finally approved irradiation of bovine ground meat as a mean of controlling pathogenic microorganisms; this acknowledgement probably preludes a widespread employment of this technology. The Authors take into account the various aspects of this controversal process, that still has difficulty in becoming popular, due to a substantial lack of information in public opinion

  1. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  2. Facilities for external radiation accessible for investigation on biological studies - progress report may 2004; Les installations d'irradiation externe accessibles aux etudes de biologie - etat d'avancement mai 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Lecanu, E. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/Carmin), 92 (France); Authier, N.; Verrey, B. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Recherche sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Baldacchino, G.; Pin, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/DETECS/LNHB/LMD), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Coffigny, H. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, 92 (France); Cortela, L. [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, 38 (France); Duval, D. [CEA Saclay, Schering - CIS bio International, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Leplat, J.J. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DRR/LREG), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Poncy, J.L. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses (DSV/DRR/SRCA), 92 (France); Testard, I. [CEA Caen (DSV/DRR/LRO-LARIA), 14 - Caen (France); Thuret, J.Y. [CEA Saclay (DSV/DBJC/SBGM), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available at the CEA for radiobiological studies. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  3. Radiation and applications: Technical innovation made by industrial irradiation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovation represented by irradiation as a means of industrial process technology lies in the very special way in which energy is introduced into some object in which it initiates reactions. This is based on the penetrating capability of ionizing radiation, which can produce reactive species, especially radicals, inside an object without requiring the whole object to be subjected to such conditions as, e.g., high temperatures or pressures, which would otherwise be needed to initiate the corresponding reactions. This unique advantage of triggering off reactions by means of ionizing radiation results in possibilities of process technology no other procedure can offer. An aspect becoming more and more important is the possibility to replace expensive materials hard to process by cheaper materials brought into a specific form more easily. Irradiation processes can assign to these materials at least some of the properties and combinations of properties, respectively, of higher-grade materials. (orig.)

  4. Application of electron irradiation to food containers and packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems caused by microbial contamination and hazardous chemicals have attracted much attention in the food industry. The number of systems such as hygienic management systems and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems adopted in the manufacturing process is increasing. As manufacturing process control has become stricter, stricter control is also required for microbial control for containers and packaging materials (from disinfection to sterilization). Since safe and reliable methods for sterilizing food containers and packaging materials that leave no residue are required, electron beam sterilization used for medical equipment has attracted attention from the food industry. This paper describes an electron irradiation facility, methods for applying electron beams to food containers and packaging materials, and products irradiated with electron beams. (author)

  5. Potential applications of process irradiation in Irish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Mary Upton draws attention to the U.S.A. Food and Drugs Administration agreement to allow irradiation for fresh fruit and vegetables of up to one kilogray and of spices up to 30 kilograys. There is also the likelihood of favourable legislation in the U.K. later this year. The potential for Irish industry may well lie in the extension of shelf-life of poultry, fish, fruit and vegetables; salmonella eradication; control of sprouting in potatoes and onions; treatment of food additives such as spices and enzymes; the replacement of ethylene oxide or of ethylene dibromide as preservatives, residues of which are currently considered somewhat suspect for health reasons

  6. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  7. Application of gamma irradiation to reduce microbial contamination in herbal cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study addresses the decontamination of herbal powder cosmetics by gamma irradiation to reduce the total microbial colony count in facial herbal powder, herbal rose brush on and talcum. Pre-irradiated samples showed total colony counts of 3.00×104, 2.70×104 and 1.00×103 CFU/g. At 3rd day after application, irradiation reduced the total colony counts to 1.90×102, 6.00×102 and 1.20×102 CFU/g. Moreover, the total colony counts of the three samples were found to be less than 100 CFU/g after 3 months storage. The non-uniformity of ΔE⁎ revealed that time affected the color of brush on and talcum, which differed from their original color; however, irradiation affected the colors of the brush on only (P<0.05), by reducing its brightness and increasing redness and yellowness of the products. Paired preference tests were conducted in facial herbal powder and herbal rose brush on. The results showed no significant preferences between the non irradiated and irradiated of the two products at P max=75%, α=0.05, β=0.10. This concludes that the irradiation does not affect the preference of the products, and it can be an alternative technology to reduce microbial decontaminations in herbal products. - Highlights: ► This study addresses the decontamination of herbal powder cosmetics by gamma irradiation to reduce the total microbial colony count. ► At 3 days after application, irradiation reduced the total colony count at level 102 CFU/g and less than 100 CFU/g after 3 months storage. ► The non-uniformity of ΔE* revealed that time affected the color of brush on and talcum; however, irradiation affected the colors of the brush on only (P<0.05). ► Paired preference tests showed that there were no significant preferences between the non irradiated and irradiated.

  8. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG)

  9. UV irradiated PVA-Ag nanocomposites for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Rishi Pal; Mahendia, Suman; Tomar, A. K.; Kumar, Shyam

    2015-07-01

    The present paper is focused on the in-situ prepared Poly (vinyl alcohol)-Silver (PVA-Ag) nanocomposites and tailoring their optical properties by means of UV irradiation in such a way that these can be used for anti-reflective coatings and bandpass filters. The reflectance from these irradiated nanocomposites has been found to decrease leading to the increase in refractive index (RI), with increasing UV exposure time, in the entire visible region. Decrease in optical energy gap of PVA film from 4.92 to 4.57 eV on doping with Ag nanoparticles has been observed which reduces further to 4.1 eV on exposure to UV radiations for 300 min. This decrease in optical energy gap can be correlated to the formation of charge transfer complexes within the base polymer network on embedding Ag nanoparticles, which further enhances with increasing exposure time. Such complexes may also be responsible for increased molecular density of the composite films which corresponds to decrease in reflectance corroborating the observed results.

  10. Estimation de l'état pour la surveillance des systèmes de grandes dimensions. Application aux réseaux électriques

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, Assem

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the state estimation and diagnosis of nonlinear systems with application to power systems. Dynamic modeling is performed using an index 1 property and decoupling techniques. New methods of state estimation, based on Extended Kalman Filter including a sliding window of measurements, are proposed to improve the robustness and accuracy. A new convergence study based on Lyapunov function and conditioning of the observability matrix is proposed to ensure the convergence of the...

  11. Perception multisensorielle pour la localisation d'un robot mobile en environnement extérieur, application aux véhicules routiers

    OpenAIRE

    Laneurit, Jean

    2006-01-01

    This thesis report deals with precise and uncorrupted localisation of mobile robots within a road environment associated to a precise numerical map. Le sujet traité dans cette thèse concerne la localisation précise et intègre de robots mobiles ( de véhicules routiers en l'occurence) dans un environnement routier cartographié. Pour ceci, nous proposons une approche multisensorielle hybridant les capteurs classiquement utilisés dans ce genre d'application (un GPS naturel, un odomètre et un g...

  12. Modélisation du transfert de masse et d'énergie en aquifère: des approches numériques aux applications

    OpenAIRE

    Goblet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    My research topics deal essentially with development and application of simulation tools for water, mass and heat flow in aquifer structures. I try and give some elements to answer two very basic questions: what is inside a simulation tool, and what is it good for ? The main line of this report is twofold: - On the one hand, showing the perpetual and fruitful two-way exchange between the needs stemming from modeling a practical problem and the search for the best numerical techniques, in term...

  13. Une approche pour la composition autonome de services de communication orientés QoS. Application aux protocoles de transport configurables

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wambeke, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Les dernières évolutions de l’Internet se sont traduites par l’émergence de nouvelles applications distribuées et par la multiplication des technologies réseaux (sans fils, mobiles. . . ) ainsi que des services offerts par les opérateurs sur de nouveaux types de terminaux (portable, PDA. . . ). L’enjeu socio économique majeur de ces avancées est le futur Internet ambiant, à la fois ubiquitaire et intelligent, au travers duquel l’utilisateur pourra, quelle que soit sa localisation ...

  14. Principe d'alimentation par convertisseurs multiniveaux à stockage intégré - Application aux accélérateurs de particules

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrni, Claude

    Facilities operating in cycles, such as particles accelerators, require pulsed power. Directly drawing this pulsed power from the industrial network is generally not acceptable. A system with a local energy storage system lessens the impact on the network. In this work, a power supply is proposed that allows pulsed operation of a proton synchrotron without disturbing the industrial network with large variations of active power. The context of this study is the search of a completely static replace ment of an existing inertial energy storage device. The application is the proton synchrotron of the CERN. Several solutions to store the energy needed by the proton synchrotron are studied, they include inertial energy storage, capacitive energy storage and magnetic energy storage. On this basis, the solution based on capacitive energy storage with interleaved multilevel converters is retained. The sizing of the storage elements and the filter is carried out. The control strategies are studied and designed. They ar...

  15. Les enjeux économiques et industriels liés au recours aux partenariats public-privédans le domaine spatialUne application : le contrat de Private Finance Initiative britannique Skynet V

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Marty

    2008-01-01

    Analyse économique du contrat de partenariat public-privé relatif aux satellites de télécommunications de défense Skynet V.Etude de la construction contractuelle et de sa renégociation : impact sur l'équilibre économique du contrat

  16. Les enjeux économiques et industriels liés au recours aux partenariats public-privé
    dans le domaine spatial
    Une application : le contrat de Private Finance Initiative britannique Skynet V

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Analyse économique du contrat de partenariat public-privé relatif aux satellites de télécommunications de défense Skynet V.Etude de la construction contractuelle et de sa renégociation : impact sur l'équilibre économique du contrat

  17. Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Organic Semiconductor and Its Application for Transistor-Based Dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Joon; Ha, Jun Mok; Lee, Hyeok Moo; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Ji Won; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-08-01

    The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the organic semiconductor rubrene and its application as a dosimeter was investigated. Through the measurements of photoluminescence and the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that electron-beam irradiation induces n-doping of rubrene. Additionally, we fabricated rubrene thin-film transistors with pristine and irradiated rubrene, and discovered that the decrease in transistor properties originated from the irradiation of rubrene and that the threshold voltages are shifted to the opposite directions as the irradiated layers. Finally, a highly sensitive and air-stable electron dosimeter was fabricated based on a rubrene transistor. PMID:27399874

  18. Vegetation mapping for tropical marine/coastal zone applications = Cartographie de la végétation, applications aux zones côtières et marines tropicales

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, G A

    1992-01-01

    L'image multispectrale satellitaire appliquée aux zones tropicales, a été analysée afin de permettre une représentation pointue de la végétation par carte thématique jusqu'au 1/100 000 provenant d'une seule scène satellitaire. La clé du succès est dans le soin apporté au choix de la scène initiale et l'adoption d'une méthodologie basée sur une vérité terrain-botanique rigoureuse et fiable. Cette méthodologie utilisera un nombre adéquat de "caractérisations de parcelles" selon une surface cart...

  19. Environmental application of gamma technology: Update on the Canadian sludge irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Fraser, Frank M.

    1993-10-01

    Waste treatment and disposal technologies have recently been subjected to increasing public and regulatory scrutiny. Concern for the environment and a heightened awareness of potential health hazards that could result from insufficient or inappropriate waste handling methods have combined to push waste generators in their search for new treatment alternatives. Gamma technology can offer a new option for the treatment of potentially infectious wastes, including municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains beneficial plant nutrients and a high organic component that make it ideal as a soil conditioning agent or fertilizer bulking material. It also carries potentially infectious microorganisms which limit opportunities for beneficial recycling of sludges. Gamma irradiation-disinfection of these sludges offers a reliable, fast and efficient method for safe sludge recycling. Nordion International's Market Development Division was created in 1987 as part of a broad corporate reorganization. It was given an exclusive mandate to develop new applications of gamma irradiation technology and markets for these new applications. Nordion has since explored and developed opportunities in food irradiation, pharmaceutical/cosmetic products irradiation, biomedical waste sterilization, airline waste disinfection, and sludge disinfection for recycling. This paper focuses on the last of these -a proposed sludge recycling facility that incorporates a cobalt 60 sludge irradiator.

  20. Application of irradiation process for the production of thin wall wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for thin wall crosslinked PVC or polyethylene insulated wires in Japan was about 15,000,000 dollars in value in 1975. Their annual sales in 1980 are estimated at about 40 million dollars which will account for approximately 20% of the sales of all thin wall thermoplastic insulated wires expected for the same year. A comparative study was made of the irradiation process and the chemical process for manufacture of wires with crosslinked PVC or polyethylene insulation. Having found the excellence of the irradiation process an accelerator (500 KeV, 65mA) was installed in 1973 and production was begun of several types of thin wall irradiation crosslinked PVC and polyethylene insulated wires ranging from 0.06 mm2 to 2.0 mm2 in the cross-sectional area of conductor, successfully putting them in extensive commercial application. This report compares the irradiation process and the chemical process, properties of several types of irradiation crosslinked PVC, and polyethylene insulated wires and their applications. (author)

  1. Control of Urea SCR Systems for US Diesel Applications Commande des systèmes de RCS à l’urée destinés aux applications Diesel US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nieuwstadt M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to qualify challenges in the control of urea selective catalytic reduction systems for NOx conversion in Diesel powertrains. We show the importance of ammonia storage control, and the difficulties in estimating it in the face of system uncertainties. The slow storage dynamics of the SCR catalyst are shown to be a major limiting factor on the performance of SCR systems in transient operation. Lastly we show the effect of sensor uncertainty on system performance and how NOx sensors can be used in conjunction with input correlation to distinguish NOx slip from ammonia slip. Cet article a pour objet de qualifier les défis en matière de commande des systèmes de réduction catalytique sélective (RCS dans une solution à base d’urée, pour la conversion des NOx au sein de groupes motopropulseurs Diesel. Nous montrons l’importance de la maîtrise du stockage d’ammoniac ainsi que les difficultés à l’estimer face aux incertitudes du système. Les dynamiques de stockage lentes du catalyseur de RCS s’avèrent constituer un facteur de limitation majeur quant aux performances des systèmes de RCS au cours d’un fonctionnement transitoire. Enfin, nous montrons l’effet de l’incertitude des capteurs sur les performances du système et comment les capteurs de NOx peuvent être utilisés en association avec une corrélation d’entrée pour distinguer une déviation de NOx d’un glissement d’ammoniac.

  2. Application of food irradiation processes to developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Langerak, D.Is.; Cramwinckel, A.B.; Hollman, P.C.; Jong, de, P.; Labrijn, J.F.; Slangen, H.J.; Stegeman, H.; Veen, van der, A.; Wolters, Th.C.; Oortwijn, H.

    1986-01-01

    Sprouting of- and fungal attack on tuber, bulb and foot products is a common problem to most countries. Sprouting can be delayed by storage at low temperature, and partly prevented by a proper use of chemical sprout inhibitors. Cooling is, however, energy consuming, expensive and not practicabie everywhere. Chemicals are cheaper, but their application is not always reliable, especially at temperatures higher than 15'C. Moreover in some countries the application of chemical inhibitors is prohi...

  3. Effects of irradiation on properties of refractory alloys with emphasis on space power reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probable effects of irradiation on niobium and tungsten alloys in use as components of thermionic convertors in a space reactor were reviewed by the author in 1971. While considerably more data on refractory metals have been generated since that time, the data have not been reviewed with respect to space reactor applications. This paper attempts such a review. The approach used is to work from the most recently available review of irradiation effects for each alloy system (where such a review is available) and to discuss that review and more recent data judged to be the most useful in establishing likely behavior in high-temperature reactor service. 28 figures, 6 tables

  4. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  5. A review of practical trends in the agricultural application of irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dose irradiation of the seeds results in an increase of sprouting, growth and quantity of the crop. This method is successfully applied in Hungary for wheat, corn, potato, sugar-beet, sunflower and vegetables. Middle-dose irradiation is applied in the radiomutation techniques; in Hungary the improvement of rice, wheat, barley, corn and peas is studied intensively. High-dose irradiations are important in the sterilization of fodder, outlet water and liquid manure. Negotiations are in progress on the establishment of factories for these purposes. The problems of the sterilization and application in human medicine of pig skin have been solved. However, the radiosterilization of food - a heavily debated area - is only in experimental state. (L.E.)

  6. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  7. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  8. Synthesis of hybrid polymer networks of irradiated chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid polymer network (HPN) of chitosan (CS) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared by using radiation degraded chitosan. The chemical structure of chitosan promoted chain scission reactions upon irradiation which lowered its molecular weight and also changed its hydrophilic balance. The effect of molecular weight and hydrophilicity of irradiated chitosan on structural, thermal and surface properties of the HPN were studied. The increased hydrophilicity of irradiated chitosan lowered the crystallinity of the HPN. The endothermic peak was shifted towards higher temperatures in HPN having irradiated chitosan. The decreased value of contact angle with increasing dose, further confirmed the increased hydrophilicity of the HPN. The cytotoxicity results of HPN showed the viability of human fibroblast cells and their non-toxic nature making it suitable for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Biocompatible HPN are prepared from irradiated chitosan. • XRD showed the decrease in crystallinity of the HPN with increase in dose. • Lowering of contact angle with increase in dose showed increased hydrophilicity. • Cytotoxicity results showed nontoxicity of HPN and viability of the cells

  9. Application of gamma irradiation on forming protein-based edible films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade considerable interest has been addressed to the development of protein-based edible films due to their application in the food industry, as a substitute to traditional plastic films. The use of soy and whey proteins to form those films has been investigated, using heat, chemical and enzymatic processes. Gamma irradiation was recently reported to form caseinate-based edible films, due to the increase of the cohesive strength of the proteins by the formation of cross-links. This work aimed to verify the role of the gamma irradiation in the process of forming edible films from soy protein isolate (SPI) alone and in complex mixtures, that is, mixed with whey protein isolate (WPI), with carbethoxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and with poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVA). Gamma irradiation treatment improved significantly the mechanical properties for all films. The mechanical behavior is strongly related to the formulation, showing synergy between the gamma irradiation and the CMC, mainly for SPI-based films. SPI-based films presented a trend to decrease the water vapor permeability values when irradiated. The CMC addition showed significant improvements on the permeability for films from SPI and from the mixture of SPI with WPI. (author)

  10. Manual on panoramic gamma irradiators (categories 2 and 4). Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is the first revision of a previous one published in 1993 to provide guidance on the safe use and regulation of self-contained gamma irradiators (Co-60 or Cs-137 sources) in different fields of application. It includes three parts: Applications Guide, which describes the main applications of self-contained gamma irradiators, the type of equipment, including safety systems, operation and maintenance, and how to deal with incidents. Procedures Guide, which gives step by step instructions on how to carry out the practice. Basics Guide, which explains the fundamentals of radiation, the system of units, interaction of radiation with matter radiation detection, etc. The manual is aimed primarily at persons handling such radiation sources on a daily routine basis, as well as at the competent authorities for training of workers in radiation protection or for setting up local radiation protection rules

  11. Formation mechanism of solute clusters under neutron irradiation in ferritic model alloys and in a reactor pressure vessel steel: clusters of defects; Mecanismes de fragilisation sous irradiation aux neutrons d'alliages modeles ferritiques et d'un acier de cuve: amas de defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin-Chiffon, E

    2007-11-15

    The embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under irradiation is partly due to the formation of point defects (PD) and solute clusters. The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the formation mechanisms of solute clusters in low copper ([Cu] = 0.1 wt%) FeCu and FeCuMnNi model alloys, in a copper free FeMnNi model alloy and in a low copper French RPV steel (16MND5). These materials were neutron-irradiated around 300 C in a test reactor. Solute clusters were characterized by tomographic atom probe whereas PD clusters were simulated with a rate theory numerical code calibrated under cascade damage conditions using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The confrontation between experiments and simulation reveals that a heterogeneous irradiation-induced solute precipitation/segregation probably occurs on PD clusters. (author)

  12. Applications of EGS4 to industrial irradiator design and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, R.; Huntzinger, C. J.; Nelson, W. R.

    Historically, it has been difficult to use analytic models to accurately and completely predict radiation interaction with matter when designing high energy electron accelerators and their utilization for radiation processing. One possible solution to this problem is the EGS4 computer code system. It is a general purpose Monte-Carlo type package to simulate the transport of electrons, positrons and photons with energies from a few keV to well over 50 MeV in arbitrary, user-defined, complex geometries made up of any element or material. EGS4 has been used extensively by the high-energy particle accelerator community, medical physicists and health physicists the world over. This paper will describe the application of EGS4 as a design tool in the radiation processing field, for both accelerator design and end-use applications. Specific examples for simulations of electron energy deposition and x-ray production will be given. Included in the examples will be samples of graphics output directly from EGS4 to a graphics terminal using Unified Graphics. This capability allows the designer to "see" radiation interactions, such as electron scattering within and from the surface of a x-ray target. Also, graphical output of numerical data in the form of convenient histograms, spectral distributions and isodose contours may be generated.

  13. Design studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels plus secondary missions such as the production of radioisotopes. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could serve the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of current and potential customers. Concepts were then evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). This evaluation indicates that the baseline MATRIX design described herein can achieve longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme and using uranium enriched to less than 20%. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) in MATRIX is larger than those in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has a greater number and volume of irradiation spaces having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that a new materials test reactor, based upon the MATRIX concept, can meet the anticipated needs of current and new high flux irradiation programs for the foreseeable future. (author)

  14. Application of Gamma Irradiation on Manufacturing Changran Jeotgal (aged and seasoned intestine of Alaska pollack): Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changran Jeotgal (aged and seasoned intestine of Alaska pollack) was prepared as the same method as commercial one and irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy by gamma ray for industrial application. Changran Jeotgal using 10 kGy-irradiated red pepper powder was also prepared to compare with control (0 kGy)

  15. Irradiation effects on C/C composite materials for high temperature nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excellent characteristics such as high strength and high thermal shock resistance of C/C composite materials have led us to try to apply them to the high temperature components in nuclear facilities. Such components include the armour tile of the first wall and divertor of fusion reactor and the elements of control rod for the use in HTGR. One of the most important aspects to be clarified about C/C composites for nuclear applications is the effect of neutron irradiation on their properties. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), research on the irradiation effects on various properties of C/C composite materials has been carried out using fission reactors (JRR-3, JMTR), accelerators (TANDEM, TIARA) and the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS). Additionally, strength tests of some neutron-irradiated elements for the control rod were carried out to investigate the feasibility of C/C composites. The paper summarises the R and D activities on the irradiation effects on C/C composites. (authors)

  16. Application of the in-beam PET therapy monitoring on precision irradiations with helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the present dissertation was to extend the in-beam PET method to new ion types. It was shown that the in-beam PET method can also be applied for 3He irradiations. For this experiments on a 3He beam were performed. The activity yield is at equal applied dose about three times larger than at 12C irradiations. The reachable range resolution is smaller than 1 mm. At the irradiation of an inhomogeneous phantom it was shown that a contrast between different materials is resolvable. From the experimentally determined reaction rates cross sections for the reactions leading to positron emitters were performed. The data taken in the 3He experiments were compared those obtained in carbon-ion experiments as well as literature data for proton irradiations. A comparison with the calculations of the simulation program SHIELD-HIT was performed. A collection of cross-section models and the established requirements for a simulation program applicable for in-beam PET are preparing for further work

  17. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation; Neuropathologie radio-induite: des effets precoces aux sequelles tardives. Etudes comportementales et metaboliques chez le rat apres irradiation globale subletale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-15

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  18. Reconstruction of Petroleum Feedstocks by Entropy Maximization. Application to FCC Gasolines Reconstruction de coupes pétrolières par maximisation d’entropie. Application aux essences de FCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudebine D.

    2011-06-01

    pétrolier, les coupes sont généralement des mélanges complexes de plusieurs centaines à plusieurs millions d’espèces chimiques différentes. De ce fait, les outils analytiques, même les plus performants, ne permettent pas de séparer et d’identifier l’ensemble des composés présents. Les fractions pétrolières sont donc actuellement caractérisées soit via des descripteurs macroscopiques moyens (densité, analyse élémentaire, résonance magnétique nucléaire, etc., soit à l’aide de techniques séparatives (distillation, chromatographie gaz ou liquide, spectrométrie de masse, etc. qui ne quantifient cependant que quelques grandes familles de molécules. Les méthodes de reconstruction de coupes pétrolières sont des approches informatiques qui permettent d’évoluer vers un détail plus moléculaire en se basant sur le principe suivant : définir des mélanges simplifiés mais cohérents de composés chimiques à partir de données analytiques parcellaires et de connaissances expertes du procédé étudié. Ainsi, la méthode de reconstruction par maximisation d’entropie, proposée dans cet article, est une technique récente et puissante permettant de déterminer les fractions molaires d’un mélange préétabli de composés chimiques en maximisant un critère entropique et en respectant les contraintes analytiques fixées par le modélisateur. L’utilisation de cette méthodologie permet de réduire le nombre de degrés de liberté du système de quelques milliers (correspondant aux fractions molaires des composés à quelques dizaines (correspondant aux paramètres de Lagrange associés aux contraintes analytiques et ainsi de diminuer fortement le temps de calcul nécessaire à la résolution du problème. Cette approche a été appliquée avec succès à la reconstruction d’essences de FCC en prédisant précisément la composition moléculaire de ce type de coupes pétrolières à partir d’une distillation simulée et d

  19. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system

  20. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system. PMID:25173291

  1. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  2. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  3. Application of Laser-Induced Bone Therapy by Carbon Dioxide Laser Irradiation in Implant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Naka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the application of laser-induced bone therapy (LIBT to reduce implant healing time in rat tibia. Twenty 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawlay rats were used. The rats received laser irradiation (laser group or sham operation (control group on either side of the tibia. Five days after invasion, titanium implants were inserted in proximal tibia. Five, 10, and 20 days after implant placement, tibiae were collected. After taking micro-CT and performing a torque test, the tibiae were decalcified and 8-μm-thick sections were prepared. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results. Micro-CT images, removal torque values, and histomorphometric analysis data demonstrated a significantly accelerated bone formation in the laser group earlier in the healing process. Conclusion. The use of laser irradiation was effective in promoting bone formation and acquiring osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rat tibia. LIBT may be suitable for use in implant therapy.

  4. Light Irradiation through Small Particles and Its Applications for Surface Nanostructuring in Near Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi; HONG Ming-Hui; FUH Ying-Hsi Jerry; LU Li; TAN Leng Seow; Luk(y)anchuk B S

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the light scattering through small particles and its applications in nanostructuring, such as nanobumping, nanopatterning and dry laser cleaning. The theoretical calculation based on Mie theory provides an exact solution for sphere cavity resonance and plasmon resonance, which are two mechanisms for dielectric and metallic particles assisted surface nanostructuring in near field. The experimental results indicate that nanobumps on glass surface and subwavelength holes array on silicon surface can be formed without cracks with the self-assembly of 1 μm silica particle mask under laser irradiation. It is also found that the scattering wave by 40 nm gold particles can propagate 200 times away in terms of particle radius as recorded by photoresist under the UV light irradiation. Meanwhile, dry laser cleaning of 40 nm gold particle on silicon wafer is demonstrated at plasmonic resonance frequency. The total cleaning efficiency is estimated to be 80%.

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd, E-mail: m.hafez@usim.edu.my; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically

  8. Bioeffect of lipohemia rabbits irradiated in oral mucosa with 650-nm diode-laser-accompanied oxygen inspiration and clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Shou; Tang, Jin-Xian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Pang, Hi-Xiu

    1998-11-01

    The study on irradiating in oral mucosa of rabbits with 650 nm diode laser and clinical application has been reported in this paper. The result of animal experiment showed: the obvious decrease of cholesterin and triglyceride has been found among those highly lipohemia rabbits in the experiments of 650nm diode laser irradiating accompanying with oxygen, as well as the parameters of hemorheology obviously being improved, as compared with highly lipohemia rabbits un-irradiating, the statistical analysis showing P renal interstitial in the group of rabbits which are irradiated with laser and accompanying with oxygen inspiration, and even the perfectly recovered tissue in some rabbits has been seen. This experimental result is significantly for clinical application. The results of clinic application showed, that the patients employed this method which treatment cerebral infarction, lipohemia, the total effective ratio achieved 91.7 percent, perfect effect 30.6 percent.

  9. How Molecular Evolution Technologies can Provide Bespoke Industrial Enzymes: Application to Biofuels Comment les technologies d’évolution moléculaire peuvent fournir des enzymes industrielles sur mesure : application aux biocarburants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourage L.

    2013-08-01

    est l’un des principaux goulets d’étranglement dans le développement de la conversion biologique de la biomasse lignocellulosique en biocarburants. L’un des organismes les plus efficaces pour la production d’enzymes cellulolytiques est le champignon Trichoderma reesei, principalement grâce à sa capacité importante de sécrétion. La conversion de la cellulose en glucose implique trois types de cellulases travaillant en synergie : les endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4 clivant de façon aléatoire les liaisons glycosidiques en (3-1,4, les cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91 attaquant la chaîne de cellulose aux deux extrémités afin de produire le cellobiose, dimère qui sera converti en glucose par l’action des (3-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21. De façon inattendue, la quantité de 3-glucosidase (BGL1 sécrétée par les souches de T. reesei représente un très faible pourcentage de la quantité totale des protéines sécrétées qui en fait donc une activité limitante du cocktail. Cette faible activité limite d’autant plus les performances du cocktail que le cellobiose représente le principal inhibiteur de la réaction cellulolyse par les cellobiohydrolases. Ce goulot d’étranglement peut être atténué soit par une surexpression de la (3-glucosidase chez T. reesei, soit par une amélioration de son activité spécifique. Après un bref aperçu des principales technologies existantes, cet exemple sera utilisé dans cette revue pour illustrer le potentiel des technologies d’évolution dirigée pour développer des enzymes répondant aux besoins de l’industrie des biotechnologies. Nous décrivons comment la mise en oeuvre d’une stratégie d’évolution dirigée par le L-ShufflingTM avec trois gènes parentaux provenant de la biodiversité microbienne permet d’obtenir des activités (3-glucosidases très améliorées par rapport à la Cel3a (3-glucosidase de T. reesei (activité spécifique 242 fois plus élevée pour le substrat pNPGIc. Cette am

  10. Application of Gamma irradiation in treatment of Waste Activated Sludge to Obtain Class a Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I. AL-Ghonaiem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main objective of the current study was investigation of the possible application of Gamma irradiation for treatment of the activated sludge generated wastewater treatment stations, to achieve the standard requirements in term of pathogens content. Approach: Activated sludge samples were collected from Riyadh wastewater plant and analyzed quantitatively for the presence of important bacterial parameters including fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. The collected samples were treated with various doses of Gamma irradiation and bacterial count was determined. Results: The results indicated that all tested sludge samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp, with different counts in different stages of wastewater treatment. The raw sludge showed to have the highest coliforms and Salmonella spp counts of 1.1×108 and 2×103 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. Furthermore, coliforms and Salmonella spp were detected in final resulted sludge with count of 2.5×107 and 6×102 MPN g-1 dry sludge, respectively. It was found that treatment of samples with gamma irradiation was able to reduce the fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp effectively and the reduction efficiency was increased by increasing the irradiation dose. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella counts were reduced to less than 100 MPN g-1 dry sludge by exposing to 1.5 and 0.25 kGy respectively. Furthermore, Gamma radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was able to remove both fecal coliforms and Salomnella spp completely. In addition, D10 values were determined and was found to be 0.25 and 0.24 kGy for fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp., respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results indicating that the resulted activated sludge generated from Riyadh wastewater plant are rich with important pathogens and therefore further treatment procedures are necessary to achieve the required standards, before any land application. Application of

  11. Development of an 241Am applicator for intracavitary irradiation of gynecologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, R; Peschel, R E; Park, C H; Fischer, J J

    1988-05-01

    Sealed sources of 241Am that emit primarily 60 keV photons produce relative dose distributions in water comparable to those from 137Cs or 226Ra sources and can produce dose rates of up to 100 cGy/hr at 1 cm in water. Also, 241Am gamma rays can be effectively shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials (HVL is 1/8th mm of lead) placed on the applicator or inside some body cavities (for example, hypaque in bladder, barium sulphate in rectum). These properties of 241Am sources open a new approach to optimizing intracavitary irradiation of various cancers by allowing a reduction in dose and volume of irradiated critical organs or by increasing tumor doses. The relative ease with which highly effective shielding is achievable with 241Am sources would allow the design and fabrication of partially shielded applicators which can produce asymmetric dose distributions to allow unidirectional irradiation of localized lesions. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a gynecological applicator containing 241Am sources are presented. The applicator consists of a 2, 3, or 4 segment vaginal plaque (loaded with 2 and 5 Ci 241Am sources) and a tandem made up of a single 8 Ci 241Am source. Dose rates at 2 cm from the plaques are 42.0, 47.4, 58.3 and 56.7 cGy/hr for 5-5, 5-4-5, 5-5-5, and 5-4-4-5 Ci plaques, respectively. The 5-4-5 Ci plaque in combination with the 8 Ci tandem produces dose rates of 60.0 and 22.8 cGy/hr to points A and B, respectively. Surface dose rates on the plaque applicators are 143, 124, 142 and 132 cGy/hr for 5-5, 5-4-5, 5-5-5 and 5-4-4-5 Ci applicators, respectively. The shielding effect of a 0.5 mm thick lead foil on one side of the 5-4-5 Ci applicator is found to be a factor of 16.8; for example, the dose rate at 2 cm from the unshielded side is 42.0 cGy/hr compared to a dose rate of 2.5 cGy/hr at 2 cm from the shielded side. Initial clinical experience with this applicator in the treatment of recurrent gynecological lesions is also presented

  12. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  14. Cutaneous radiation syndrome: applicability of comet assay for early assessment of irradiation consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    culture, in a wide dose range. Although the application of neutral comet assay to the suspension of epidermal cells (from complete biopsies irradiated with 10 Gy and 15 Gy) have shown a high proportion of keratinocytes of the basal layer, primary cultures and colony formation assays, initiated from these cellular suspensions, have resulted negatives, indicating a reduction in the amount of stem cell- keratinocytes of the basal layer. A dose threshold between 10 Gy and 15 Gy has been estimated for the loss of regenerative capability of the epidermis. Inhibition of proliferation of epidermal basal keratinocytes has been investigated in appropriate animal models. This study provides an in vitro human model that shows consistent results with animal models. Additionally, it could permit to assess the radiosensitivity of fibroblast and endothelial cells obtained from the skin biopsies, leading to a best knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological processes. (author)

  15. Irradiation experiments on a mouse using a mild-plasma generator for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma technologies using an argon plasma coagulator have been used in endoscopic therapy to induce blood coagulation and ablate residual tumors. However, present devices have a risk of perforating the stomach wall during endoscopic submucosal dissection. Therefore, to reduce this risk, irradiation is performed for a limited time, which leads to incomplete cessation of bleeding and recurrence of residual tumors. Therefore, a device with greater controllability and safety is strongly desired for clinical applications. In this study, we have evaluated the irradiation efficiency of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet based on a dielectric barrier discharge to control bleeding. Bleeding from a mouse femoral artery was induced, and then plasma was irradiated onto the bleeding area. Prompt coagulation in the disrupted blood vessel was observed, and there was no histological evidence of either burns or tissue necrosis caused by the plasma jet. These results suggest that postoperative scarring and adhesion may be prevented using the proposed plasma generator because of the reduced tissue damage. (author)

  16. Design Studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation Experiments (MATRIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Michael A.; Gougar, Hans D.; Ryskamp, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of potential customers. Then, concepts were evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). The baseline MATRIX design is expected to be capable of longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) is larger in MATRIX than in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has more locations of greater volume having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that the lead MATRIX design can be designed to meet the anticipated needs of the ATR replacement reactor. However, this design is quite immature, and therefore any requirements currently met must be re-evaluated as the design is developed further.

  17. Master curve applicability to highly neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbuchen, C.; Viehrig, H.W.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the results of a Research project within the framework of the reactor safety research of the BMWi investigating the applicability of the Master Curve concept to characterise the toughness of neutron irradiated Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels. Specimens from 3 different RPV steels were scrutinised (IAEA reference material JRQ, JFL comparable to commercial German RPV steel 22NiMoCr3-7 and the Russian WWER-440 type base metal 15Kh2MFA), which had been irradiated at 3 different fluences to up to 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1MeV). Additionally, the effects of a recovery heat treatment of 475 C/100h were investigated. Besides basic material characterisation (microstructure, Vickers hardness, tensile properties), Charpy-V tests and J{sub R} crack growth curves according to ASTM E1820-06 the focus was set on the determination of reference temperatures T{sub 0} according to ASTM E1921-05, which was derived from the measured fracture toughness values KJc at cleavage failure of the specimens. Additional MC based analysis methods such multimodal MC method (MML) and Unified Curve were employed in order to identify possible MC shape changes under high irradiation and effects of material inhomogeneity. Well known irradiation effects such as increasing strength and decreasing toughness could be verified in tensile test properties (yield and ultimate tensile strength increase while elongation at fracture decreases with neutron fluence), in Charpy-V tests (increasing toughness transition temperatures T{sub 28J} and T{sub 41J} while upper shelf toughness decreases) and in MC tests (reference temperature T{sub 0}. increases). (orig.)

  18. Application of Laser-Induced Bone Therapy by Carbon Dioxide Laser Irradiation in Implant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Naka; Satoshi Yokose

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of laser-induced bone therapy (LIBT) to reduce implant healing time in rat tibia. Twenty 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawlay rats were used. The rats received laser irradiation (laser group) or sham operation (control group) on either side of the tibia. Five days after invasion, titanium implants were inserted in proximal tibia. Five, 10, and 20 days after implant placement, tibiae were collected. After taking micro-CT and performing a torque test, the tibia...

  19. Application of EPR, thermoluminescence as well as DNA damage examination methods and sprout inhibition for identification of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of food with doses up to 10 kGy of gamma, X-rays or electron beam is a relatively new technology improving hygienic quality of food, diminishing morbidity due to food pathogens and reducing losses during food storage. Application of this technology increases constantly in the world; more and more irradiated food appears on the market in various countries. In Europe it is agreed notion that detection of irradiated foods should be obligatory procedure included into administrative control system of foodstuffs. For this purpose the reliable methods are needed by which detection of irradiation fact will be possible. Such methods are not easy to be worked out because irradiation induces changes which are to small to be detected by methods commonly applied for food control. Working out the methods suitable for identification of irradiated food has been carried out in many countries in the world and during the last decade within several local and/or international programmes including the intercomparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In our institute such investigations began already in the 80-ties using EPR spectrometry and thermoluminescence measurements. Applications of these methods were approved in 1996 as European Community Standards. Other methods are still under investigation. They include the analyses of DNA damage in irradiated foodstuffs of animal or plant origin and measurements of germination effectiveness of irradiated grains and fruits. In this communication we present some results obtained upon application of forementioned methods to detection of different kinds of food irradiated with gamma rays or electron beam. (author)

  20. Application of the OSL dosimetry technique in the identification of irradiated foods, such as condiments and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Catherine C.O.; Alencar, Marcus A.V. de, E-mail: vallim@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in food preservation is considered a well-established technique, so many countries, including Brazil, now allow the use of irradiated foods. Many methods have been tested for dosimetry and identification of irradiated foods including thermoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, and others based on microbiological changes and in viscosity, and which requires a sample processing. The technique of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) presents an advantage over other methods mentioned: The samples may be used without the need for a prior processing. This work aims to study the OSL properties of condiments and spices irradiated, in order to verify the possibility of the application of the OSL technique in identifying and dosimetry of irradiated foods. The samples used were of four kinds of spices: cumin, oregano, white pepper and black pepper. All samples were subjected to gamma irradiation from a Co-60 source with dose values of kerma in air of 100 Gy to 35 kGy. The samples of cumin presents the OSL signal, however, is only possible to identify whether the condiment was irradiated or not. The sample of oregano also presents the OSL signal, and for this condiment is possible to identify addition to its irradiation, the value of dose. The black pepper and white pepper samples don't presents the OSL signal. The results obtained in this study indicate the possibility of using the OSL technique for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated foods. (author)

  1. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  2. Commande multi-modèles tolérante aux défauts : Application au contrôle de la dynamique d'un véhicule automobile.

    OpenAIRE

    Oudghiri, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Cette thèse traite la synthèse de lois de commande tolérantes aux défauts (FTC) pour le contrôle de la dynamique du châssis du véhicule automobile. L'étude est basée sur l'approche multimodèle avec la formulation et la résolution des problèmes de synthèse de lois de commande en utilisant les techniques LMI (Inégalités Matricielles Linéaires).La première partie consacrée à la FTC passive comporte trois chapitres. La première concerne la synthèse d'une loi de commande multimodèle par retour d'é...

  3. Modélisation du procédé de soudage hybride Arc / Laser par une approche level set application aux toles d'aciers de fortes épaisseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Desmaison, Olivier; Bellet, Michel; Guillemot, Gildas

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage hybride Arc/Laser est une solution aux assemblages difficiles de tôles de fortes épaisseurs. Ce procédé innovant associe deux sources de chaleur : un arc électrique produit par une torche MIG et une source laser placée en amont. Ce couplage améliore le rendement du procédé, la qualité du cordon et les déformations finales. La modélisation de ce procédé par une approche Level Set permet une prédiction du développement du cordon et du champ de température associé. La simul...

  4. Notes de voyage aux Iles Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice LOUIS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Les excursions du 1Vº Cours de Préhistoire et d'Archéologie, organisé en 1950 par l'Université de Barcelone en collaboratión avec l'Institut de Prehistoire méditerranéenne du Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas d'Espagne, on conduit les participants aux Iles Baléares afin d'étudier sur place la civilisation dite "des talayots" de Majorque et de Minorque.

  5. Assistance et discipline, introduction aux articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Vimont

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quand Michel Foucault publie Surveiller et punir en 1975, aux lendemains de trois années de mutineries dans l'univers carcéral, il ne se contente pas d'offrir une généalogie de la prison moderne, mais analyse les systèmes disciplinaires à l'oeuvre dans d'autres institutions. Les études que nous reproduisons dans cette rubrique incitent à une réflexion sur la dimension coercitive de certains dispositifs d'assistance et de soins. Non de manière statique, car les oeuvres, les institutions évolue...

  6. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608737 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Jeong [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju 660759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Jin [Division of Food Engineering and Nutrition, Daegu University, Daegu 712714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwang Hoon [Department of Biology, Kongju National University, Chungnam 314701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  7. Thermodynamic Aspects of Supercritical Fluids Processing: Applications of Polymers and Wastes Treatment Aspects thermodynamiques des procédés mettant en oeuvre des fluides supercritiques : applications aux traitements des polymères et des déchets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslin P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid processes are of increasing interest for many fields : in supercritical fluid separation (petroleum-chemistry separation and purification, food industry and supercritical fluid chromatography (analytical and preparative separation, determination of physicochemical properties; as reaction media with continuously adjustable properties from gas to liquid (low-density polyethylene, waste destruction, polymer recycling; in geology and mineralogy (volcanoes, geothermal energy, hydrothermal synthesis; in particle, fibber and substrate formations (pharmaceuticals, explosives, coatings; in drying materials (gels. This paper presents the unusual physicochemical properties of supercritical fluids in relation to their engineering applications. After a short report of fundamental concepts of critical behavior in pure fluids, we develop in more details the tunable physicochemical properties of fluid in the supercritical domain. The second part of this paper describes the engineering applications of supercritical fluids relevant of chemical reactions and polymer processing. Each application presentation is divided in two parts : the first one recalls the basic concepts including general background, physicochemical properties and the second one develops the engineering applications relevant of the advocated domain. La mise en Suvre des fluides supercritiques est d'un intérêt croissant dans de nombreux domaines : pour la séparation (séparation et purification en pétrochimie, industrie alimentaire et la chromatographie par fluides supercritiques (séparation analytique et préparatoire, détermination des propriétés physicochimiques, comme milieux réactifs aux propriétés continûment ajustables allant du gaz au liquide (polyéthylène de faible densité, élimination des déchets, recyclage des polymères, en géologie et en minéralogie (volcanologie, énergie géothermique, synthèse hydrothermique, dans la formation des particules

  8. Development of a neutron irradiation device with a cooled crystal filter: Radiation physical properties and applications in in vivo irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-physical and geometrical properties of a neutron-beam, collimated with a Bi-crystal filter were investigated at the reactor BER II. The influence of the crystal temperature as well as the actions of a reflector and a collimator on neutron flux-density and neutron field of the thermal neutrons were investigated. The dose contributions of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons as well as γ-radiation was determined by activation of the sample respective with TLD-measurements. The influence of irradiation and measurement geometry on the sensitivity and detection probability was investigated by means of phantom irradiations. The method prooved to be suitable, to detect changes of the Ca-content in a rat hind leg by about 10%. In investigations on animal groups of about 10 animals a threshold of detectability for changes of the ca-content is to be expected by about 4%. In a further group experiment it was found, that even in the case of multiple radiation the procedure of irradiation and measurement was not followed by a significant change in the Ca-content of the hind legs of the testing animals. (orig.)

  9. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Concetta Campagna; Maria Teresa Di Schiavi; Marina Foti; Maria Cristina Mosconi; Giuseppina Mattiolo; Roberta Cavallina

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtaine...

  10. Study of the integration of distributed generation systems in the grid: application in micro-grids; Etude de structures d'integration des systemes de generation decentralisee: application aux microreseaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaztanaga Arantzamendi, H

    2006-12-15

    The present PhD deals with an original micro-grid concept and its application as a Renewable Energy Source's (RES) grid integration scheme. This micro-grid is composed of RES generators as well as support systems that incorporate additional functionalities in order to improve RES integration into the grid. According to this concept, two practical micro-grid applications have been studied in detail: a residential micro-grid and a wind farm supported by DFACTS systems (STATCOM and DVR). In both applications, the control structures which are implemented at different levels and applied to the different micro-grid elements have been developed, analyzed by means of off-line simulations and finally validated in real-time conditions with physical reduced-scale prototypes. (author)

  11. Application of small specimens to fracture mechanics characterization of irradiated pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens were used to characterize the fracture toughness of unirradiated and irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region by means of three-point static bending. Fracture toughness at cleavage instability was calculated in terms of elastic-plastic KJc values. A statistical size correction based upon weakest-link theory was performed. The concept of a master curve was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties. Initially, size-corrected PCVN data from A 533 grade B steel, designated HSST Plate O2, were used to position the master curve and a 5% tolerance bound for KJc data. By converting PCVN data to IT compact specimen equivalent KJc data, the same master curve and 5% tolerance bound curve were plotted against the Electric Power Research Institute valid linear-elastic KJc database and the ASME lower bound KIc curve. Comparison shows that the master curve positioned by testing several PCVN specimens describes very well the massive fracture toughness database of large specimens. These results give strong support to the validity of KJc with respect to KIc in general and to the applicability of PCVN specimens to measure fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels in particular. Finally, irradiated PCVN specimens of other materials were tested, and the results are compared to compact specimen data. The current results show that PCVNs demonstrate very good capacity for fracture toughness characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. It provides an opportunity for direct measurement of fracture toughness of irradiated materials by means of precracking and testing Charpy specimens from surveillance capsules. However, size limits based on constraint theory restrict the operational test temperature range for KJc data from PCVN specimens. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils. PMID:27281539

  13. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils.

  14. Inhibitory effect of gamma irradiation and its application for control of postharvest green mold decay of Satsuma mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Rae-Dong; Chu, Eun-Hee; Lee, Gun Woong; Cho, Chuloh; Park, Hae-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Gamma irradiation has been shown to be effective for the control of postharvest fungi in vitro, but little is known regarding antifungal action, responses to gamma irradiation, and its application to fresh produce. Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum on Satsuma mandarin fruits. Green mold was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Gamma irradiation showed a complete inhibition of spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelial growth of P. digitatum, particularly at 1.0kGy. To further investigate the mechanisms by which gamma irradiation inhibits fungal growth, the membrane integrity and cellular leakage of conidia were tested, indicating that gamma irradiation results in the loss of plasma membrane integrity, causing the release of intracellular contents such as soluble proteins. In vivo assays demonstrated that established doses can completely inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens, but such high doses cause severe fruit damage. Thus, to eliminate the negative impact on fruit quality, gamma irradiation at lower doses was evaluated for inhibition of P. digitatum, in combination with a chlorine donor, sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (NaDCC). Interestingly, only a combined treatment with 0.4kGy of gamma irradiation and 10ppm of NaDCC exhibited significant synergistic antifungal activity against green mold decay. The mechanisms by which the combined treatment decreased the green mold decay of mandarin fruits can be directly associated with the disruption of cell membrane of the fungal pathogen, which resulted in a loss of cytoplasmic material from the hyphae. These findings suggest that a synergistic effect of combining treatment with gamma irradiation with NaDCC has potential as an antifungal approach to reduce the severity of green mold in mandarin fruits. PMID:27356109

  15. Applicability of Irradiation Combined with Antioxidant Enzyme Assays to Environmental Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Cha, Min Kyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Wilhelmova, Nad' a [Institute of Experimental Botany, Prague (Czech Republic); Mukherjee, Anita [University of Calcuta, Kolkata (India)

    2011-10-15

    Mixed air pollutants from industrial complexes are suspected as oxidative stress to living plants. As they grow in a fixed place, they can be a good indicator which reflects the level of pollution. It is inevitable for those plants to adapt themselves to the adverse environmental condition, or to develop a defense system against the oxidative stress from the pollution. It is assumable that adaptive plants are exposed to a second oxidative stress agent such as ionizing radiation, they may cope better with the second stress. If the plants are exposed to air pollutants prior to ionizing radiation, they already have developed the antioxidant defense system against oxidative stress from ionizing radiation. To support the assumption, antioxidative capacity assay with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability test and the content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen can be assessed in conjunction with the biochemical response of the plants after irradiation. Euonymus japonica that is a well known road tree with high resistance to air pollution was used as experimental materials to check applicability of irradiation combined with plant bioassay to environmental monitoring

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  17. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution; Developpement et applications de l'imagerie coherente aux rayons X a tres haute resolution spatiale et temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-07-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied.

  18. Study of statistical probability of solar irradiation energy levels in Zagreb and their application

    OpenAIRE

    Penzar, Ivan; Žic, Mario

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain a more accurate evaluation of efficiency of the solar system the measurements of global irradiation by Moll-Gorczynski solarigraph were analysed with respect to levels of energy instead to arithmetic means of irradiation. The time variation of irradiation levels in daily and yearly course is considered. The structure of global irradiation energy presented on the tilted plane and put in the mathematical model improved the simulation of work of the entire solar installation

  19. Research and development of low and medium dose food irradiation applications in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in food irradiation in France can best be shown by the number of facilities under construction or in the planning stage. It was made possible through an evolution of the regulations which encouraged food companies to submit petitions. The first commercial applications will deal with dried, dehydrated or frozen products for which clearances were obtained or are in progress. In cooperation with the food industry, studies were carried out on rice flour, herbal teas, caseinates and ingredients such as colors. In the low doses range, interest seems mostly to be sprouting inhibition of garlic and insect control in dried fruits. Several private companies undertook research on directly consumed commodities such as strawberries, cured meats, saurkraut and ground beef

  20. Materials considerations for highly irradiated normal-conducting magnets in fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been performed to identify deleterious material radiation effects in unshielded highly-irradiated normal-conducting magnets. Application of the study to the design evolution of the normal-conducting hybrid coils in the MARS tandem mirror reactor resulted in the identification of several potential radiation-induced failure mechanisms and enabled coil lifetimes to be reasonably predicted. In the present optimized coil design, lifetime under a peak neutron wall loading of 4.5 MW m-2 is limited by swelling of the Spinel ceramic insulation to approx.= 1.5 full power years. The effect of radiation damage on high strength copper alloy conductors at these fluences (> 1022 ncm-2) remain an area of urgent data need. (orig.)

  1. Colloids: a review of current knowledge with a view to application to phenomena of transportation within PWR; Colloides: point de vue sur les connaissances actuelles en vue d`une application aux phenomenes de transport dans les REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinard, L.

    1996-12-31

    In an attempt to minimise dosimetry within the primary circuit of PWR units, research is being carried out into understanding the phenomena of transportation and deposition of corrosion products. It is therefore desirable to known the form of these corrosion products and the laws governing this form. It is generally considered that they are in soluble or particulate form. A third starts with a general presentation of colloids and goes on to define points which are useful, both on a theoretical and experimental level, in terms of application to phenomena of transportation within PWRs. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs., 3 appends.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on olive leaves and application on meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation is a high technology in the treatment of food product, for this reason we have been interested to study the effect of gamma irradiation on microbial charge (Bioburden), the phenolics compounds and their antioxidant activities on the olive leaves. The irradiated olive leaves are added as an antimicrobial and antioxidant compound on minced meat for preservation.

  3. Separation of radio-cesium using potassium cobalt ferrocyanides. Application to radioactive waste and sea water; Separation des radiocesium par le ferrocyanure de cobalt potassium application aux eaux residuaires et marines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, J.; Vergnaud, G.; Flamant, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, la Hague, 50 - Cherbourg (France). Section de protection contre les radiations

    1968-09-01

    This work concerns the separation of radiocesium using ion-exchange on the ferrocyanide of cobalt and potassium. The factors studied, and which could affect this separation are: the pH, the amount of ion-exchanger used, the rate of flow of the sample, the grain-size of the ion-exchanger, the selectivity. The operational technique used is described, as well as its particular application to sea-water. (authors) [French] L'etude porte sur la separation des radiocesium par echange d'ion sur du ferrocyanure de cobalt et de potassium. Les parametres etudies et pouvant influencer cette separation sont: le pH, la quantite d'echangeur d'ion utilise, la vitesse d'ecoulement de l'echantillon, la granulometrie de l'echangeur d'ion, la selectivite. La technique operatoire adoptee est decrite, ainsi que son application particuliere a l'eau de mer. (auteurs)

  4. Introduction aux études historiques

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, Charles-Victor; Seignobos, Charles; Noiriel, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    L’Introduction aux études historiques constitue le texte de référence de ce qu’on a appelé « l’école méthodique historique » française. Ce manuel cherche à définir les règles de la méthode historique afin de contribuer à asseoir la scientificité d’une discipline, l’histoire, dans le contexte de sa professionnalisation universitaire. Le texte affirme le primat des archives comme preuves et sources du récit historique, et revient sur les différentes étapes du travail sur archives, de la localis...

  5. The co-application effects of fullerene and ascorbic acid on UV-B irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of fullerene as a pro-oxidant or anti-oxidant in Ultraviolet B ray (UV-B)-induced disorders in mouse skin was investigated. Fullerene gave no photo-toxic effect to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin. Since erythema was concentrated at the pore circumference in a UV-B irradiation experiment in mouse skin, the sebaceous gland pairs was strongly implicated as a site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a histological evaluation of the skin stained with CH3MDFDA (ROS index) and YO-Pro-1 (apoptosis index), the fluorescence intensity of a sebaceous gland significantly increased with UV-B irradiation. With the application of fullerene to UV-irradiated mouse skin, no toxicity was recognized in comparison with the control, and erythema, the ROS index, and the apoptosis index decrease with the application of fullerene. Ascorbyl radical (AA·) increased with the application of ascorbate (AA) to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin, and AA· decreased with the application of fullerene. The co-application of AA and fullerene, which suppressed AA· in vitro, significantly suppressed erythema, and also suppressed both the ROS index and apoptosis index in mouse skin after UV-B irradiation. In both mouse skin at 48 h after UV-B irradiation and in an attempt to reproduce this phenomenon artificially in vitro, a similar high AA· peak (AA·/H· > 4) was observed in electron spin resonance (ESR) charts. The binding of fullerene with AA impairs the Fenton reaction between AA and Fe-protein based on the observation of ascorbate-specific UV absorption and a linear equation for the calibration curve. Therefore, fullerene may impair the intercalation of AA to a heme pocket by binding with AA. These results suggest that the co-application of AA and fullerene is effective against oxidative skin damage caused by UV-B irradiation, and the development of an AA· inhibitor such as fullerene should be useful for reducing organ damage associated with Fe-protein oxidation.

  6. Application of the Master Curve approach for the irradiation embrittlement evaluation of pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.; Boehmert, J. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The master curve (MC) approach and the associated reference temperature, T{sub 0}, as defined in the test standard ASTM E1921, is rapidly moving from the research laboratory to application in integrity assessment of components and structures. T{sub 0} is the index temperature for the universal MC, which considers the toughness behaviour of a specific material. ''The Structural Integrity Assessment Procedures for European Industry'' (SINTAP) contain a MC extension for analysing the fracture behaviour of inhomogeneous ferritic steels. This paper presents the application of the MC approach to the T{sub 0} determination of different types of Russian WWER-type reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. In addition the SINTAP-MC approach was applied to determine an alternative reference temperature, T{sub R}. The influence of different microstructures and compositions within one type of RPV steel and the effect of irradiation with fast neutrons on T{sub 0} are experimentally evaluated. In general the MC based T{sub 0} is about 72 K below the Charpy V-notch transition temperature related to an impact energy of 48 J. The paper demonstrates the application of MC based T{sub 0} and T{sub R} as an alternative reference temperature for neutron embrittled RPV steels used in the RPV integrity assessment. (orig.)

  7. Modeling of the thermal transfer inside a porous environment: application to nuclear reactors in accident situation; Modelisation du transfert thermique dans un milieu poreux: application aux reacteurs nucleaires en situation accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiolo, P.R

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to simulate heat exchanges occurring by conduction, by convection and by radiating in a porous medium made up of opaque particles in a semi-transparent fluid. Usually the determination of the macroscopic equations is based on homogenization techniques, but in the case of a major accident, the complexity of the problem is so overwhelming that semi-empirical methods are used to determine macroscopic coefficients. The author develops a new method to determine these coefficients, this method is based on the calculation of different tensors: the equivalent conductivity tensor, the radiative conductivity tensor, the thermal conductivity tensor and the heat exchange coefficient (h{sub sf}) between the solid phase and the fluid one. The first chapter briefly describes energy, impulse and mass balances. In the case of the energy balance the solid phase is not supposed to be in thermal equilibrium with the liquid phase. The second chapter presents an application of the porous media method to a one-dimensional and stationary problem, this application to a simple problem gives an idea of the performance of the method. The model allowing the calculation of h{sub sf} is developed, it is a wide range model. The second chapter ends with the presentation of the model allowing the computing of the effective conductivity of fuel rods. A comparison between results given by this new method and other numeric calculations or experimental data coming from benchmarks is presented in the third chapter. This chapter ends with the simulation of a reactor core in accidental situation, 2 cases are presented: with and without the presence of water steam. (A.C.)

  8. Macroscopic models for single-phase flows in fractured porous medium: application to well tests; Modeles macroscopiques pour les ecoulements monophasiques en milieu poreux fracture: application aux tests de puits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landereau, P.

    2000-12-01

    We consider pressure diffusion in fractured media, with application to well test interpretation. Using the volume averaging theory of Quintard and Whitaker, the local problem is replaced by a double-porosity large scale description. The parameters of the latter may be computed solving small scale closure problems on a representative volume. Using suitable numerical methods, we have performed a systematic study of these parameters as a function of the topology of the fracture network and matrix to fracture permeability contrast. We find that the matrix permeability plays a significant role near a percolation threshold. Next, we studied the exchange coefficient parameter, by unifying the different definitions of the literature in a single framework using a Fourier analysis. Finally, we applied our technique to well-test interpretation in fractured media by comparing large scale solutions to high resolution direct simulations. We find that at short time scale, very fine grid blocks are needed to get good accuracy. In that case, a good agreement is observed between large scale averaged results and reference simulations. (author)

  9. Cryo magnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies: application to industrial effluents; Adaptation de la separation cryomagnetique aux technologies de l`environnement: application a l`epuration d`effluents liquides industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, V.

    1993-12-20

    Cryomagnetic separation adaptation to environment technologies application to industrial liquid effluents. The performance, obtained by superconducting high filed - high gradient magnetic separation, permitted to foresee the magnetic treatment of heavy metals in rinse waters, derived from the surface finishing industry. The paramagnetic ions, precipitated in basic media as hydroxides, present a very hydrated amorphous structure, which masks their subjacent magnetic properties. Coprecipitation of a `magnetic carrier`, jointly with the heavy metals, has been studied: ferric chloride forms in basic media, an hydrated iron oxide. Its structure is of the goethite type, and it stabilizes as hematite. The magnetic susceptibility of the obtained product is still weak and its crystalline structure is not enough affirmative to utilize magnetic filtration with efficiency. Mixture of ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride forms, in a basic media, an hydrated magnetite. Initial ideal ratio between divalent iron and trivalent iron, varies between 0,5 and 1,2. This mixture, coprecipitated with the heavy metals, permits to optimize the magnetic cleaning of the fluids in a high field - high gradient filter. (author)

  10. Application of neural networks to measurement methods based on radiation interactions with matter; Application des reseaux de neurones aux methodes de mesure basees sur l'interaction rayonnement matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilato, V

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of improving by neuronal techniques the preparation and interpretation of nuclear measurements was investigated. A general methodology was developed and applied to various problems in this field. Whatever the problem to be treated, to solve it comes to determine the relation which binds the inputs to the outputs. Neural networks based on supervised training, like the multilayer Perceptron, have the capability to calculate any relation between a set of input and output data. On the other hand, the training phase is often a long and delicate operation whose difficulties grow with the size of the network:it is thus interesting to reduce it by introducing knowledge a priori and/or by reducing the number of inputs in order to extract the relevant information. If the correlations between the inputs are linear, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and its neuronal equivalents make it possible to obtain by orthogonal projection a reduced number of input components while preserving the maximum of initial information. If the correlations are nonlinear, the Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) allows, by a unsupervised training, to carry out a nonlinear projection of the inputs in a space of reduced size. Besides, it is noticed that when the dimension of the input space is equal to the intrinsic dimension of the problem, this last is practically solved by CCA. We propose a general method which consists in characterizing as well as possible the problem by its inputs and then to extract and classify the information contained in those by projection in a space of reduced size. Association between the projected data and the problem outputs is then carried out by a supervised training network. Certain results having to be provided with their associated uncertainty, a statistical method based on the bootstrap algorithm is proposed. Potential applications other that those treated are considered. (author)

  11. Application of the simplified J-estimation scheme Aramis to mismatching welds in CCP; Application du concept d`integrale J dans l`outil Aramis aux effets de mismatch sur des eprouvettes CCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eripret, C.; Franco, C.; Gilles, P.

    1995-12-31

    The J-based criteria give reasonable predictions of the failure behaviour of ductile cracked metallic structures, even if the material characterization may be sensitive to the size of the specimens. However in cracked welds, this phenomenon due to stress triaxiality effects could be enhanced. Furthermore, the application of conventional methods of toughness measurement (ESIS or ASTM standard) have evidenced a strong influence of the portion of the weld metal in the specimen. Several authors have shown the inadequacy of the simplified J-estimation methods developed for homogeneous materials. These heterogeneity effects mainly related to the mismatch ratio (ratio of weld metal yield strength upon base metal yield strength) as well as to the geometrical parameter h/W-a (weld width upon ligament size). In order to make decisive progress in this field, the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the PWR manufacturer FRAMATOME, and the French utility (EDF) have launched a large research program on cracked piping welds behaviour. As part of this program, a new J-estimation scheme, so called ARAMIS, has been developed to account for the influence of both materials, i.e. base metal and weld metal, on the structural resistance of cracked welds. It has been shown that, when the mismatch is high, and when the ligament size is small compared to the weld width, a classical J-based method using the softer material properties is very conservative. On the opposite the ARAMIS method provides a good estimate of J, because it predicts pretty well the shift of the cracked weld limit load, due to the presence of the weld. the influence of geometrical parameters such as crack size, weld width, or specimen length is property accounted for. (authors). 23 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix.

  12. Global dynamics of shaft lines of turbo-machineries coupled to surrounding fluids: application to the case of fluid sheets; Dynamique globale des lignes d'arbres de turbomachines couplees aux fluides environnants: application au cas des lames fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lornage, D.

    2001-12-15

    Shaft lines of turbo-machineries have to stand increasing reliability, efficiency and safety requirements. A precise modeling of the rotating parts with all possible coupling has become necessary. In this context, this work aims to develop a global modeling of rotating wheel/shaft system inside a surrounding fluid in order to foresee its dynamical behaviour. The use and advantage of Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed (arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian - ALE) formulations is recalled first. A bibliographic synthesis of the classical techniques used in structure mechanics and of coupling techniques for rotating machines is presented. The coupling technique retained is presented. It uses fluid and structure models independently developed and validated. The structure domain is discretized by the finite-element method. The fluid domain is discretized by the finite-difference method taking into consideration the hypotheses linked with thin films. A modal base projection combined with a mesh at the fluid-structure interface allows an efficient, adaptable and evolutive coupling. Finally, the method is applied to 3 test-cases. The first two ones comprise a shaft/disc system coupled to a fluid sheet between the disc and the casing and to an hydrodynamic bearing. Both cases allow a first validation of the coupling method. The third case aims to study a structure closer to a real system made of a shaft and a wheel coupled to a fluid sheet between a flange and a casing. These three applications allow to show the trends linked with the fluid effects and the coupling between the flexible sub-parts of the structure. (J.S.)

  13. Evaluation of Concepts for Mulitiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope; Hans D. Gougar; John M. Ryskamp

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Originally operated primarily in support of the Offcie of Naval Reactors (NR), the mission has gradually expanded to cater to other customers, such as the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), private industry, and universities. Unforeseen circumstances may lead to the decommissioning of ATR, thus leaving the U.S. Government without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. This work can be viewed as an update to a project from the 1990’s called the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). In FY 2012, a survey of anticipated customer needs was performed, followed by analysis of the original BATR concepts with fuel changed to low-enriched uranium. Departing from these original BATR designs, four concepts were identified for further analysis in FY2013. The project informally adopted the acronym MATRIX (Multiple-Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation eXperiments). This report discusses analysis of the four MATRIX concepts along with a number of variations on these main concepts. Designs were evaluated based on their satisfaction of anticipated customer requirements and the “Cylindrical” variant was selected for further analysis of options. This downselection should be considered preliminary and the backup alternatives should include the other three main designs. The baseline Cylindrical MATRIX design is expected to be capable of higher burnup than the ATR (or longer cycle length given a

  14. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak; Thermographie proche infrarouge par cameras CCD et application aux composants de premiere paroi du tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-06-07

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m{sup 2}). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) and the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurements is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C instead of 700 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. 87 refs.

  15. Neutron Beam Analysis on Materials for Nuclear Applications, Being Irradiated in Fission Reactors and Having Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive supports are given from the public sectors to the neutron beam analysis on advanced materials developed mainly in the framework of fundamental solid state physics, through the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Institute for Solid State physics in University of Tokyo. However, the related activities are mainly on non-radioactive materials with some limited exceptions, though the facilities for the neutron beam analysis are installed in the radiation controlled areas. Research activities in the field of nuclear related materials have concentrated their efforts for nano structural analysis into the other techniques of the post irradiation examinations, such as the high resolution transmission microscopy, the three dimensional atom probe tomography, and the positron annihilation techniques, than the neutron beam analysis. In the meantime, more detailed analysis on the radiation induced nanostructures are becoming more and more essential for the further understanding of the radiation effects in the materials which will be used in the advanced nuclear systems, such as the nuclear fusion reactors and the generation-IV nuclear fission reactors. Utilizing of the cutting edge techniques for the nanostructural analysis on materials irradiated by neutrons, all of which cannot be installed in the limited area of available hot laboratories, is urgently demanded, of course, satisfying the related legal restrictions and the safety demands. The present study was focused on as the realization of the neutron beam analysis on the nanostructural evolutions of the superconductive materials, which will be used in the ITER, the international thermonuclear experimental reactor, being under construction in Cadarache, France, and the glassy metals, which have some unique and advantageous features for the nuclear applications. (author)

  16. Investigation of Effects of Neutron Irradiation on Tantalum Alloys for Radioisotope Power System Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. A number of tantalum alloys have been developed over the years to increase high-temperature strength (Ta-10%W) and to reduce creep strain (T-111). These tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive the increasing high pressures of the RTG's operating environment resulting from the alpha decay of the 238-plutonium dioxide fuel. However, 238-plutonium is also a powerful neutron source. Therefore, the RTG operating environment produces large amounts of 3-helium and neutron displacement damage over the 30 year life of the RTG. The literature to date shows that there has been very little work focused on the mechanical properties of irradiated tantalum and tantalum alloys and none at the fluence levels associated with a RTG operating environment. The minimum, reactor related, work that has been reported shows that these alloys tend to follow trends seen in the behavior of other BCC alloys under irradiation. An understanding of these mechanisms is important for the confident extrapolation of mechanical-property trends to the higher doses and gas levels corresponding to actual service lifetimes. When comparing the radiation effects between samples of Ta-10%W and T-111 (Ta-8%W-2%Hf) subjected to identical neutron fluences and environmental conditions at temperatures <0.3Tm (∼700 deg. C), evidence suggests the possibility that T-111 will exhibit higher levels of internal damage accumulation and degradation of mechanical properties compared to Ta-10%W

  17. Investigation of Effects of Neutron Irradiation on Tantalum Alloys for Radioisotope Power System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.; Talnagi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. A number of tantalum alloys have been developed over the years to increase high-temperature strength (Ta-10%W) and to reduce creep strain (T-111). These tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive the increasing high pressures of the RTG's operating environment resulting from the alpha decay of the 238-plutonium dioxide fuel. However, 238-plutonium is also a powerful neutron source. Therefore, the RTG operating environment produces large amounts of 3-helium and neutron displacement damage over the 30 year life of the RTG. The literature to date shows that there has been very little work focused on the mechanical properties of irradiated tantalum and tantalum alloys and none at the fluence levels associated with a RTG operating environment. The minimum, reactor related, work that has been reported shows that these alloys tend to follow trends seen in the behavior of other BCC alloys under irradiation. An understanding of these mechanisms is important for the confident extrapolation of mechanical-property trends to the higher doses and gas levels corresponding to actual service lifetimes. When comparing the radiation effects between samples of Ta-10%W and T-111 (Ta-8%W-2%Hf) subjected to identical neutron fluences and environmental conditions at temperatures <0.3Tm (˜700 °C), evidence suggests the possibility that T-111 will exhibit higher levels of internal damage accumulation and degradation of mechanical properties compared to Ta-10%W.

  18. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  19. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  20. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-15

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

  1. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  2. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  3. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions

  4. Effect of individual or combined treatment by γ-irradiation or temperature (high or low) on bacillus subtilis spores and its application for sterilization of ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of two lethal agents such as irradiation and temperature (high or sub zero) resulted in synergistic death or B. subtilis spores (as indicated by decrease in the thermal D-value). The extent of this synergism in killing a spore population depended mainly on the sequence on application of the two physical agents. Irradiation-temperature (high or sub zero) sequence killed more but injured less B. subtilis spores than temperature irradiation sequence or irradiation and temperature applied separately. Storage at -200C killed more spores than storage at -20C if carried after irradiation, while the reverse was true of storage was prior irradiation. An irradiation dose of 8 KGY followed by thermal exposure to 700C for 1 hr is suggested for the sterilization of ground beef. Irradiation induced certain quantitative changes on the amino-N, protein-N, RNA and DNA of the first subcultures of irradiated spores with stimulatory effect at low irradiation doses and inhibitory effect at the high irradiation doses. This might explain the increased sensitivity of irradiated spores to subsequent exposure to unfavourable temperature (high or sub zero). Exposure of B. subtilis spore to 700C induced a stimulation in the amino- and protein-N of the resulting cells while exposure to 800C resulted in a significant decrease in the amino-N. The protein-N remained more or less the same

  5. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  6. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic aspects of food irradiation and direct economic benefits accruing from the application of food irradiation are discussed. A formula is presented to estimate the net economic benefit due to radiation processing of food. (M.G.B .)

  7. Application of rapid microbiological screening methods for detection of irradiated frozen foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to, inactivate food pathogens, eradicate pests and extend shelf-life. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food. The direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) was applied as recent and rapid technique for determination of total bacterial count in irradiated minced chicken (2,4,6, and 8 kGy) as well as non-irradiated samples. Also aerobic plate count (APC) was used to determine the viable bacterial cells. A large significant differences between the profiteered DEFT and APC counts were obtained with the irradiated samples of each chicken and fish where the conventional plating gives a much lower values than the (DEFT) technique compared with non-irradiated samples. A highly correlation (r=0.99 and 1.00) were detected at 8 and 6 kGy with irradiated minced chicken and fish respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria belonging to (Enterobacteriaceae and fluorescence pseudomonas) showed very low count in the irradiated selected fish samples compared with control while the endotoxin selected fish samples compared with control while the endotoxin levels did not affect under the same conditions. Micro-gel electrophoresis indicated that gamma irradiation at 8 kGy can induce DNA damage in the cells of both minced chicken and fish where, some bands disappeared compared with the non-irradiated samples

  8. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hemant Kr. [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Post Box 10502, New Delhi (India); Aggarwal, Shruti, E-mail: shruti.al@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: •The objective is to study the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on photoanode of DSSC for better efficiency. •This work presents the effect of SHI irradiation on various Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). •Effects are studied in terms of conductivity and transmittance of TCOs. •ITO-PET gives best results in comparison to ITO and FTO for DSSC application under SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO{sub 2}:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag{sup +9} ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 3.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  9. HANARO instrumented capsule development for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. H

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the program for the maximum utilization of HANARO by MOST, Korea, an instrumented capsule (00M-01U) was designed and fabricated for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications. The basic structure of the capsule for the irradiation of Stainless steels was based on that of the 99M-01K capsule irradiated successfully in HANARO. To satisfy the user requirements such as irradiation temperature and neutron fluence, the optimal arrangement of test specimens was done in the axial and circumferential direction. The temperature distribution and thermal stress of a capsule with multi-holes were obtained by a finite element analysis code, ANSYS. From these analyzed data, this capsule was found to be compatible with HANARO design requirement. Various types of specimens such as small tensile, Charpy, TEM and EPMA specimens were inserted in the capsule. The specimens will be irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 288, 300 and 350 deg C up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.0x10{sup 20}(n/cm{sup 2})(E>1.0MeV)

  10. Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery utilizing homologous arterial grafts irradiated with high voltage cathode rays. Experimental study and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yutaka (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-06-01

    Homologous and heterologous arterial segments were implanted in Fisher rats subcutaneously for the purpose of examining the antibody titer of the recipients' serum after implantation by means of the immune-adherence hemagglutination method. The antibody titer after implantation both of homologous and heterologous grafts decreased to 1/8 by 2.0 million (M) rads irradiation of high voltage cathode rays. The results suggested that high voltage cathode ray irradiation was not enough for heterologous graft to suppress its tissue reaction. Homografts taken from dogs 3 or 6 hours after sacrifice were irradiated with 2.0 M rads and transplanted in canine carotid artery using the technic of end-to-end anastomosis. Angiograms 6 months after operation revealed excellent patency rate in all the grafts of 28 dogs. furthermore, findings of the grafts from 1 week to 5 years after operation on scanning and transmission electron microscopies were evaluated. Clinical application of bypass surgery from the main trunk of the superficial temporal artery to M/sub 2/ portion of the middle cerebral artery, using 20 cm long irradiated arterial homograft, was carried out in patients with episodic cerebral ischemia. Angiogram 4 days after operation showed excellent filling of the middle cerebral circulation through the graft both in the retrograde and antegrade. This bypass procedure provided a good deal of blood flow soon after the operation, resulting in good protection of the ischemic hemisphere. Thus, bypass surgery using irradiated homograft proved to be useful enough for the ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  11. Empirical Calibration for Dolomite Stoichiometry Calculation: Application on Triassic Muschelkalk- Lettenkohle Carbonates (French Jura Calibration empirique pour le calcul de la stoechiométrie de la dolomite : application aux carbonates triasiques du Muschelkalk-Lettenkohle (Jura français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turpin M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns an approach for dolomite quantification and stoichiometry calculation by using X-ray diffractometry coupled with cell and Rietveld refinements and equipped with a newly substantial database of dolomite composition. A greater accuracy and precision are obtained for quantifying dolomite as well as other mineral phases and calculating dolomite stoichiometry compared to the classical “Lumsden line” and previous methods. The applicability of this approach is verified on dolomite reference material (Eugui and on Triassic (Upper Muschelkalk-Lettenkohle carbonates from the French Jura. The approach shown here is applicable to bulk dolostones as well as to specific dolomite cements and was combined with petrographical and isotopic analyses. Upper Muschelkalk dolomites were formed during burial dolomitization under fluids characterized by increased temperature and variable isotopic composition through burial. This is clear from their Ca content in dolomites which gradually approaches an ideal stoichiometry (from 53.16% to 51.19% through increasing dolomitization. Lettenkohle dolostones consist of near-ideal stoichiometric (51.06%Ca and well-ordered dolomites associated with anhydrite relicts. They originated through both sabkha and burial dolomitization. This contribution gives an improved method for the characterization of different dolomite types and their distinct traits in sedimentary rocks, which allows a better evaluation of their reservoir potential. Cette étude propose une approche pour la quantification de la dolomite et le calcul de sa stoechiométrie grâce à l’utilisation de la diffraction des rayons X couplée aux affinements de maille et de Rietveld et complétée par de nombreuses données issues de la littérature. Elle permet d’obtenir une meilleure justesse et précision pour la quantification de la dolomite (et des autres phases minérales ainsi que pour le calcul de sa stoechiométrie par rapport à l

  12. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  13. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  14. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  15. Application of fiber optic grating strain sensor for measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, Y.; Matsui, Y.; Kita, S.; Ide, H.; Tsukada, T.; Tsuji, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developed using Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In order to evaluate the performance of fiber optic grating sensor under irradiation environment, heat-up and performance tests at elevated temperature before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed in JMTR. (author)

  16. Development of computerized dose planning system and applicator for high dose rate remote afterloading irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. J. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Kim, S. W. [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea); Kim, O. B.; Lee, H. J.; Won, C. H. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Yoon, S. M. [Dong-a Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To design and fabricate of the high dose rate source and applicators which are tandem, ovoids and colpostat for OB/Gyn brachytherapy includes the computerized dose planning system. Designed the high dose rate Ir-192 source with nuclide atomic power irradiation and investigated the dose characteristics of fabricated brachysource. We performed the effect of self-absorption and determining the gamma constant and output factor and determined the apparent activity of designed source. he automated computer planning system provided the 2D distribution and 3D includes analysis programs. Created the high dose rate source Ir-192, 10 Ci(370GBq). The effective attenuation factor from the self-absorption and source wall was examined to 0.55 of the activity of bare source and this factor is useful for determination of the apparent activity and gamma constant 4.69 Rcm{sup 2}/mCi-hr. Fabricated the colpostat was investigated the dose distributions of frontal, axial and sagittal plane in intra-cavitary radiation therapy for cervical cancer. The reduce dose at bladder and rectum area was found about 20 % of original dose. The computerized brachytherapy planning system provides the 2-dimensional isodose and 3-D include the dose-volume histogram(DVH) with graphic-user-interface mode. emoted afterloading device was built for experiment of created Ir-192 source with film dosimetry within {+-}1 mm discrepancy. 34 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  17. Effect of rhenium irradiations on the mechanical properties of tungsten for nuclear fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aneeqa; Elliman, Robert; Corr, Cormac; Lim, Joven J. H.; Forrest, Andrew; Mummery, Paul; Evans, Llion M.

    2016-08-01

    As-received and annealed tungsten samples were irradiated at a temperature of 400 °C with Re and W ions to peak concentrations of 1600 appm (atomic parts per million) and damage levels of 40 dpa (displacements per atom). Mechanical properties were investigated using nanoindentation, and the orientation and depth dependence of irradiation damage was investigated using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). Following irradiation there was a 13% increase in hardness in the as received sheet and a 23% increase in the annealed material for both tungsten and rhenium irradiation. The difference between the tungsten and rhenium irradiated samples was negligible, suggesting that for the concentrations and damage levels employed, the presence of rhenium does not have a significant effect on the hardening mechanism. Energy dependent EBSD of annealed samples provided information about the depth distribution of the radiation damage in individual tungsten grains and confirmed that the radiation damage is orientation dependant.

  18. Effects of UV-ozone irradiation on copper doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmo; Lee, Hee Ryung; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Lin, Tengda; Kanwat, Anil; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10-4 S cm-1 to 5.66 × 10-2 S cm-1), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 1013 cm-3 to 2.41 × 1016 cm-3), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form better morphology with highly arranged crystallinity. Compared to the cells using non-irradiated copper doped nickel acetate, UVO-irradiated copper-doped nickel acetate devices showed an enhanced open-circuit voltage (3% increase), short circuit current (16% increase), fill factor (5% increase), showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 12.2% (21% increase).The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10-4 S cm-1 to 5.66 × 10-2 S cm-1), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 1013 cm-3 to 2.41 × 1016 cm-3), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form

  19. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  20. Application of Microbiological Method Direct Epifluorescence Filter Techique/Aerobic Plate Count Agar in the Identification of Irradiated Herbs and Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Schiavi, Maria Teresa; Foti, Marina; Mosconi, Maria Cristina; Mattiolo, Giuseppina; Cavallina, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT)/aerobic plate count (APC) (EN 13783:2001) for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU)/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g <103. PMID:27800348

  1. Application of microbiological method direct epifluorescence filter techique/aerobic plate count agar in the identification of irradiated herbs and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Campagna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation is a preservation technology used to improve the safety and hygienic quality of food. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability and validity of the microbiological screening method direct epifluorescence filter technique (DEFT/aerobic plate count (APC (EN 13783:2001 for the identification of irradiated herbs and spices. Tests on non-irradiated and irradiated samples of dried herbs and spices were performed. The method was based on the comparison of APC and count obtained using DEFT. In accordance with the standard reference, this method is not applicable to samples with APC<103 colony forming units (CFU/g and this is its main limit. The results obtained in our laboratories showed that in 50% of cases of non-irradiated samples and in 96% of the samples treated with ionising radiation, the method was not applicable due to a value of CFU/g<103.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  3. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  4. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  5. Aux limites de la physique les paradoxes quantiques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothen, François

    2012-01-01

    Dans l’esprit des pères fondateurs de la science moderne, les phénomènes matériels se déroulent selon un schéma unique. La cause précède nécessairement l’effet, et la connaissance de l’effet permet de remonter à la cause. Sur la scène de la nature, le hasard n’occupe qu’une place congrue. On ne fait appel à lui que pour pallier notre ignorance. Dans les années 1920, la révolution quantique bouleverse ce cadre rigide. Elle accorde une place de choix au hasard, si malmené jusqu’alors, puis elle met en scène une constellation de phénomènes inexplicables aux yeux de la science dite classique. Après une courte introduction historique, l’auteur met ses lecteurs au contact de certains de ces phénomènes si contraires à l’intuition. Refusant l’aide du langage mathématique, il les convie à pénétrer dans un monde quantique qui déconcerte le novice avant de l’éblouir par sa nouveauté et sa cohérence. Un accent particulier est mis sur une application nouvelle de la physiqu...

  6. Revisiting the dose-effect correlations in irradiated head and neck cancer using automatic segmentation tools of the dental structures, mandible and maxilla; Dentalmaps: un outil pratique pour chirurgiens dentistes et radiotherapeutes pour l'estimation de la dose recue aux dents, mandibule et maxillaire et du risque de complications postradiques en cas de soins dentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thariat, J. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); IBDC CNRS UMR 6543, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France); Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Ramus, L. [Dosisoft, 45/47, avenue Carnot, 94230 Cachan (France); equipe de recherche Asclepios, Inria, 2004, route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia-Antipolis (France); Odin, G. [Departement d' odontologie, hopital Saint-Roch, CHU de Nice, 5, rue Pierre-Devoluy, 06006 Nice (France); Vincent, S.; Orlanducci, M.H.; Dassonville, O. [Institut universitaire de la face et du cou, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Departement de chirurgie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Darcourt, V. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Lacout, A.; Marcy, P.Y. [Departement of radiologie, centre d' imagerie medicale, 83, avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, 15000 Aurillac (France); Cagnol, G. [Departement de chirurgie cervicofaciale, clinique de l' Esperance, 122, avenue du Docteur-Maurice-Donat, BP 1250, 06254 Mougins (France); Malandain, G. [equipe de recherche Asclepios, Inria, 2004, route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia-Antipolis (France)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose. - Manual delineation of dental structures is too time-consuming to be feasible in routine practice. Information on dose risk levels is crucial for dentists following irradiation of the head and neck to avoid post-extraction osteoradionecrosis based on empirical dose-effects data established on bidimensional radiation therapy plans. Material and methods. - We present an automatic atlas-based segmentation framework of the dental structures, called Dentalmaps, constructed from a patient image-segmentation database. Results. - This framework is accurate (within 2 Gy accuracy) and relevant for the routine use. It has the potential to guide dental care in the context of new irradiation techniques. Conclusion. - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for dentists and radiation oncologists in the context of irradiated head and neck cancer patients. It will likely improve the knowledge of dose-effect correlations for dental complications and osteoradionecrosis. (authors)

  7. Some legal considerations in the adoption and application of food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will explore the legislative and administrative measures that a developing country, like the Philippines and other country members of ASEAN, may consider and adopt to safeguard the health and safety of their citizens before allowing the use of food irradiation technology as a means of preserving a variety of foods. Some developed countries are now utilizing radiation in the preservation of some foods for commercial purposes. Also, not all countries importing or exporting irradiated foods are technically capable of determining for themselves whether or not these foods are safe for human consumption. Moreover, irradiated foods may be exported/imported without the authorities knowing it for lack of appropriate labelling or information. In this light, it becomes imperative that consumers be given the assurance that foods preserved through the irradiation process are wholesome and safe. This can only be effectively carried out by governments through the adoption of legislative and administrative measures to ensure the safe utilization of the irradiation process and strict adherence by manufacturers, distributors and sellers of irradiated food to the internationally accepted FAO and WHO standards of irradiated foods and recommended international Code of Practice for operation of radiation facilities for treatment of foods. Some provisions that should be seriously considered in the enactment of legislation include: regulating the utilization of the irradiation process through licensing, i.e. no food item may be irradiated without first securing a license from the appropriate government agency and no irradiated food may be sold or distributed without first securing a similar prior permit/license; providing the specific allowable dose to be utilized in the radiation process beyond which the process will be considered illegal; giving the government the authority to regularly monitor the irradiation facilities to ensure that it is sanitary and technically safe not

  8. Application of ion beam irradiated ePTFE to repair small vessel injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan) and Beam Application Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)]. E-mail: norikichi@ionbeams.riken.jp; Suzuki, Y. [Beam Application Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ujiie, H. [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Hori, T. [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Iwaki, M. [Beam Application Team, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, T. [Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    In surgery, bleeding from small injured vessels often requires prompt hemostasis without occlusion. This study evaluated the usefulness of 0.06 mm thick ion beam irradiated ePTFE sheets to repair small holes in vessels. Both surfaces of ePTFE sheets were irradiated with a 150 keV-Ar{sup +} beam with fluences of 5 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. A small hole up to 2 mm in diameter was created in the common carotid artery of a rabbit. The defect was wrapped with an ion beam irradiated or non-irradiated ePTFE sheet. Fibrin glue was used to fix the ePTFE sheets to the common carotid artery. Hemostasis was instantly obtained with ion beam irradiated ePTFE but was rather difficult when using a non-irradiated ePTFE sheet. Three weeks after implantation, no occlusion was observed. Histological examination showed that the ePTFE sheets functioned as a scaffold for vessel wall regeneration. Thin ion beam irradiated ePTFE would be useful in vascular surgery.

  9. Applicability of impedance measuring method to the detection of irradiation treatment of potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Otobe, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Junnichi (National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    The incubation condition of potato tubers prior to impedance measurement greatly influenced the reliability of detection of irradiated potatoes; the impedance ratio at 5 kHz to 50 kHz (Z[sub 5k]/Z[sub 50k]) determined at 22degC at an apical region of tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radiation treatment of potatoes. The impedance ratio was dependent upon dose applied to potato tubers. Potatoes irradiated at 100 Gy could be distinguished from unirradiated potatoes for 10 cultivars of potatoes. The impedance ratio of potatoes irradiated at the same dose was little influenced by the planting locality if the cultivar was the same, although the ratio varied with potato cultivars. These results indicate that irradiated potatoes can be detected if the potato cultivar is known. Potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at the Shihiro Potato Irradiation Center could be differentiated from unirradiated 'Danshaku' at different planting localities; the impedance ratio was lower than 2.75 for the unirradiated potatoes and higher than 2.75 for the irradiated ones. (author).

  10. Applicability of impedance measuring method to the detection of irradiation treatment of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incubation condition of potato tubers prior to impedance measurement greatly influenced the reliability of detection of irradiated potatoes; the impedance ratio at 5 kHz to 50 kHz (Z5k/Z50k) determined at 22degC at an apical region of tuber which was pre-incubated at 22degC for 3 days or longer resulted in the best detection of radiation treatment of potatoes. The impedance ratio was dependent upon dose applied to potato tubers. Potatoes irradiated at 100 Gy could be distinguished from unirradiated potatoes for 10 cultivars of potatoes. The impedance ratio of potatoes irradiated at the same dose was little influenced by the planting locality if the cultivar was the same, although the ratio varied with potato cultivars. These results indicate that irradiated potatoes can be detected if the potato cultivar is known. Potatoes 'Danshaku' commercially irradiated at the Shihiro Potato Irradiation Center could be differentiated from unirradiated 'Danshaku' at different planting localities; the impedance ratio was lower than 2.75 for the unirradiated potatoes and higher than 2.75 for the irradiated ones. (author)

  11. Study On Degradation Of Silk Fibroin By Irradiation Treatment For Cosmetic And Pharmaceutical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a kind of protein, silk fibroin is created with silkworm Bombyx mori in products of silk. The fibroin was irradiated using Co-60 gamma source and its degradability and solubility were investigated with various radiation doses to apply in pharmacy and cosmetic. Addition to the morphological changes of irradiated fibroin fibers shows that its mechanical properties were much influenced by the irradiation. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the silk fibroin significantly decreased with increasing of radiation dose up to 1000 kGy. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the irradiated fibroin at 1000 kGy reduced to 71% and 94% respectively in compared with non-irradiated one. The solubility of silk fibroin in both calcium chloride (CaCl2/C2H5OH/H2O=1:2:8) in mole ratio and distilled water were improved by the irradiation. UV spectrometry revealed the structure of silk fibroin was also changed by irradiation. (author)

  12. Commercial irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial irradiation, the treatment of products with gamma radiation principally using a Cobalt-60 source, had its beginnings in Europe and Australia 25 years ago. To date the most successful application of the process is the sterilization of medical products and, for a variety of reasons, gamma sterilization is now becoming dominant in this important field. Many other applications have been evaluated over the years and the most exciting is undoubtedly food irradiation for which there is a vast potential. The commercial feasibility of setting up and irradiation facility is a complex subject and the selection of Cobalt-60 gamma plant depends on a number of technical and economic considerations. The parameters which determine the design and capacity of the optimum plant include throughput, product size and dose requirements; a balance has to be struck between plant flexibility and overall economy. The Ansell irradiators are designed primarily for the sterilization of medical products although some experimental food irradiation has been done, particularly in Australia. (author)

  13. Application of beam irradiation in preparation of visible light responsive TiO2 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xinggang; LIU Andong

    2007-01-01

    TiO2 films were prepared by sol-gel method.In order to improve the utilization of light, the technologiesof implantation of transition metal ions (V+ and Cr+) and electron beam irradiation to deposit noble metal particles (Ag and Pt) were used. A red shift was found in the spectrum of modified TiO2 films. The photocatalytic experiments showed that the photocatalytic ability under visible light irradiation could be improved dramatically by both the implantation of transition metal and the electron beam irradiation.

  14. Application of a fiber optic grating strain sensor for the measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaji, Y; Kita, S; Ide, H; Tsukada, T; Tsuji, H

    2002-01-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developed using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In order to evaluate the performance of fiber optic grating sensors under irradiation environment, heat-up and performance tests at elevated temperatures before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed in JMTR. It was determined that it is possible to measure strain under irradiation environment below 1x10 sup 2 sup 3 n m sup - sup 2 (E>1 MeV) by a fiber optic grating sensor, because in-pile temperature characteristics were in good agreement with out-of-pile test results.

  15. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. G.; Seol, K. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  16. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, D.G.; Seol, K.H.; Jeon, H.J. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: moohalee@snu.ac.kr

    2008-06-15

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  17. Microwave Irradiation Treatment of Wood Flour and Its Application in PVC-Wood Flour Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shengfei; CHEN Wen; LIU Weihua; LI Huaxing

    2007-01-01

    The technique of microwave irradiation induced free radical bulk- polyaddition reactions in porous wood flour was used to modify wood flour. The behaviors of the modified wood flour under microwave irradiation, such as thermal stability and moisture sorption properties, were studied. A kind of semiinterpenetrating polymer network wood four (Semi-IPN-WF) can be formed through polymerization of MMA in the porous wood flour by microwave irradiation, and the thermal decomposition temperature of the semi-IPN-WF is considerably increased. PVC/Semi-IPN-WF composites were prepared by melt mixing in double rolls,which exhibit improved rheological properties, lower water sorption properties and outstanding mechanical performances.

  18. Direct round window membrane application of dexamethasone in the protection of the guinea pigs'cochlea against irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    decreased significantly in the three groups with irradiation, and outer hair cells were more than inner hair cells. The loss of hair cells was increased gradually in all groups with irradiation. At the second week and the second month, the loss of outer hair cells in the dexamethasone group were less than those in irradiation group, which were 30.7± 7.6 vs. 60.3 ± 14.5 and 67.3 ± 7.0 vs. 100.0 ± 5.3 (P < 0.05) . The SEM showed the fusion, loss, lodging and other pathological changes in stereociliary bundle and the losses of hair cell, which were more serious. Those of pathological changes in the dexamethasone group were weaker than those in the groups with irradiation at the 3rd day and the second week. Conclusions: Application of dexamethasone through intact RWM could reduce the extent of radiation-induced inner damage. (authors)

  19. Application of in vitro flowering technique on evaluating of mutation capacity and color selection of Torenia fournieri L. following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation technique combined with tissue culture and in vitro flowering was applied in this study. The results showed that the frequencies of variation in plant regeneration from irradiated leaf samples were: 0.67% (with 30 Gy dose) and 0.72% (with 40 Gy dose) in MV1 generation; the frequencies of variation in irradiated plantlet samples were: 1.05% (with 30 Gy dose) and 1.15% (with 40 Gy dose) in MV4 generation, the frequencies of mosaic were 0.25% and 0.08% in MV3 and MV4 generation, respectively. A total of 16 mutants were selected based on phenotypic variations going through screening processes of tissue culture and in vitro flowering. Three promising mutant lines (G40TP1, G40TP2, G30TL1) presented a high genetic stability through generations cultivated in both in vitro and ex vitro conditions when being compared with the controls. These mutant lines G40TP1, G40TP2, G30TL1 had a high potential to become new cultivars. This paper showed that the application of in vitro flowering technique for mutation breeding of Torenia (Torenia fournieri L.) is a significant complementary and effective model for selecting mutants produced by irradiation. (author)

  20. Surface modified hydroxyapatite thick films for CO 2 gas sensing application: Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P.; Khairnar, Rajendra S.

    2011-06-01

    Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is used to modify the structural and gas sensing properties of Hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films. The HAp thick films, prepared by screen printing technique, are irradiated with a variable fluence (3×10 10 to 3×10 13 ions/cm 2) of Ag 7+ ions of 100 MeV energy. XRD shows gradual change in crystallinity of the matrix with increase in ion fluence. Atomic force microscopy reveals the agglomeration of grains with pronounced cluster type structure at relatively higher ion fluence. For confirmation of efficient gas sensing of pristine and irradiated HAp thick films, repeatability and reproducibility tests are conducted in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The parameters responsible for device applications such as, gas uptake capacity, response to test gas and recovery time of HAp film sensor are also investigated. SHI modified HAp films show the maximum enhancement in the gas response and also in increased gas uptake capacity for the fluence 3×10 11 ions/cm 2. Moreover, SHI has resulted in modification of gas response and recovery time for CO 2 gas. The remarkable observation is to note that SHI irradiation improves the sensor characteristics of the HAp films without affecting the working temperature (165 °C) of gas sensor.

  1. Surface modified hydroxyapatite thick films for CO{sub 2} gas sensing application: Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded 431 606 (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rskhairnarsps@gmail.co [School of Physical Sciences, S.R.T.M. University, Nanded 431 606 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is used to modify the structural and gas sensing properties of Hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films. The HAp thick films, prepared by screen printing technique, are irradiated with a variable fluence (3x10{sup 10} to 3x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) of Ag{sup 7+} ions of 100 MeV energy. XRD shows gradual change in crystallinity of the matrix with increase in ion fluence. Atomic force microscopy reveals the agglomeration of grains with pronounced cluster type structure at relatively higher ion fluence. For confirmation of efficient gas sensing of pristine and irradiated HAp thick films, repeatability and reproducibility tests are conducted in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The parameters responsible for device applications such as, gas uptake capacity, response to test gas and recovery time of HAp film sensor are also investigated. SHI modified HAp films show the maximum enhancement in the gas response and also in increased gas uptake capacity for the fluence 3x10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, SHI has resulted in modification of gas response and recovery time for CO{sub 2} gas. The remarkable observation is to note that SHI irradiation improves the sensor characteristics of the HAp films without affecting the working temperature (165 {sup o}C) of gas sensor.

  2. Modifications by γ irradiation of polyethylene at very high molecular weight. Tribological behaviour for orthopedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mode of sterilization by vacuum gamma irradiation is studied. This new mode improves significantly the polyethylene behaviour during the study in friction-corrosion against a stainless steel-316L sphere. (N.C.)

  3. Comparaison des effets des irradiations γ, X et UV dans les fibres optiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Baggio, J.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.-P.; Leray, J.-L.

    2005-06-01

    Les fibres optiques présentent de nombreux avantages incitant à les intégrer dans des applications devant résister aux environnements radiatifs associés aux domaines civil, spatial ou militaire. Cependant, leur exposition à un rayonnement entraîne la création de défauts ponctuels dans la silice amorphe pure ou dopée qui constitue les différentes parties de la fibre optique. Ces défauts causent, en particulier, une augmentation transitoire de l'atténuation linéique des fibres optiques responsable de la dégradation voire de la perte du signal propagé dans celles-ci. Dans cet article, nous comparons les effets de deux types d'irradiation: une impulsion X et une dose γ cumulée. Les effets de ces irradiations sont ensuite comparés avec ceux induits par une insolation ultraviolette (244 nm) sur les propriétés d'absorption des fibres optiques. Nous montrons qu'il existe des similitudes entre ces différentes excitations et qu'il est possible, sous certaines conditions, d'utiliser celles-ci afin d'évaluer la capacité de certaines fibres optiques à fonctionner dans un environnement nucléaire donné.

  4. Application of nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques for the safeguarding of irradiated fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques were used to characterize the irradiation exposures of irradiated fuel assemblies. Techniques for the rapid measurement of the axial-activity profiles of fuel assemblies have been developed using ion chambers and Be(γ,n) detectors. Detailed measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and passive neutron techniques were correlated with operator-declared values of cooling times and burnup

  5. Study on application of the physical detection methods for electron beam-irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical detection methods, photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied to detect electron beam-irradiated agricultural products, such as red pepper, black pepper, raisin, walnut, beef seasoning and pistachio. The absorbed irradiation doses for representative samples were controlled at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. PSL values for non-irradiated samples were 1) except beef seasoning, whereas those of irradiated samples were more than 5,000 photon counts, upper threshold (T2) in black pepper, raisin, and beef seasoning and intermediates values of T1-T2 in red pepper, walnut, and pistachio. Minerals separated from the samples for TL measurement showed that non-irradiated samples except pistachio (TL ratio, 0.12) were characterized by no glow curves situated at temperature range of 50 ∼ 400 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.01 ∼ 0.08), while irradiated samples except pistachio at only 1 kGy (TL ratio, 0.08) indicated glow curve at about 150 ∼ 250 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.28 ∼ 3.10). ESR measurements of irradiated samples any specific signals to irradiation. The samples of both red pepper ad pistachio were produced specific signals derived from cellulose radicals as well as single line signals for black pepper and walnut, and multiple signals derived from crystalline sugar radicals for raisin and beef seasoning. In conclusion, The ESR methods can apply for detection of pistachio exposed to electron beam but PSL and TL are not suitable methods. Furthermore, TL and ESR suggested that both techniques were more useful detection method than PSL to confirm whether red pepper, walnut and beef seasoning samples have been exposed to electron beam

  6. Application of gamma irradiation for inactivation of three pathogenic bacteria inoculated into meatballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Tuncay; Şukru Demirci, A.; Murat Velioglu, H.; Velioglu, Serap D.; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sagdic, Osman

    2008-09-01

    In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 33150), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 2392) and Salmonella typhimurium (NRRL 4463) inoculated into Tekirdag meatballs was investigated. The meatball samples were inoculated with pathogens and irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 2.2, 3.2, 4.5 and 5.2 kGy. E. coli O157:H7 count in 1 kGy irradiated meatballs stored in the refrigerator for 7 days was detected to be 4 log cfu/g lower than the count in nonirradiated samples ( pcounts were decreased to 4 log cfu/g after being exposed to irradiation at a dose of 1 kGy. Although it was ineffective on elimination of S. typhimurium, irradiation at a dose of 3.2 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus counts under detectable values in the meatballs. However, none of the test organisms were detected in the samples after irradiation with 4.5 kGy doses.

  7. Changes in Soil Solution Cu and Zn Follogwing Application of Alkaline Stabilised Sewage Sludge and Gamma-Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study study changes in the solubility of copper and zinc in the soil-plant system follwing heavy application of sewage sludge and partial sterilisation of the sludge/soil mixture,A silghtly acid sandy loam was mixed with alkaline stabilised and composted urban sewage sludge solids ('Agri-Soil',180 t hm-2),and the soil/sludge mixture was γ-irradiated( 10 kGy).The contrasts without the application of sewage sludge and γ-irradiation were also included in the experiment.Perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne,cv.Magella) was grown on irradiated and unirradiated soils for 50 days. Soil solution samples were obtained using soil suction samplers immediately before plant transplantation and every ten days thereafter.The soil solution smmples were used directly for determination of Cu and Zn,together with pH,electrical conductivity(EC) and absorbance at wavelength 360 nm(A360).Application of Agri-Soil led to a substantial increase in dissolved Cu and a significant derease in dissolved Zn in the soil solution and thess effect were accompanied by increased soil solution pH ,EC and A360 ,The alkaline sludge product(Agri-Soil) in combination with γ-irradiation also led to pronounced elevtion of Cu and A360 but a marked decline in EC, indicatig an increase in dissolvedorganic compounds and a decrease in the ionic strength of the soil solution ,The dissolved Cu and Zn,EC and A360 usually decreased while the ph increased fter plant growth for 50 days.

  8. Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly operated in a nuclear power plant typically contains 100–300 fuel rods, depending on fuel type, which become strongly radioactive during irradiation in the reactor core. For operational and security reasons, it is of interest to experimentally deduce rod-wise information from the fuel, preferably by means of non-destructive measurements. The tomographic SPECT technique offers such possibilities through its two-step application; (1) recording the gamma-ray flux distribution around the fuel assembly, and (2) reconstructing the assembly's internal source distribution, based on the recorded radiation field. In this paper, algorithms for performing the latter step and extracting quantitative relative rod-by-rod data are accounted for. As compared to application of SPECT in nuclear medicine, nuclear fuel assemblies present a much more heterogeneous distribution of internal attenuation to gamma radiation than the human body, typically with rods containing pellets of heavy uranium dioxide surrounded by cladding of a zirconium alloy placed in water or air. This inhomogeneity severely complicates the tomographic quantification of the rod-wise relative source content, and the deduction of conclusive data requires detailed modelling of the attenuation to be introduced in the reconstructions. However, as shown in this paper, simplified models may still produce valuable information about the fuel. Here, a set of reconstruction algorithms for SPECT on nuclear fuel assemblies are described and discussed in terms of their quantitative performance for two applications; verification of fuel assemblies' completeness in nuclear safeguards, and rod-wise fuel characterization. It is argued that a request not to base the former assessment on any a priori information brings constraints to which reconstruction methods that may be used in that case, whereas the use of a priori information on geometry and material content enables highly accurate quantitative

  9. Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan, E-mail: staffan.jacobsson_svard@physics.uu.se; Holcombe, Scott; Grape, Sophie

    2015-05-21

    A fuel assembly operated in a nuclear power plant typically contains 100–300 fuel rods, depending on fuel type, which become strongly radioactive during irradiation in the reactor core. For operational and security reasons, it is of interest to experimentally deduce rod-wise information from the fuel, preferably by means of non-destructive measurements. The tomographic SPECT technique offers such possibilities through its two-step application; (1) recording the gamma-ray flux distribution around the fuel assembly, and (2) reconstructing the assembly's internal source distribution, based on the recorded radiation field. In this paper, algorithms for performing the latter step and extracting quantitative relative rod-by-rod data are accounted for. As compared to application of SPECT in nuclear medicine, nuclear fuel assemblies present a much more heterogeneous distribution of internal attenuation to gamma radiation than the human body, typically with rods containing pellets of heavy uranium dioxide surrounded by cladding of a zirconium alloy placed in water or air. This inhomogeneity severely complicates the tomographic quantification of the rod-wise relative source content, and the deduction of conclusive data requires detailed modelling of the attenuation to be introduced in the reconstructions. However, as shown in this paper, simplified models may still produce valuable information about the fuel. Here, a set of reconstruction algorithms for SPECT on nuclear fuel assemblies are described and discussed in terms of their quantitative performance for two applications; verification of fuel assemblies' completeness in nuclear safeguards, and rod-wise fuel characterization. It is argued that a request not to base the former assessment on any a priori information brings constraints to which reconstruction methods that may be used in that case, whereas the use of a priori information on geometry and material content enables highly accurate quantitative

  10. Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson Svärd, Staffan; Holcombe, Scott; Grape, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    A fuel assembly operated in a nuclear power plant typically contains 100-300 fuel rods, depending on fuel type, which become strongly radioactive during irradiation in the reactor core. For operational and security reasons, it is of interest to experimentally deduce rod-wise information from the fuel, preferably by means of non-destructive measurements. The tomographic SPECT technique offers such possibilities through its two-step application; (1) recording the gamma-ray flux distribution around the fuel assembly, and (2) reconstructing the assembly's internal source distribution, based on the recorded radiation field. In this paper, algorithms for performing the latter step and extracting quantitative relative rod-by-rod data are accounted for. As compared to application of SPECT in nuclear medicine, nuclear fuel assemblies present a much more heterogeneous distribution of internal attenuation to gamma radiation than the human body, typically with rods containing pellets of heavy uranium dioxide surrounded by cladding of a zirconium alloy placed in water or air. This inhomogeneity severely complicates the tomographic quantification of the rod-wise relative source content, and the deduction of conclusive data requires detailed modelling of the attenuation to be introduced in the reconstructions. However, as shown in this paper, simplified models may still produce valuable information about the fuel. Here, a set of reconstruction algorithms for SPECT on nuclear fuel assemblies are described and discussed in terms of their quantitative performance for two applications; verification of fuel assemblies' completeness in nuclear safeguards, and rod-wise fuel characterization. It is argued that a request not to base the former assessment on any a priori information brings constraints to which reconstruction methods that may be used in that case, whereas the use of a priori information on geometry and material content enables highly accurate quantitative assessment, which

  11. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  12. JMTR irradiation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of nuclear irradiation and post-irradiation experiments are available using the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor, 50 MW) and the multi-cell hot laboratory associated with the JMTR. In this Handbook, an application manual for conducting irradiation and post-irradiation experiments using those facilities is provided. The Handbook is primarily designed to aid the experimenter and to serve as a reference for communications between the experimenter and the Division of JMTR Project. (author)

  13. Irradiation-Induced Wheat-Alien Translocation Lines and their Application in Wheat Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. Transfer of useful alien genes to wheat through development of wheat-alien translocations, especially small alien segment translocations, is important for wheat breeding. Wheat-alien genetic stocks such as amphiploid, addition or substitution lines were irradiated for translocation induction. Mature male or female gametes before flowering on the spikes were irradiated by 60Co-Gamma-rays at doses ranging from 800 to 2240 rad. Chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to identify chromosome translocation. Backcross of M1 plants using normal fresh pollen of common wheat was employed to enhance the transmission rate of various structural changes in their progenies. The results showed that a dose of 800∼1200 rad was suitable for pollen irradiation while 1500∼2000 rad was suitable for female-gamete irradiation. Irradiation treatment just before gamete maturation is advantageous to acquire more M1 hybrids with a high frequency of chromosome structural variation. The frequency of plants with at least one translocation chromosome in M1 could be increased up to 70% through pollen irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid. More than 100 translocated chromosomes have been identified in the BC1 and BC2. Translocations with small alien chromosome segments, 57 terminal and 80 intercalary, were induced through female gamete irradiation conducted on T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the induction frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation has been used in wheat breeding and many elite cultivars, such as Nannong 9918, Neimai 9, Shimai 14, etc. have been developed and released. (author)

  14. New irradiation facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor thermal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Quintana, J; Ojeda, J; Langan, S; Thorp, S; Pozzi, E; Sztejnberg, M; Estryk, G; Nosal, R; Saire, E; Agrazar, H; Graiño, F

    2009-07-01

    A new irradiation facility has been developed in the RA-3 reactor in order to perform trials for the treatment of liver metastases using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). RA-3 is a production research reactor that works continuously five days a week. It had a thermal column with a small cross section access tunnel that was not accessible during operation. The objective of the work was to perform the necessary modifications to obtain a facility for irradiating a portion of the human liver. This irradiation facility must be operated without disrupting the normal reactor schedule and requires a highly thermalized neutron spectrum, a thermal flux of around 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1) that is as isotropic and uniform as possible, as well as on-line instrumentation. The main modifications consist of enlarging the access tunnel inside the thermal column to the suitable dimensions, reducing the gamma dose rate at the irradiation position, and constructing properly shielded entrance gates enabled by logical control to safely irradiate and withdraw samples with the reactor at full power. Activation foils and a neutron shielded graphite ionization chamber were used for a preliminary in-air characterization of the irradiation site. The constructed facility is very practical and easy to use. Operational authorization was obtained from radioprotection personnel after confirming radiation levels did not significantly increase after the modification. A highly thermalized and homogenous irradiation field was obtained. Measurements in the empty cavity showed a thermal flux near 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1), a cadmium ratio of 4100 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate of approximately 5 Gy h(-1).

  15. Irradiated sewage sludge for application to cropland. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern urban societies produce large volumes of sewage, which are transported through a network of underground sewers to wastewater treatment plants, where one or more stages of physical, biological and chemical treatment are imposed. Considerable tonnages of aerobically, and sometimes anaerobically, digested sludge are produced, and treated or untreated effluent is discharged to lagoons, waterways or the ocean. The disposal of sewage sludge is a major issue for municipal authorities. There are increasing legislative restrictions in many countries on disposal methods (e.g. incineration, landfill, composting) including surface application to agricultural land. Sludge can either be viewed as a dangerous waste requiring expensive disposal procedures, or it can be seen as a resource for possible use in agriculture as a soil conditioning agent and a source of plant nutrients. Untreated sewage sludge presents a public-health hazard as it contains human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and other harmful organisms. Although it has been demonstrated that an appropriate dose of gamma-irradiation can eliminate human parasites and bacterial pathogens from sewage sludge, there is still public concern about the presence of viruses, as well as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds from industrial sources that could enter the food chain if sludge is applied to croplands. More information is also needed on the value of sludge as a source of plant nutrients, expressed in terms of fertilizer equivalence. In this regard, isotopic labelling techniques have a unique role to play in estimating the contribution of sewage sludge to crop nutrition. As a result of recommendations formulated at a Consultants Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 5-9 December 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-971, Sewage Sludge and Wastewater for Use in Agriculture) the Joint Division implemented a Co

  16. Ultrasonic irradiation and its application for improving the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings on aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Minqi; Wang, Chao; Zhong, Qingdong; Wei, Yinyin; Wang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic irradiation was utilized for improving the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings on aluminum alloys. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the corrosion resistance of phosphate coatings was investigated by polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Various effects of the addition of Nd(2)O(3) in phosphating bath on the performance of the coatings were also investigated. Results show that the composition of phosphate coating were Zn(3)(PO(4))(2).4H(2)O(hopeite) and Zn crystals. The phosphate coatings became denser with fewer microscopic holes by utilizing ultrasonic irradiation treatment. The addition of Nd(2)O(3) reduced the crystallinity of the coatings, with the additional result that the crystallites were increasingly nubby and spherical. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was also significantly improved by ultrasonic irradiation treatment; both the anodic and cathodic processes of corrosion taking place on the aluminum alloy substrate were suppressed consequently. In addition, the electrochemical impedance of the coatings was also increased by utilizing ultrasonic irradiation treatment compared with traditional treatment. PMID:19692286

  17. Analysis of Global Solar Irradiance over Climatic Zones in Nigeria for Solar Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived solar irradiance over 25 locations in the 5 climatic zones of Nigeria (tropical rainforest TRF, Guinea savannah GS, Sahel savannah SHS, Sudan savannah SUS, and Mangrove swamp forest MSF was analyzed. To justify its use, the satellite data was tested for goodness of agreement with ground measured solar radiation data using 26-year mean monthly and daily data over 16 locations in the 5 climatic zones. The well-known R2, RMSE, MBE, and MPE statistical tests were used and good agreement was found. The 25 locations were grouped into the 5 climatic zones. Frequency distribution of global solar irradiance was done for each of the climatic zones. This showed that 46.88%, and 40.6% of the number of days (9794 over TRF and MSF, respectively, had irradiation within the range of 15.01–20.01 MJ/m2/day. For the GS, SHS, and SUS, 46.19%, 55.84% and 58.53% of the days had total irradiation within the range of 20.01–25.01 MJ/m2/day, respectively. Generally, in all the climatic zones, coefficients of variation of solar radiation were high and mean values were low in July and August. Contour maps showed that high and low values of global solar irradiance and clearness index were observed in the Northern and Southern locations of Nigeria, respectively.

  18. Application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis; Aplicacao da tecnica de irradiacao gama para preservacao de propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi

    2002-07-01

    Irradiation has been recognized as an efficient method for the reduction of deteriorating and pathogenic microorganisms in foods. Propolis is a resinous product made by bees from material processed by the bee's own metabolism and resins from plants. The aim of this work was the application of gamma irradiation technique for the preservation of propolis, because of its efficiency in the reduction of the microbial load. The changes on the total flavonoids content, phenolic compounds and other characteristics required for the qualification and characterization of Brazilian propolis were also analysed. Propolis samples from Juiz de Fora region, Minas Gerais, were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source, with doses from 0 to 10kGy for the microbiological analyses and 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0kGy for the physico-chemical analyses. The physico-chemical that have been made were: determination of total flavonoids content, semi-quantitative determination of phenolic compounds (artepelin-C, kempferol, chrysin, galangin and quercetin), dry matter analysis, humidity, ash content, mechanical mass and waxes. The ionizing radiation has shown to be efficient in the reduction of the microbial load. Total coliforms determination showed a great reduction with the dose of 3kGy and concerning mesophile aerobic bacteria a systematic reduction was observed, achieving values <10 UFC/g for the dose of 10kGy; similar results was obtained for molds and yeasts. Salmonella assays were negative for all samples. There was no significant alteration on total flavonoids contents nor on the composition of phenolic compounds as a consequence of radiation application at the assayed conditions. The complementary analyses of dry matter and humidity contents, ashes, mechanical mass and waxes did not shown changes after irradiation even with the maximum dose of 10kGy, remaining the results within the standards required by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  19. Simulation study of irradiated Si sensors equipped with metal- overhang for applications in LHC environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterji, Sudeep; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Kumar, Ashish; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Shivpuri, R K; Khanna, S L

    2004-01-01

    The performance of metal-overhang (MO) equipped silicon micro-strip sensors, after irradiation for the preshower detector to be used in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, has been studied through simulations. Detailed calculations using Hamburg model have allowed the parameterization of these effects and helped to simulate the operation scenario of MO equipped sensors over ten years of LHC operation. The utility of overhanging metal extension as junction termination technique after space charge sign inversion (SCSI) has been explored in detail for the first time in this work. Several interesting results like a shift in the optimal oxide thickness in MO equipped structures after irradiation have been reported. The comparison of dielectric and semi-insulator passivated MO equipped structures after irradiation has been studied. Also, the impact of various crucial geometrical parameters like device depth (W//N), width of back N **+ layer used for ohmic contact (W/...

  20. THEORY OF A QUODON GAS WITH APPLICATION TO PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN SOLIDS UNDER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinko, Volodymyr; Shapovalov, Roman V.

    2014-06-17

    Rate theory of the radiation-induced precipitation in solids is modified with account of non-equilibrium fluctuations driven by the “gas” of lattice solitons (a.k.a. “quodons”) produced by irradiation. According to quantitative estimations, a steady-state density of the quodon gas under sufficiently intense irradiation can be comparable to the density of classical phonon gas. The modified rate theory is applied to modelling of copper precipitation in FeCu binary alloys under electron irradiation. In contrast to the classical rate theory, which disagrees strongly with experimental data on all precipitation parameters, the modified rate theory describes quite well both the evolution of precipitates and the matrix concentration of copper measured by different methods.

  1. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyung [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Han Joon [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Jin [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ji [Division of Food Beverage and Culinary Arts, Younganm College of Science and Technology, Daegu 705-703 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2006-03-15

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (Canada) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products.

  2. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyung; Jo, Cheorun; Hwang, Han Joon; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Young Ji; Byun, Myung Woo

    2006-03-01

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (CA) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products.

  3. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (Canada) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products

  4. Characterization and potential applications of gamma irradiated chitosan and its blends with poly(vinyl alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Ijaz; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Yasin, Tariq; Huang, Qingrong; Palaparthi, Annie D'Souza

    2014-04-01

    Naturally available chitosan (CHI), of high molecular weight, results in reduced efficiency of these polymers for antibacterial activity. In this regard, irradiation is a widely used method for achieving reduction in molecular weight of polymers, which may improve some of its characteristics. Chitosan was extracted from crab shells and degraded by gamma radiations. Effect of radiation dose on chitosan was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and crosslinked with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) into membranes. The membranes were found to be smooth, transparent and macroporous in structure, exhibiting high tensile strength (TS: 27-47 MPa) and elongation at break (EB: 292.6-407.3%). The effect of molecular weight of chitosan and chitosan blends on antibacterial activity was determined. Irradiated low molecular weight chitosan and membranes showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

  5. Handling of subpixel structures in the application of satellite derived irradiance data for solar energy system analysis - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hans Georg

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of satellite derived irradiance information, this type of data set is more and more in use for the design and operation of solar energy systems, most notably PV- and CSP-systems. By this, the need for data measured on-site is reduced. However, due to basic limitations of the satellite-derived data, several requirements put by the intended application cannot be coped with this data type directly. Traw satellite information has to be enhanced in both space and time resolution by additional information to be fully applicable for all aspects of the modelling od solar energy systems. To cope with this problem, several individual and collaborative projects had been performed in the recent years or are ongoing. Approaches are on one hand based on pasting synthesized high-resolution data into the low-resolution original sets. Pre-requite is an appropriate model, validated against real world data. For the case of irradiance data, these models can be extracted either directly from ground measured data sets or from data referring to the cloud situation as gained from the images of sky cameras or from monte -carlo initialized physical models. The current models refer to the spatial structure of the cloud fields. Dynamics are imposed by moving the cloud structures according to a large scale cloud motion vector, either extracted from the dynamics interfered from consecutive satellite images or taken from a meso-scale meteorological model. Dynamic irradiance information is then derived from the cloud field structure and the cloud motion vector. This contribution, which is linked to subtask A - Solar Resource Applications for High Penetration of Solar Technologies - of IEA SHC task 46, will present the different approaches and discuss examples in view of validation, need for auxiliary information and respective general applicability.

  6. Fortified foods, new opportunity for irradiation application; Alimentos fortificados. Nova oportunidade para a aplicacao da radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Sabato, Susy F.; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    One of the most important steps, in order to improve the quality of foodstuffs, in the last forty years is represented by fortified foods. The fortification foods means complementary addition of nutrients to content of foodstuffs. The macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) are relativity steady when submitted to irradiation. The micro-nutrients, speciality the vitamins, can be sensible to any method. This work has analysed fortified foods with Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, vitamin A, riboflavine, vitamin C and folic acid , as well as, the perspective of adjusting the food irradiation process with fortification foods.

  7. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Cerebral complications of irradiation and Methotrexate application in lymphatic leukemias as revealed by computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen children were examined whose skull had previously been irradiated. The total focal dose ranged between 15 to 30 Gy. Methotrexate was administered intraspinally, in most cases 7.5 mg twice weekly. The total dose ranged between 60 to 158.5 mg MTX. The patients were examined using computed tomography 8 to 46 months from the onset of disease. The most frequent symptoms of the effects of irradiation were cortisubcortical atrophy, then various manifestations of leukoencephalopathy which, if treatment is not discontinued leads to necrotic changes in the white matter of the hemispheres

  9. Application of a microbiological screening method for the indication of irradiation of poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services, USA) ruling of May 1990 permits the use of irradiation of fresh or frozen poultry and poultry parts, including ground and mechanically separated poultry products, at absorbed doses of 1.5 to 3 kGy to control foodborne pathogens and bacteria. The aim of this study was to apply a microbiological method (DEFT/APC) to assess the possible irradiation treatment of samples of frozen poultry meat. (author)

  10. Preparation, characterization and application of nanosized copper ferrite photocatalysts for dye degradation under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharieva, Katerina, E-mail: zaharieva@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Tsvetkov, Martin, E-mail: mptsvetkov@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara, E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kunev, Boris, E-mail: bkunev@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Trujillano, Raquel, E-mail: rakel@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Mitov, Ivan, E-mail: mitov@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Milanova, Maria, E-mail: nhmm@wmail.chem.uni-sofia.bg [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-06-15

    {sup −3} min{sup −1}) for degradation of organic dye Malachite green under UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Copper ferrites via co-precipitation, mechanochemical and/or thermal treatment. • Nano ferrites show a superparamagnetic and collective magnetic excitations nature. • The co-precipitated Cu{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4} posses the highest photocatalytic activity. • The amount adsorbed Malachite Green by catalyst depends on the preparation method. • The prepared copper ferrites can be applicable as cheap adsorbents and catalysts.

  11. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  12. Application of the DNA comet assay for detection of irradiated meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induces damage to the DNA. This damage (fragmentation) can be assessed in the irradiated food using Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE), known as DNA comet assay. Fragmentation of DNA may also be caused by improper storage of meat and repeated freezing and thawing. This makes identification of irradiated meat by this assay not reliable enough. In order to know the scale of the processes imitating radiation effects in DNA of the comets, their shape and lengths were examined in both irradiated and unirradiated fresh meat (D = 1.5 or 3.0 kGy) stored at 4oC or frozen (-21o) up to 5 months. Comets formed upon SCGE were stained with DAPI or silver and examined in fluorescent or light microscope. They were divided arbitrarily into 4 classes. Comets of IV class were found quite often in fresh meat stored at 4oC. In meat samples that were irradiated and stored frozen, comets of class I, II and III were observed. The negative comet test is univocal. Positive comet test, however, needs confirmation. The meat should be subjected to further analysis with other validated methods. (author)

  13. Application of mathematical modeling-based algorithms to 'off-carrier' cobalt-60 irradiation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of materials and products 'off carrier' has historically been performed using a 'drop-and-read' methodology whereby the radioisotope source is raised and lowered repeatedly until the desired absorbed dose is achieved. This approach is time consuming from both a manpower and process perspective. Static irradiation-based processes can also be costly because of the need for repeated experimental verification of target dose delivery. In our paper we address the methods used for predicting Ethicon Endo Surgery's (EES's) off-carrier absorbed dose distributions. The scenarios described herein are complex due to the fact that the on-carrier process stream exhibits a wide range of densities and dose rates. The levels of observed complexity are attributed to the 'just-in-time' production strategy and its related requirements as they apply to the programming of EES's cobalt-60 irradiators. Validation of off-carrier processing methodologies requires sophisticated parametric-based systems utilizing mathematical algorithms that predict off-carrier absorbed dose rate relative to the on-carrier process stream components. Irradiation process simulation is achieved using a point kernel computer modeling approach, coupled with database generation and maintenance. Dose prediction capabilities are validated via routine and transfer standard dosimetry

  14. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyperthermal composting microorganisms for feasible application in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Minchul; Choi, Jong-il; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2013-05-01

    The composting system is the most efficient method for processing organic waste in space; however, the composting activity of microorganisms can be altered by cosmic rays. In this study, the effect of ionizing irradiation on composting bacteria was investigated. Sequence analyses of amplified 16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and amoA genes were used to identify hyperthermal composting microorganisms. The viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly determined using LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera were Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp., and the fungal genera were Metschnikowia bicuspidata and Pichia guilliermondii. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy did not significantly alter the microbial population. Furthermore, amylase and cellulase activities were maintained after high-dose gamma irradiation. Our results show that hyperthermal microorganisms can be used to recycle agricultural and fermented material in space stations and other human-inhabiting facilities on the Moon, Mars, and other planets.

  16. Experience of autotransfusion application of UV-irradiated blood in children dermatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autotransfusion of blood, irradiated by medium doses of UV radiation (254 nm), causes a stable clinical effect in children with chronic pyodermatitis and psoriasis in progressing stage, but not with allergodermatitis. Simultaneously the equilibrium in the links of vegetative nervous system is normalized, humoral immunity is activated

  17. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  18. 7.5 MeV High Average Power Linear Accelerator System for Food Irradiation Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2004 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of 7.5 MeV X-rays for irradiation of food products. The increased efficiency for treatment at 7.5 MeV (versus the previous maximum allowable X-ray energy of 5 MeV) will have a significant impact on processing rates and, therefore, reduce the per-package cost of irradiation using X-rays. Titan Pulse Sciences Division is developing a new food irradiation system based on this ruling. The irradiation system incorporates a 7.5 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) that is capable of 100 kW average power. A tantalum converter is positioned close to the exit window of the scan horn. The linac is an RF standing waveguide structure based on a 5 MeV accelerator that is used for X-ray processing of food products. The linac is powered by a 1300 MHz (L-Band) klystron tube. The electrical drive for the klystron is a solid state modulator that uses inductive energy store and solid-state opening switches. The system is designed to operate 7000 hours per year. Keywords: Rf Accelerator, Solid state modulator, X-ray processing

  19. Irradiation induced wheat-alien translocation lines and their application in wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. Transfer of alien useful genes to wheat through development of wheat-alien translocations, especially small alien segment translocations, is important for wheat breeding. Wheat-alien genetic stocks such as amphiploid, addition or substitution lines were irradiated for translocation induction. Mature male or female gametes before flowering on the spikes were irradiated by 60Co-γ-rays at doses ranged from 8 to 22.4Gy. Chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used to identify chromosome translocation. Backcross of M1 plants using normal fresh pollen of common wheat was employed to enhance the transmission rate of various structural changes in their progenies. The results showed that the dose of 8∼12Gy was suitable for pollen irradiation while 15∼20Gy was suitable for female-gamete irradiation. Irradiation treatment just before gamete maturation is advantageous to acquisition of more M1 hybrids with high frequency of chromosome structural variation. The frequency of plants with at least one translocation chromosome in M1 could be increased up to 70% through pollen irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid. More than one hundred translocated chromosomes have been identified in the BC1 and BC2. 57 terminal and 80 intercalary translocations with small alien chromosome segments were induced through female-gamete irradiation conducted on T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line. For the 22.4Gy dosage treatment, the induction frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than that previously reported. These genetic stocks will be useful for physical mapping of alien genes such as Pm21. Some compensate translocations conveying useful agronomic traits would be useful in wheat breeding. The T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation has been used in wheat

  20. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant Kr.; Avasthi, D. K.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO2:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In2O3:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag+9 ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 3.0 × 1013 ions/cm2. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  1. Application of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model to neutron-irradiated Fe–Cr model alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, F., E-mail: f.bergner@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Pareige, C. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6634 CNRS, Avenue de l’Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hernández-Mayoral, M. [Division of Materials, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Material Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Heintze, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    An attempt is made to quantify the contributions of different types of defect-solute clusters to the total irradiation-induced yield stress increase in neutron-irradiated (300 °C, 0.6 dpa), industrial-purity Fe–Cr model alloys (target Cr contents of 2.5, 5, 9 and 12 at.% Cr). Former work based on the application of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, and small-angle neutron scattering revealed the formation of dislocation loops, NiSiPCr-enriched clusters and α′-phase particles, which act as obstacles to dislocation glide. The values of the dimensionless obstacle strength are estimated in the framework of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model. Special attention is paid to the effect of measuring errors, experimental details and model details on the estimates. The three families of obstacles and the hardening model are well capable of reproducing the observed yield stress increase as a function of Cr content, suggesting that the nanostructural features identified experimentally are the main, if not the only, causes of irradiation hardening in these model alloys.

  2. Impact of irradiated sewage sludge application on sandy soil physical characteristics, canola yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiated sewage sludge application on the physical and hydro physical properties of Inshas sandy soil, water use efficiency and yield of canola plant. The soil parameters that were investigated are: soil moisture retention curves, soil bulk density, total porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Treatments included the application of irradiated sewage sludge (6 kGy)at four rates (i.e.0,20,30 and 40 ton/ha). These rates represent 0,50,75,and 100% of nitrogen requirements for canola plant. A control treatment was included using recommended mineral fertilizer NPK. Mineral nitrogen fertilizer (n)was added to the 50% and 75% treatments as a supplement. Results showed that sewage sludge application resulted in improvement of soil physical, hydro physical characteristics and water use efficiency via increase of canola yield . Results indicated that sewage sludge is a good soil conditioner . The best treatment was 30 t/ha sludge + 131 kg/ha ammonium sulfate, as it recorded the highest economic yield and water use efficiency

  3. A numerical model of initial recombination for high-LET irradiation: Application to liquid-filled ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model of initial recombination in media irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) ions, which relies on an amorphous track model of ionization of high LET particles, and diffusion, drift and recombination of ionized charge carriers. The model has fundamental applications for the study of recombination in non-polar liquids, as well as practical ones, like in modelling hadrontherapy dosimetry with ionization chambers. We have used it to study the response of liquid-filled ionization chambers to hadrontherapy beams: dependence of initial recombination on ion species, energy and applied external electric field.

  4. Application of native knowledge in EIA: Inuit, eiders and Hudson Bay oil. Les connaissances des autochtones appliquees aux etudes d'impact environnemental: Les Inuit, les eiders et le petrole de la baie d'Hudson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    Environmental baseline data, essential for environmental impact assessment of petroleum development, is scarce or nonexistent for much of the Arctic. It is proposed that environmental assessment in Arctic regions can benefit substantially from Inuit environmental knowledge, in the form of a formal integration of Inuit expertise into the environmental assessment process. To assess the soundness of this proposition, environmental data from Inuit of 3 communities in southeastern Hudson Bay are examined. These data pertain to the biogeography and ecology of the Hudson Bay eider (Somateria mollissima sedentaria), a large seaduck of interest because of its extreme vulnerability to oil pollution. Information on this bird was collected by means of semi-directive interviews with Inuit hunters. This information reveals an extensive knowledge of the dramatic seasonal changes in the distribution and habitat use of the eider, and their winter mortality. The applications of this knowledge to environmental impact assessment is discussed. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Post-harvest irradiation treatments: Generic dose, high dose, and less-than-probit 9 applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Increased trade in fresh produce and durables has increased risk for inadvertently transporting quarantine pests to countries or regions where they do not already occur. A quarantine pest is a pest of potential economic importance to an area that is not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled. Quarantine or phytosanitary treatments such as heat, cold, irradiation, and fumigation disinfest host commodities of insect pests before they are exported to areas where the pests do not occur. Whereas development of heat, cold, and fumigation treatments involves generating data for each commodity and pest combination, irradiation treatments are developed for a pest species irrespective of fruit host. This is possible because most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest, whereas developing heat, cold and fumigation treatments involves finding a balance between killing the pest and minimising the adverse effects of the treatment process on commodity quality. Development of generic dose, high dose and less than probit 9 concepts with irradiation have the potential to promote the technology and rapidly expand exports. A generic quarantine treatment is one that provides quarantine security for a broad group of pests. For example, a generic treatment could be applied to all Diptera (flies), or to flies in the family Tephritidae (fruit flies), or to tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic treatments because it is effective against most insects and mites at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. USDA APHIS approved a generic irradiation treatment for tephritid fruit flies (150 Gy) based on data for Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, and Rhagoletis fruit flies. Before generic treatments can be recommended for more insect taxa, information from coordinated research projects and large-scale testing is needed on

  6. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of rubber recycle, in powder form of rubber industry. It was used EPDM rubber powder. The rubber powder was irradiated and used directly in classical formulations of rubber vulcanizate. The master-batch processed material was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in 60Co source at 5kGy s-1 rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites devulcanization for further integration of the material (rubber powder) with facilities in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, hardness, rheology and abrasion tests. (author)

  7. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zaharescu, Traian [R and D Institute for Eiectrieal Engineering (ICEP), Bucharest, (Romania)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of rubber recycle, in powder form of rubber industry. It was used EPDM rubber powder. The rubber powder was irradiated and used directly in classical formulations of rubber vulcanizate. The master-batch processed material was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in {sup 60}Co source at 5kGy s{sup -1} rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites devulcanization for further integration of the material (rubber powder) with facilities in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, hardness, rheology and abrasion tests. (author)

  8. Application of replication techniques to fractography of irradiated uranium fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects in nuclear fuel elements were studied by fractography. Fuel elements were experimentally irradiated at various doses at the IRR-2. Irradiated, as well as unirradiated fuel elements, were bent till fracture with a bending press. The fractured surfaces were examined by standard replication techniques. The structures reveal the same morphological zones as in standard tensile fractures. The crack origin zone (fibrous zone) appears near the fuel indent. The radial marks zone starts near the origin and covers about 2/3 of the cross-sectional area. The third zone (shear rupture zone) has a bump, sometimes 1 cm high. The crack origin zone is mainly brittle. As the crack propagates in the radial marks zone it becomes more ductile until its entirely ductile at the bump top. Beyond the bump it turns brittle again. (author)

  9. Application of Kelvin Probe to Studies of Fusion Reactor Materials under Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Guangnan; K. Yamaguchi; T. Terai; M. Yamawaki

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the work function (WF) changes in metallic and ceramic materials to be potentially used in future fusion reactors have been examined by means of Kelvin probe (KP),under He ion irradiation in high energy (MeV) and / or low energy (500 eV) ranges. The results of polycrystalline Ni samples indicate that the 1 MeV beam only induces decrease in the WF within the experimental fluence range; whereas the irradiation of 500 eV beam results in decrease in the WF firstly, then increase till saturation. A dual layer surface model is employed to explain the observed phenomena, together with computer simulation results by SRIM code. Charges buildup on the surface of lithium ceramics has been found to greatly influence the probe output, which can be explained qualitatively using a model concerning an induction electric field due to external field and free charges on the ceramic surface.

  10. Millimeter-wave properties of neutron-irradiated ceramics for RF-window MFE applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to materials needs connected with electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) reactors, the facility at Los Alamos for dielectric properties measurements on irradiated materials was upgraded to include a capability in the millimeter-wave region. With it, dielectric constants (K) and loss tangents (tandelta) were measured at frequencies (f) of about 95 GHz for polycrystalline alumina and beryllia specimens inserted into WR-10 waveguide after irradiations in EBR-II at 3850C and an average fluence of 8 x 1025 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Relative to annealed controls, the dielectric loss quantity Ktandelta doubled for both ceramic types. Furthermore, the BeO material underwent substantial enough changes in K and mass density rho to indicate the likelihood of millimeter-window thickness detuning

  11. Prognosis of the application spices, nondecontamined and decontaminated by irradiation on the sanitary effect foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the elements of prognostic microbiology it has been shown that under conditions conductive to growth of microorganisms, the foodstuff which contains contaminated spices is characterized by lower quality. It may be the risk for human health. The prognosis has been shown, the microbiological decontamination of spices by irradiation may be one of the elements of new system - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). (author)

  12. Removal of emerging contaminants by simultaneous application of membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Above 99% of the emerging contaminants were removed in the USAMe process. • Influence of PAC dose and US frequency on removal is studied. • Improved performance is due to PAC adsorption enhancement and sonolytic degradation. • US irradiation improved efficiency and delayed declines in the removal of contaminants. • Performance of the hybrid process is better under lower frequency ultrasound irradiation. -- Abstract: Advanced wastewater treatment is necessary to effectively remove emerging contaminants (ECs) with chronic toxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, and the capability to induce the proliferation of highly resistant microbial strains in the environment from before wastewater disposal or reuse. This paper investigates the efficiency of a novel hybrid process that applies membrane ultrafiltration, activated carbon adsorption, and ultrasound irradiation simultaneously to remove ECs. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, and amoxicillin are chosen for this investigation because of their assessed significant environmental risks. Removal mechanisms and enhancement effects are analysed in single and combined processes. The influence of adsorbent dose and ultrasonic frequency to EC removal are also investigated. Results suggest that adsorption is probably the main removal mechanism and is affected by the nature of ECs and the presence of other components in the mixture. Almost complete removals are achieved in the hybrid process for all ECs

  13. Application of food irradiation technology in development of future special purposed foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Shin, Myung Gon [Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Advanced food technologies fused with radiation technology could be applied to the development of various special-purpose foods such space foods, combat rations, emergency foods, and sterile patient meals. In U.S.A, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Army Natick Soldier RD and E Center co-developed the hazard analysis of critical control point, which is a essential hygienic control system in food industry. Moreover, strict manufacturing standards to produce shelf-stable foods using radiation (ionizing energy) technology were established. In Korea, the advanced food technologies to sterilize various foods using irradiation technology were expected to be applied as a hygiene process on group meals and ready-to-eat/ready-to cook foods, and to produce foods for patients with high hygienic, nutritional, and organoleptic qualities through the combination treatments with irradiation technology. And, it was considered that the advanced technology would improve the related industries and national economy by introducing the food irradiation technology to the Korean traditional fermented foods to improve their functionality. In conclusion, the advanced food technologies which are preoccupied by some developed countries like U.S.A. and Russia will make a contribution to the development of national science and technology, and competitiveness promotion of industry.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations for thermodynamical properties calculations of plasmas at thermodynamical equilibrium. Applications to opacity and equation of state calculations; Apport d'un code de simulation Monte Carlo pour l'etude des proprietes thermodynamiques d'un plasma a l'equilibre et application au calcul de l'elargissement des profils de raies ioniques emises dans les plasmas denses, aux opacites spectrales et aux equations d'etat de systemes fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, D

    2005-07-01

    This report is devoted to illustrate the power of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code to study the thermodynamical properties of a plasma, composed of classical point particles at thermodynamical equilibrium. Such simulations can help us to manage successfully the challenge of taking into account 'exactly' all classical correlations between particles due to density effects, unlike analytical or semi-analytical approaches, often restricted to low dense plasmas. MC simulations results allow to cover, for laser or astrophysical applications, a wide range of thermodynamical conditions from more dense (and correlated) to less dense ones (where potentials are long ranged type). Therefore Yukawa potentials, with a Thomas-Fermi temperature- and density-dependent screening length, are used to describe the effective ion-ion potentials. In this report we present two MC codes ('PDE' and 'PUCE') and applications performed with these codes in different fields (spectroscopy, opacity, equation of state). Some examples of them are discussed and illustrated at the end of the report. (author)

  15. Structural and mechanical characterization of ion-irradiated glassy polymeric carbon for TRISO fuel nuclear application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunaemeh, Malek; Seif, Mohamed; Elsamadicy, Abdalla; Ila, Daryush

    2012-08-01

    Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel is considered as the fuel design of choice for the next generation of nuclear reactors (Generation IV). Its design consists of a fuel kernel of UO x coated with several layers having different functions. One of these functions is a containment shell/diffusion barrier for the fission fragments. Normally, the material of choice for this shell is pyrolytic carbon (PyC). The material does not offer a perfect barrier, due to its inherent crystalline structure, which is planar (like graphite) and therefore impossible to mold in one continuous sheet around the spherical fuel bead. Plane boundaries allow fragment diffusion at a much higher rate than through the plane. In this study, we investigate the possibility of replacing PyC with a different form of carbon, glassy polymeric carbon (GPC). We prepared samples of GPC and studied the evolution of their physical properties and structure as a function of the radiation environment that they were exposed to. The temperature at which the samples were held during irradiation was very similar to the Generation IV nuclear reactor (∼1000°C). During the fission of U235, the fission fragment mass distribution has two maxima around 98 and 137 amu, which would best correspond to elements Rb and Cs, respectively. However, both ions are hard to produce from our SNICS ion source at the Center for Irradiation of Materials; therefore, we used 107Ag and 197Au as best replacements. The irradiation sessions consisted in various fluences of 5 MeV Ag, and 5 MeV Au. For elemental sample analysis, we used transmission electron microscopy. For mechanical analysis, we used nano-indentation. It is of prime importance to measure the penetration of the implanted 107Ag.and 197Au and the evolution of mechanical properties of GPC irradiated with these ions. A procedure for manufacturing GPC with analysis is presented. This will show how the GPC structure differs as the temperature that it is prepared at increases

  16. A Novel Method for Preparation of Gold NanoBipyramids Using Microwave Irradiation and Its Application in Immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trong Phat; Ngo, Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen, Dang Giang; Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Uyen; Nghiem, Quoc Dat; Lam, Quang Vinh; Huynh, Thanh Dat

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted attention for producing smart sensing devices as diagnostic tools in biotechnological and medical applications, because they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than comparable gold nanorods. Normally, NBPs were synthesized using seed-mediated growth process at room temperature. In this report, our group describes a method for synthesising of NBPs using microwave irradiation with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide + silver nitrate (AgNO3) as capping agents. The advantages of this method are a highly effective approach to fast and uniform NBPs. The product was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance immunosensors, NBPs is conjugated with the chloramphenicol antibodies for signal amplification to detect chloramphenicol residuals in the QCM system.

  17. From chemical mapping to pressure temperature deformation micro-cartography: mineralogical evolution and mass transport in thermo-mechanic disequilibrium systems: application to meta-pelites and confinement nuclear waste materials; De l'imagerie chimique a la micro-cartographie Pression-Temperature-Deformation: evolution mineralogique et transport de matiere dans des systemes en desequilibre thermomecanique. Applications aux metapelites et aux materiaux de stockage de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, V. de

    2006-03-15

    The mineralogical composition of metamorphic rocks or industrial materials evolves when they are submitted to thermomechanical disequilibria, i.e. a spatial or temporal pressure and temperature evolution, or chemical disequilibria as variations in redox conditions, pH... For example, during low temperature metamorphic processes, rocks re-equilibrate only partially, and thus record locally thermodynamic equilibria increasing so the spatial chemical heterogeneities. Understanding the P-T evolution of such systems and deciphering modalities of their mineralogical transformation imply to recognize and characterize the size of these local 'paleo-equilibria', and so to have a spatial chemical information at least in 2 dimensions. In order to get this information, microprobe X-ray fluorescence maps have been used. Computer codes have been developed with Matlab to quantify these maps in view of thermo-barometric estimations. In this way, P-T maps of mineral crystallisation were produced using the multi-equilibria thermodynamic technique. Applications on two meta-pelites from the Sambagawa blue-schist belt (Japan) and from the Caledonian eclogitic zone in Spitsbergen, show that quantitative chemical maps are a powerful tool to retrieve the metamorphic history of rocks. From these chemical maps have been derived maps of P-T-time-redox-deformation that allow to characterize P-T conditions of minerals formation, and so, the P-T path of the sample, the oxidation state of iron in the chlorite phase. As a result, we underline the relation between deformation and crystallisation, and propose a relative chronology of minerals crystallisation and deformations. The Fe{sup 3+} content map in chlorite calculated by thermodynamic has also been validated by a {mu}-XANES mapping at the iron K-edge measured at the ESRF (ID24) using an innovative method. Another application relates to an experimental study of clay materials, main components of an analogical model of a nuclear

  18. Irradiated lanoline as a prospective substance for biomedical applications: A spectroscopic and thermal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlikova, Zuzana; Hybler, Peter; Fülop, Marko; Ondruska, Jan; Jomova, Klaudia; Porubska, Maria; Valko, Marian

    2015-08-01

    Refined wool wax products, such as lanoline and lanoline derivatives are key ingredients in some of the ointments, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, waterproof coatings and other products. Beneficial medicinal effects along with melting point near normal human body temperature designated lanoline to be used in pharmacotherapy and medical treatments. Since the general requirements for sterility of medicinal substances are very strict, especially in cases of skin contact, radiation technologies represent a valuable tool to sterilize the materials for medicinal purposes. In this work, lanoline was irradiated with accelerated electron beam in air within 0-400 kG dose to simulate sterilization for medical purposes. The irradiated lanoline showed considerable fluctuation of chemical structure. The most significant fluctuation was observed for etheric species, followed by ethylene sequences with n<4. While primary and secondary alcohols, as well as epoxides species, decreased below the initial concentration within whole range of the doses, aliphatic esters and ethylene sequences (CH2)n with n≥4 indicated the most stable species. A trace amount of organic-in origin radicals was observed and that increased slightly with dose. Depending on dose, the melting temperature varied from 39.7 to 45.7 °C and the highest values were reached for 25 kGy and 156 kGy. For these same doses the highest thermal stability was also observed and, simultaneously the thermal stability was related inversely to the destruction rate. We propose, that the chemical transformation of lanoline within 0-25 kGy dose should be tested for prospective medical purposes as well as for the need to eliminate remaining outlasting organic-in-origin radicals which were detected in the lanoline even one year after the irradiation.

  19. REDUCTION OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES IN WATER BY APPLICATION OF ULTRASOUND WAVES AND ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi ، A. Maleki ، R. Rezaee ، M. Safari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances mainly humic acids constitute the major fraction of natural organic matter in water supplies. They play an important role in the formation of harmful disinfection by products. Degradation of humic acids by means of ultraviolet radiation and ultrasonic irradiation processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with an 300 W immersed-type medium-pressure mercury vapour lamp and sonoreactor with low frequency (42 kHz plate type transducer at 170 W of acoustic power with emphasis on the effect of various parameters on degradation efficiency. Experiments were performed at humic acids initial concentrations varying between 2.5-10 mg/L. Oxidation of humic substances has been followed over time by measuring total organic carbon and UV absorbance in 254 nm and 436 nm. Initial results indicated a strong capacity of photolysis for degradation of humic substances. The results also showed that ultrasonic alone cannot be an efficient method for degradation of humic substances in comparison with UV process. The maximum degradation efficiency of humic substances after 90 min of irradiation, however, was only 5.7% and reached a maximum value of 9.5% after 300 min of irradiation. It was found that total organic carbon can be removed effectively by photolysis. It was also found that lower concentrations of humic substances favor the humic substances degradation. Also, the experimental results indicated that the kinetics of ultrasono-oxidation and photo-oxidation processes fit well by pseudo-first order kinetics.

  20. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author)

  1. A spectrophotometric readout for γ irradiated alanine solution - a dosimetric application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine is a stable dosimeter of reference in its solid state. Its installation in solution as being a dosimetric system of routine remains very useful. A follow-up of the behaviour of the irradiated alanine solution with 15 kGy according to the concentration is carried out by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The results obtained prove the difficulty in analytical studies of the radiolysis of aqueous solutions by optical absorption due to the ambiguous broad spectra of the species and the reaction products. (Author). 47 refs

  2. Application of the DNA ''comet assay'' to detect irradiation treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, microgel electrophoresis of single cells (''comet assay'') offers a simple and rapid tool for identification of irradiated foods. The principle is based on migration of DNA in an agarose gel exposed to an electric field. Single cells or nuclei are embedded in the agarose and after lysis, intact DNA will virtually not move out of the cell upon electrophoresis, whereas if DNA has been fragmented, the fragments are able to migrate and ''comets'' following the cells become visible after staining. The advantages of this test, however, for foods not exposed to heat are its speed and simplicity, as the electrophoretic separation only requires a few minutes. DNA is visualised by silver staining, avoiding the need for a fluorescence microscope. Thus the method requires only relatively cheap equipment - in contrast to other methods for identification of irradiated food such as electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The DNA ''comet assay'' , therefore, seems suitable as a pre-screening test to detect whether food has been radiation processed. Suspected samples may subsequently be analysed by established, but more expensive techniques. (author)

  3. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  4. Application of thermoluminescence measurements to detect low dose gamma-irradiated table grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major factor hampering the introduction of ionizing radiation as an alternative quarantine treatment to chemical fumigation for fruit and vegetables is the lack of reliable, simple and inexpensive post-treatment methods to confirm this low dose irradiation treatment. Thermoluminescence (TL) measurements of the wind blown dust naturally adhering to the surface of table grapes, was surveyed. Two doses, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, were studied, applied to the main Chilean table grape export varieties: Thompson Seedless and Flame Seedless. TL measurements were carried out over 78 days for Thompson Seedless and 62 days for Flame Seedless varieties, both stored at 1 ± 1oC. TL response fading of dust samples stored at room temperature was also followed over 125days. The TL response values obtained from the irradiated samples exceeded at least 3 times the highest ones obtained from the unirradiated counterparts. The treatment, even for the lower γ-radiation dose applied, could be properly detected well above the shipping and marketing time for this Chilean export fruit (2-8 weeks). This method also has the advantage of using relatively inexpensive equipment. (author)

  5. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic stainless steels applicable to LWR core internals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. M.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    This report summarizes work performed at Argonne National Laboratory on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels that were irradiated in the Halden reactor in simulation of irradiation-induced degradation of boiling water reactor (BWR) core internal components. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests in BWR-like oxidizing water were conducted on 27 austenitic stainless steel alloys that were irradiated at 288 C in helium to 0.4, 1.3, and 3.0 dpa. Fractographic analysis was conducted to determine the fracture surface morphology. Microchemical analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy was performed on BWR neutron absorber tubes to characterize grain-boundary segregation of important elements under BWR conditions. At 0.4 and 1.4 dpa, transgranular fracture was mixed with intergranular fracture. At 3 dpa, transgranular cracking was negligible, and fracture surface was either dominantly intergranular, as in field-cracked core internals, or dominantly ductile or mixed. This behavior indicates that percent intergranular stress corrosion cracking determined at {approx}3 dpa is a good measure of IASCC susceptibility. At {approx}1.4 dpa, a beneficial effect of a high concentration of Si (0.8-1.5 wt.%) was observed. At {approx}3 dpa, however, such effect was obscured by a deleterious effect of S. Excellent resistance to IASCC was observed up to {approx}3 dpa for eight heats of Types 304, 316, and 348 steel that contain very low concentrations of S. Susceptibility of Types 304 and 316 steels that contain >0.003 wt.% S increased drastically. This indicates that a sulfur related critical phenomenon plays an important role in IASCC. A sulfur content of <0.002 wt.% is the primary material factor necessary to ensure good resistance to IASCC. However, for Types 304L and 316L steel and their high-purity counterparts, a sulfur content of <0.002 wt.% alone is not a sufficient condition to ensure good resistance to IASCC. This is in distinct contrast to

  6. Soja MON 87701 Résistant Aux Insectes

    OpenAIRE

    Canada, Publié par la Direction des aliments de Santé

    2014-01-01

    Santé Canada a avisé Monsanto Canada Inc. qu’il ne s’oppose pas à l’utilisation alimentaire du soja MON 87701 résistant aux insectes. Le Ministère a réalisé une évaluation approfondie de cette lignée de soja conformément aux Lignes directrices sur l’évaluation de l’innocuité des aliments nouveaux. Ces lignes directrices sont fondées sur les principes admis internationalement de l’établissement de l’innocuité d’aliments comportant des caractères nouveaux. Le texte qu...

  7. Fluence Uniformity Measurements in an Electron Accelerator Used for Irradiation of Extended Area Solar Cells and Electronic Circuits for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Roberto M.; Filppi, Ed; Zhang, Shubo

    2007-01-01

    It is common to have liquid crystal displays and electronic circuit boards with area sizes of the order of 20x20 sq cm on board of satellites and space vehicles. Usually irradiating them at different fluence values assesses the radiation damage in these types of devices. As a result, there is a need for a radiation source with large spatial fluence uniformity for the study of the damage by radiation from space in those devices. Kent State University s Program on Electron Beam Technology has access to an electron accelerator used for both research and industrial applications. The electron accelerator produces electrons with energies in the interval from 1 to 5 MeV and a maximum beam power of 150 kW. At such high power levels, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one dimension in order to provide uniform irradiation and to prevent damage to the sample. This allows for the uniform irradiation of samples with an area of up to 1.32 sq m. This accelerator has been used in the past for the study of radiation damage in solar cells (1). However in order to irradiate extended area solar cells there was a need to measure the uniformity of the irradiation zone in terms of fluence. In this paper the methodology to measure the fluence uniformity on a sample handling system (linear motion system), used for the irradiation of research samples, along the irradiation zone of the above-mentioned facility is described and the results presented. We also illustrate the use of the electron accelerator for the irradiation of large area solar cells (of the order of 156 sq cm) and include in this paper the electrical characterization of these types of solar cells irradiated with 5 MeV electrons to a total fluence of 2.6 x 10(exp 15) e/sq cm.

  8. Modélisation du procédé de soudage hybride Arc / Laser par une approche level set application aux toles d'aciers de fortes épaisseurs A level-set approach for the modelling of hybrid arc/laser welding process application for high thickness steel sheets joining

    OpenAIRE

    Desmaison Olivier; Bellet Michel; Guillemot Gildas

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage hybride Arc/Laser est une solution aux assemblages difficiles de tôles de fortes épaisseurs. Ce procédé innovant associe deux sources de chaleur : un arc électrique produit par une torche MIG et une source laser placée en amont. Ce couplage améliore le rendement du procédé, la qualité du cordon et les déformations finales. La modélisation de ce procédé par une approche Level Set permet une prédiction du développement du cordon et du champ de température associé. La simul...

  9. Modélisation du procédé de soudage hybride Arc / Laser par une approche level set application aux toles d'aciers de fortes épaisseurs A level-set approach for the modelling of hybrid arc/laser welding process application for high thickness steel sheets joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmaison Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage hybride Arc/Laser est une solution aux assemblages difficiles de tôles de fortes épaisseurs. Ce procédé innovant associe deux sources de chaleur : un arc électrique produit par une torche MIG et une source laser placée en amont. Ce couplage améliore le rendement du procédé, la qualité du cordon et les déformations finales. La modélisation de ce procédé par une approche Level Set permet une prédiction du développement du cordon et du champ de température associé. La simulation du soudage multi-passes d'une nuance d'acier 18MnNiMo5 est présentée ici et les résultats sont comparés aux observations expérimentales. The hybrid arc/laser welding process has been developed in order to overcome the difficulties encountered for joining high thickness steel sheets. This innovative process gathers two heat sources: an arc source developed by a MIG torch and a pre-located laser source. This coupling improves the efficiency of the process, the weld bead quality and the final deformations. The Level-Set approach for the modelling of this process enables the prediction of the weld bead development and the temperature field evolution. The simulation of the multi-passes welding of a 18MnNiMo5 steel grade is detailed and the results are compared to the experimental observations.

  10. Conditions de contrat applicables aux travaux de construction

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Conditions of Contract for Construction, which are recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer or by his representative, the Engineer. Under the usual arrangements for this type of contract, the Contractor constructs the works in accordance with a design provided by the Employer. However, the works may include some elements of Contractor-designed civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works.

  11. Irradiance-based emissivity correction in infrared thermography for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellvehi, M; Perpiñà, X; Lauro, G L; Perillo, F; Jordà, X

    2011-11-01

    This work analyzes, discusses, and proposes a solution to the problem of the emissivity correction present in infrared thermography when coatings with known emissivity cannot be deposited on the inspected surface. It is shown that the conventional technique based on two reference thermal images and the linearization of the blackbody radiation dependence on temperature is not a reliable and accurate solution when compared with the coating procedure. In this scenario, a new approach based on the direct processing of the output signal of the infrared camera (which is proportional to the detected irradiance) is proposed to obtain an accurate emissivity and surrounding reflections map, perfectly compensating the thermal maps. The results obtained have been validated using a module as a test vehicle containing two thermal test chips which incorporate embedded temperature sensors.

  12. Irradiance-based emissivity correction in infrared thermography for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellvehi, M; Perpiñà, X; Lauro, G L; Perillo, F; Jordà, X

    2011-11-01

    This work analyzes, discusses, and proposes a solution to the problem of the emissivity correction present in infrared thermography when coatings with known emissivity cannot be deposited on the inspected surface. It is shown that the conventional technique based on two reference thermal images and the linearization of the blackbody radiation dependence on temperature is not a reliable and accurate solution when compared with the coating procedure. In this scenario, a new approach based on the direct processing of the output signal of the infrared camera (which is proportional to the detected irradiance) is proposed to obtain an accurate emissivity and surrounding reflections map, perfectly compensating the thermal maps. The results obtained have been validated using a module as a test vehicle containing two thermal test chips which incorporate embedded temperature sensors. PMID:22128998

  13. Application of Ultraviolet and Ultrasound Irradiation for the Degradation of Pyridine in Wastewater: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elsayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical and sonochemical degradation of aqueous solutions of pyridine, a common refractory pollutant in wastewater effluents, have been investigated by means of ultraviolet (UV, ultrasound (US, UV/H2O2, and US/H2O2 irradiation processes. The pure photochemical process were demonstrated to be efficient for degradation of low initial concentrations of pyridine (10 ppm. Sonochemical degradation proceeded very slowly, leading to less than 53% of pyridine removal after 200 min. The degradation efficiency was increased with increasing H2O2 concentration; however, the marginal benefit became decreasing with further increasing of H2O2 due to the scavenging effect of excess H2O2. The kinetics of photochemical and sonochemical degradation of pyridine were found to follow a first-order rate law. A possible degradation pathway for pyridine was also proposed.

  14. Development of an x-ray irradiation port for biomedical applications at the CUEBIT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the importance of x-ray interactions in modern medicine, efforts must be made to combine the fields of biology and physics. This paper reviews the development of an x-ray irradiation port that allows us to study the interaction of x-rays generated by highly charged ions with biological material, such as stem and cancer cells. Our goal is to better understand these interactions in order to improve the techniques of x-ray therapy by narrowing and specifically selecting the range of radiation energies applied. Using the Clemson University Electron Beam Ion Trap (CUEBIT), the generation of quasi-monochromatic x- rays from highly charged ions is possible. In order to maintain the integrity of the cells being studied, the cell culture needs to be oriented horizontally during the irradiation process. This poses a problem, as the highly charged ion beam generated at the CUEBIT is also oriented horizontally. Therefore, we have designed a system that employs a quadrupole bender that directs the ion beam vertically, which allows for the production of x-rays directly under the cell culture. The experimental station consists of a vacuum chamber that attaches to the end of the beam line. This chamber houses the quadrupole bender, a beryllium window for generating x-rays, and the interface between the beryllium window and the cell culture. X-rays must transmit through the bottom of a flask before they interact with the cells. Hence, we implement a procedure to replace the bottom of the flask with a thin layer of Mylar, allowing x-rays to penetrate through easily. We will use this system to study the effects of monochromatic x- rays on stem cells, cancer cells, and their associated proteins

  15. Introduction aux modèles espace état et au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoine, Matthieu; Pelgrin, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Nous détaillons ici les principaux concepts et problèmes liés aux modèles espace-état, ainsi que leurs applications. Nous présentons d'abord ces modèles dans leur généralité. Ensuite, nous explicitons les algorithmes utilisés afin de procéder à l'estimation par le maximum de vraisemblance, c'est-à-dire fondamentalement le filtre de Kalman et l'algorithme EM. Nous considérons enfin quatre applications : les décompositions tendance-cycle, l'extraction d'indicateurs coïncidents d'activité, l'est...

  16. Selective Photobleaching Of Steady-State Gamma Irradiated Silica Fibers Application To The Hardening Of A Digital Optical Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuze, Gerard; Serre, Jean; Friant, Alain

    1988-06-01

    Photobleaching at 340 and 1300 nm wavelengths of three multimode silica fibers under steady-state gamma irradiation (2 x 480 Gy, 120 Gy/h) at room temperature was studied as regards induced loss and recovery kinetics. Significant differences in behaviour between two pure silica-core fibers (plastic clad QSF 200 A and fluorine doped-clad AS 200 -300 from Quartz et Silice) and a germanium doped-core fiber 7020/250 from Compagnie Lyonnaise de Transmissions Optiques are presented. The hardening up to 0.1 MGy of a short bidirectional data link designed to operate a servomanipulator in a hot cell is described as an example of application.

  17. Materials modified by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radiation in pharmaceutical sciences and cosmetology, polymer materials, food industry, environment, health camre products and packing production is described. Nanotechnology is described more detailed, because it is less known as irradiation using technology. Economic influence of the irradiation on the materials value addition is shown

  18. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  19. Innovation in Industrial Irradiation - How a Services Contractor Can Contribute to the Development of New Polymer Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contract electron beam processing company is primarily focused on providing production irradiation services to established customers; however, a forward-thinking services company encourages and enables the development of new polymer applications in a number of ways. Note that in this presentation innovation will typically refer to the development of new polymer applications for sizeable commercial opportunities, as opposed to innovation in scientific research. The traditional, and in many cases current, approach to innovation by service contractors in North America and Europe focuses on providing controlled irradiation for experimental activities by product developers. While some researchers around the world have ready access to electron beams, it may be surprising to point out that product developers in manufacturing companies including companies that operate their own beam for manufacturing existing products often have extremely limited access to that beam for development purposes. In addition, service contractors conduct a wide range of 'missionary' activities to let potential product developers know of the benefits of electron beam processing and to communicate their ability to facilitate the development of valuable products. Activities in this area include: participation in various industrial tradeshows, advertising, direct sales calls, seminars, press releases, website communication, and technical presentations to specific prospects and customers. The presenter's experience consists of more than 20 years as a 'hands-on' president of the largest contract electron beam processing company in North America, a company which provides processing for an exceptionally broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications are well-known, successful applications involving crosslinking for such products as wire and cable jackets, heat-shrink tubing, PEX tubing, balloon angioplasty tubing, foam, films, hydrogels, etc. These products involve the crosslinking

  20. Irradiation performance of (Th,U)02 fuel designed for advanced fuel cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reference fabrication route for Advanced Cycle thoria-based fuel is conventional in that it produces cold-pressed and sintered pellets. However we are also evaluating alternative fuels which offer the potential for simpler fabrication in a remote facility, and in some cases improved high burnup performance. These alternatives are impregnated, spherepac, and extruded thoria-based fuels. Spherepac fuel has been irradiated at a linear power of 50-60 kW/m to about 180 MW.h/kg H.E. There have been unexplained defects in fuel with both free-standing and collapsible cladding. Impregnated fuel has operated to 650 MW.h/kg H.E. at 50-60 KW/m. An experiment examining fuel from the sol-gel extrusion process has reached 450 MW.h/kg H.E. at a maximum linear power of 60 KW/m. The latter two experiments have operated without defects and with fission gas release less than that for U02 under identical conditions. The extruded fuel has a pellet geometry similar to that for conventional fuel and is AECL's first practical demonstration of thoria-based fuel with the fissile component distributed homogeneously on an atomic scale. We will continue monitoring the extruded fuel to a burnup approaching 1000 MW.h/kg H.E., as an indicator for the performance expected from co-precipitated (Th,U)02 or mechanically-mixed (Th,U)02 with good fissile homogeneity

  1. Clinical application of glass dosimeter for in vivo dose measurements of total body irradiation treatment technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Hwang, Ui-Jung; Jeong, Hojin; Lee, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Doo-Hyun; Shin, Dong Ho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Rena [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong, E-mail: cool_park@ncc.re.k [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 410-769 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The commercially available glass dosimeter (model GD-301) was investigated for its dosimetric characteristics, in order to evaluate its use for in vivo dosimetry. We specifically assessed overall precision of dosimetric dose data in patients who received treatment with the total body irradiation (TBI). Uniformity obtained in this study was within 1.2% (1 SD). The dose-response was linear in the range of 0.5-10 Gy with R of 0.999. Dose rate, SSD, field size, angular and energy dependence were found to be within 3.0%. In vivo skin dosimetry for TBI was performed for 3 patients. For all patients, the glass dosimeter was exposed and measured dose recorded for one fraction in addition to conventional used TLD and MOSFET. Overall uncertainty of the glass dosimeter for in vivo dose measurement was estimated at 2.4% (68.3% confidence level). The measured doses of the glass dosimeter were well within {+-}5.0% of the prescription dose at all sites expect mediastinum of one patient, for which it is within {+-}5.7%. Agreement of measured doses between glass dosimeter and TLD, MOSFET was within {+-}6.3% and {+-}6.6%, respectively. Results show that the glass dosimeter can be used as an accurate and reproducible dosimeter for TBI treatment skin dose measurements. The glass dosimeter is a practical alternative to TLD or MOSFET as an in vivo dosimeter.

  2. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yao, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Tie-Ning; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Zhe-Kai; Lu, Xun

    2012-08-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom.

  3. An experimental investigation of fractionation by sputter deposition. [application to solar wind irradiation of lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruso, D. M.; Cassidy, W. A.; Hapke, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    Artificial glass targets composed of elements varying widely in atomic weight were irradiated at an angle of incidence of 45 deg by 2-keV hydrogen ions at a current density of .33 mA/sq cm, and sputtered atoms were caught on a molybdenum film. Analyses of the sputter-deposited films and unsputtered target glasses were carried out by electron microprobe. The backward-sputtered component was found to be enriched in elements of low atomic weight, while the forward-sputtered component was enriched in heavy atoms. These results indicate that at the lunar surface lighter elements and isotopes would tend to be ejected in backward directions, escaping directly through the openings which admit bombarding ions without first striking an adjacent grain surface; heavy elements and isotopes would be forward-sputtered deeper into the soil and be preferentially retained, contributing to the reported enrichments of heavy elements and isotopes. Additional results show that the binding energy of an element in its oxide form influences the sticking coefficient of a sputtered atom; elements of low binding energy are likely to desorb, while elements of high binding energy tend to stick to the first bounce surface.

  4. A Direct Ultrasound Irradiation Method Synthesis of Monodisperse ZnO Microspheres for Varistors Ceramics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wang, Mao-Hua; Zhang, Han-Ping; Liu, Jin-Ran; Yao, Da-Chuan

    2016-08-01

    Monodisperse and uniform ZnO microspheres were synthesized via an ultrasound irradiation method. The microstructure and morphology of the as-prepared sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the size of ZnO microspheres was strongly affected by the Zn(NO3)2·6H2O. As the amount of the precursor increased, the diameters of the ZnO microspheres can be turned from ˜500 nm to ˜2 μm. The electrical properties of the varistors ceramics prepared from the as-obtained ZnO powders were investigated. The results show that the varistors ceramics made from ZnO with a size of ˜500 nm and sintered in air at 1150°C for 2 h possess a density of 5.50 g/cm3 corresponding to 95.1% of the theoretical density, with breakdown voltage of 280.9 V/mm and nonlinear coefficient of ˜61.3.

  5. Application of Laser Shock Processing System by Underwater Irradiation (1064 nm) in Metal Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-González, C.; Ocaña, J. L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.; Morales, M.; Casillas, F. J.; Mora-Gonzalez, M.; Peña-Lecona, F. G.

    2008-04-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) is a technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field which increases fatigue crack initiation life, reduces fatigue crack growth rate and increases wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results in the LSP concept for metal surfaces treatments in underwater layer with constant thickness using laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2, 5 J/cm2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by a Q-switch Nd:YAG Laser. Experimental results using a pulse density of 5 000 pulses/cm2 and spots of 0, 8 mm to 1, 5 mm in diameter on AISI 1040 steel surfaces, Ti6A14V surfaces, 304 Stainless Steel surface and 6061-T6 Aluminum surfaces are presented. A compressive residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. High level compressive residual stresses are produced using a 1064 nm wavelength. This method can be applied for surface treatment of final metal products.

  6. Caractérisation rhéologique et modélisation structurelle des systèmes argile-polymère. Application aux fluides de forage Rheometry and Structural Modelling of Clay-Polymer Systems. Application to Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartalos U.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement rhéologique des systèmes argile-polymère couramment utilisés dans les formulations des fluides de forage est examiné dans cet article. Un protocole d'essai adapté à leur nature thixotrope qui permet d'effectuer des mesures reproductibles est mis au point. Les propriétés intrinsèques du matériau sont ainsi déterminées sur toute la gamme de sollicitations : du comportement solide aux faibles déformations au comportement fluide aux taux de déformations intenses. Il est montré que ces systèmes sont caractérisés par des temps de restructuration longs, par des rhéogrammes en régime permanent présentant un minimum de contrainte et par des dépassements importants de la contrainte lors des essais transitoires. Ces effets peuvent être complètement masqués par des procédures d'essai préconisés par les normes en vigueur dans le forage. Une loi de comportement structurelle récente qui relie les propriétés thixotropes et viscoélastiques du matériau aux mécanismes de création et de rupture des flocs peut reproduire l'ensemble des phénomènes observés. Sa capacité de décrire le changement de structure au sein du fluide sous écoulement ou au repos et les variations associées de la contrainte permet d'envisager une meilleure modélisation de l'hydraulique du forage. The rheological behaviour of clay-polymer systems that are currently used in the formulation of drilling fluids was studied. A specific experimental procedure was used to account for thixotropic effects and obtain, thus, reproducible results. In this way it was possible to determine intrinsic properties in the whole range, from solid behaviour below the yield stress to liquid behaviour at very high shear. These systems are shown to be characterised by very long time scales of structure recovery, by the existence of a minimum shear stress in the steady state flow curve and by important stress overshoots in transient flows. These effects can be

  7. Solvent purification using a current of water vapour. A continuous process applicable to chemical plants treating irradiated fuels; Purification des solvants par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Procede continu applicable aux usines chimiques de traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P.R.; Sautray, R.R.; Girard, B.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pilot plant described in this report is intended for the continuous purification of the solvent used in the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, by separating the impurities (fission products). This physical separation is operated by carrying over in a water vapour stream. The contaminating products, only slightly volatile, remain in the form of the droplets and are separated; the vaporised solvent and the water vapour used are condensed and then separated. The originality of the installation resides in the system for pulverising the liquid and in the operating conditions: low working pressure and temperature. The systematic analysis of the various parameters (percentage of residue; flow, pressure and temperature ratios etc...) has shown their influence on the decontamination. The activity due to the zirconium-niobium is undetectable after treatment, and it is easy to obtain decontamination factors of 300 for the ruthenium. The, presence of uranium is favorable for the decontamination. As a conclusion, some extra-technical considerations are given concerning in particular the approximate cost price of the treated solvent per litre. (authors) [French] L'installation pilote decrite dans ce rapport est destinee a purifier, en continu, le solvant utilise a l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, en separant les impuretes (produits de fission). Cette separation physique est realisee par entrainement a la vapeur d'eau. Les produits contaminants, peu volatils, restant sous forme de gouttelettes, sont separes; le solvant vaporise ainsi que la vapeur d'entrainement sont condenses puis separes. L'originalite de l'installation reside dans le systeme de pulverisation du liquide et dans les conditions operatoires: faible pression et basse temperature de fonctionnement. L'analyse systematique des differents parametres (pourcentage de residus, rapport de debits, pression et temperature, etc...) a mis en evidence leur influence sur la decontamination. L'activite en zirconium-niobium apres traitement est indecelable et il est facile d'obtenir des facteurs de decontamination de 300 sur le ruthenium. La presence d'uranium favorise la decontamination. Pour terminer, le lecteur trouvera des considerations extra-techniques et en particulier l'ordre de grandeur des prix de revient du litre de solvant traite. (auteurs)

  8. Part of the oxidative stress in the development of radio-induced cell effects at cutaneous level: application to accidental localised irradiations; Role du stress oxydatif dans le developpement des effets cellulaires radio-induits au niveau cutane: application aux irradiations localisees accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carine, Laurent

    2005-10-15

    The objective of our study was to answer to the following questions: does the initial radio-induced oxidative stress lead to the accumulation of DNA damages in the low renewal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells) that could be responsible of delayed effects; does it exist delayed oxidative phenomena and era they implied in the delayed effects arising; does it exist a phenomenon of premature senescence; does it exist a premature senescence phenomenon that could lead to an accumulation of damages before the cell death; what are the action mechanisms of the association pentoxifylline/{alpha}-tocopherol. (N.C.)

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa usin...

  10. Rational Formulation of Alternative Fuels using QSPR Methods: Application to Jet Fuels Développement d’un outil d’aide à la formulation des carburants alternatifs utilisant des méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship: application aux carburéacteurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldana D.A.

    2013-06-01

    éveloppement et l’application de méthodes QSPR (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship permettant de relier la structure aux propriétés d’une molécule. Les produits étudiés sont les hydrocarbures (normal et iso-paraffines, naphtènes, aromatiques, etc. et les oxygénés du type alcools et esters. Les propriétés ciblées sont celles figurant dans les spécifications carburants telles que le point d’éclair, l’indice de cétane, la masse volumique et la viscosité. Les modèles prédictifs des propriétés des corps purs ont été établis à partir de données expérimentales de référence provenant en grande partie de la littérature. L’utilité de tels modèles dans la sélection de composés d’intérêt peut être montrée par exemple pour trouver le meilleur compromis pour satisfaire les critères de tenue à froid et de masse volumique des paraffines. Ainsi, si la chaîne carbonée est trop longue alors le critère de tenue à froid risque de ne pas être satisfait. Il est alors nécessaire de favoriser la ramification ou d’ajouter des bases ayant une bonne tenue à froid comme certains naphtènes ou monoaromatiques alkylés. Cependant, cela entraîne bien souvent une masse volumique trop basse par rapport à la spécification. Là encore l’ajout de naphtènes ou de monoaromatiques alkylés issus de la biomasse peut être intéressant.

  11. Commercial food irradiation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch research showed great interest in the potential of food irradiation at an early stage. The positive research results and the potential applications for industry encouraged the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries to construct a Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation. In 1967 the Pilot Plant for Food Irradiation in Wageningen came into operation. The objectives of the plant were: research into applications of irradiation technology in the food industry and agricultural industry; testing irradiated products and test marketing; information transfer to the public. (author)

  12. Sexe et pouvoir aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar BEN BARKA

    2012-01-01

    Les adversaires politiques de Bill Clinton aiment à dire que l’Histoire se souviendra de lui plus à cause de ses mensonges et de sa sexualité débordante qu’en raison de son bilan. En vérité, les frasques sexuelles du président Clinton ne sont que la perpétuation d’une tradition qui remonte aux origines de la nation américaine. “Long before there was a United States of America”, écrit Shelley Ross, “there was sex, scandal, and corruption in American politics. In fact, some of the most notoriou...

  13. The application of Sunna dosimeter film for process control at industrial gamma- and electron beam irradiation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Corda, U.; Miller, S.; Murphy, M.; O'Doherty, J.

    2004-09-01

    The Sunna dosimeter was introduced for dose determination in the dose range of 50-300 kGy by measuring optically stimulated luminescence. The usefulness of the dosimeter film has already been shown in food irradiation for routine process control. The aim of the present study was to check the performance of the Sunna dosimeter film for process control in radiation sterilization under industrial processing conditions, i.e. at high activity gamma irradiators and at high energy electron beam facilities. To ensure similar irradiation conditions during calibration and routine irradiation "in-plant calibration" was performed by irradiating the Sunna dosimeters together with ethanol-monochlorobenzene transfer standard and alanine reference standard dosimeters. The Sunna dosimeters were then irradiated together with the routine dosimeter of the actual plant during regular production runs and the absorbed doses measured by the different dosimeters agreed within ±2%(1 σ).

  14. Algorithmes par decomposition de domaine et méthodes de discrétisation d'ordre elevé pour la résolution des systèmes d'équations aux dérivées partielles. Application aux problèmes issus de la mécanique des fluides et de l'électromagnétisme

    OpenAIRE

    Dolean, Victorita

    2009-01-01

    My main research topic is about developing new domain decomposition algorithms for the solution of systems of partial differential equations. This was mainly applied to fluid dynamics problems (as compressible Euler or Stokes equations) and electromagnetics (time-harmonic and time-domain first order system of Maxwell's equations). Since the solution of large linear systems is strongly related to the application of a discretization method, I was also interested in developing and analyzing the ...

  15. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar, were irradiated using a 60Co source with doses ranging from 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourtly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy).

  16. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, were irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source with doses ranging from 0, 1.0 to 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourthly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy)

  17. Modification of Structural and Luminescence Properties of Graphene Quantum Dots by Gamma Irradiation and Their Application in a Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Svetlana P; Syrgiannis, Zois; Marković, Zoran M; Bonasera, Aurelio; Kepić, Dejan P; Budimir, Milica D; Milivojević, Dušan D; Spasojević, Vuk D; Dramićanin, Miroslav D; Pavlović, Vladimir B; Todorović Marković, Biljana M

    2015-11-25

    Herein, the ability of gamma irradiation to enhance the photoluminescence properties of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was investigated. Different doses of γ-irradiation were used on GQDs to examine the way in which their structure and optical properties can be affected. The photoluminescence quantum yield was increased six times for the GQDs irradiated with high doses compared to the nonirradiated material. Both photoluminescence lifetime and values of optical band gap were increased with the dose of applied gamma irradiation. In addition, the exploitation of the gamma-irradiated GQDs as photosensitizers was examined by monitoring the production of singlet oxygen under UV illumination. The main outcome was that the GQDs irradiated at lower doses act as better photoproducers than the ones irradiated at higher doses. These results corroborate that the structural changes caused by gamma irradiation have a direct impact on GQD ability to produce singlet oxygen and their photostability under prolonged UV illumination. This makes low-dose irradiated GQDs promising candidates for photodynamic therapy. PMID:26540316

  18. Application de la métabolomique à l’étude du lien entre les expositions environnementales aux pesticides pendant la grossesse et le développement de l’enfant : approches épidémiologique et toxicologique

    OpenAIRE

    Bonvallot, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Les expositions environnementales aux pesticides chez la femme enceinte sont une préoccupation de santé publique. L’association d’analyses métabolomiques par RMN chez l’Homme et l’animal a permis de tester l’utilité de cet outil dans l’étude des mélanges complexes. Les empreintes métaboliques proviennent des urines et du sang de cordon de plus de 300 femmes de la cohorte PELAGIE (Bretagne) et des urines, sang, foie et cerveaux de rates et de leurs fœtus exposés par voie orale durant la gestat...

  19. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author)

  20. 食品辐照技术及其食品中的应用%Food Irradiation and Its Application in Food Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖

    2013-01-01

      食品辐照技术是一项新型的食品保藏技术,具有安全性、无污染等优点,综述辐照技术的原理和特点,讨论辐照技术在食品的杀菌杀虫、抑制发芽、降解有毒有害物质等方面的应用,并指出其在研究和应用中存在的问题,并对其应用前景进行了分析。%Food irradiation is a new technology of food preservation with many advantages ,such as safety and non-pollution. In this paper, the principle and characterisation of irradiation technology were introduced. The utilizations of the irradiation technology in sterilization ,sprout inhibition and degradation of poisonous and harmful substance were also introduced.The problem of the food irradiation in research and application was pointed out.The future of its application was analyzed.

  1. A study on 100 MeV O7+ irradiated SnO2/Ag/SnO2 multilayer as transparent electrode for flat panel display application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Satyavir; Asokan, K.; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2016-07-01

    The multilayer thin films of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 were deposited using electron-beam and thermal evaporation for flat panel display application. The as-prepared SnO2/Ag/SnO2 specimen was irradiated with 100 MeV O7+ ions by varying the fluences 1 × 1012 and 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. The pristine and irradiated films were investigated using XRD, SEM, AFM and Raman to find out modification in the structure and surface morphology of the films. UV-Vis and Hall measurement techniques were used to investigate the optical and electrical properties respectively. It was observed that the roughness of the film after irradiation (for the fluence of 1 × 1012 ions/cm2) ​ decreased to 0.68 nm from 1.6 nm and showed an increase in roughness to 1.35 nm on increasing the fluence to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. This oxide/metal/oxide structure fulfills the basic requirements of a TCE, like high-transmittance >75% for pristine and >80% for the fluence of 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 over a broad spectrum of visible light for practical applications. The multilayer structure shows change in the electrical resistivity from 1.6 × 10-3 Ω cm to 6.3 × 10-3 Ω cm after irradiation.

  2. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  3. OVER- EXPRESSION OF AN AUX1 HOMOLOG TRIGGERS OVARY INITIATION IN VITRO OF POPULUS TOMENTOSA CARR.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    PtAUX1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis AtAUX1 ( encoding auxin influx carrier protein), has been cloned from Populus tomentosa. PtAUX1 protein is similar to Arabidopsis AtAUX1 in structure, but PtAUX1 contains an additional cAMP/cGMP - dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site. Its overexpression lines driven by 35S promoter exhibits a novel phenotype related flower development which has not been revealed in AtAUX1 mutants. Ovary - like structures each with 1 ~ 2 styles, but without a cup - like disc and a bract, can initial from regenerated transgenic bud in cluster,resembling an inflorescence. The histological dissections illuminate that the ovary - like structures have womb and transmitting tissue inner its styles, but no ovules. PtAUX1 expression pattern are ubiquitous and various in different organs,which is coincident with its candidate auxin influx, functioning in distributing auxin thorough a plant body. These results suggest that PtAUX1 or polar auxin transport has a substantial function in floral organ initiation.

  4. Preparation and characterization of mono-sheet bipolar membranes by pre-irradiation grafting method for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yingjie; Fang, Jun; Fu, Tao; Zhou, Huili; Wang, Xin; Deng, Zixiang; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-09-01

    A new method for the preparation of the mono-sheet bipolar membrane applied to fuel cells was developed based on the pre-irradiation grafting technology. A series of bipolar membranes were successfully prepared by simultaneously grafting of styrene onto one side of the poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) base film and 1-vinylimidazole onto the opposite side, followed by the sulfonation and alkylation, respectively. The chemical structures and microstructures of the prepared membranes were investigated by ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDS. The TGA measurements demonstrated the prepared bipolar membranes have reasonable thermal stability. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake and ionic conductivity of the membranes were also characterized. The H2/O2 single fuel cells using these membranes were evaluated and revealed a maximum power density of 107 mW cm-2 at 35 °C with unhumidified hydrogen and oxygen. The preliminary performances suggested the great prospect of these membranes in application of bipolar membrane fuel cells.

  5. Wafer–to–wafer transfer process of barium strontium titanate for frequency tuning applications using laser pre-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes laser-assisted film transfer technology for barium strontium titanate (BST) deposited on a sapphire substrate. BST is a promising ferroelectric material for varactors, which are required for frequency-tunable RF applications. However, the deposition temperature of BST (600 ∼ 700 °C) is too high for surface acoustic wave (SAW) substrates. In this study, BST grown on a sapphire substrate at 650 °C was transferred at low temperature (140 °C) to a borosilicate glass substrate as well as a LiTaO3 substrate. The transferred BST films were characterized as tunable capacitors. A key process in the BST film transfer technology is the laser pre-irradiation of a buffer Pt layer beneath BST from the backside of the sapphire substrate to weaken the BST-to-Pt adhesion. The mechanism of delamination at the BST/Pt interface is discussed using a simple 1D heat transfer model. (paper)

  6. High performance flexible ultraviolet photodetectors based on TiO2/graphene hybrid for irradiation monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Xiaohong; Kuang, Xuanlin; Xu, Sixing

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a novel ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on a TiO2/graphene hybrid, with high responsivity (0.482 A W-1) at 3 V bias and 330 nm irradiation, which is ~100 times higher than that based on pure TiO2. The collaboration of TiO2 and graphene in the hybrid material contributes to the high performance of the device. To be more specific, graphene provides a large surface area to load sufficient TiO2 nanoparticles, and the generated electrons are instantly collected due to the prominent electrical properties of graphene which can overcome the low quantum efficiency of pristine TiO2 caused by recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. The device was fabricated on a flexible substrate using a facile spraying method that shows the possibility of broadening the future of photodetectors in wearable devices. An on-board interface circuit based on commercial IC components is implemented to collaborate with the photodetector to demonstrate a UV sensing application.

  7. High performance flexible ultraviolet photodetectors based on TiO2/graphene hybrid for irradiation monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Xiaohong; Kuang, Xuanlin; Xu, Sixing

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a novel ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on a TiO2/graphene hybrid, with high responsivity (0.482 A W‑1) at 3 V bias and 330 nm irradiation, which is ~100 times higher than that based on pure TiO2. The collaboration of TiO2 and graphene in the hybrid material contributes to the high performance of the device. To be more specific, graphene provides a large surface area to load sufficient TiO2 nanoparticles, and the generated electrons are instantly collected due to the prominent electrical properties of graphene which can overcome the low quantum efficiency of pristine TiO2 caused by recombination of photo-induced electron–hole pairs. The device was fabricated on a flexible substrate using a facile spraying method that shows the possibility of broadening the future of photodetectors in wearable devices. An on-board interface circuit based on commercial IC components is implemented to collaborate with the photodetector to demonstrate a UV sensing application.

  8. The vectorial photoelectric effect under solar irradiance and its application to sun sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Sun sensors are an integral part of the attitude and orbit control system onboard almost any spacecraft. While the majority of standard analogue sun sensors is based on photo-detectors which produce photo-currents proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle (cosine detectors), we propose an alternative scheme where the vectorial photoelectric effect is exploited to achieve a higher sensitivity of the sensed photo-current to the incidence angle. The vectorial photo-effect is investigated in detail for metal cathode detectors in a space environment. Besides long operational lifetimes without significant degradation, metal cathode detectors are insensitive to earth albedo, which may significantly reduce the errors affecting attitude measurements in low earth orbits. Sensitivity curves are calculated and trade-offs performed with the aim of optimizing the sensitivity whilst also providing currents sufficient for detection. Simple applications and detector configurations are also discussed and compared to ex...

  9. The vectorial photoelectric effect under solar irradiance and its application to sun sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun sensors are an integral part of the attitude and orbit control system onboard almost any spacecraft. While the majority of standard analogue sun sensors is based on photo-detectors which produce photo-currents proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle (cosine detectors), we propose an alternative scheme where the vectorial photoelectric effect is exploited to achieve a higher sensitivity of the sensed photo-current to the incidence angle. The vectorial photo-effect is investigated in detail for metal cathode detectors in a space environment. Besides long operational lifetimes without significant degradation, metal cathode detectors are insensitive to earth albedo, which may significantly reduce the errors affecting attitude measurements in low earth orbits. Sensitivity curves are calculated and trade-offs performed with the aim of optimizing the sensitivity whilst also providing currents sufficient for detection. Simple applications and detector configurations are also discussed and compared to the existing designs. (paper)

  10. Behavior of Random Hole Optical Fibers under Gamma Ray Irradiation and Its Potential Use in Radiation Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Wang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of radiation on sensing and data transmission components are of greatinterest in many applications including homeland security, nuclear power generation, andmilitary. A new type of microstructured optical fiber (MOF called the random hole opticalfiber (RHOF has been recently developed. The RHOFs can be made in many differentforms by varying the core size and the size and extent of porosity in the cladding region.The fibers used in this study possessed an outer diameter of 110 μm and a core ofapproximately 20 μm. The fiber structure contains thousands of air holes surrounding thecore with sizes ranging from less than 100 nm to a few μm. We present the first study ofthe behavior of RHOF under gamma irradiation. We also propose, for the first time to ourknowledge, an ionizing radiation sensor system based on scintillation light from ascintillator phosphor embedded within a holey optical fiber structure. The RHOF radiationresponse was compared to normal single mode and multimode commercial fibers(germanium doped core, pure silica cladding and to those of radiation resistant fibers (puresilica core with fluorine doped cladding fibers. The comparison was done by measuringradiation-induced absorption (RIA in all fiber samples at the 1550 nm wavelength window(1545 ± 25 nm. The study was carried out under a high-intensity gamma ray field from a 60Co source (with an exposure rate of 4x104 rad/hr at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory gamma ray irradiation facility. Linear behavior, at dose values less than 106 rad, was observed in all fiber samples except in the pure silica core fluorine doped cladding fiber which showed RIA saturation at 0.01 dB. RHOF samples demonstrated low RIA (0.02 and 0.005 dB compared to standard germanium doped core pure silica cladding (SMF and MMF fibers. Results also showed the possibility of post-fabrication treatment to improve the radiation resistance of the RHOF fibers.

  11. Fe doped hydroxyapatite thick films modified via swift heavy ion irradiation for CO and CO{sub 2} gas sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mene, Ravindra U. [PDEA’s Annasaheb Waghire College of Science, Arts and Commerce, Otur 412409, M.S. (India); School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India); Mahabole, Megha P. [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India); Mohite, K.C. [Haribhai V. Desai College, Pune 411 002, M.S. (India); Khairnar, Rajendra S., E-mail: rskhairnarsps@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded 431606, M.S. (India)

    2014-01-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • We report improved gas sensing properties of Fe-HAp films via heavy ion irradiation. • HAp films are tailored by addition of Fe ion as well as irradiation with variable ion fluence. • SHI irradiated substrate sense the CO and CO{sub 2} gases at relatively lower temperature. • Response and gas uptake capacity of sensors is improved for appropriate fluence 3 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}. • The enhanced sensor properties are attributed due to the surface modification by SHI. -- Abstract: Swift Heavy Ion irradiation (SHI) technique is utilized to modify the structure and surface morphology of Fe doped Hydroxyapatite (Fe-HAp) thick films for CO and CO{sub 2} gas sensing applications. Nano-crystalline HAp is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route and ion exchange process is employed to replace of Ca ion with Fe ions. Thick film Fe-HAp sensors, having variable Fe doping concentrations, are prepared by using screen printing technique. The Fe-HAp thick films are irradiated using Ag{sup 7+} ion (100 MeV) with variable ion fluences ranging from 3 × 10{sup 10} to 3 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} for modifying the sensor surface. Structural and morphological changes with respect to ion fluence are observed by means of XRD, SEM and AFM analysis. The parameters such as operating temperature, response/recovery time, and uptake capacity for pristine and modified Fe-HAp sensors are experimentally determined. The investigations reveal that the SHI irradiated Fe-HAp film (3 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}) shows improved gas sensing characteristics at relatively lower operating temperature in comparison to pristine film. It is concluded that Fe-HAp film can be a potential candidate for developing low cost, energy saver and high performance CO and CO{sub 2} sensor.

  12. Modifications by {gamma} irradiation of polyethylene at very high molecular weight. Tribological behaviour for orthopedic applications; Modifications par irradiation {gamma} du polyethylene a tres haut poids moleculaire. Comportement tribologique pour des applications orthopediques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaix, N

    2001-07-01

    A new mode of sterilization by vacuum gamma irradiation is studied. This new mode improves significantly the polyethylene behaviour during the study in friction-corrosion against a stainless steel-316L sphere. (N.C.)

  13. Application of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) in Control System for Inner and Outer Welding Processes of Irradiation Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inner and outer welding processes of irradiation chamber require reliable human resources so that the welding results will meet the standardized requirements for irradiation with nuclear reactor. The control system of the inner and outer welding processes of the irradiation chamber was made due to limited human resources who are able to weld the irradiation chamber perfectly. The irradiation chamber’s welding is expected to be done automatically by using the system control. The system is created by using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which function is to automatically organize the welding processes through the codes attached there in. The system comprises of a control unit which has been tested in a simulation, and then attached in a welding machine unit, and subsequently tested for welding the irradiation chamber. The result of the welding is also tested for its leak using bubble test. As all procedures are well followed in the welding processes, the control system is found to work properly. The welding results which are not optimum are mainly due to imperfect irradiation tubes, such as the lack of symmetry in the tube’s geometry, unclean surface, as well as the condition of the unprecise mechanical part of the tubes. (author)

  14. Irradiation in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which food irradiation takes place and the regulations governing the process in America, Brazil, Chile, and European countries is reported. The development and operation of a pilot plant built in Holland to test the application of the process to the sterilization of medical supplies and certain foods and the setting up and operation, by Gammester, of a special food irradiation plant in 1982, is described. In this plant 36 foods, mainly dry ingredients such as spices, dried vegetables, egg powder and blood proteins are irradiated. Research looks promising for the future. The implementation of international legal acceptance and more public information is stressed. (U.K.)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  16. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals. (paper)

  17. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, L. M. G.; Matheus, R. L.; Santos, G. M. T.; Esquisatto, M. A. M.; Amaral, M. E. C.; Mendonça, F. A. S.

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals.

  18. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  19. Feticismo e desiderio in Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  20. Le date rape aux États-Unis

    OpenAIRE

    Fassin, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Pour appréhender une culture, on peut partir, non des représentations partagées, mais des polémiques qui la déchirent. Ainsi du date rape aux États-Unis, invention du féminisme universitaire et médiatique des années 1980 : en posant la question de la violence au cœur des rapports amoureux, le féminisme impose moins une orthodoxie qu’il ne propose une interprétation, doublement contestée durant les années quatre-vingt-dix par les intellectuels conservateurs et les essayistes « post-féministes ...

  1. Sexe et pouvoir aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar BEN BARKA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Les adversaires politiques de Bill Clinton aiment à dire que l’Histoire se souviendra de lui plus à cause de ses mensonges et de sa sexualité débordante qu’en raison de son bilan. En vérité, les frasques sexuelles du président Clinton ne sont que la perpétuation d’une tradition qui remonte aux origines de la nation américaine. “Long before there was a United States of America”, écrit Shelley Ross, “there was sex, scandal, and corruption in American politics. In fact, some of the most notoriou...

  2. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants; Perspectives a long terme des couts de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Tailles et localisations optimales des usines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C.; Vaumas, P. de [Saint-Gobain Nucleaire, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1964-07-01

    processing plants are shown, different from those in part two. The indirect effect of these reprocessing programmes on the availability of plutonium, and therefore on the possibility.of undertaking plutonium burning reactor programmes, must be taken into account. (authors) [French] L'objet de cette communication est d'apporter une contribution a la solution du probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des combustibles nucleaires irradies, associees a des programmes de puissance electrique installee. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie la structure des couts d'investissements et d'exploitation des usines de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie, l'influence de la taille des usines sur ces couts et ces structures de couts. Au cout de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie s'ajoute d'autre part le cout du transport des combustibles irradies des lieux de production aux sites des usines de traitement. La recherche du cout minimum pour la production d'un pays ou d'un ensemble de pays fait donc intervenir a la fois la taille et la localisation des usines. On indique les couts de transport previsibles pour l'uranium naturel irradie et la structure de ces couts (transport, assurance, couts et amortissement des containers). Dans une deuxieme partie, et pour differents echeanciers de combustibles irradies a traiter chaque annee, on determine les tailles et les localisations optimales des usines de traitement et la sensibilite de ces resultats, aux hypotheses de base concernant le cout du traitement, le cout du transport, l'annee de demarrage du programme d'usines, l'horizon choisi. - le probleme de nature combinatoire, assez complexe, est resolu par l'application des methodes de la programmation dynamique. - on montre que les methodes sont egalement applicables au probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des elements

  3. Application of the in-beam PET therapy monitoring on precision irradiations with helium ions; Anwendung des in-beam PET Therapiemonitorings auf Praezisionsbestrahlungen mit Helium-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, F.

    2008-02-19

    The main goal of the present dissertation was to extend the in-beam PET method to new ion types. It was shown that the in-beam PET method can also be applied for {sup 3}He irradiations. For this experiments on a {sup 3}He beam were performed. The activity yield is at equal applied dose about three times larger than at {sup 12}C irradiations. The reachable range resolution is smaller than 1 mm. At the irradiation of an inhomogeneous phantom it was shown that a contrast between different materials is resolvable. From the experimentally determined reaction rates cross sections for the reactions leading to positron emitters were performed. The data taken in the {sup 3}He experiments were compared those obtained in carbon-ion experiments as well as literature data for proton irradiations. A comparison with the calculations of the simulation program SHIELD-HIT was performed. A collection of cross-section models and the established requirements for a simulation program applicable for in-beam PET are preparing for further work.

  4. Application of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating strain sensor for measurement of strain under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, in-pile strain measurement techniques have been developing by using JMTR. In order to evaluate the performance of capsule type strain gage and fiber optic grating sensor under irradiation environment, the heat-up tests in electric furnace before irradiation and in-pile tests were performed. As for capsule type strain gage, it is found that gage factor almost did not change and both its electric resistance and strain output decreased by irradiation effect. A correlation was found between the change ratio of the electric resistance of the capsule type strain gage and fast neutron fluence. As for fiber optic grating sensor, it is possible to measure strain under irradiation environment below 1x1023 n/m2 (E>1 MeV) by this sensor, because in-pile temperature characteristic was in agreement with out-of-pile test results. (author)

  5. Time-series clustering of gene expression in irradiated and bystander fibroblasts: an application of FBPA clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markatou Marianthi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The radiation bystander effect is an important component of the overall biological response of tissues and organisms to ionizing radiation, but the signaling mechanisms between irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells are not fully understood. In this study, we measured a time-series of gene expression after α-particle irradiation and applied the Feature Based Partitioning around medoids Algorithm (FBPA, a new clustering method suitable for sparse time series, to identify signaling modules that act in concert in the response to direct irradiation and bystander signaling. We compared our results with those of an alternate clustering method, Short Time series Expression Miner (STEM. Results While computational evaluations of both clustering results were similar, FBPA provided more biological insight. After irradiation, gene clusters were enriched for signal transduction, cell cycle/cell death and inflammation/immunity processes; but only FBPA separated clusters by function. In bystanders, gene clusters were enriched for cell communication/motility, signal transduction and inflammation processes; but biological functions did not separate as clearly with either clustering method as they did in irradiated samples. Network analysis confirmed p53 and NF-κB transcription factor-regulated gene clusters in irradiated and bystander cells and suggested novel regulators, such as KDM5B/JARID1B (lysine (K-specific demethylase 5B and HDACs (histone deacetylases, which could epigenetically coordinate gene expression after irradiation. Conclusions In this study, we have shown that a new time series clustering method, FBPA, can provide new leads to the mechanisms regulating the dynamic cellular response to radiation. The findings implicate epigenetic control of gene expression in addition to transcription factor networks.

  6. The effect of postirradiation application of aspartic acid salts on hemopoietic recovery in sublethally X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of aspartic acid salts, especially of K and Mg aspartates, on certain hematological changes in the peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs of sublethally X-irratiated male mice of the strain C57Bl/10 was investigated. Salts of aspartic acid were administered in tap water after irradiation. A favorable effect of aspartic acid salts on erythropoietic recovery and on regeneration of thymus weight was found during the first two weeks after irradiation. (orig.)

  7. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) for ionospheric application - history and contemporary state-of-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, G.; Jacobi, Ch.; Nikutowski, B.; Erhardt, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    After a historical survey of space related EUV measurements in Germany and the role of Karl Rawer in pursuing this work, we describe present developments in EUV spectroscopy and provide a brief outlook on future activities. The group of Karl Rawer has performed the first scientific space project in Western Europe on 19th October 1954. Then it was decided to include the field of solar EUV spectroscopy in ionospheric investigations. Starting in 1957 an intensified development of instrumentation was going on to explore solar EUV radiation, atmospheric airglow and auroral emissions until the institute had to stop space activities in the early nineteen-eighties. EUV spectroscopy was continued outside of the institute during eight years. This area of work was supported again by the institute developing the Auto-Calibrating Spectrometers (SolACES) for a mission on the International Space Station (ISS). After more than six years in space the instrument is still in operation. Meanwhile the work on the primary task also to validate EUV data available from other space missions has made good progress. The first results of validating those data and combine them into one set of EUV solar spectral irradiance are very promising. It will be recommended for using it by the science and application community. Moreover, a new low-cost type of an EUV spectrometer is presented for monitoring the solar EUV radiation. It shall be further developed for providing EUV-TEC data to be applied in ionospheric models replacing the Covington index F10.7. Applying these data for example in the GNSS signal evaluation a more accurate determination of GNSS receiver positions is expected for correcting the propagation delays of navigation signals traveling through the ionosphere from space to earth. - Latest results in the field of solar EUV spectroscopy are discussed, too.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the morphologic changes on the root dentine irradiated by CO2 laser associated or not to calcium hydroxide application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in vitro study has evaluated the structural changes on the root dentine irradiated by a CO2 laser associated or not to calcium hydroxide application, from the irradiated surface analysis by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). The purpose of this evaluation has been the study of an alternative method for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Fourteen human teeth were utilized, third molars, divided into 7 groups. Group I (control group) to which no treatment was applied; Groups II, III and IV were given an application of Ca (OH)2 paste followed by C02 laser irradiation, lasting 5 seconds each with intervals of 10 seconds between each application, with continuous emission, power of 0.5 W (Group II), 1.0 W (Group III), and 1.5 W (Group IV); Groups V, VI, and VII were given laser irradiations without the Ca (OH)2 paste following the same parameters applied to groups II, III, and IV respectively. Morphologic changes suggesting to fusion and re-solidification have been observed, as well as the presence of material obstructing the whole analyzed surface on groups II, III, and IV (laser + Ca (OH)2). As for groups V, VI, and VII, it has been observed fusion, re-solidification, and cracks, and these results being statistically significant when compared the '(Ca (OH)2)' groups to the laser groups. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding the different powers applied in the groups that used the same treatment. Despite this result, it can be stated that powers above 1.0 W (DP = 125,38 W/cm2) are unfavorable due to the undesirable morphologic alterations and aesthetic compromising. (author)

  9. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  10. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  11. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    OpenAIRE

    Seguret J.

    2006-01-01

    A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique), l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illust...

  12. Apport de l'analyse interactive d'images à l'étude de l'évolution structurale de zones déformées : application à une zone de cisaillement pan-africaine de l'Adrar des Iforas (Mali) et aux orthogneiss du massif du Grand Paradis (Alpes, Italie)

    OpenAIRE

    Champenois, Michel

    1989-01-01

    L'analyse quantitative de la déformation des roches apparaît indispensable si l'on veut pouvoir comprendre et discuter les mécanismes de la déformation à différentes échelles d'observation. Dans ce mémoire, l'étude de la déformation finie à l'échelle microscopique, a été réalisée à partir de la forme et de l'orientation de cristaux constituant les populations de marqueurs. A cette fin, nous avons développé un outil permettant d'avoir facilement accès, aux paramètres de forme et d'orientation,...

  13. Caractérisation de l'effet de la vitesse du courant sur la croissance d'une population algale et évaluation du décrochement et de la biomasse en dérive. Application aux algues et macrophytes du canal de Gignac (34) : Mise en place de protocoles.

    OpenAIRE

    Suaire, M.

    2008-01-01

    / Les canaux d'irrigation, correspondant à des cours d'eau artificiels canalisés, sont utilisés pour répondre à des besoins multiples tels que l'irrigation des cultures, l'apport en eaux jusqu'aux stations de potabilisation etc. La gestion de ces canaux est fortement perturbée par des proliférations d'algues et plantes aquatiques, notamment durant la période estivale de mai à août. Le canal de Gignac, situé dans l'Hérault n'est pas épargné par ce phénomène d'accumulation d'algues qui conduit ...

  14. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seguret J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique, l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illustrée par les résultats obtenus pour un certain nombre de pays : production future de gaz aux Etats-Unis, production pétrolière future du Canada, de l'URSS, du Venezuela et de l'ensemble du monde hors Moyen-Orient. On the basis of the similarity observed between the variation in the petroleum production of a country and that of the penetration of a product into the market (logistic function, this article describes the principle of an original method that can be used, under certain conditions, to forecast the probable annual production of a producing country in 10 to 15 years. The validity of this method is first demonstrated for the example of oil production in the United States. It is then illustrated by results obtained for various other countries, i. e. future gas production in the United States, future oil production of Canada, the Soviet Union, Venezuela and the world as a whole outside of the Middle East.

  15. DIANE, a simulation code for the interaction of neutrons with living tissues. Application to low doses of fast neutrons on human tumoral cells; DIANE, un code de simulation de l'interaction des neutrons avec la matiere vivante. Applications aux faibles doses de neutrons rapides sur des cellules tumorales humaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, M.L

    2003-07-15

    Our work deals with the irradiation of cells and living tissues by 14 MeV neutrons at very low doses (a few 10{sup -2} Gy). Such experiments require an accurate knowledge of the values of neutron dose rates and fluences at the level of cell cultures. We have performed measurements of fluence rates through an activation method applied to gold and copper foils. The fluence rate is deduced from the gamma rays emitted by the irradiated foils. Neutron doses and dose rates have been measured through varied methods: PIN diodes, ionization tissue equivalent chambers, and Geiger-Mueller counters. We have designed the DIANE code to simulate the impact of energetic neutrons on cells. This code can be used with isolated cells or macroscopic tissues, it takes into account the roles of the ionisation electrons produced by recoil nuclei entering the cell. This point is all the more important since recent works have highlighted the impact of very low energy electrons on DNA. (A.C.)

  16. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1–2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.

  17. Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jun; Koo, Tae-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays. PMID:27147927

  18. Food irradiation newsletter. Vol. 15, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains brief summaries of three coordinated research meetings held in 1991: irradiation in combination with other processes for improving food quality; application of irradiation technique for food processing in Africa; and food irradiation programme for Middle East and European countries. The first Workshop on Public Information on Food Irradiation is summarized, and a Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly is announced. This issue also contains a report on the status of food irradiation in China, and a supplement lists clearances of irradiated foods. Tabs

  19. Innovations in irradiator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years industry has demanded certain changes in irradiator design to meet the needs of the medical manufacturers, and as well service the requirements of new applications for irradiation. The medical manufacturers have, in certain cases, been tending toward larger capacity machines with higher efficiencies to take advantage of economies of scale. Other parts of the industry have been demanding a truly ''Multipurpose'' facility which can process many varied types of products. Coupled with these machine changes there has been an increase in demand for more comprehensive logging of the irradiation process. This has spawned development of several styles of computer monitoring, control and logging systems. This paper will discuss these topics in more detail in order to give some insight into the ''state of the art'' within the irradiator design industry. (author)

  20. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun; Jo, Cheorun; Woo Byun, Myung; Jeun An, Bong

    2007-11-01

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry.

  1. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry

  2. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun [Department of Cosmeceutical Science, Daegu Haany University, Kyungsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Byun, Myung [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jeun An, Bong [Department of Cosmeceutical Science, Daegu Haany University, Kyungsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: anbj@dhu.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry.

  3. Dosimetric characterization and identification of TL defect centres in sand for its application in sludge irradiators as an in situ dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents investigations that have been carried out to establish a method for the routine/ periodic dosimetry for Sludge Hygienisation Research Irradiator (SHRI) facility set up at Baroda (India) for disinfection of liquid sewage sludge in bulk quantity. For this purpose, the possibility of using the sand, one of the components of inorganic matter found in sewage sludge, directly as a TL dosimeter has been explored. The report is presented in two parts. Part 1 presents dosimetric characterization of sand for its application as an in situ dosimeter. A review on various sewage sludge irradiators operating in the world and the different dosimetric techniques used for these facilities are briefly described. In the present studies, in order to investigate the thermoluminescence properties of sand, it was separated from the sewage sludge by an extensive cleaning procedure. Part 1 also describes the procedure for separation of sand from sewage sludge, study on its TL properties, dosimetric characterization of sand and application of cleaned sand collected at the outlet of the SHRI facility for estimating radiation absorbed dose imparted to the sludge during its disinfection as well as for determining distribution of dose for an irradiated sludge batch. A new method by using phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) in quartz separated from sand has been explored for high-level gamma dosimetry. Part 2 of the report presents sensitization properties of TL peaks and study of TL defect centres in quartz. It describes the results on pre-dose sensitization of 220 degC and 110 degC TL peaks in the quartz samples separated from sand. From the TL and ESR studies, a mechanism for TL sensitization has been suggested, which involves the role of competing traps and EI - centres in the sensitization process. The paramagnetic radicals formed in quartz samples after gamma irradiation by using ESR technique have been briefly described. (author)

  4. Field and concentration dependent scaling behavior of the thermal expansion near the quantum critical point of CeCu6-xAux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy-fermion system CeCu6-xAux exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic order at x>0.1. The order can be suppressed by hydrostatic or chemical pressure, through the variation of the Au content, as well as by the application of a magnetic field. The quantum critical point at the onset of antiferromagnetism leads to non-Fermi liquid behavior visible in thermodynamic and transport properties. Among these, the thermal expansion offers a particularly sensitive probe to study the quantum critical scaling behavior due to the strong pressure dependence of the Kondo effect in heavy-fermion materials. To shed light on the difference between the two control parameters, pressure and magnetic field, we studied the scaling behavior of the thermal expansion on CeCu6-xAux single crystals with varying Au content as a function of the magnetic field in the temperature range between 40 mK and 10 K.

  5. The effect of preirradiation application of aspartic acid salts on hemopoietic recovery in X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of radioprotective action of K and Mg aspartate administered in tap water for ten days prior to X-irradiation was investigated in male mice of the strain C 57 Bl/10. In normal animals, thymus weight was found to be increased by 10-day treatment with K and Mg aspartate. The postirradiation regeneration of spleen weight and incorporation of radioactive iron into the spleen and femoral marrow following sublethal irradiation was favorably modified by the treatment used. Pretreatment of mice with K and Mg aspartate delays the onset of early deaths at irradiation with an absolutely lethal X-ray exposure and raises the percentage of surviving animals after nearly lethal exposures. (orig.)

  6. Combined application of extrusion and irradiation technologies: A strategy oriented for green and cost-effective chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ayoub

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive extrusion is an attractive green route for cost-effective polymer processing, which has the potential to enhance the commercial viability of biomass-derived materials. In reactive extrusion, compatibilizers can be generated in the blend preparation through polymer-polymer grafting reactions using functionalized polymers. One very interesting new green strategy for processing is the use of intense UV-irradiation to create free radicals and controllable, ultra-fast reactions. It is reasonable to expect that the use of extrusion/irradiation green technology will be an important way to improve properties and compatibility of renewable biomass- derived polymers. We believe that in the future, many more cost-effective, sustainable extrusion/irradiation reaction processes will be developed to replace inefficient conventional biomass conversion procedures and stimulate the bioproduct-based industry.

  7. Application of statistical methods (SPC) for an optimized control of the irradiation process of high-power semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Zwanziger, P.

    2000-03-01

    High-power bipolar semiconductor devices (thyristors and diodes) in a disc-type shape are key components (semiconductor switches) for high-power electronic systems. These systems are important for the economic design of energy transmission systems, i.e. high-power drive systems, static compensation and high-voltage DC transmission lines. In their factory located in Pretzfeld, Germany, the company, eupec GmbH+Co.KG (eupec), is producing disc-type devices with ceramic encapsulation in the high-end range for the world market. These elements have to fulfil special customer requirements and therefore deliver tailor-made trade-offs between their on-state voltage and dynamic switching behaviour. This task can be achieved by applying a dedicated electron irradiation on the semiconductor pellets, which tunes this trade-off. In this paper, the requirements to the irradiation company Mediscan GmbH, from the point of view of the semiconductor manufacturer, are described. The actual strategy for controlling the irradiation results to fulfil these requirements are presented, together with the choice of relevant parameters from the viewpoint of the irradiation company. The set of process parameters monitored, using statistical process control (SPC) techniques, includes beam current and energy, conveyor speed and irradiation geometry. The results are highlighted and show the successful co-operation in this business. Watching this process vice versa, an idea is presented and discussed to develop the possibilities of a highly sensitive dose detection device by using modified diodes, which could function as accurate yet cheap and easy-to-use detectors as routine dosimeters for irradiation institutes.

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK)

  9. Les représentations sociales du travail dans des parcours de retour aux études aux niveaux collégial et universitaire

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Julie Bourque; Pierre Doray

    2009-01-01

    Cet article porte sur le volet éducatif de la production et de la reproduction de la main-d’œuvre hautement qualifiée par l’examen des processus en jeu au moment des retours aux études dans des programmes de formation technique et de génie. Nous nous intéressons en particulier à une situation emblématique des référentiels politiques récents en matière d’éducation, soit les retours aux études. Nous cherchons à mieux comprendre comment le retour aux études se réalise, comment les représentation...

  10. Control of food irradiation facilities and good irradiation practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion of irradiation facilities employing commercial scale processes is evident in several countries. The list compiled by the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna (April 1988) showed that 34 counties have approved the use of irradiation process for more than 40 food commodities. In Asia and the Pacific Region, the main commercial application of irradiation process is still the sterilization of medical devices but applications to food processing are on the rise. To ensure the safety of irradiated foods, laws and regulations have to be promulgated to govern the facilities, the operations and the products. In most cases, there may be more than one governmental agency involved in regulatory control. The control activities include licensing/registration of a food irradiation premises as a food processing plant, registration of irradiated food in accordance with prescribed standards and regulating labelling practice as well as regularly conducting a comprehensive inspection of the facilities. The quality control programme must cover all aspects of treatment, handling, and distribution. It is emphasized that, as with all food technologies, effective quality control systems needs to be installed and adequately monitored at critical control points at the irradiation facility. Foods should be handled, stored, and transported according to GMP before, during, and after irradiation. Only foods meeting microbiological criteria and other quality standards should be accepted for irradiation. Besides, good irradiation practice (GIP) is also a fundamental principle of practice required specifically for food irradiation. With this recognition, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) has elaborated a set of eight codes of GIP. The quality control system would also include proper packaging suitable for the product. Additional use of a logo to identify irradiated food should be permitted and may even become recognized as a symbol

  11. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  12. Introduction aux études sur le genre. - 2e éd. revue et augm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bereni; S. Chauvin; A. Jaunait; A. Revillard

    2012-01-01

    Pourquoi offre-t-on des poupées aux filles et des voitures aux garçons ? Pourquoi les femmes gagnent-elles moins que les hommes ? Comment expliquer qu’elles effectuent les deux tiers du travail domestique ? Pourquoi est-ce si mal vu pour un homme d’être efféminé ? Le pouvoir est-il intrinsèquement m

  13. Application of bisphosphomide-palladium(II) pincer complex in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maruthai Kumaravel; Pawan Kumar; Maravanji S Balakrishna

    2014-05-01

    The bisphosphomide-based pincer complex [PdBr{2,6-{Ph2PC(O)}2(C6H3)}] (2) has shown very high catalytic activity in Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction under microwave irradiation for a variety of aryl bromides and aryl boronic acids. The complex showed the same efficiency for gram scale reactions.

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the colorimetric properties of epoxy-resin films: Potential use in dosimetric application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, F., E-mail: ali_hosni2001@yahoo.fr [Unité de Recherche Maîtrise des Techniques Nucléaires à Caractère Pacifique, Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucléaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); Academie Militaire de Fondouk Jedid, 8012 Nabeul (Tunisia); Farah, K. [Unité de Recherche Maîtrise des Techniques Nucléaires à Caractère Pacifique, Centre National des Sciences et Technologie Nucléaires, 2020 Sidi-Thabet (Tunisia); Institut Supérieur du Transport et de la Logistique, 12 Rue Abdallah Ibn Ezzoubeier 40000, Université de Sousse (Tunisia); Kaouach, H. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Louati, A. [Academie Militaire de Fondouk Jedid, 8012 Nabeul (Tunisia); Chtourou, R. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Hamzaoui, A.H. [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Matériaux Utiles, Centre National de Recherche en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopôle de Borj Cedria, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The present paper reports the results of the colorimetric study of gamma-irradiated epoxy-resin films. Epoxy-resin samples were irradiated by gamma-rays with doses varying from 1 to 50 kGy. Color changes of epoxy-resin were observed and studied by the measurements of the variation of the L{sup ∗}, a{sup ∗}, b{sup ∗} as function of dose and post-irradiation time. Where L{sup ∗} is a measure of the magnitude of brightness from black to white, parameter a{sup ∗} describe the relative amounts of red and green, and parameter b{sup ∗} describes the relative amounts of yellow and blue color. Color changes (ΔE) were also calculated. They indicated a marked dependence of the absorbed doses showing the optical activation of the color centers. It was found that color changes (ΔE) due to absorbed dose increase from 6 to 50. Color change showed a low variability which did not exceed 3% for the measurements carried out between 1 and 72 h. The obtained results revealed that epoxy-resin films can be used as a new routine dosimeter or irradiation indicator in dose range 1–50 kGy.

  15. Coloration and darkening of methane clathrate and other ices by charged particle irradiation - Applications to the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Murray, B. G. J. P. T.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1987-01-01

    The results of laboratory experiments simulating the irradiation of hydrocarbon-H2O or hydrocarbon-H2O/NH3 clathrates by charged particles in the outer solar system are reported. Ices produced by condensing and boiling liquid CH4 on an H2O frost surface at 100 K or by cocondensing frosts from gaseous mixtures were exposed to coronal-discharge electron irradiation at 77 K, and the spectral properties of the irradiated surfaces were determined. Significant darkening of the initially white ices was observed at doses of 1 Gerg/sq cm, corresponding to 8-500 yrs of irradiation by Uranian magnetospheric electrons on the surfaces of the principal Uranian satellites, or to total destruction of CH4 in the upper 1 mm of the satellite surfaces after 0.05-3.0 Myr. It is estimated that 10 m or more of icy satellite or comet surfaces would be radiation-hardened to a CH4-free ice-tholin mixture over 4 Gyr.

  16. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  17. 应用DNA彗星电泳法检测辐照食品%Application of DNA Comet Assay in the Detection of Irradiated Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 高建民; 刘鹏; 陆地; 尹伟力; 段效辉

    2014-01-01

    The single cell DNA damage was detected by using comet assay to screen irradiated foods. In principle, it is applicable to all the detection of irradiated food containing DNA. Twelve food matrixes were irradiated at 1KGy, 3KGy, 5KGy, 7KGy and 10KGy dose respectively and then detected by comet assay. The time effect of the method was also studied. The irradiation of eleven samples, except the cooked chicken, could be identified through comet assay. The detection sensitivity was 1Kgy. DNA damage of irradiation was in obvious dose-effect relationship. Platform period was found by the index TL and TDNA%, other than by TM and OTM. The detection efficiency of the method was identified from six hours to five days. Except cooked food comet assay is suitable for detecting irradiated foods which contains DNA damages. The method has good stability and high sensitivity.%[目的]通过彗星电泳法检测样品单细胞DNA损伤从而鉴别辐照食品。[方法]选取12种食品基质,经1KGy、3KGy、5KGy、7KGy、10KGy剂量辐照后,进行彗星电泳检测,并对检测时效性进行研究。[结果]除熟制鸡肉外,其他样品均可通过彗星电泳法检测到辐照状况,检测灵敏度达1KGy辐照剂量;辐照产生的DNA损伤具有明显的剂量-效应关系,以TL、TDNA%指标分析存在平台期,以TM、OTM指标分析则不存在平台期;辐照后6h-5d均可检测到明显的彗星图像。[结论]彗星电泳法适用于除熟制食品外的含DNA食品的辐照检测,方法稳定性好,检测灵敏度高。

  18. Development and characteristics of the HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility for applications in the boron neutron capture therapy field

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M S; Jun, B J; Kim, H; Lee, B C; Hwang, Sung-Yul; Jun, Byung-Jin; Kim, Heonil; Kim, Myong-Seop; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO ex-core neutron irradiation facility was developed for various applications in the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) field, and its characteristics have been investigated. In order to obtain a sufficient thermal neutron flux with a low level contamination of fast neutrons and gamma-rays, a radiation filtering method is adopted. The radiation filter has been designed by using a silicon single crystal cooled by liquid nitrogen and a bismuth crystal. The installation of the main components of the irradiation facility and the irradiation room are finished. Experimental measurements of the neutron beam characteristics have been performed by using bare and cadmium covered gold foils and wires. The in-phantom neutron flux distribution was measured for a flux mapping inside the phantom. The gamma-ray dose was determined by using TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosimeters. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes and the gamma-ray dose were calculated by using the MCNP code, and they were compared with experimenta...

  19. Clinical application of a OneDose(TM) MOSFET for skin dose measurements during internal mammary chain irradiation with high dose rate brachytherapy in carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Sharma, Pramod K [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Tambe, Chandrashekhar M [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Mahantshetty, Umesh M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Advanced Centre for Training Research and Education in Cancer, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Deshpande, Deepak D [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Shrivastava, Shyam K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India)

    2006-07-21

    In our earlier study, we experimentally evaluated the characteristics of a newly designed metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) OneDose(TM) in-vivo dosimetry system for Ir-192 (380 keV) energy and the results were compared with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We have now extended the same study to the clinical application of this MOSFET as an in-vivo dosimetry system. The MOSFET was used during high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) of internal mammary chain (IMC) irradiation for a carcinoma of the breast. The aim of this study was to measure the skin dose during IMC irradiation with a MOSFET and a TLD and compare it with the calculated dose with a treatment planning system (TPS). The skin dose was measured for ten patients. All the patients' treatment was planned on a PLATO treatment planning system. TLD measurements were performed to compare the accuracy of the measured results from the MOSFET. The mean doses measured with the MOSFET and the TLD were identical (0.5392 Gy, 15.85% of the prescribed dose). The mean dose was overestimated by the TPS and was 0.5923 Gy (17.42% of the prescribed dose). The TPS overestimated the skin dose by 9% as verified by the MOSFET and TLD. The MOSFET provides adequate in-vivo dosimetry for HDRBT. Immediate readout after irradiation, small size, permanent storage of dose and ease of use make the MOSFET a viable alternative for TLDs. (note)

  20. Application of the alkaline comet assay to rat alveolar macrophages after homogeneous or heterogeneous irradiation: a biological dosimetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alkaline comet assay, also called alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis, is a simple technique to assess single strand breaks, double strand breaks and alkali sites. It is based on the ability of broken DNA to migrate more easily in an electric field than normal DNA. This method is well adapted for the assessment of the ionising radiations effects on single cells. The aim of this study is to develop a biological dosimetry method to estimate the dose delivered to the respiratory tract by an homogeneous (60Co) or an heterogeneous (radon) irradiation. The animal model chosen is the rat because it has been validated for the study of the carcinogenic role of radon in man. Alveolar macrophages have been selected for there homogeneous distribution in the deep lung. After an in vivo thoracic 60Co gamma irradiation or a radon inhalation, it can be considered that these cells received a dose which is representative from the whole dose received by the lung. The comet assay is performed on alveolar macrophages recovered by broncho-alveolar lavage, and comet moment is measured with an epi-fluorescence microscope coupled to an image acquisition and analysis computing system. The results show the residence of a dose - comet moment relationship after in vivo 60Co gamma and radon irradiations. The technique used enabled us to show differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous irradiations in term of comet moments distributions. Although these results are promising, this technique has to be improved for the detection of biological effects induced by low doses of irradiation in order to detect potential effects of indoor radon exposure. (authors)

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  2. Food irradiation development: Malaysian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia recognised the potential of food irradiation as a technology that can contribute to solving some preservation problems associated with local agricultural produce. Research studies in this technology were initiated in late 1970s and since 1985, all activities pertaining to R and D applications, adoption and technology transfer of food irradiation were coordinated by The National Working Committee on Food Irradiation which comprises of members from research institutes, universities, regulatory agencies and consumer association. To date, technical feasibility studies conducted on 7 food items / agricultural commodities of economic importance demonstrated the efficacy of irradiation in extending shelf-life, improving hygienic quality and overcoming quarantine barriers in trade. Presently, 1 multipurpose Co-60 irradiator (I MCi), 2 gammacells and an electron beam machine (3 MeV) are available at MINT for research and commercial runs. The Malaysian Standards on Guidelines for Irradiation of Food was formulated in 1992 to facilitate application by local food industries. However, Malaysia has not yet commercially adopt the technology. Among many factors contributing to the situation is the apparent lack of interest by food industries and consumers. Consumer attitude study indicated majority of consumers are still unaware of the benefits of the technology and expressed concern for the safety of process and irradiated products due to limited knowledge and adverse publicity by established consumer groups. Although the food processors indicate positive attitude towards food irradiation, there remain many factors delaying its commercial application such as limited knowledge, cost-benefit, logistics and consumer acceptance. On the regulatory aspect, approval is required from the Director-General of Ministry of Health prior to application of irradiation on food and sale of irradiated food but efforts are being geared towards approving irradiation of certain food

  3. Levels of prostaglandins and arachidonic acid in UV-B irradiated human skin before and after topical application of benzyl-2,5-diacetoxybenzoate, a salicylic acid derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, R.M.; Black, A.K.; Mallet, A.I.; Greaves, M.W.

    1982-07-01

    Benzyl-2,5-diacetoxybenzoate (BDAB) was tested for anti-inflammatory activity on experimentally inflamed skin. Human abdominal skin was irradiated with three minimal erythema doses of UV-B (290-320nm) radiation to give a maximum erythema at 24 hours with an associated rise in PGE2 and PGF2 alpha levels measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Topical application of a 1% w/w preparation of BDAB neither decreased the evoked erythema nor diminished the rise in PGE2 and PGF2 alpha concentrations. BDAB, applied topically, was judged to be ineffectual as an anti-inflammatory agent in UV-B erythema.

  4. Societal benefits of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has a direct impact on society by reducing the occurrence of food-borne illness, decreasing food spoilage and waste, and facilitating global trade. Food irradiation is approved in 40 countries around the world to decontaminate food of disease and spoilage causing microorganisms, sterilize insect pests, and inhibit sprouting. A recent estimate suggests that 500,000 metric of food is currently irradiated worldwide, primarily to decontaminate spices. Since its first use in the 1960s the use of irradiation for food has grown slowly, but it remains the major technology of choice for certain applications. The largest growth sector in recent years has been phytosanitary irradiation of fruit to disinfest fruit intended for international shipment. For many countries which have established strict quarantine standards, irradiation offers as an effective alternative to chemical fumigants some of which are being phased out due to their effects on the ozone layer. Insects can be sterilized at very low dose levels, thus quality of fruit can be maintained. Irradiation is also highly effective in destroying microbial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli, and Listeria, hence its application for treatment of spices, herbs, dried vegetables, frozen seafood, poultry, and meat and its contribution to reducing foodborne illnesses. Unfortunately the use of irradiation for improving food safety has been under-exploited. This presentation will provide details on the use, benefits, opportunities, and challenges of food irradiation. (author)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  6. Fruits irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project in food irradiation are two-fold, to study the effect of irradiation in prolongation of useful storage life of fruits and to evaluate irradiation as a means of preserving fruits. However radiation is not intended to replace existing preservation processes but may be used in conjunction with current methods such as refrigeration, drying, fermentation etc. In fact radiation should combine with proper storage and packaging techniques in order to ensure maximum benefits. Ripening retardation of fruits by irradiation kinds of fruits: papaya, mango, rambutan, longan and durian. Changes in organoleptic properties of fruit flavor and taste, texture changes by taste panel estimation of significance level of results by statistical mathematical methods, chemical changes determination of climacteric peak in fruits by estimation of carbon dioxide evolution, vitamin C determination by Tillmann's method, carotenoid separation by thin layer chromatography, reducing sugars and acidity determination, volatile components of durian by gas-chromatography

  7. Cours Sécurité : Sensibilisation aux gestes et postures de travail

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine session le 21 octobre 2010. 12 places disponibles. Ce cours concerne toutes les personnes appelées à réaliser des manutentions manuelles dans le cadre de leurs activités. Contenu du cours : Théorie - Présentation des objectifs du programme ; - L'accident du travail (définition, coûts) ; - Statistiques CNAM ; - Notion d'anatomie (mécanique humaine) ; - Les différentes pathologies (lumbago, sciatique, hernie discale) ; - Discussion sur les problèmes particuliers rencontrés dans la vie courante. Pratique - Les efforts mécaniques sur la colonne dus aux mauvaises postures ; - Les principes de base de l'utilisation de la mécanique humaine ; - Exercices pratiques d'application (sur objets divers standards) ; - Prises de vues au caméscope des positions de chacun. Pour vous inscrire : https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/TRN?new=YES&...

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  9. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a 60Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation

  10. Characterization of Au Irradiated Glassy Polymeric Carbon at 2,000°C for Nuclear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunaemeh, M.; Seif, M.; Batra, A.; Elsamadicy, A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L.; Muntele, C.; Ila, D.

    The TRISO fuel has been used in some of the Generation IV nuclear reactor designs [1]. It consists of a fuel kernel of UOx coated with several layers of materials with different functions. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the materials in the layers. In this study we investigate the possibility of using Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) as an alternative to PyC. In this work, we are comparing the changes in physical and microstructure properties of GPC after exposure to irradiation fluence of 5 MeV Au equivalent to a 1 displacement per atom (dpa) for GPC prepared at 2,000°C. The GPC material is manufactured and tested at the Center for Irradiation Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and stopping range of ions in matter (SRIM) software.

  11. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be u...

  12. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satrou; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector ...

  13. Ultraviolet and infrared spectral analysis of irradiated polypropylene films: correlation and possible application for high dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study was performed to develop the dosimetric characteristics of commercial polypropylene film (PP), to be used as a film dosimeter for high-dose gamma radiation dosimetry. The useful dose range of this polymeric film extends up to 630 kGy. Correlations were established between the absorbed dose of gamma radiation and the radiation-induced changes in PP measured by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. The results showed a significant dependence of the response on the selected readout tool of measurements - FTIR (at 1716 and 3400 cm-1) or UV (at 275 nm), as well as on the quantity used for calculation. The radiation-chemical yields of the ketonic carbonyl group and the hydroxyl group produced in irradiated PP film were evaluated. G(>C=O) was found to be 1.37 μmol/J and G(>C-OH) was found to be 0.638 μmol/J. The assessment of random uncertainty associated with the measurement of dose response and the effect of relative humidity during irradiation on dosimeter performance as well as post-irradiation stability at different storage conditions will be discussed. (author)

  14. The Financial Analysis of Gamma Irradiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study discusses the guideline from the economics point of view of the commercial operation optimized for the Egyptian second irradiation facility. This study included four sections about the financial analysis, the analysis of future demand, future supply of commercial application of irradiation and the irradiation price system

  15. Review of current summary of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons about widely application of food irradiation as a technology for increasing food safety were presenting in this summary. Topics which are discussing are about: purpose of the irradiation, radiological safety, toxicology, microbiological conclusion, alimentary adequacy, packing, labeling, public acceptance, inspection of food irradiated plants

  16. Educative campaign about information on irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of foods is accepted by international agencies (FAO, OMS) like a healthy and effective technology at the moment the irradiated foods are marketed easily in many countries, however in other countries exist several factors that affect the practical application of this process. In this work is planned about an educational campaign about the irradiation process directed to the consumers. (Author)

  17. Economics of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

    1993-07-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

  18. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  19. Application of Solar Irradiation / K2S2O8 Photochemical Oxidation Process for the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye fromAqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abootoraby

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgroundandObjectives: Dyes are organic compoundswith complex structures,which due to toxicity, carcinogenicity and nonbiodegredabity, this type of pollutants is one of the most important pollutants of the environment. The goal of this researchwas to study the feasibility of the application of solar irradiation in presence of potassium persulfate (K2S2O8 for the removal of Reactive blue19 (RB19 from synthetic wastewater."nMaterials andMethods: This researchwas carried out in laboratory scalewith using of 200ml volume of batchphotoreactor.The effectsofoperatingparameters suchas concentrationofK2S2O8,pH,photoexposure time and preliminary concentrations of dye on decolorization have been evaluated.Different concentrations of pollutant inwastewaterwere prepared by solution of variousmasses of RB19 on tapwater. The reactors were exposedwith natural solar irradiation as aUVAsource from11 amto 14 pm.Themaximumabsorbtion wave length of this dye (!max was determined by spectrophotometer (Unico, 2100. The measurement of dye concentrations was determined with using of standard curve and its best line equation"nResults:Analysis of absorbtion spectra showed that the !max of RB19 is 592 nm. The average intensity of the UVA irradiated from solar system was 54.6 µW/Cm2. The results of decolorization process showed that 38.2%of this dye can be removed within 3 hr in the presence of potassium persulfate and decreasing of pH leads to the elevation of dye removal efficiency. Based on these findings, the efficiency of dye removal with 3h photoexposure time and pH ranges of 4,6 and 8 were found to be 98.2 88.5 and 78.5%, respectively.Also, the results showed that increasing of K2S2O8 dosage leads to elevation of dye removal efficiency in 3h photoexposure time and K2S2O8 dosages within 1-5mmol/L, with the removal efficiency of 75,86,92,95 and 98.5%, respectively.Analysis of data indicates that the kinetic of the removal of RB19 with this process is a first

  20. Irradiation and the food industry in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of a special section on food irradiation. The historical development in France of some industrial applications of food irradiation resulting from efficient technology transfer to the food industry is discussed. The 4 basic steps in successfully marketing any technology transfer, including irradiated foods, are that research must define conditions of the product's application, legislation must specify conditions of its application, consumers must accept the product, and appropriate processing capacity must exist

  1. Status of irradiation technology development in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation Engineering Section of the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center was organized to development the new irradiation technology for the application at JMTR re-operation. The new irradiation engineering building was remodeled from the old RI development building, and was started to use from the end of September, 2008. Advanced in-situ instrumentation technology (high temperature multi-paired thermocouple, ceramic sensor, application of optical measurement), 99Mo production technology by new Mo solution irradiation method, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector, and so on are planned as the development of new irradiation technologies. The development will be also important for the education and training programs through the development of young generation in not only Japan but also Asian counties. In this report, as the status of the development the new irradiation technology, new irradiation engineering building, high temperature multi-paired thermocouple, experiences of optical measurement, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector are introduced. (author)

  2. Some Results Of Gamma-60Co Irradiation Application To Breed New Soybean Varieties At Institute Of Agricultural Genetics, 2001 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To overcome the disadvantage characters and continue create new genetical materials in new Soybean variety selection to get high yield, resistance to with disadvantage conditions, good quality. The Institute of Agricultural Genetics successfully combinated the good particularities of mutant varieties DT84/DT83 and received DT2001 variety, and from mutant DT90/DT84 received new variety DT96. These varieties quite resists with rare good drought-tolerant, high yield from 2000 to 3500 kg/ha, appropriate with all of 3 crops: spring, summer and winter and have wide adaptation. DT96, DT2001 varieties were adopted by MARD Scientific Council as New National Varieties. cooperated with Dalat Institute of Nuclear research treated the Gamma - 60Co Irradiation on Soybean and Vegetable Soybean. Irradiated dry seed of 3 varieties DT96, DT2001, DT158 with dose levels of 150, 200, 250 Gy in order to shorten the rise time and strengthen the drought resistance. At M3 generation had selected 3 lines D.96/26, D.01/58, D.58/08, D.58/224, which have rise time from 3 to 5 day shorter and yield higher than control (D.96/150, D.01/245). Irradiated the 2 vegetable Soybean DT02 (to ameliorate its thick shell, improve sweetness and resist with collapse) and DT06 (to ameliorate its heat resistance) with dose levels of 100, 140, 180, 220 Gy were received the generations and now continue being researching the M3 generation in 2007 summer crop. (author)

  3. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente (CQMA)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers is a major environmental problem of global character. Recycling is an economical alternative and environmentally recommended for polymers consumed and discarded by society. As regards the rubber in object, its natural decomposition is much slower due to their highly crosslinked, in three-dimensional networks, structures which makes it an infusible and insoluble material. Moreover, these three dimensional structures entails several problems for their recovery and reprocessing. The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of NBR rubber recycle. It was used rubber powder from industry. The powder was irradiated in master-batch composition and used directly in classical formulations for rubber vulcanization. The master-batch processed was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in {sup 60}Co source at 5 kGy s{sup -1} rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites during devulcanization that promoted further integration of the rubber powder in formulations for commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation. The greatest change in the properties of polymeric materials by exposure to ionizing radiation resulted mainly of two main reactions occurring in the polymer molecule: chains scission (degradation) and crosslinking. Although these two processes occur simultaneously in all the polymers, the predominance of one or other effect depends mainly of the chemical structure of each polymer, and the irradiation conditions. In the results was observed the behavior of nitrile rubber under different doses and radiation improvement of the mechanical properties. (author)

  4. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    detected independently of the dose. In addition, physicochemical analyses investigated the evolution of pH; total acidity; total soluble solids and ascorbic acid throughout storage. Samples from experiment 2 were also subjected to sensory analyses for overall appearance and aroma at 4 different post-irradiation times. The results indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it can be concluded that the application of those doses extended the shelf life of the samples without harming their nutritional and sensory quality. Finally, the results indicate that the dose of 1.0 kGy is the most appropriate for the conservation of red beet among those tested. (author)

  5. Are re-analyses from ERA or MERRA suitable to assess surface solar irradiance in solar energy applications?

    OpenAIRE

    Boilley, Alexandre; Wald, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    Meteorological re-analyses such as the ERA-Interim and the MERRA ones provide surface solar irradiance (SSI) for long periods of time. This capability is appealing in solar energy as it may help in determining the potential of a given site in any part of the world. The present study presents a comparison made between ground measurements of daily means of the SSI with the same quantity extracted from the ERA-Interim and the MERRA respectively for the period 1985 to 2009. 40 stations with no ma...

  6. On the phenomenon of the fast release of energy in irradiated solid methane. Application of the thermal explosion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general idea of the phenomenon of fast releasing energy stored in irradiated solid methane is provided. Temperature instability of the matter in question is analyzed around the classic theory of homogeneous chemical reactions and of thermal explosion as it was used to apply in cold neutron sources designing. Stability criteria derived by different methods for uniform temperature are demonstrated to vary in a numerical factor by several times. The author pioneers derivation of approximate criteria for a slug of methane of complex shape and for the case of the non-uniform temperature distribution as well. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig

  7. SU-E-T-533: LET Dependence Correction of Radiochromic Films for Application in Low Energy Proton Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, S; Wuerl, M; Assmann, W; Parodi, K [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Garching, DE (Germany); Greubel, C [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Neubiberg, DE (United States); Wilkens, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, DE (Germany); Hillbrand, M [Rinecker Proton Therapy Center, Munich, DE (Germany); Mairani, A [Medical Physics Unit CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many cell irradiation experiments with low-energy laser-driven ions rely on radiochromic films (RCF), because of their dose-rate independent response and superior spatial resolution. RCF dosimetry in low-energy ion beams requires a correction of the LET dependent film response. The relative efficiency (RE), the ratio of photon to proton dose that yields the same film darkening, is a measure for the film’s LET dependence. A direct way of RE determination is RCF irradiation with low-energy mono-energetic protons and hence, well-defined LET. However, RE is usually determined using high energy proton depth dose measurements where RE corrections require knowledge of the average LET in each depth, which can be either track (tLET) or dose (dLET) averaged. The appropriate LET concept has to be applied to allow a proper film response correction. Methods: Radiochromic EBT2 and EBT3 films were irradiated in clinical photon and proton beams. For each depth of the 200 MeV proton depth dose curve, tLET and dLET were calculated by special user routines from the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. Additional irradiations with mono-energetic low energy protons (4–20 MeV) serve as reference for the RE determination. Results: The difference of dLET and tLET increases with depth, with the dLET being almost twice as large as the tLET for the maximum depth. The comparison with mono-energetic measurements shows a good agreement of the RE for the dLET concept, while a considerably steeper drop in RE is observed when applying the tLET. Conclusion: RCF can be used as reference dosimeter for biomedical experiments with low-energy proton beams if appropriate LET corrections are applied. When using depth dose measurements from clinical proton accelerators for these corrections, the concept of dLET has to be applied. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Cluster of Excellence ‘Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics’ (MAP). This work was funded by the DFG Cluster of Excellence

  8. Resonant ionization by laser beams: application to ions sources and to study the nuclear structure of radioactive tellurium isotopes; Ionisation resonante par faisceaux laser: application aux sources d'ions et a l'etude de la structure des noyaux radioactifs de tellure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifi, R

    2007-07-15

    The radioactive ion beams that are produced through current isotope separators are well separated according to the A mass but not according to the Z parameter. The resonant ionization through laser beams applied to ion sources allows the production of radioactive ion beam in a very selective and efficient way by eliminating the isobaric contamination. The first chapter is dedicated to the resonant ionization by laser beams, we describe the principle, the experimental setting, the lasers used, the ionization schemes and the domain of application. The second chapter deals with the application of resonant ionization to laser ion sources for the production of radioactive ion beams. We present experimental tests performed for getting copper ion beams. Resonant ionization through laser is also used in the spectroscopy experiments performed at the Isolde (isotope separation on-line device) installation in CERN where more than 20 elements are ionized very efficiently. The technique is based on a frequency scanning around the excitation transition of the atoms in order to probe the hyperfine structure. Laser spectroscopy allows the determination of the hyperfine structure as well as the isotopic shift of atoms. In the third chapter the method is applied to the spectroscopy of tellurium atoms. First, we define the 2 parameters on which the extraction is based: charge radius and nuclear moments, then we present several theoretical models that we have used to assess our experimental results. (A.C.)

  9. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool

  10. The application of Raman and anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy for in situ monitoring of structural changes in laser irradiated titanium dioxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, Stephanie J. [Centre for Research in Energy and Environment, School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 1FR (United Kingdom); Al-Obaidi, Ala H.R. [Smart Light Devices, Unit 13, Tyseal Base, Craigshaw Crescent Aberdeen, West Tullos Industrial Estate, Aberdeen AB12 3AW (United Kingdom); Lee, Soo-Keun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, POSTECH, San 31 Hyoja Dong Nam-Gu, Pohang, Kyungpook 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); McStay, Daniel [Discovery Technologies Ltd., Redshank House, Alness Point Business Park, Alness IV17 0IJ (United Kingdom); Robertson, Peter K.J. [Centre for Research in Energy and Environment, School of Engineering, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 1FR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: peter.robertson@rgu.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    The use of Raman and anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy to investigate the effect of exposure to high power laser radiation on the crystalline phases of TiO{sub 2} has been investigated. Measurement of the changes, over several time integrals, in the Raman and anti-stokes Raman of TiO{sub 2} spectra with exposure to laser radiation is reported. Raman and anti-stokes Raman provide detail on both the structure and the kinetic process of changes in crystalline phases in the titania material. The effect of laser exposure resulted in the generation of increasing amounts of the rutile crystalline phase from the anatase crystalline phase during exposure. The Raman spectra displayed bands at 144 cm{sup -1} (A1g), 197 cm{sup -1} (Eg), 398 cm{sup -1} (B1g), 515 cm{sup -1} (A1g), and 640 cm{sup -1} (Eg) assigned to anatase which were replaced by bands at 143 cm{sup -1} (B1g), 235 cm{sup -1} (2 phonon process), 448 cm{sup -1} (Eg) and 612 cm{sup -1} (A1g) which were assigned to rutile. This indicated that laser irradiation of TiO{sub 2} changes the crystalline phase from anatase to rutile. Raman and anti-stokes Raman are highly sensitive to the crystalline forms of TiO{sub 2} and allow characterisation of the effect of laser irradiation upon TiO{sub 2}. This technique would also be applicable as an in situ method for monitoring changes during the laser irradiation process.

  11. Fission product release from UO2 during irradiation. Diffusion data and their application to reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of fission product species from UO2, and to a limited extent from (U, Pu)02 was studied using small scale in-reactor experiments in which these interacting variables may be separated, as far as is possible, and their influences assessed. Experiments were at fuel ratings appropriate to water reactor fuel elements and both single crystal and poly-crystalline specimens were used. They employed highly enriched uranium such that the relative number of fissions occurring in plutonium formed by neutron capture was small. The surface to volume ratio (S/V) of the specimens was well defined thus reducing the uncertainties in the derivation of diffusion coefficients. These experiments demonstrate many of the important characteristics of fission product behaviour in UO2 during irradiation. The samples used for these experiments were small being always less than 1g with a fissile content usually between 2 and 5mg. Polycrystalline materials were taken from batches of production fuel prepared by conventional pressing and sintering techniques. The enriched single crystals were grown from a melt of sodium and potassium chloride doped with UO2 powder 20% 235U content. The irradiations were performed in the DIDO reactor at Harwell. The neutron flux at the specimen was 4x1016 neutrons m-2s-1 providing a heat rating within the samples of 34.5 MW/teU

  12. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  13. Application of thermoelectricity to NDE of thermally aged cast duplex stainless steels and neutron irradiated ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoelectric power (TEP) of an alloy depends mainly on its temperature, its chemical composition and its atomic arrangement. The TEP measurement technique is used in order to study and follow two degradation phenomena affecting some components of the primary loop of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The first degradation phenomenon is the thermal aging of cast duplex stainless steel components. The de-mixing of the ferritic Fe-Cr-Ni slid solution is responsible for the decreasing of the mechanical characteristics. Laboratory studies have shown the sensitivity of TEP to the de-mixing phenomenon. TEP increases linearly with the ferrite content and with and Arrhenius-type aging parameter depending on time, temperature and activation energy. TEP is also correlated to mechanic characteristics. The second degradation phenomenon is the aging of ferritic steels due to neutron irradiation at about 290 deg C. In this case, the degradation mechanism is the formation of clusters of solute atoms and/or copper rich precipitates that causes the hardening of the material. As a first approach, a study of binary Fe-Cu alloys irradiated by electrons at 288 deg C has revealed the possibility of following the copper depletion of the ferritic matrix. Moreover, the recovery of the mechanical properties of the alloy by annealing can be monitored. Finally, a correlation between Vickers hardness and TEP has been established. (author)

  14. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described. PMID:14676360

  15. Advances in application and research of sterile insect irradiation techniques%昆虫辐照不育技术研究与应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国华; 陈永; 杨红霞; 胡美英

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect irradiation techniques have developed rapidly and achieved many results in the world in recent years. In practice, it has become one of the important measures to area-wide integrated pest management. Here the sterile insect irradiation techniques were reviewed, including their strategy, mechanism and quality control. How to break through the constraints in the practical application of the sterile insects was also discussed in this paper.%近年来国内外昆虫辐照不育技术的研究发展迅速,取得了许多重要成果,在实践中已成为某些害虫综合防治的有效措施之一.本文综述了昆虫辐照不育技术的剂量策略、昆虫辐照不育机理研究进展和辐照不育昆虫的质量控制,并探讨了昆虫辐照不育技术在实践应用中的限制因素及其对策.

  16. Synthesis of Ag nano/TiO2 material by gamma Co-60 irradiation method for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nano doped TiO2(Ag nano/TiO2) material with different Ag contents (0.1-0.75 %) was synthesized by Co-60 gamma irradiation method and used as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The characteristics of Ag nano/TiO2 were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Bandgap energy values of Ag nano/TiO2 materials were also determined. Ag nano/TiO2 has improved efficiency of energy conversion solar-to-electrical of solar cells. The efficiency of solar cell assembled with Ag nano (0.75%)/TiO2 was of 4.71% which increased about 25.6% compared with that of the cell based on TiO2 (3.75%). Preparation of Ag nano/TiO2 material by gamma irradiation is promising to carry on large scale application for dye-sensitized solar cells. (author)

  17. Study of deuterons induced nuclear reactions on light elements (N, Al and Si): Application to containment materials of radioactive wastes; Etude des reactions nucleaires induites par des deuterons sur des elements legers (N, Al, Si): application aux materiaux de confinement des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, St

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis is well adapted to the quantification of light element. Profiles of concentration in order to follow elements migration into materials can be undertaken. This technique is used to study the behavior of the future matrices for nuclear waste containment. This technique is isotopic, characterized by a good signal-to-background ratio and a very low detection limit. The probability of a nuclear reaction is linked to a parameter called 'cross section' we have to know in order to carry out quantitative analysis. We have determined excitation curves for nitrogen, aluminium and silicon. These experiments were done with deuterons from 0.5 to 2 MeV. Two methods for the cross section characterization are presented and are in agreement with each other. The second one reduces uncertainty. Data are incorporated in the simulation software SIMNRA. We have compared the results obtained on different samples when we use data in literature or data of the study. We have noticed a great fit improvement with the data of this study. The new cross sections of this work will be integrated in the general data base SIGMABASE. Applications on materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, nano-metric powders, WCN and nuclear glass YLaMgSiAlON studied for radioactive waste containment are also presented. (author)

  18. A 24.5-Year Global Dataset of Direct Normal Irradiance: Result from the Application of a Global-to-Beam Model to the NASA GEWEX SRB Global Horizontal Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Westberg, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The DIRINDEX model has previously been applied to the NASA GEWEX SRB Release 3.0 global horizontal irradiances (GHIs) to derive 3-hourly, daily and monthly mean direct normal irradiances (DNIs) for the period from 2000 to 2005 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2014.09.006), though the model was originally designed to estimate hourly DNIs from hourly GHIs. Input to the DIRINDEX model comprised 1.) the 3-hourly all-sky and clear-sky GHIs from the GEWEX SRB dataset; 2.) the surface pressure and the atmospheric column water vapor from the GEOS4 dataset; and 3.) daily mean aerosol optical depth at 700 nm derived from the daily mean aerosol data from the Model of Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry (MATCH). The GEWEX SRB data is spatially available on a quasi-equal-area global grid system consisting of 44016 boxes ranging from 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude around the Equator to 1 degree latitude by 120 degree longitude next to the poles. The derived DNIs were on the same grid system. Due to the limited availability of the MATCH aerosol data, the model was applied to the years from 2000 to 2005 only. The results were compared with ground-based measurements from 39 sites of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The comparison statistics show that the results were in better agreement with their BSRN counterparts than the current Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 data (https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/). In this paper, we present results from the model over the entire time span of the GEWEX SRB Release 3.0 data (July 1983 to December2007) in which the MERRA atmospheric data were substituted for the GEOS4 data, and the Max-Planck Aerosol Climatology Version 1 (MAC-v1) data for the MATCH data. As a consequence, we derived a 24.5-year DNI dataset of global coverage continuous from July 1983 to December 2007. Comparisons with the BSRN data show that the results are comparable in quality with that from the earlier application.

  19. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60Co, 137Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  20. History and prospects of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world.Since the first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 which used 60Co as irradiation source, many sludge irradiators were constructed in USA, India, Japan, Canada, Poland and so on, which used 60Co, 137Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources.Some basic researches on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge are, respectively, reviewed, including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge.Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology.

  1. Application of Smoothed Second Derivative Algorithm for NDA Measurements on Irradiated Nuclear or Non-Nuclear Materials with High Gamma Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments used for IAEA verification of irradiated material often incorporate fission chambers which have limited efficiency and are highly cumbersome for transportation and deployment. Low signal-to- noise ratio of gamma-ray detectors used in the field of high gamma flux limits sensitivity when verifying the presence of irradiated nuclear fuel items in massive storage facilities. To address these problems, the Smoothed Second Derivative (SSD) algorithm was applied for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements in Safeguards. This technique was developed for graphical processing of raw data collected from the Neutron Plateau Measurements on irradiated nuclear-fuel and/or non-fuel materials with high gamma flux and from the Gamma-Ray Scanning Measurements on spent fuel bundles stored in a wet-storage pond or in a dry-storage silo. The neutron detector (such as He-3 tube or B-10 detector) signal used for Safeguards cannot provide 'interaction source (neutron only, neutron and gamma pileup or gamma pileup only)' information if the detector is operated at a fixed bias voltage for measurements on those materials in the field of intense gamma flux. Consequently, a technique was developed to diagnose the type of interaction between the neutron detector and sample materials with (or in) a high gamma dose by differentiating the neutron plateau shape from the gamma pileup trend by means of an SSD algorithm. This technique is applied in Safeguards for verifying the presence or the absence of irradiated nuclear fuel material in closed containers where ICVD (Improved Cerenkov Viewing Device) is not applicable. The Signal (from verification item)-to-Noise (from neighbouring items) Ratio (SNR) of gamma-ray intensities acquired using a gamma detector shielded by a collimator can also be enhanced by enlarging the collimator aperture and/or the shield thickness. However, SNR enhancement by reinforcing the shielding is restricted in many cases of spent fuel measurements due to the

  2. Mixed approach (numerical modeling / equilibrium analysis) for slope stability analysis: development and application to the dams and open pit mining; Une approche mixte (numerique/equilibre limite) pour le calcul de stabilite des ouvrages en terre: developpement et application aux barrages et talus miniers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourdey, A.

    2002-09-15

    The determination of the sliding surface of slope (dam, slope natural..) is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnics. The Analyze of stability by the methods of Limit Equilibrium like the method of slices are the most used methods. They are able to determine a safety factor for a geometrically defined failure surface. These methods well adapted to the homogeneous mediums, have been developed a lot but they do not integrate the basic relations of mechanics (stress-strain). The numerical methods are better adapted to mediums having more complexity (effect of water, seismicity, fracturing,..). But, they are seldom used to determine a sliding surface and a safety factor. Each family offers appreciable advantages in the analysis of slope stability. For that purpose, we have developed a method that combines the advantages of the numerical methods as well as those of Limit Equilibrium allowing obtaining a slip surface determined by the calculated constraints. This slip surface may be imposed or better optimized, thus providing a minimal safety factor. Methods of operation research are used to obtain this surface. They are search methods by level, dynamic research.. or both at the same time. We integrated these developments in an existing computer code based on the method of Finite Differences known as FLAC. The stresses are determined for a linear behavior and for nonlinear. Interfaces and graphic tools are also produced to facilitate the analysis of stability. The validity of this approach was carried out for a standard case of slope, we analyzed and compared the results with the methods of Limit Equilibrium. The parametric study shows that this approach takes account of different parameters, which influences stability. We also kept a particular place for the application on real cases presenting slopes of different nature (dams, mining slops,...). (author)

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswari Paul

    Full Text Available Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa. Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309. Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  5. An elite restorer mutant R3027 induced by the integral application of γ-rays irradiation and somaclonal variation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of somaclonal variants were induced from young inflorescence culture of single season indica rice 3027, which was irradiated by 15 Gy γ-rays and then transferred onto fresh N6 medium for callus formation and MS medium for shoot differentiation. One early maturing restorer mutant, named as R3027, was identified and found to possess the obviously improved multiple agronomic traits and combined ability in comparison with the original parent 3027. A new hybrid rice cultivar, II you 3027, with the highest yield potential of 10477 kg/hm2 was successfully bred from the cross between the cytoplasmic male sterile line II-32A and mutant R3027. This new cultivar was officially released in April, 2000 in Zhejiang province, and its accumulative planting areas reached 200 khm2

  6. Application of the autoblood treated by preliminary extracorporeal X-ray irradiation in the therapy of bronchial asthma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A therapeutic method including extracorporeal x-ray irradiation of the autoblood of patients with bronchial asthma complicated by cortisone dependence and polyvalent drug intolerance, has been elaborated and clinically tested. The use of this method brings about good short-term results in 90% of cases and good long-term results in 40% of cases (14-38 months). It provides an opportunity to give up corticosteroids in more than 60% of patients and to decrease the hormone dose in the rest of cortisone-dependent patients with bronchial asthma. The above therapeutic method can be used as an independent type of treatment, especially in the presence of polyvalent drug allergy and as an element of multiple modality therapy of bronchial asthma patients. The method was used under in-patient conditions only. No side effects were marked in the course of the clinical trial. To carry out this type of therapy, patients should be thoroughly screened

  7. Application of a radiomimetic model to the evaluation of comparative radiosensitivity of mammals to the low-dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tested was the adequacy of a radiomimetic model (i.e. oxidized oleic acid (OOA)) for the evaluation of the comparative radiosensitivity of mammals of various types. Animals were irradiated at gamma installation with dose rate of 8 rad/min. Radiomimetic meter was introduced abdominally at the dose of 0.4 ml per 100 g of body weigth. The reactivity of an organism was estimated by the value of an average life duration. The results obtained testify to the fact that the resistance of organisms to OOA fully coincides with their resistance to the action of gamma radiation with a low dose rate, which gives evidence on the validity of using OOA for a primary estimation of radiosensitivity of various mammals

  8. Microdosimetric studies using a Filtered Fast Neutron Irradiation System of research reactor to application in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, microdosimetric measurements were performed using a Wall-less Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter - TEPC with spherical cavity with an inner diameter of 1.27 cm. The TEPC was tilled with pure propane gas, C3H8 at 5.6 kPa (42 Torr) pressure, which is equivalent to 1.3 μm in diameter of unit density tissue. The microdosimetric measurement device was irradiated with fast neutron radiation from Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center research reactor, in College Station, Texas. The fast neutron beams were emitted with three different power values, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kW. during 1h for both high gain and low gain, totalizing two hours for each power with 0.0083 Gy/min of dose rate. The neutron was filtered using the heavily filtered fast neutron irradiation system (FNIS). from Nuclear Science Center, to obtain a decrease of neutron radiation contamination by gamma ray and so, to gain the neutron microdosimetric spectra as. frequency distribution of lineal energy, dose distribution of lineal energy with good precision, and another quantities as frequency-mean of lineal energy, dose- mean of lineal energy, absorbed dose, equivalent dose and average quality factor of fast neutron. The obtained results were satisfactory, with the neutron microdosimetric spectra showing a gamma ray contamination under 5 %, especially to dose distribution of lineal energy. The results obtained in this work were in agreement when compared with another results from scientific literature, which used another procedure to reduce the neutron contamination by gamma ray. (author)

  9. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses; Rapport transparence et securite nucleaire 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Application des modèles mécanistiques de cinétique chimique aux combustions industrielles. Illustration par la fabrication du gaz de synthèse Application of Mechanistic Models of Chemical Kinetics to Industrial Combustion. Illustration by Synthetic Gas Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En combustion, la formation d'espèces mineures clés, comme les polluants, peut être interprétée par des modèles mécanistiques de cinétique chimique. Les informations que fournissent ces modèles, même s'il ne s'agit que de tendances, sont suffisamment fiables pour définir des choix technologiques. Toutefois, compte-tenu de la complexité des phénomènes traités, leur emploi fait appel à une méthode indirecte décrite dans cet article et illustrée par la conception d'un réacteur autotherme destiné à la préparation d'un syngaz (gaz de synthèse. Dans l'exemple proposé comme application, l'objectif est de faire fonctionner à l'air un réacteur opérant actuellement à l'oxygène pur. Le modèle mécanistique choisi établit très clairement les contraintes imposées par ce choix. During the development of a partial combustion reactor for natural gas [1], Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has made use of a mechanistic model to determine the impact of operational parameters on the formation of soot. The model we chose deals with the oxidation and pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons by several hundred elementary reactions, some of which are shown in Table 1. All the species taken into consideration as well as their linking are shown in the flowchart in Fig. 3. Our data mainly came from References [2] and [8], from which we took all the reactions of species having three carbon atoms or less as well as the pyrolysis reactions of hydrocarbons with four carbon atoms. In this database, the kinetic coefficients of reactions between CH4 and the C2H5, C2H3 and C2H radicals were replaced by the values published in Reference [9]. This set of reactions is not sufficient to analyze the formation of soot, and so we added on the pyrolysis reactions of acetylene from Reference [10]. The model assimilated the total mass of carbon contained in C5 and C6 hydrocarbons with a soot number assumed to be proportional to the mass of soot formed by the

  11. Food irradiation, profits and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

  12. The application of gamma irradiation for the extended commercial storage of root crops (onions and garlic) and shipping trials of irradiated frozen shrimp. Final report for the period 1 December 1985 - 31 December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the project was to demonstrate the efficiency of pilot scale radiation treatment of onions and garlic aiming toward the transfer of food irradiation technology to traders and to evaluate the quality of irradiated frozen shrimp shipped to Japan and australia after irradiation in Thailand. The tests demonstrated that the irradiation of onions (55-94 and 74-130 Gy) and garlic (50-90 Gy) to inhibit sprouting and reduce weight loss during commercial storage in cold room is technically feasible and economically justified. The bacteriological quality of frozen, peeled, cooked shrimps was improved by radiation treatment at doses of 1.2 to 3.3 kGy. 1 fig., 15 tabs

  13. Monitoring the performance of Aux. Feedwater Pump using Smart Sensing Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques equipped with learning systems have recently been proposed to monitor sensors and components in NPPs. Therefore, the objective of this study is the development of an integrity evaluation method for safety critical components such as Aux. feedwater pump, high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump, etc. using smart sensing models based on AI techniques. In this work, the smart sensing model is developed at first to predict the performance of Aux. feedwater pump by estimating flowrate using group method of data handing (GMDH) method. If the performance prediction is achieved by this feasibility study, the smart sensing model will be applied to development of the integrity evaluation method for safety critical components. Also, the proposed algorithm for the performance prediction is verified by comparison with the simulation data of the MARS code for station blackout (SBO) events. In this study, the smart sensing model for the prediction performance of Aux. feedwater pump has been developed. In order to develop the smart sensing model, the GMDH algorithm is employed. The GMDH algorithm is the way to find a function that can well express a dependent variable from independent variables. This method uses a data structure similar to that of multiple regression models. The proposed GMDH model can accurately predict the performance of Aux.

  14. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  15. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  16. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  17. Preparation and characterization of irradiated carboxymethyl sago starch-acid hydrogel and its application as metal scavenger in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Sri Norleha; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2016-03-15

    Carboxymethyl sago starch-acid hydrogel was prepared via irradiation technique to remove divalent metal ions (Pb, Cu and Cd) from their aqueous solution. The hydrogel was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of these metal ions was analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectra (ICP-OES) to study the amount of metal uptake by the hydrogel. Parameters of study include effect of pH, amount of sample, contact time, initial concentration of metal solution and reaction temperature. FTIR spectroscopy shows the CMSS hydrogel absorption peaks at 1741cm(-1), 1605cm(-1) and 1430cm(-1) which indicates the substitution of carboxymethyl group of modified sago starch. The degradation temperature of CMSS hydrogel is higher compared to CMSS due to the crosslinking by electron beam radiation and formed a porous hydrogel. From the data obtained, about 93.5%, 88.4% and 85.5% of Pb, Cu and Cd ions has been respectively removed from their solution under optimum condition. PMID:26794735

  18. Discrete modelling of rock-fill: Application to dams; Modelisation discrete des enrochements: Application aux barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluzarche, R.

    2004-12-15

    In this study, a discrete numerical model for rock-fill is built up and validated. This model is based upon the definition of bidimensional clusters that can break in different ways. The resistance of the inner bonds of the clusters are calibrated by reproducing the size-dependant resistance of rock blocks submitted to crushing tests. Numerical simulations of laboratory tests are performed on samples made of the different clusters. Tests on crushable clusters emphasize the utmost importance of particle crushing on the behaviour. A dam is modelled. The role of the placed-rock face on the stabilisation is underlined. The deformation of the dam during reservoir filling, as well as its good seismic behaviour is well reproduced by the model. The model makes it possible to show the influence of particle breakage on the settlements. (author)

  19. Thermal modeling. Application to lithium batteries; Modelisation thermique. Application aux accumulateurs lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Flament, P. [SAFT, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Marolleau, T. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Guiot, T.; Lefriec, C. [TSR Futuropolis, 86 - Chasseneuil du Poitou (France)

    1996-12-31

    The thermal modeling of electrochemical batteries is today an integral part of the design and validation operations of new products. The Li-ion pair allows to increase the power density of batteries but leads to higher heat fluxes during charging-output cycles. Thus, the thermal control has become more crucial and requires the use of modeling. SAFT and TSR companies are involved in this approach and use the ESACAP software. This paper presents this software which uses a nodal method for the modeling of the coupled thermal and electrical processes that take place inside elementary cells and batteries. (J.S.)

  20. Detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    food is marketed as irradiated or if irradiated goods are sold without the appropriate labeling, then detection tests should be able to prove the authenticity of the product. For the moment in Romania there is not any food control laboratory able to detect irradiated foodstuffs. The Technological Irradiation Department coordinates and co finances a research project aimed to establish the first Laboratory of Irradiated Foodstuffs Detection. The detection methods studied in this project are the ESR methods (for cellulose EN 1787/2000, bone EN 1786/1996 and crystalline sugar EN 13708/2003), the TL method (EN 1788/2001), the PSL method (EN 13751/2002) and the DNA Comet Assay method (EN 13784/2001). The above detection methods will be applied on various foodstuffs such: garlic, onion, potatoes, rice, beans, wheat, maize, pistachio, sunflower seeds, raisins, figs, strawberries, chicken, beef, fish, pepper, paprika, thyme, laurel and mushrooms. As an example of the application of a detection method there are presented the ESR spectra of irradiated and nonirradiated paprika acquired according to ESR detection method for irradiated foodstuffs containing cellulose. First of all it can be noticed that the intensity of the signal of cellulose is much higher for the irradiated sample than that for the nonirradiated one and second that appear two radiation specific signals symmetrical to the cellulose signal. These two radiation specific signals prove the irradiation treatment of paprika. (author)

  1. Penser aux/les limites de nos limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le mot « frontière » a beaucoup de succès, dans son sens propre mais plus encore comme métaphore d’une multitude de réalités qui ont à voir avec les limites, c’est-à-dire avec notre propension à découper le monde en objets séparables. Mais on constate une grande indétermination entre concept et métaphore et un usage trop facile de mélanges entre ceux-ci. Il faut donc d’abord admettre que la matérialité n’est qu’une des composantes de notre monde, mais que l’immatériel n’est pas l’irréel, le simulé ou le métaphorique. Après un détour par une théorie des limites et ses limites et une distinction entre le topographique (continu et le topologique (discontinu appliquée à l’intérieur et aux limites d’une aire, deux exemples sont développés qui visent à montrer que, si l’on trouve des frontières, ce n’est pas forcément là où on les attend et que l’appréciation juste de la place des frontières suppose la prise en compte de bien d’autres considérations que la seule limitation volontaire et brutale du franchissement d’une ligne imaginaire tracée au sol.Think about limits and the limits of our limitsThe word “boundary” has been very successful in its literal sense but even more so as a metaphor of a multitude of realities involving limits, that is, with regards to our tendency to divide the world into separable objects. However, one can observe a considerable uncertainty between the concept and the metaphor and an utilisation too easy of various mixtures of them. It becomes necessary therefore to first admit that materiality is only one of the components of our world whilst the immaterial is not unreal, simulated or metaphoric. After a detour consisting of examining a theory of limits and its limits and making the distinction between the topographic (continuous and the topologic (discontinuous applied to the interior and the limits of an area, two examples are developed which aim to

  2. Irradiation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surfaces by CF{sub 4} plasma to achieve robust superhydrophobic and enhanced oleophilic properties for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salapare, Hernando S., E-mail: hssalapare@up.edu.ph [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); eUP Office and UP Information Technology Development Center, University of the Philippines, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Suarez, Beverly Anne T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila (Philippines); Cosiñero, Hannah Shamina O.; Bacaoco, Miguel Y.; Ramos, Henry J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2015-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was irradiated by CF{sub 4} plasma produced in the gas discharge ion source facility to produce stable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces and to enhance the materials' oleophilic property for biological applications. The characterizations employed on the samples are contact angle measurements, analysis of the surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), surface roughness measurements (atomic force microscopy) and analysis of the surface chemistry (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was observed. The wettability of all the treated samples was found to be stable in time as evidenced by the statistically insignificant differences in the hysteresis contact angles. The level of enhanced hydrophobicity depended on the plasma energies (i.e. irradiation times, discharge current, and discharge voltage); higher plasma energies produced surfaces with high hydrophobicity. The plasma treatment also enhanced the oleophilic property of the materials' surface as evidenced by the decrease in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to as low as 10°. The superhydrophobicity of the modified PTFE and the enhancement of its oleophilic property were due to (1) the changes in the roughness of the surface, (2) the formation of nanoparticles or nanostructures on the surface, and (3) the changes in the surface chemistry. - Highlights: • PTFE surfaces were treated with direct CF{sub 4} using the gas discharge ion source. • Stable superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was recorded. • Surface roughness increased as the surface exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity. • Carbon nanoparticles were observed on the superhydrophobic PTFE surface. • Enhanced oleophilic property was observed with change in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to 10°.

  3. Irradiation of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surfaces by CF4 plasma to achieve robust superhydrophobic and enhanced oleophilic properties for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) was irradiated by CF4 plasma produced in the gas discharge ion source facility to produce stable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces and to enhance the materials' oleophilic property for biological applications. The characterizations employed on the samples are contact angle measurements, analysis of the surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy), surface roughness measurements (atomic force microscopy) and analysis of the surface chemistry (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was observed. The wettability of all the treated samples was found to be stable in time as evidenced by the statistically insignificant differences in the hysteresis contact angles. The level of enhanced hydrophobicity depended on the plasma energies (i.e. irradiation times, discharge current, and discharge voltage); higher plasma energies produced surfaces with high hydrophobicity. The plasma treatment also enhanced the oleophilic property of the materials' surface as evidenced by the decrease in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to as low as 10°. The superhydrophobicity of the modified PTFE and the enhancement of its oleophilic property were due to (1) the changes in the roughness of the surface, (2) the formation of nanoparticles or nanostructures on the surface, and (3) the changes in the surface chemistry. - Highlights: • PTFE surfaces were treated with direct CF4 using the gas discharge ion source. • Stable superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angles as high as 156° was recorded. • Surface roughness increased as the surface exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity. • Carbon nanoparticles were observed on the superhydrophobic PTFE surface. • Enhanced oleophilic property was observed with change in the PDMS-oil contact angle from 33° to 10°

  4. Precision rectifier detectors for ac resistance bridge measurements with application to temperature control systems for irradiation creep experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M. G.

    1977-05-01

    The suitability of several temperature measurement schemes for an irradiation creep experiment is examined. It is found that the specimen resistance can be used to measure and control the sample temperature if compensated for resistance drift due to radiation and annealing effects. A modified Kelvin bridge is presented that allows compensation for resistance drift by periodically checking the sample resistance at a controlled ambient temperature. A new phase-insensitive method for detecting the bridge error signals is presented. The phase-insensitive detector is formed by averaging the magnitude of two bridge voltages. Although this method is substantially less sensitive to stray reactances in the bridge than conventional phase-sensitive detectors, it is sensitive to gain stability and linearity of the rectifier circuits. Accuracy limitations of rectifier circuits are examined both theoretically and experimentally in great detail. Both hand analyses and computer simulations of rectifier errors are presented. Finally, the design of a temperature control system based on sample resistance measurement is presented. The prototype is shown to control a 316 stainless steel sample to within a 0.15/sup 0/C short term (10 sec) and a 0.03/sup 0/C long term (10 min) standard deviation at temperatures between 150 and 700/sup 0/C. The phase-insensitive detector typically contributes less than 10 ppM peak resistance measurement error (0.04/sup 0/C at 700/sup 0/C for 316 stainless steel or 0.005/sup 0/C at 150/sup 0/C for zirconium).

  5. Lutte contre les cerscosporioses du bananier aux Antilles françaises : Banatrace, un système d'information géographique multi-acteurs pour la gestion et la traçabilité des épandages aériens Fighting banana sigatoka diseases in the French West Indies : Banatrace, a multi actors geographic information system for the management and the traceability of aerial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMAS, Marine ; LABBÉ, Sylvain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Comment un système d’information géographique peut-il aider à améliorer la fiabilité des traitements aériens contre les maladies fongiques du bananier tout en réduisant leur impact environnemental ? Des réponses aux Antilles françaises avec l’outil informatique multi-acteurs Banatrace, conçu pour aider les gestionnaires à répondre aux différents besoins de traçabilité imposée par la réglementation récente sur les épandages aériens.«Banatrace» is an information system integrating the European rules and regulations relative to the aerial spraying of pesticide over the banana plantations. It helps to the fight against the cercosporia contamination in the French West Indies. This tool aims to fulfill the information needed by the different parties involved in this process: user manager, planters, aerial treatment companies, planters’ cooperatives and administration. It includes DBMS and GIS functionalities in order to program the treatments and to record all events, leading to a better traceability. Moreover carrying out treatment management, it contributes to improve people security and environment protection.

  6. Comportement de frittés et de films d'oxyde de titane en présence d'atmosphères gazeuses, hors équilibre thermodynamique, en régime stationnaire; application aux capteurs résistifs d'oxygène

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerisian, R.; Gautron, J.; Loup, J. P.

    1992-04-01

    mesurée, en régime stationnaire, en fonction du débit des gaz ; ces atmosphères sont d'autant plus éloignées de l'équilibre que le débit est élevé. On montre que les variations de résistance des échantillons, en fonction du débit, dépendent du domaine de pression partielle d'oxygène, de la température et de la structure des échantillons. La sensibilité à l'oxygène est accrue par un morphologie qui, à l'échelle macroscopique, favorise la diffusion de l'oxygène et qui, à l'échelle microscopique, permet la création de barrière de potentiel aux joints de grains. En milieu oxydant, à 870 K, un mécanisme de volume qui met en jeu la cinétique des échanges avec la phase gazeuse, détermine une variation de résistance en P_{O_2}^{1/4}/P_{CO}^{1/2}. En milieu réducteur, à la même température, la non-stœchiométrie en volume de l'oxyde est fixée par le couple redox CO/CO2 comme si l'atmosphère était en équilibre thermodynamique. Mais l'abondance des électrons de conduction, favorise la chimisorption de l'oxygène qui contrôle la résistance des couches selon une loi en P_{O_2}^{1/2} en créant des barrières de potentiel à la surface des grains. Des modèles, permettant le calcul du potentiel de surface ainsi que du taux de recouvrement, sont développés ; la comparaison des modèles indique une diffusion relativement lente des lacunes d'oxygène à 870 K. A 1 100 K, l'atmosphère tend à être à l'équilibre thermodynamique : i) en atmosphère oxydante, tous les capteurs sont en équilibre avec la pression partielle d'oxygène ; ii) en atmosphère réductrice, dominée par le couple redox CO/CO2, seules les couches sont sensibles à la présence de traces d'oxygène.

  7. Accumulated energy determination in salts rocks irradiated by means of thermoluminescence techniques: application to the high level radioactive wastes repositories analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the study carried out to develop the radiation effects on salt rocks in order to repository the high level radioactive wastes. The study is structured into 3 main aspects: 1.- Analysis of irradiation experiences in Haw project of Pet ten reactor. 2.- Irradiation of salt sample of CESAR industrial irradiator. 3.- Correlation study between the accumulated energy, termoluminescence answer and the defect concentration

  8. Thin film silicon solar cells for space applications: Study of proton irradiation and thermal annealing effects on the characteristics of solar cells and individual layers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuendig, J.; Goetz, M.; Shah, Arvind; Gerlach, L.; Fernandez, E

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the effects of a proton irradiation campaign on a series of thin-film silicon solar cells (single- and double-junction). The effect of subsequent thermal annealing on solar cells degraded by proton irradiation is investigated. A low-temperature annealing behaviour can be observed (at temperatures around 100 to 160°C) for microcrystalline silicon solar cells. To further explore this effect, a second proton irradiation campaign has been carried out, but this time on microcr...

  9. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  12. Irradiation emerges as processing alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticipating that food irradiation may soon become an important addition to the many food processing techniques currently available, this article discusses many aspects of this process. Primarily, the benefits of irradiation for all foods include insect and bacterial control, increasing the potential to reduce incidences of food-borne illnesses, in addition to delaying the deterioration of fruits and vegetables. Currently approved uses of food irradiation in the U.S. and other countries, a summary of the proposed rule for wider application, and the labeling issue encompassed in the proposal are addressed. Additionally, the areas of great consumer concern--safety and public health implications, are talked about with the conclusion that food irradiation has been declared safe

  13. Syst\\`emes interactifs sensibles aux \\'emotions : architecture logicielle

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    We propose a software architecture for interactive systems which allows integrating the user's emotion. Emotion can be involved in interaction at several levels. In our application case - ballet dance - emotions is explicitely manipulated by the interactive system to produce emotion-wise output. Our architecture model to develop emotion-wise applications is based on the PAC-Amodeus model. We add a branch to this model, divided into three components: Data capture, analysis and cue extraction, and finally interpretation of those cues. We show the different data flows between this architecture's components depending on the entry point of the emotion branch within the system. We then illustrate our model by describing our application case: capturing a ballet dancer's movement to extract the emotions he expresses and use these emotions to generate graphical content that is displayed on stage.

  14. A COTS-based single board radiation-hardened computer for space applications; Monocarte ordinateur durcie aux radiations utilisant des COTS et destinee aux applications spatiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, S.; Hillman, R.; Layton, P.; Krawzsenek, D. [Space Electronics Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    There is great community interest in the ability to use COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) technology in radiation environments. Space Electronics, Inc. has developed a high performance COTS-based radiation hardened computer. COTS approaches were selected for both hardware and software. Through parts testing, selection and packaging, all requirements have been met without parts or process development. Reliability, total ionizing dose and single event performance are attractive. The characteristics, performance and radiation resistance of the single board computer will be presented. (authors)

  15. Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges

  16. Preparation of pH-sensitive poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels grafted by γ-ray irradiation and their applications for drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymers held together by crosslinks of covalent bonds or ionic bonds and secondary forces in the form of hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic interactions. Environmentally sensitive hydrogels have an enormous potential for various applications. Either pH-sensitive and/or temperature- sensitive hydrogels can be used for a site-specific controlled drug delivery. Especially, pH-sensitive hydrogels have been most frequently used to develop controlled release formulations for oral administration. All the pH-sensitive hydrogels contain pendent acidic, for example carboxylic and sulfonic acids, or basic, for example ammonium salts, groups that either accept or release protons in response to changes in environmental pH[3-5]. These ionic hydrogels are the swollen polymer networks which show sudden or gradual changes in their dynamic and equilibrium swelling behavior as a result of changing the external pH. In these gels, ionization occurs when the pH of the environment is above the pKa of the ionizable group . As the degree of ionization increases (pH increase in the system), the number of fixed charges increases, resulting in increased electrostatic repulsions between the chains. Irradiation, especially if combined with simultaneous sterilization of the product, is a very convenient tool for the synthesis of hydrogels. Radiation processing has many advantages over other conventional methods. For initiation processes, radiation differs from chemical initiation. In radiation processing, no catalysts or additives are needed to initiate the reaction. The advantages of the radiation methods are that they are relatively simple, and moreover, the degree of crosslinking, which strongly determines the extent of swelling in hydrogels, can be controlled easily by varying the absorbed dose. Therefore, these methods are found to be very useful in preparing hydrogels for medical applications, where even a small contamination is

  17. Un outil de prise de données sur une image numérisée et son utilité dans les études relatives aux poissons : exemple d'une application concrète en morphométrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGNES P.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Une configuration informatique polyvalente en analyse d'images est présentée. L'accent est mis sur une application morphométrique par l'intermédiaire d'un exemple concret chez les poissons, d'où ressortent les principales qualités du dispositif, soit la précision et la rapidité de collecte et de stockage des données. Des applications possibles de cet outil à des domaines d'étude précis sont également suggérées.

  18. Les références aux documents en ligne dans les textes scientifiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Couture

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Avec le développement de la diffusion en ligne de documents scientifiques, la primauté reconnue traditionnellement à l’imprimé devient de moins en moins pertinente ; les références à des ressources et documents en ligne forment ainsi une proportion significative des références dans certaines revues scientifiques, notamment celles qui, comme la RITPU, s’intéressent à l’information et à la communication. Dans cet article, on passe d’abord en revue les divers rôles des références répertoriés dans la littérature. On décrit ensuite les caractéristiques et les conditions permettant aux documents en ligne de jouer pleinement ces rôles. On montre enfin comment, dans l’adaptation française des normes de l’APA adoptée par la RITPU, certains choix touchant le format des notices des documents en ligne facilitent la tâche des évaluateurs et des lecteurs des articles. Par la même occasion, les auteurs y trouveront conseils et consignes visant à rendre plus pertinente et efficace cette dimension souvent négligée de la communication scientifique. [English] With the increase of online scientific publications, the traditional primacy of print documents has become less and less relevant. In some scientific journals, notably in the field of information technology and its applications (like IJTHE, a significant part of the citations now refer to online documents. This paper first reviews the various roles played by citations in scientific texts according to the literature. It then describes the characteristics and conditions which must be met if citations to online documents are to fully play these roles. Finally, it shows how, in the French-language adaptation of the APA reference formats which was adopted by IJTHE, a few choices have been made regarding online references in order to ease the task of both referees and readers. By the same token, authors will find guidelines and suggestions which should improve

  19. [Topical application of vitamins, phytosterols and ceramides. Protection against increased expression of interstital collagenase and reduced collagen-I expression after single exposure to UVA irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, S; Mühlberg, K; Brenden, H; Krutmann, J

    2008-07-01

    Photoaged skin is characterized by a decrease of dermal collagen fibers, resulting from an increased breakdown and a diminished de novo synthesis. The increased breakdown results from an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The main building blocks involved in de novo synthesis of collagen fibers are collagen 1A1 and 1A2, the expression of which is reduced in photoaged skin. We studied the effect of topical application of vitamins, phytosterols and ceramides on UV-induced up-regulation of the expression of MMP-1 and on UV-induced down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2. The study was conducted with 10 subjects with healthy skin who were comparatively treated for 10 days with (i) a basic preparation containing jojoba oil, (ii) the basic preparation supplemented with vitamins, (iii) the basic preparation supplemented with phytosterols and ceramides, and (iv) the basic preparation supplemented with vitamins, phytosterols and ceramides. All four preparations inhibited the UV induced up-regulation of MMP-1. Neither the basic product nor that supplemented with vitamins inhibited down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2, but addition of phytosterols and ceramides caused a decreased down-regulation of the expression of these genes. Our results indicate that phytosterols and ceramides are effective in blocking the reduced collagen synthesis after UV irradiation and even stimulating synthesis. They may be useful additions to anti-aging products.

  20. A use of the microdosimetric Kinetic Model (MKM) for the interpretation of cell irradiation in the framework of the hadron-therapy: Application of Monte-Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadron-therapy is a cancer treatment method based on the use of heavy charged particles. The physical characteristics of these particles allow more precise targeting of tumours and offer higher biological efficiency than photons and electrons. This thesis addresses the problem of modelling the biological effects induced by such particles. One part of this work is devoted to the analysis of the Monte-Carlo simulation tool-kit 'Geant4' used to simulate the physical stage of the particle interactions with the biological medium. We evaluated the ability of 'Geant4' to simulate the microscopic distribution of energy deposition produced by charged particles and we compared these results with those of another simulation code dedicated to radiobiological applications. The other part of the work is dedicated to the study of two radiobiological models that are the LEM (Local Effect Model) based on an amorphous track structure approach and the MKM (Microdosimetric Kinetic Model) based on microdosimetric approach. A theoretical analysis of both models and a comparison of their concepts are presented. Then we focused on a detailed analysis of the microdosimetric model 'MKM'. Finally, we applied the MKM to reproduce the experimental results obtained at GANIL by irradiation of two tumour cell lines (cell line SCC61 and SQ20B) of different radiosensitivity with carbon and argon ions. (author)

  1. Le Carnaval de Schignano : un dernier salut aux émigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Del Biaggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour arriver à Schignano, il faut passer par una cürva al giazz e una cürva al suu [Un virage dans la glace et un virage au soleil], comme disent les mots en dialecte d’une récente chanson écrite par Davide Van De Sfroos, compositeur-interprète de la région. C’est dans ce petit hameau de la Vallée d’Intelvi, au-dessus du Lac de Côme, que, tous les ans, le carnaval anime le village. Une fête populaire spontanée, sans règles écrites, ni lois, qui survit grâce aux habitants qui l’animent, aux ar...

  2. Disruptions in AUX1-Dependent Auxin Influx Alter Hypocotyl Phototropism in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bethany B.Stone; Emily L.Stowe-Evans; Reneé M.Harper; R.Brandon Celaya; Karin Ljung; G(o)ran Sandberg; Emmanuel Liscum

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling,leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if coirradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations-map1 ((m)odifier of (a)rf7 (p)henotypes (1))-was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1-a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmocological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  3. Report of transparency and nuclear safety 2007 CEA Fontenay aux Roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities of the CEA Center of Fontenay aux roses for the year 2007. After many years of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations, the Center is now devoted (since 2005) to the development of research programmes on biology and biomedical technologies. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  4. T0002 / MilliNewton / Erreurs dues à l'orientation et aux forces latérales

    OpenAIRE

    Maeder, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Le capteur de force MilliNewton est sensible aux forces latérales, dans le sens longitudinal à la poutre. Le degré de sensibilité du capteur à ces forces dépend essentiellement de la taille de la bille et de la longueur de la poutre. En revanche, la sensibilité aux forces latérales perpendiculaires à la poutre est très faible.

  5. Application de la spectroscopie à l'étude de la planète Mars et à la recherche de planètes extrasolaires :
    caractérisation des spectromètres de l'instrument SPICAM-Light embarqué à bord de la mission spatiale Mars-Express ; développement et optimisation du spectromètre astronomique EMILIE dédié aux mesures de vitesses radiales stellaires.

    OpenAIRE

    Guibert, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    Cette thèse présente trois techniques innovantes de spectrométrie, l'une en domaine infrarouge, l'autre en visible, et la troisième en ultraviolet. Deux d'entres elles sont utilisées par l'instrument Spicam-Light à bord de la sonde spatiale Mars-Express pour l'étude de l'atmosphère de Mars. La troisième concerne la spectrométrie à haute résolution depuis le sol, et est dédiée aux mesures de vitesses radiales stellaires pour la recherche de planètes extrasolaires à l'Observatoire de Haute Prov...

  6. Industrialization development of food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report introduces present status on food irradiation at home and abroad in detail. It also introduces the scientific research and application in reducing diseases caused by food borne pathogens, quarantine control of import and export products, grain store and killing insects in traditional Chinese medicine. The report also analyzes the problems in developing food irradiation in China and gives some suggestions

  7. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) modification induced by gamma irradiation for application as ionic polymer-metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-radiation-induced grafting of styrene into poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films with 0.125 mm thickness at doses from 1 to 100 kGy in the presence of a styrene/N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF) solution (1:1, v/v) and styrene/toluene (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h-1 was carried out by simultaneous method under nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature, using gamma rays from a Co-60. After grafting reactions, the polymer was then sulfonated in chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane (2 and 10%) for 3 hours. The films were characterized before and after modification by calculating the degree of grafting (DOG), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). DOG results show that grafting increases with dose, and varies enormously depending on the solvent used, with DOGs about 20 times greater in DMF than in toluene. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the appearance of the new characteristic peaks and by the TG and DSC which exhibited changes in the thermal behavior of the grafted/sulfonated material. Sulfonated material was also characterized by ion exchange capacity (IEC) showed that both DOG and sulfonic acid concentration increase IEC values. Results showed that it is possible to obtain materials with ion exchange capacity of possible application as ionic polymer-metal composites. (author)

  8. Introduction to neural networks; Introduction aux reseaux de neurones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlopoulos, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    This lecture is a presentation of today`s research in neural computation. Neural computation is inspired by knowledge from neuro-science. It draws its methods in large degree from statistical physics and its potential applications lie mainly in computer science and engineering. Neural networks models are algorithms for cognitive tasks, such as learning and optimization, which are based on concepts derived from research into the nature of the brain. The lecture first gives an historical presentation of neural networks development and interest in performing complex tasks. Then, an exhaustive overview of data management and networks computation methods is given: the supervised learning and the associative memory problem, the capacity of networks, the Perceptron networks, the functional link networks, the Madaline (Multiple Adalines) networks, the back-propagation networks, the reduced coulomb energy (RCE) networks, the unsupervised learning and the competitive learning and vector quantization. An example of application in high energy physics is given with the trigger systems and track recognition system (track parametrization, event selection and particle identification) developed for the CPLEAR experiment detectors from the LEAR at CERN. (J.S.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix.

  9. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 12, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter reports activities of two ICGFI training workshops convened in Santiago, Chile, and Rehovot, Israel, in the past six months. The summary report of the FAO/IAEA Seminar on Food Irradiation for Developing Countries in Africa is also included. A follow-up to this Seminar is the ''Co-ordinated Research Programme on Food Irradiation for African Countries'' which will be implemented as soon as funds become available. Further, this issue contains a report of the Working Group on Food Irradiation of the European Society for Nuclear Agriculture convened in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria in 1987 and status reports of practical applications of food irradiation in different countries. 2 tabs

  10. Study in vitro of dental enamel irradiated with a high power diode laser operating at 960 nm: morphological analysis of post-irradiation dental surface and thermal effect analysis in pulp chamber due to laser application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: This study examines the structural and thermal modifications induced in dental enamel under dye assisted diode laser irradiation. The aim of this study is to verify if this laser-assisted treatment is capable to modify the enamel surface by causing fusion of the enamel surface layer. At the same time, the pulpal temperature rise must be kept low enough in order not to cause pulpar necrosis. To achieve this target, it is necessary to determine suitable laser parameters. As is known, fusion of the enamel surface followed by re-solidification produce a more acid resistant layer. This surface treatment is being researched as a new method for caries prevention. Method and Materials: A series of fourteen identically prepared enamel samples of human teeth were irradiated with a high power diode laser operating at 960 nm and using fiber delivery. Prior to irradiation, a fine layer of cromophorous ink was applied to the enamel surface. In the first part of the experiment the best parameter for pulse duration was determined. In the second part of the experimental phase the same energy density was used but with different repetition rates. During irradiation we monitored the temperature rise in the pulpal cavity. The morphology of the treated samples was analysed under SEM. Results: The morphology of the treated samples showed a homogeneously re-solidified enamel layer. The results of the temperature analysis showed a decrease of the pulpal temperature rise with decreasing repetition rate. Conclusion: With the diode laser it is possible to cause morphological alterations of the enamel surface, which is known to increase the enamel resistance against acid attack, and still maintain the temperature rise in the pulpar chamber below damage threshold. (author)

  11. A Fiberoptic Irradiance Microsensor (Cosine Collector) - Application for In-Situ Measurements of Absorption-Coefficients in Sediments and Microbial Mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    The manufacture of a new fiber-optic irradiance microsensor with cosine collecting properties is described. The 70 mu m wide light collector, cast on the tip of a tapered optical fiber, consisted of a 50 mu m wide flat methacrylate diffuser surrounded by an opaque black coating to prevent light...... microsensor was used concurrently with fiber-optic microsensors for radiance and scalar irradiance in two cyanobacterial mats: a gelatinous laminated mat of Aphanothece sp. and Phormidium sp. and a compact marine intertidal mat of Microcoleus chthonoplastes. At the surface, the ratio of scalar irradiance...

  12. Irradiation: Technology whose time has come?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and application of food irradiation are briefly discussed, noting FDA's recent approval of the use of this technology to kill trichnella spirals in pork. Despite public concerns, food irradiation sources (gamma rays from Co-60 and Cs-137) are reported to leave no radioactivity in irradiated foods when used under FDA-approved guidelines. Food irradiation was legally ruled to be a 'food additive' by Congress in 1958 with FDA having regulatory authority; however, while low-level dosing has received FDA approval for sprout inhibition in root crops and as an insect control, concerns about cost-effectiveness, safety, and consumer acceptability have continued to limit high dose food irradiation (i.e., exposure to over 1000krad). The future acceptance of food irradiation still, primarily rests in the hands of food service professionals and their consumers

  13. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  14. La grotte de la Chauve-Souris à Donzère (Drôme, France) : L'environnement holocène par la méthode quantitative appliquée aux microvertébrés. Essai de définition et application

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannet, Marcel; Vital, Joël

    2009-01-01

    International audience The « Chauve-Souris » cave at Donzére (Drôme, France). Holocene environment by quantitative method applied on microvertebrates. Definition and application attempt.- The study of microfauna collected by one of us (J.V.) during the excavation of the « Chauve-Souris » cave (Donzère, Drôme, France) widely covers the second half of Holocene and chiefly final Neolithic and final Bronze Age. Species are relatively common except the Iberic Vole (Microtus cabrerae Thomas, 190...

  15. Irradiation test with silicon ingot for NTD-Si irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon semiconductor production by neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method using the JMTR has been investigated in Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to expand the industry use. As a part of investigations, irradiation test with a silicon ingot was planned using WWR-K in Institute of Nuclear Physics, Republic of Kazakhstan. A device rotating the ingot made with the silicon was fabricated and was installed in the WWR-K for the irradiation test. And that, a preliminary irradiation test was carried out using neutron fluence monitors to evaluate the neutronic irradiation field. Based on the result, two silicon ingots were irradiated as scheduled, and the resistivity of each irradiated silicon ingot was measured to confirm the applicability of high-quality silicon semiconductor by the NTD method (NTD-Si) to its commercial production. (author)

  16. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  17. 微波辐照技术的工艺特性及其在水处理中的应用%Characteristics of microwave irradiation technology and its application to water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚峰; 王景新; 李志成; 冯朋

    2012-01-01

    The technological characteristics of microwave irradiation technology and its applied mechanisms in water treatment are analyzed. The research situation and application situation of microwave irradiation technology applied to wastewater treatment are introduced. The technological types of microwave irradiation technology used for treating wastewater and their reaction effects are summarized. Some problems existing in the developing stage of water treatment are analyzed, too. Corresponding opinion and suggestion are put forward. The development tendency of microwave irradiation technology of water treatment is forecast.%分析了微波辐照技术的工艺特性及其在水处理中的作用机理,介绍了微波辐照技术用于废水处理领域中的研究状况与应用情况,综述了微波辐照技术用于废水处理的工艺类型及反应效果.结合相关研究与工程应用情况,分析了微波辐照技术在水处理应用中存在的问题,并提出了相应的意见和建议.展望了微波辐照技术在水处理中的发展方向.

  18. Quantitative Microanalysis with high Spatial Resolution: Application of FEG-DTEM XEDS Microanalysis to the Characterization of Complex Microstructures in Irradiated Low Alloy Steet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.B., Watanabe, M. and Burke, M.G.

    2001-11-14

    To assist in the characterization of microstructural changes associated with irradiation damage in low alloy steels, the technique of quantitative x-ray mapping using a field emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM) equipped with an x-ray energy Dispersive spectrometer (XEDS) has been employed. Quantitative XEDS microanalyses of the matrix and grain boundaries of irradiated specimens have been compared with previous quantitative analyses obtained using 3D-Atom Probe Field-Ion Microscopy (3D-APFIM). In addition, the FEG-STEM XEDS maps obtained from the irradiated steel have revealed the presence of 2 to 3 nm Ni-enriched 'precipitates' in the matrix, which had previously been detected using 3D-APFIM. These quantitative FEG-STEM XEDS results represent the first direct and independent microchemical corroboration of the 3D-APFIM results showing ultra-fine irradiation-induced hardening features in low alloy steel.

  19. Chemiluminescence ELISA for the detection of oxidative DNA base damage using anti-8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine antibody. Application to the detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since ionizing radiation is used for sterilizing or lowering the microbial content of foods as a means of reducing food losses and securing food safety, the development of versatile detection methods of irradiated foods is necessary for appropriate management. In an effort to distinguish between irradiated and non-irradiated food, a method based on the detection of oxidative DNA base damage using the chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with anti-8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine antibody was developed. In the course of optimizing the reaction conditions for the ELISA, a 30-mer synthetic oligonucleotide containing 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG) was used. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation between chemiluminescence intensity and 8-oxoG content in oligonucleotides was obtained. It was shown that this chemiluminescence ELISA method could be applied to chicken, beef and pork that were irradiated with over 3 kGy. Twenty milligrams of a loaf of meat was sufficient to distinguish between irradiated and non-irradiated meat by this method. (author)

  20. Trade promotion of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting carried out by the Group was attended by invited specialists on legislation, marketing, consumer attitudes and industry interested in the application of food irradiation. The major objectives of the meeting were to identify barriers and constraints to trade in irradiated food and to recommend actions to be carried out by the Group to promote trade in such foods. The report of the meeting and selected 9 background papers used at the meeting are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  1. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  2. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  3. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    degradation of exothermic origin. This experimental program puts emphasis on the fragile nature of the preheated concrete and demonstrates the non-applicability of two failure criteria often used in engineering calculation. An alternative is proposed and well-tested. Indeed, exposing the concrete to high temperature results in irreversible loss of stiffness as well as a loss of decohesion strength. These losses are, typically, expressed through semi-empirical relationships of the mechanical properties with temperature. Unfortunately, these relationships are inadequate because the direct impact of this degradation, on the macroscopic scale, can result in a dependency relationship between the elastic properties and the hydrates mass. Therefore, unlike traditional methods using conventional elasto-plastic models and adjusting certain parameters with local temperature, the proposed constitutive law that incorporates a function of dehydration similar to the softening index in chemo-plastics gives good results. An Etse and Willam similar criterion is used and modified for the occasion. Hardening and softening mechanisms are then needed to expand and contract the loading surface for defining the strength of the concrete on a wide range of dehydration processes. The direction and magnitude of a permanent deformation, core of the inelastic domain, are defined through the development of non-associated chemoplastic potential and new curve of ductility. The influence of hydrostatic pressure (dilatancy) and dehydration on the concrete behavior are taken into account in our model. The model is implemented in the Matlab(c) code. Strains and stresses generated in the concrete are now accurately predicted. To illustrate the capabilities of the developed model to predict the complex behavior of concrete exposed to high temperature, simulations are performed through numerical loading paths scenarios. The model is able to accurately reproduce all the experimental data.

  4. Food irradiation newsletter. V.18, no.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter contains a report on the 10th Annual Meeting of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiations, summaries of the Second Research Co-ordination Meetings(RCMs) and Final RCM of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation with Emphasis on Process Control and Applications(RPFI-Pase III), the resolutions and considerations of food irradiation by the IAEA Board and summaries of the Regional Project for Research, Developing and Training on the Application of Nuclear Techniques to Food Preservation in the Near East. Reviews and order information for new publications and a listing of future meetings and workshops are located in the back of this newsletter

  5. Detection of irradiated frozen foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tried to detect whether foods were irradiated or not by the o-tyrosine method and the mtDNA method. The o-tyrosine method was applied to four kinds of meat (beef, pork, chicken and tuna). The results showed the linear relation between amount of o-tyrosine and dose (0-10 kGy). However, small amount of o-tyrosine were produced in some cases which application of the method summed to be very difficult because small difference between irradiated foods and untreated foods. Possibility of mtDNA method was investigated. Work and time for separation of mitochondria and extraction of DNA were reduced by a protease-solid phase extraction method. By PCR method, accurate mtDNA could be detected from very small amount of DNA. The irradiation effect is able to detect from 50 Gy. (S.Y.)

  6. Fictitious domain methods for elliptic problems with general boundary conditions with an application to the numerical simulation of two phase flows; Methodes de domaine fictif pour des problemes elliptiques avec conditions aux limites generales en vue de la simulation numerique d'ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramiere, I

    2006-09-15

    This work is dedicated to the introduction of two original fictitious domain methods for the resolution of elliptic problems (mainly convection-diffusion problems) with general and eventually mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Robin or Neumann. The originality lies in the approximation of the immersed boundary by an approximate interface derived from the fictitious domain Cartesian mesh, which is generally not boundary-fitted to the physical domain. The same generic numerical scheme is used to impose the embedded boundary conditions. Hence, these methods require neither a surface mesh of the immersed boundary nor the local modification of the numerical scheme. We study two modelling of the immersed boundary. In the first one, called spread interface, the approximate immersed boundary is the union of the cells crossed by the physical immersed boundary. In the second one, called thin interface, the approximate immersed boundary lies on sides of mesh cells. Additional algebraic transmission conditions linking both flux and solution jumps through the thin approximate interface are introduced. The fictitious problem to solve as well as the treatment of the embedded boundary conditions are detailed for the two methods. A Q1 finite element scheme is implemented for the numerical validation of the spread interface approach while a new cell-centered finite volume scheme is derived for the thin interface approach with immersed jumps. Each method is then combined to multilevel local mesh refinement algorithms (with solution or flux residual) to increase the precision of the solution in the vicinity of the immersed interface. A convergence analysis of a Q1 finite element method with non-boundary fitted meshes is also presented. This study proves the convergence rates of the present methods. Among the various industrial applications, the simulation on a model of heat exchanger in french nuclear power plants enables us to appreciate the performances of the fictitious domain

  7. 辐照技术在环境保护中的研究现状及应用情况分析%Analysis on Research and Application Status of Irradiation Technology in Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊超; 贾明慧; 董晓晴

    2016-01-01

    To study the application of irradiation technology in environmental protection,research status of irradiation technology in environmental protection in China was analyzed from three aspects,including academic papers,scientists and research institutions and relative conclusions were obtained.Advices for the development of irradiation technology were proposed based on both foreign and domestic application status of the technology.The data in the paper were collected from CNKI(China National Knowledge Infrastructure),VIP database and WANFANG database.%以辐照技术在环境保护中的应用为重要研究领域,从学术论文、科学家主体、研究机构主体三方面对国内辐照技术在环境保护中的研究现状进行分析,得出相关结论,同时借鉴国外的应用情况,提出辐照技术今后发展的意见建议。分析数据均取自中国知网、维普、万方数据库的文献数据。

  8. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  9. Nutritional aspects of food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, T.K.

    1981-08-01

    From the nutritional point of view the irradiation of fruits and vegetables presents few problems. It should be noted that irradiation-induced changes in the ..beta..-carotene content of papaya (not available to the Joint Expert Committee in 1976) have been demonstrated to be unimportant. The Joint Expert Committee also noted the need for more data on thiamine loss. These have been forthcoming and indicate that control of insects in rice is possible without serious loss of the vitamin. Experiments with other cereal crops were also positive in this regard. The most important evidence on the nutritional quality of irradiated beef and poultry was the demonstration that they contained no anti-thiamine properties. A point not to be overlooked is the rather serious loss of thiamine when mackerel is irradiated at doses exceeding 3 kGy. Recent evidence indicates that thiamine loss could be reduced by using a high dose rate application process. Though spices contribute little directly to the nutritional quality of the food supply they play an important indirect role. It is thus encouraging that they can be sterilized by irradiation without loss of aroma and taste and without significant loss of ..beta..-carotenes. Of future importance are the observations on single cell protein and protein-fat-carbohydrate mixtures. The reduction of net protein utilization in protein-fat mixtures may be the result of physical interaction of the components.

  10. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  11. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  12. Acceptance of irradiated food: an education issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial use of irradiated food technology in Brazil has a slow growing due to misinterpretation by most Brazilian consumers, who have been mislead by wrong ideas about the meaning of what is nuclear energy. Researches indicate that consumers have difficult in accepting such a technology due to the confusion between the terms irradiation and radioactivity, which are often related to health risks. When properly informed about the process, its purpose and the benefits offered by food irradiation technology, most consumers react positively. Therefore, this work aims to: first, to evaluate the acceptance of irradiated foods by Brazilian consumers; second, to verify the teaching at school about the food irradiation process; third, to analyze the Brazilian school curriculum from elementary school to high school, regarding nuclear energy applications; then, to compare the content taught in Brazil with the content covered in other surveyed countries, such as France, United States, and China. The methodology of this study consisted of a systematic survey of the specific literature, and a questionnaire to verify the acceptance of irradiated food by Brazilian consumers. According to the researched bibliography, it was clear the recommendation of an early school education about the usage of nuclear energy, more specifically, food irradiation. Such a recommendation is due to the fact that the consulted costumers, in Brazil and other countries mentioned in this work, do not clearly understand the full benefits of irradiated food. Hence, education is fundamental for the acceptance of new technologies by consumers, as it is the case with irradiated food. (author)

  13. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  14. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  15. Application of electron-beam irradiation on the production of salted and seasoned short-necked clam, Tapes Pilippinarum, for safe distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Song, H.P.; Choe, J.H.; Jung, S. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, A. [Quality Control and Utilization of Animal Products, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J. [Food Safety Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Salted and seasoned short-necked clam (Tapes Philippinarum; SNC) and its major ingredients, red hot pepper powder, ginger, garlic and onion were irradiated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy, respectively, and the microbiological and sensory quality were evaluated. The water activities of SNC and red pepper powder were 0.91 and 0.56, respectively, and others were higher than 0.97. The initial microbial populations of SNC were approximately 3.99, 4.38 and 2.22 log CFU/g for total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and coliform bacteria. The highest contamination of total aerobic bacteria was detected from ground ginger among ingredients at 5.51 log CFU/g. Electron-beam irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 kGy) significantly reduced the initial microbial level of SNC and its ingredients not only immediately after irradiation, but also during storage at 10 {sup o}C for 4 weeks (p<0.05). There was no adverse change of sensory score except for the color of onion irradiated at 5 kGy, which results in a lower score than control. From the results electron-beam irradiation is a useful tool to enhance the storage stability and safe distribution of SNC.

  16. Characterization of the deviation of the ideality of concentrated electrolytic solutions: plutonium 4 and uranium 4 nitrate salts study; Contribution a la caracterisation de l'ecart a l'idealite des solutions concentrees d'electrolytes: application aux cas de nitrates de plutonium (4) et d'uranium (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrin, N

    2000-07-01

    the experimental acquisition of binary data for plutonium(IV) and uranium(IV) nitrates, emphasizing the importance of preparing the mixtures studied: their atypical characteristics - very high actinide concentrations and low acidity - make them unique in the literature. Coupling the water activity measurements with density measurements provides a means of describing the physicochemical properties of fictive Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} binary solutions, which are then compared with those of thorium(IV) nitrate. The final chapter describes the application of the binary data. The characteristic parameters of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} and U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} used in Pitzer's model and in specific interaction theory are evaluated. The simple solution concept is then applied to density calculations for quaternary Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}/U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O mixtures, demonstrating that the density can be predicted with very high precision. (author)

  17. DES ACCENTS ÉTRANGERS AUX ABORDS DE L’UTOPIE BROSSARDIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Boulanger

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l’analogie entre une langue sexiste et une langue étrangère, et démontre comment cette comparaison met en jeu des dimensions identitaires qui seront progressivement refoulées aux frontières de l’utopie féministe imaginée par Nicole Brossard. Cette étude met en relief certains problèmes d’exclusion reliés à la disparition symbolique de l’accent, tels que l’effacement de l’identité juive dans le roman Picture theory.

  18. La conquête de l’Algérie racontée aux enfants

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemette Tison

    2012-01-01

    L’histoire de la conquête de l’Algérie est racontée aux enfants aussi bien dans les manuels que dans les romans. Cet article propose d’examiner comment les années 1827 à 1847 sont restituées dans les ouvrages scolaires et non scolaires, par l’utilisation d’anecdotes récurrentes, par la mise en scène de figures de héros ou de collectivités.

  19. François-Ronan DUBOIS (2014), Introduction aux Porn Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Loubradou, Esther

    2015-01-01

    « La pornographie est un exemple typique de ces objets culturels dont le discours public s’empare volontiers sans jamais en produire une connaissance un tant soit peu détaillée » (p. 7). Cette connaissance partielle est pourtant regrettable et par rapport aux débats virulents entre discours anti-pornographiques et discours pro-sexe, la nécessité d’une posture compétente et objective sans perspective de condamnation ou de défense sur la pornographie se fait sentir. François-Ronan Dubois propos...

  20. Dialogisme et interdiscours : des discours coloniaux aux discours du développement

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Cet article explore l’articulation des notions de dialogisme et d’interdiscours à partir de l’analyse des reformulations repérables dans le passage des discours coloniaux aux discours du développement. L’analyse d’un corpus authentique de la formation discursive du développement permet de mettre en évidence différents niveaux de négociation avec l’hétérogénéité discursive auxquels l’énonciateur est soumis dans les nominations de l’autre. Les discours du développement interagissent dialogiquem...