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Sample records for application au dosage

  1. Computer processing of {gamma} spectra. Application to the dosage of mixed natural or artificial radioelements; Traitement par ordinateur des spectres {gamma}. Application au dosage de melanges de radioelements naturels ou artificiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, R; Goldsztein, M; Schiltz, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A program, written in Fortran II for IBM 7034 II, permitting resolution by means of least squares of a mixture of natural or artificial radioelements, is described. The spectra are processed in measurement batches, making up a homogeneous study, which comprise standards and samples. This highly versatile program may either ensure the processing of a great number of daily analyses, or be used pending development of radiochemical methods. The feeding of data has been simplified as much as possible. On the contrary, at the outlet, the numerical or graphical controls, error computations, and the printing of results in clear and legible form have been multiplied. In spite of this, the calculation times are exceedingly short. Several independent studies which include about sixty spectra may be processed in less than five minutes. (authors) [French] On decrit un programme, redige en Fortran H, pour IBM 7094 H, permettant la resolution par les moindres carres d'un melange de radioelements naturels ou artificiels. Les spectres sont traites par groupe de mesures, constituant une etude homogene, comprenant etalons et echantillons. Ce programme, extremement souple, peut, soit repondre a une production journaliere importante d'analyses, soit etre utilise en periode de mise au point de methodes radiochimiques. L'introduction des donnees a ete simplifiee au maximum. Au contraire, a la 'sortie', on a multiplie les controles numeriques ou graphiques, les calculs d'erreur, les impressions de resultats sous une forme aussi claire et lisible que possible. Malgre cela, les temps de calculs sont extremement brefs, plusieurs etudes independantes comportant une soixantaine de spectres peuvent etre traitees en moins de 5 minutes. (auteurs)

  2. A benefit/risk approach towards selecting appropriate pharmaceutical dosage forms - an application for paediatric dosage form selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Tom; Ernest, Terry B; Walsh, Jennifer; Williams, Julie L

    2012-10-05

    The design and selection of new pharmaceutical dosage forms involves the careful consideration and balancing of a quality target product profile against technical challenges and development feasibility. Paediatric dosage forms present particular complexity due to the diverse patient population, patient compliance challenges and safety considerations of this vulnerable population. This paper presents a structured framework for assessing the comparative benefits and risks of different pharmaceutical design options against pre-determined criteria relating to (1) efficacy, (2) safety and (3) patient access. This benefit/risk framework has then been applied to three hypothetical, but realistic, scenarios for paediatric dosage forms in order to explore its utility in guiding dosage form design and formulation selection. The approach allows a rigorous, systematic and qualitative assessment of the merits and disadvantages of each dosage form option and helps identify mitigating strategies to modify risk. The application of a weighting and scoring system to the criteria depending on the specific case could further refine the analysis and aid decision-making. In this paper, one case study is scored for illustrative purposes. However, it is acknowledged that in real development scenarios, the generation of actual data considering the very specific situation for the patient/product/developer would come into play to drive decisions on the most appropriate dosage form strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Au Based Nanocomposites Towards Plasmonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panniello, A.; Curri, M. L.; Placido, T.; Reboud, V.; Kehagias, N.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Mecerreyes, D.; Agostiano, A.; Striccoli, M.

    2010-06-01

    Incorporation of nano-sized metals in polymers can transfer their unique features to the host matrix, providing nanocomposite materials with improved optical, electric, magnetic and mechanical properties. In this work, colloidal Au nanorods have been incorporated into PMMA based random co-polymer, properly functionalized with amino groups and the optical and morphological properties of the resulting nanocomposite have been investigated by spectroscopic and AFM measurements. Au nanorods have demonstrated to preserve the plasmon absorption and to retain morphological features upon the incorporation, thus making the final metal modified polymer composite exploitable for the fabrication of plasmonic devices. The prepared nanocomposites have been then patterned by Nano Imprint Lithography technique in order to demonstrate the viability of the materials towards optical applications.

  4. Low-dosage helical CT applications for chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Cui Fa; Liang Huanqing; Zheng Minfei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A discussion on low-dosage helical CT applications on chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening. Methods: On the 100 chest medical check up with three different of protocols, including standard-dosage (the tube current was 230 mAs) were compared with low-dose (tube current was 50 mAs or 30 mAs). Results: Low-dosage helical CT scan provides excellent images. In 100 chest medical checkup, 39 nodules or masses were revealed, enlarged lymph node was noted in 1 case; emphysema or bullae was demonstrated in 3 segments; thickening of bronchial wall was shown in 2 cases; and localized pleural thickening was found in 1 case. Conclusion: In chest checkup or lung cancer screening low-dosage helical CT (tube current 30 mAs) will not only guarantee image quality but also reduce the radiation dose during the examination. (authors)

  5. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate; Dosage du cesium 137 dans les effluents radioactifs par le tetraphenylborate de sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testemale, G; Girault, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A simple technique of the dosage of {sup 137}Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by {gamma} spectrometry enable the determination of the {sup 137}Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors) [French] Une technique simple du dosage du {sup 137}Cs a ete mise au point. Elle consiste en une double extraction du tetraphenylborate de cesium forme par l'acetate d'isoamyle suivie d'un lavage de la phase organique. Des comptages sur des parties aliquotes de la solution de cesium et un controle de purete par spectrometrie {gamma} permettent la determination de cet element. Rendement: environ 98 pour cent. (auteurs)

  6. The determination of iodine in biological media using radioactivation analysis (1962); Dosage de l'iode dans les milieux biologiques au moyen de l'analyse par radioactivation (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this study is to show that the application of radioactivation analysis to the determination of iodine in biological media makes it possible to measure iodine concentrations of the order of 0.0001 {mu}g. After a review of the chemical methods with a mention of the difficulties they present, the optimum conditions for the determination of iodine in biological liquids are given. Three methods are described: - the first consists of a chemical treatment which liberates the protein bound iodine in an inorganic form. After distillation this iodine is irradiated in a flux of thermal neutrons. The induced radioactivity is compared to that of a standard sample irradiated in the same conditions by {gamma} spectrometry. - the second method which is of more general application consists in irradiating the sample and then extracting the iodine; its induced radio-activity is then measured by {beta}-counting. - the third method measures the iodine directly in the thyroid tissue by anti-compton spectrometry. The sensitivity, the reproducibility and the accuracy are discussed. Some applications are described: determination of iodine in its various organic forms in serum, determination of iodine in urines, in food-stuffs, etc., in the thyroid tissue, etc. (author) [French] Le but de cette etude est de montrer que l'analyse par radioactivation appliquee au dosage de l'iode dans les milieux biologiques permet de mesurer des taux d'iode de l'ordie de 0,0001 {mu}g. Apres avoir rappele le principe des methodes chimiques et montre les difficultes de leur mise en oeuvre, il est etabli les conditions optima pour realiser le dosage de l'iode dans les liquides biologiques. Trois methodes sont decrites; - la premiere consiste a pratiquer un traitement chimique liberant l'iode proteique sous forme minerale. Apres distillation cet iode est irradie dans un flux de neutrons thermiques. La radioactivite induite est mesuree comparativement a celle d'un etalon traite dans les memes

  7. Quercetin topical application, from conventional dosage forms to nanodosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Hommoss, A; Devoisselle, J M; Müller, R H; Bégu, S

    2016-11-01

    Skin is a multifunctional organ with activities in protection, metabolism and regulation. Skin is in a continuous exposure to oxidizing agents and inflammogens from the sun and from the contact with the environment. These agents may overload the skin auto-defense capacity. To strengthen skin defense mechanisms against oxidation and inflammation, supplementation of exogenous antioxidants is a promising strategy. Quercetin is a flavonoid with very pronounced effective antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and thus a candidate of first choice for such skin supplementation. Quercetin showed interesting actions in cellular and animal based models, ranging from protecting cells from UV irradiation to support skin regeneration in wound healing. However, due to its poor solubility, quercetin has limited skin penetration ability, and various formulation approaches were taken to increase its dermal penetration. In this article, the quercetin antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities in wound healing and supporting skin against aging are discussed in detail. In addition, quercetin topical formulations from conventional emulsions to novel nanoformulations in terms of skin penetration enhancement are also presented. This article gives a comprehensive review of quercetin for topical application from biological effects to pharmaceutical formulation design for the last 25 years of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Les frameworks au coeur des applications web

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Arielle; Daehne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, Internet est vraiment entré dans les mœurs : tant dans les entreprises qu’au sein de chaque foyer. En effet, Internet permet de communiquer à travers le monde en quelques secondes, de vendre toute sorte de produits en déployant des solutions e-commerce facilement et bien d’autres choses. Internet est donc un véritable vecteur de communication, de commerce et à présent, avec le Web 2.0, un vrai berceau d’informations (tant des informations personnelles que des informati...

  9. Ordered Au Nanodisk and Nanohole Arrays: Fabrication and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Kiraly, Brian; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays on substrates and have studied the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the arrays. Through these investigations, we demonstrate that the angle- dependent behavior of the LSPR in the Au nanodisk arrays enables real-time observation of exciton-plasmon couplings. In addition, we show that the NSL-fabricated Au nanohole arrays can be applied as templates for patterning micro-/nanoparticles under capillary force. The unique structural and plasmonic characteristics of the Au nanodisk and nano- hole arrays, as well as the low-cost and high-throughput NSL-based nanofabrication technique, render these arrays excellent platforms for numerous engineering applications. © 2010 by ASME.

  10. and Au nanoparticles for SERS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazio Enza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser generated plasmas in water were investigated. First, the ablation efficiency was maximized searching the optimal focusing conditions. The nanoparticle size, measured by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, strongly depends on the laser fluence, keeping fixed the other deposition parameters such as the target to scanner objective distance and laser repetition frequency. STEM images indicate narrow gradients of NP sizes. Hence the optimization of ablation parameters favours a fine tuning of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy helped to determine the appropriate laser wavelength to resonantly excite the localized surface plasmon to carry out Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS measurements. The SERS activity of Ag and Au substrates, obtained spraying the colloids synthesized in water, was tested using crystal violet as a probe molecule. The good SERS performance, observed at excitation wavelength 785 nm, is attributed to aggregation phenomena of nanoparticles sprayed on the support.

  11. [Development and effectiveness of a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on smartphone application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Jung Ha; Park, Kyung Yeon

    2012-10-01

    This study was done to develop and evaluate a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on a smartphone application. Calculation ability, dosage calculation related self-efficacy and anxiety were measured. A nonequivalent control group design was used. Smartphone application and a handout for self-study were developed and administered to the experimental group and only a handout was provided for control group. Intervention period was 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, χ²-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 18.0. The experimental group showed more 'self-efficacy for drug dosage calculation' than the control group (t=3.82, psmartphone application is effective in improving dosage calculation related self-efficacy and calculation ability. Further study should be done to develop additional interventions for reducing anxiety.

  12. Contribution to the determination of Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn using 14 MeV neutron activation; Contribution au dosage de Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn par activation aux neutrons de 14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crambes, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    By using, 14 MeV, neutron irradiation it is possible to extend the field of application of neutron radio-activation analysis, in particular to the case of light elements. For, many other elements it can replace in-pile irradiation thereby making it possible, thanks to portable 14 MeV neutron generators, to carry out radio-activation analyses away from nuclear-research c e n t r e s. With a view to applying this analytical technique to routine work, we have developed some rapid chemical separation methods in order to make possible the determination of several elements which after exposure to fast neutrons, produce {beta} emitting nuclides which cannot be differentiated by a simple instrumental study, the emitted radiation being of the same type and of similar half-life the two cases. (author) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par radioactivation neutronique, en particulier aux elements legers. Cependant pour de nombreux autres elements elle peut remplacer l'irradiation en reacteur nucleaire permettant ainsi grace aux ensembles portables producteurs de neutrons de 14 MeV, l'extension de l'analyse par radioactivation a l'exterieur des centres d'etudes nucleaires. Dans le but d'appliquer cette methode d'analyse a des travaux de routine, nous avons mis au point des separations chimiques rapides, afin de permettre le dosage de quelques elements qui par irradiation aux neutrons rapides, engendrent des nucleides emetteurs {beta} qu'une simple etude instrumentale ne peut differencier en raison de l'identite de leur rayonnement et de leurs periodes radioactives trop proches. (auteur)

  13. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  14. Non-Conventional Applications of Computerized Tomography: Analysis of Solid Dosage Forms Produced by Pharmaceutical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins de Oliveira, Jose Jr.; Germano Martins, Antonio Cesar

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe a non-conventional application of computerized tomography: visualization and improvements in the understanding of some internal structural features of solid dosage forms. A micro-CT X-ray scanner, with a minimum resolution of 30 μm was used to characterize some pharmaceutical tablets, granules, controlled-release osmotic tablet and liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules. The analysis presented in this work are essentially qualitative, but quantitative parameters, such as porosity, density distribution, tablets dimensions, etc. could also be obtained using the related CT techniques.

  15. Improving the biocontrol potential of Steinernema feltiae against Delia radicum through dosage, application technique and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Brusselman, Eva; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Nuyttens, David

    2014-05-01

    The potential of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Steinernema feltiae Filipjev as a biocontrol agent against the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.), was assessed in three field tests, focusing on EPN dosage, application technique and timing. Spraying cabbage plant trays with different doses of infective juveniles (IJs) (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 per plant) generated a similar reduction of plant mortality. Spraying plant trays with 200,000 IJs of Steinernema feltiae per plant temporarily reduced the number of maggots around the plants' roots, while neither spraying a lower dose (50,000 IJs/plant) nor soil drenching with 200,000 or 50,000 IJs/plant) reduced maggot numbers. When applied as a plant tray spray, IJs of S. feltiae took 1-2 weeks to spread through the soil surrounding the roots. The pathogenicity of the EPNs, as evaluated by a Galleria mellonella bait test, was highest (up to 100% mortality) until up to five weeks after application, and declined to control levels after 4-7 weeks. Follow-up drench applications with EPNs, applied one and/or two weeks after the first EPN application, did not influence control of Delia radicum. Plant tray spraying provides better placement of Steinernema feltiae than soil drench treatments for control of Delia radicum. Plant mortality was not dose-dependent in the presented trials, unlike the reduction of maggot numbers. Further research into timing and application technique of follow-up treatments with S. feltiae is required to increase efficacy to commercial standards. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Application of DBNPA dosage for biofouling control in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2017-05-30

    Biocides may be used to control biofouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-ni-trilopropionamide (DBNPA) dosage on biofouling control. Preventive biofouling control was studied applying a continuous dosage of substrate (0.5 mg/L) and DBNPA (1 mg/L). Curative biofouling control was studied on pre-grown biofilms, once again applying a continuous dosage of substrate (0.5 mg acetate C/L) and DBNPA (1 and 20 mg/L). Biofouling studies were performed in membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) supplied with biodegradable substrate and DBNPA. The pressure drop was monitored in time and at the end of the study, the accumulated biomass in MFS was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 mg/L) prevented pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation in the MFSs during a run time of 7 d, showing that biofouling can be managed by preventive DBNPA dosage. For biofouled systems, continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 and 20 mg/L) inactivated the accumulated biomass but did not restore the original pressure drop and did not remove the accumulated inactive cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), indicating DBNPA dosage is not suitable for curative biofouling control.

  17. In vivo evaluation of dosage forms: application of gamma scintigraphy to non-enteral routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, G; Gurny, R; Buri, P

    1994-01-01

    The trend to deliver drugs to defined areas of the body involves sophisticated carriers systems. In addition to the in vitro drug release profile one must be aware of the in vivo behaviour of the dosage form and the drug. Gamma scintigraphy is an elegant way to gain insights of the actual in vivo distribution pattern of dosage forms. This technique relies on the use of radioactive tracers included into the medicament and selected so as to enable an optimum detection by a gamma ray camera. The choice of a convenient label enables the in vivo determination of the targeting of the formulation administered through a large number of routes. The present paper reviews applications of gamma scintigraphy for the evaluation of dosage forms administered by the parenteral, rectal, buccal, nasal, pulmonary, and ophthalmic routes.

  18. TiAu-based micro-calorimeters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Popescu, M.; Bruijn, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present the latest results of the performance of micro-calorimeters based on transition edge sensors (TESs) for space applications. Sensors based on TiAu superconductive layers with Cu/Bi absorbers are discussed and have been characterized. Different coupling schemes between absorber and TES have been tested leading to an optimal (preferred) design for a new batch of arrays. We discuss the progress on array development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) in terms of pixel uniformity and filling factor. Inter-pixel cross-talk is discussed as well.

  19. TiAu based shape memory alloys for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadood, Abdul; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Hosoda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    TiAu (equiatomic) exhibits phase transformaion from B2 (ordered bcc) to thermo-elastic orthorhombic B19 martensite at about 875K and thus TiAu is categorized as high temperature shape memory alloy. In this study, recent research and developments related to TiAu based high temperature shape memory alloys will be discussed in the Introduction part. Then some results of our research group related to strengthening of TiAu based high temperature shape memory alloys will be presented. Potential of TiAu based shape memory alloys for high temperature shape memory materials applications will also be discussed

  20. Application of DBNPA dosage for biofouling control in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Pinel, I.; Prest, E.I.; Bucs, Szilard; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    in MFS was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 mg/L) prevented pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation in the MFSs during a run time of 7 d, showing that biofouling can

  1. New applications to computerized tomography: analysis of solid dosage forms produced by pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, computerized tomography (CT) has been used as a new probe to study solid dosage forms (tablets) produced by pharmaceutical industry. This new approach to study tablet and powder, or granulation, properties used in pharmaceutical industry is very suitable. First because CT can generate information that traditional technologies used in this kind of analysis can not, such as, density distribution of internal structures and tablet dimensions, pore size distribution, particle shape information, and also investigation of official and unofficial (counterfeit) copies of solid dosage forms. Second because CT is a nondestructive technique, allowing the use of tablets or granules in others analysis. In this work we discus how CT can be used to acquire and reconstruct internal microstructure of tablets and granules. CT is a technique that is based on attenuation of X-rays passing through matter. Attenuation depends on the density and atomic number of the material that is scanned. In this work, a micro-CT X-ray scanner (manufactured by the group of Applied Nuclear Physics at University of Sorocaba) was used to obtain three-dimensional images of the tablets and granules for nondestructive analysis. These images showed a non uniform density distribution of material inside some tablets, the morphology of some granules analyzed, the integrity of the liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsule and so on. It could also be observed that the distribution of different constituents presents an osmotic controlled-release dosage form. The present work shows that it is possible to use X-ray microtomography to obtain useful qualitative and quantitative information on the structure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  2. Applications of Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients in Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debotton, Nir; Dahan, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, polymers have been extensively used as pharmaceutical excipients in drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical polymers evolved from being simply used as gelatin shells comprising capsule to offering great formulation advantages including enabling controlled/slow release and specific targeting of drugs to the site(s) of action (the "magic bullets" concept), hence hold a significant clinical promise. Oral administration of solid dosage forms (e.g., tablets and capsules) is the most common and convenient route of drug administration. When formulating challenging molecules into solid oral dosage forms, polymeric pharmaceutical excipients permit masking undesired physicochemical properties of drugs and consequently, altering their pharmacokinetic profiles to improve the therapeutic effect. As a result, the number of synthetic and natural polymers available commercially as pharmaceutical excipients has increased dramatically, offering potential solutions to various difficulties. For instance, the different polymers may allow increased solubility, swellability, viscosity, biodegradability, advanced coatings, pH dependency, mucodhesion, and inhibition of crystallization. The aim of this article is to provide a wide angle prospect of the different uses of pharmaceutical polymers in solid oral dosage forms. The various types of polymeric excipients are presented, and their distinctive role in oral drug delivery is emphasized. The comprehensive know-how provided in this article may allow scientists to use these polymeric excipients rationally, to fully exploit their different features and potential influence on drug delivery, with the overall aim of making better drug products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Determination of oxygen in uranium compounds using sulfur monochloride; Dosage de l'oxygene dans les composes de l'uranium par la methode au monochlorure de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Besson, J; Blum, P L; Tran-Van, Danh [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors have described in an other paper (Anal. Chim. Acta, in press) a method for oxygen determination in uranium compounds, in which the sample is attacked by sulfur monochloride. The present paper is concerned with the experimental aspects of the method: apparatus procedure. (authors) [French] Les auteurs ont decrit dans une autre publication (Anal. Chim. Acta) a paraitre, une methode de dosage de l'oxygene dans les composes de l'uranium par attaque par le monochlorure de soufre, La presente note a pour but d'en preciser les techniques experimentale: appareillage, mode operatoire. (auteurs)

  4. Application of wireless sensor networks in personnel dosage monitoring system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Jiang Wei; Chen Dengke

    2007-01-01

    Aim to meet the need of personnel dosage monitoring of nuclear power plant, a monitoring system was designed which based on wireless sensor network. First, the basic concept was described; the characteristics of the wireless sensor network applied in the monitoring system of nuclear power plant were also been analyzed; the structure of the system was built too. Finally, the special technologies like the choice of communication mode, the security of communication network and orientation that used in the monitoring system were discussed. (authors)

  5. Oxygen titration in sodium. The mercury method and its use for very low values; Dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium. La methode au mercure : son utilisation dans le cas de tres faibles teneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeix, L; Darras, R; Duflo, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The mercury method for the oxygen titration in sodium has now been known for ten years and is probably the more frequently used. In this text, precision are given to what extent it is valuable when used in microanalysis. Details are given on the apparatus, its manipulation and its calibration. After testing, we have decided to use flame spectroscopy to titrate the sodium hydroxide formed. Discussions are exposed on the errors due to the presence of sodium chloride and calcium. Results are examined from the point of view of their reproducibility and accuracy. If great care is taken, this method allows oxygen titration in sodium even for values below 10 ppm with satisfactory precision. (author) [French] La methode au mercure pour le dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium est connue depuis une dizaine d'annees, elle est probablement la plus utilisee. Nous avons voulu preciser dans quelle mesure elle etait valable dans le domaine des faibles teneurs avec une precision acceptable. Nous decrivons en detail l'appareil utilise pour l'analyse, le mode operatoire et la methode d'etalonnage. Nos essais nous ont conduit a adopter la spectrographie de flamme pour le dosage de la soude formee, les erreurs introduites par la presence de chlorure de sodium et de calcium sont discutes. Les resultats obtenus sont examines du point de vue de la reproductibilite, de la justesse. Moyennant un mode operatoire tres soigne, cette methode permet le dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium, meme a des teneurs inferieures a 10 ppm avec une precision satisfaisante. (auteur)

  6. Radiation dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, Roland [Health Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative.

  7. Radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  8. Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasa, Klemen; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i.e. pan and fluid bed coaters. Brief theoretical background and critical overview of process analysers used for real-time or near real-time (in-, on-, at- line) monitoring of critical quality attributes of film coated dosage forms are presented. Besides well recognized spectroscopic methods (NIR and Raman spectroscopy), other techniques, which have made a significant breakthrough in recent years, are discussed (terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI), chord length distribution (CLD) analysis, and image analysis). Last part of the review is dedicated to novel techniques with high potential to become valuable PAT tools in the future (optical coherence tomography (OCT), acoustic emission (AE), microwave resonance (MR), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tests on the measurement of iodine-131 in milk using anionic ion-exchangers; Essais relatifs au dosage de l'iode 131 dans le lait au moyen d'echangeur d'ion anionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Daburon, M L; Gros, R; Bertrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The milk produced by a cow contaminated by a single ingestion has been passed over a Dowex 1 resin to fix the iodine it contained, The percentage amount fixed, originally around 100 per cent, falls to 50 per cent after 15 days. (authors) [French] Le lait d'une vache contaminee par ingestion unique a ete passe sur resine Dowex 1 pour fixer l'iode qu'il contenait. Le pourcentage de fixation, qui a l'origine est voisin de 100 pour cent, tombe a 50 pour cent au bout de 15 jours. (auteurs)

  10. Multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline for controlled release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the drug release profiles of multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline consisting of both the fast and slow release components in a unit dose. The fast release component consisted of conventional granules of theophylline formed by mixing the drug powder with starch mucilage (20% w/v) while the slow release component consisted of wax granulations of theophylline formed by triturating the drug powder with a melted Carnauba wax (drug:wax ratio, 4:1). The granules were either filled into capsules or tabletted. In the study design, the drug release characteristics of the individual fast or slow release particles were first determined separately and then mixed in various proportions for the purpose of optimizing the drug release profiles. The evaluating parameters were the prompt release in the first 1 h (mp), the maximum release (m infinity) and the time to attain it (t infinity). Total drug content in each capsule or tablet was 300 mg and two of such were used in dissolution studies. The release kinetics and hence the release mechanism was confirmed by measuring the linear regression coefficient (R2 values) of the release data. The release kinetics was generally most consistent with the Higuchi square root of time relationship (R2 = 0.95). indicating a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The mp (mg) and t infinity (h) values for capsules and tablets of the conventional granules were (420 mg, 3 h) and (348 mg, 5 h), respectively, while for the capsules and tablets of the wax granulations mp and t infinity values were (228 mg, 9 h) and (156 mg, 12 h), respectively, indicating that a combination of wax granulation and tableting markedly retarded drug release. In the multi-unit dose formulations where the conventional and wax granulations were mixed in the ratios 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (conventional: matrix), the m infinity and t infinity values for the capsules were (378 mg, 6 h), (326 mg, 6 h) and (272 mg, 7 h), reSpectively. The

  11. The dosage of mercury vapours in air. Application to an atmospheric control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, H.; Vettier, M.C.; Moser, Y.

    1961-01-01

    The authors have studied a technique making it possible to trap completely the mercury vapours in the atmosphere and to analyse them with precision; their object is an application to an atmospheric control. The analytical method used is particularly sensitive and makes possible the determination of 1 micro-gram of mercury in a 1000 litre sample of air with an accuracy of 2 per cent. The total time for the operation can be estimated to be about 2 1/2 hours, including the analysis. The operations are straightforward and can be carried out by specialised personnel after a short training. (author) [fr

  12. Application of infrared spectrophotometry to the identification of inorganic substances in dosage forms of Antacida group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbreit, M H; Jedrasiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Powdered tablets from the Antacida group: Alusal, Milk of Magnesia, Alumag, Maalox, Magnosil, Alugastrin, Malugastrin, Rennie, and components deciding about their antiacidity like Al(OH)3, Mg(OH)2, Mg2Si3O8, NaAl(OH)2CO3, MgAl(OH)(SO4)2, CaCO3, MgCO3, were subjected to infrared spectrophotometric investigations. It was found that infrared spectra of each pharmaceutical compound are different and show a series of characteristic maxima, by which they can be identified with in the spectral range of 4000 cm-1-200 cm-1. Comparison of infrared spectra of finished products with spectra of their components it was showed that the application of infrared spectrophotometry methods enabled us to prove the presence of particular compounds used in formulations. Tablet mass and odorizing agents do not cause significant changes in spectra of the tablets studied, preparations from the Antacida group.

  13. Business plan pour une application Smartphone : du concept au lancement

    OpenAIRE

    Vriamont, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Création d'une application mobile pour Smartphone. Description théorique concernant la rédaction d'un business plan dans une première partie suivi d'une description théorique des caractéristiques des applications mobiles. Dans une seconde partie, analyse de l'industrie des Smartphones et des applications mobiles suivi de la partie pratique et du développement du produit, partant de la description du produit jusqu'à l'analyse des coûts. Master [120] en Ingénieur de gestion, Université catho...

  14. Formation of multifunctional Fe3O4/Au composite nanoparticles for dual-mode MR/CT imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yong; Li Jing-Chao; Shen Ming-Wu; Shi Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances with iron oxide/gold (Fe 3 O 4 /Au) composite nanoparticles (CNPs) in dual-modality magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) imaging applications are reviewed. The synthesis and assembly of “dumbbelllike” and “core/shell” Fe 3 O 4 /Au CNPs is introduced. Potential applications of some developed Fe 3 O 4 /Au CNPs as contrast agents for dual-mode MR/CT imaging applications are described in detail. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  15. Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging: application in a DNA hybridization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manera, M G; Spadavecchia, J; Taurino, A; Rella, R

    2010-01-01

    The detection of the DNA hybridization mechanism using monodispersed gold nanoparticles as labels is an interesting alternative to increase the sensitivity of the SPR imaging technique. DNA-modified Au nanoparticles (DNA-Au NPs) containing single-stranded (ss) portions of DNA were prepared by monitoring their monolayer formation by UV–vis spectroscopy. The hybridization process between specific thio-oligonucleotides immobilized on the DNA–Au NPs and the corresponding complementary strands is reported and compared with the traditional hybridization process on properly self-assembled thin gold films deposited on glass substrates. A remarkable signal amplification is observed, following the incorporation of colloidal Au into a SPR biosensing experiment, resulting in an increased SPR response to DNA–DNA interactions. In particular Fusarium thiolated DNA (5'HS poly(T) 15 ATC CCT CAA AAA CTG CCG CT-3) and trichothecenes complementary DNA (5'-AGC GGC AGT TTT TGA GGG AT-3') sequences have been explored due to their possible application to agro-industry for the control of food quality

  16. Application of 198Au colloid in the treatment of chronic knee synovial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buril, J.; Zak, J.

    1979-01-01

    25 cases of chronic synovial exudates of the knee joint were treated with the use of 198 Au colloid (5mCi). Improvement was noted in two thirds of the patients after different numbers of applications (one to five). No improvement was seen in four cases of progressive polyarthritis or in two patients with gonarthrosis. This was to be expected though the number of the cases of the disease treated was very low. (author)

  17. AZO/Au/AZO tri-layer thin films for the very low resistivity transparent electrode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jow-Lay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Au/AZO transparent conducting oxide films. • AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; ion sputtering for Au film (5–20 nm). • Effects of Au thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. • The resistivity of 9 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm and the transmittance of 86.2% of the multilayer films were obtained in this study. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)/gold/AZO tri-layer structures with very low resistivity and high transmittance are prepared by simultaneous RF magnetron sputtering (for AZO) and ion sputtering (for Au). The properties of the tri-layer films are investigated at different Au layer thicknesses (5–20 nm). The effects of Au layer thickness and the role of Au on the transmission properties of the tri-layer films were investigated. The very low resistivity of 1.01 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, mobility of 27.665 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, and carrier concentration of 4.563 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} were obtained at an Au layer thickness of 20 nm. The peak transmittance of 86.18% at 650-nm wavelength was obtained at an Au layer thickness of 8 nm. These results show the films to be a good candidate for high-quality electrode scheme in various display applications.

  18. In Vivo Measurements of Caesium-137 with a Human Body Counter; Dosage du Cesium 137 In Vivo au Moyen d'un Anthropogammametre; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Medidas de Cesio-137 In Vivo con un Antropogammametro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, C. [C.N.E.N., Divisione di Biologia e Protezione Sanitaria, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, O. [Istituto di Fisica Dell' Universita di Bologna (Italy)

    1964-11-15

    Data are given of the first measurements of human body radioactivity made in Italy with the whole-body counter built by the authors in 1962. The counter shielding is made of iron bricks 16 cm thick. Measurements inside are 270 cm x 200 cm x 200 cm. The detectors are a 9 in x 4 in Nal (Tl) crystal and three 30 cm x 20 cm x 17 cm plastic scintillators which can be used separately, in parallel, or in anticoincidence and in coincidence with the crystal. The counter has been used for determining the behaviour of the caesium-137 body content from fall-out in the whole population and for estimating the caesium-137 retention in a subject accidentally contaminated. The first measurements of caesium-137 body content from fall-out were taken on 13 subjects in December 1962 and continued regularly at three-month intervals. A gradual increase was noted in the average caesium-137 content of the population throughout the whole of 1963 up to the value of 124 pc/g of potassium in September. In a case of accidental contamination from caesium-137 (about two years before the counter was built) measurements were made in order to determine both the effective half-life of the long-term component and the initial intake of the radioelement. (author) [French] Le memoire donne des renseignements sur les premiers dosages de l'activite du corps humain qui ont ete faits en Italie au moyen de l'anthropogammametre construit par les auteurs en 1962. La protection est en briques de fer de 16cmd'eDaisseur: ses dimensions interieures sont de 270 x 200 x 200 cm. L'appareil comporte comme detecteurs un cristal de Nal (Tl) de 22, 5 x 10 cm et trois scintillateurs en matiere plastique de 30 x 20 x 17 cm qui peuvent etre utilises separement, en parallele, ou en anticoincidence et en coincidence avec le cristal. Les auteurs ont employe l'appareil pour determiner comment varie la charge corporelle de cesium 137 due aux retombees dans l'ensemble de la population, et pour estimer la retention de cesium 137

  19. 1-Hexadecylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize Au and Ag nanoparticles and their SERS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhan, Xiaoling; Fang Yan; Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi

    2011-01-01

    1-Hexadecylamine (HDA)-capped Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared by a one-pot solution growth method. The HDA is used as both reducing agent and stabilizer in the synthetic process is favorable for investigating the capping mechanism of Au and Ag NPs’ surface. The growth process and characterization of Au and Ag NPs are determined by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results demonstrate that the HDA-capped Au and Ag NPs are highly crystalline and have good optical properties. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-thionaphthol are obtained on the Au and Ag NPs modified glass surface, respectively, indicating that the as-synthesized noble metal NPs have potentially high sensitive optical detection application.

  20. 1-Hexadecylamine as both reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize Au and Ag nanoparticles and their SERS application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhan, Xiaoling, E-mail: zhangxl@bit.edu.cn [Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Fang Yan, E-mail: fangyan@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Capital Normal University, Beijing Key Lab for Nano-Photonics and Nano-Structure (NPNS), Department of Physics (China); Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi [Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China)

    2011-05-15

    1-Hexadecylamine (HDA)-capped Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully prepared by a one-pot solution growth method. The HDA is used as both reducing agent and stabilizer in the synthetic process is favorable for investigating the capping mechanism of Au and Ag NPs' surface. The growth process and characterization of Au and Ag NPs are determined by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results demonstrate that the HDA-capped Au and Ag NPs are highly crystalline and have good optical properties. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2-thionaphthol are obtained on the Au and Ag NPs modified glass surface, respectively, indicating that the as-synthesized noble metal NPs have potentially high sensitive optical detection application.

  1. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 μL L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Properties of ordered titanium templates covered with Au thin films for SERS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgrochowska@imp.gda.pl [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Sokołowski, Michał; Karczewski, Jakub [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Szkoda, Mariusz [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Śliwiński, Gerard [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dimpled Ti substrates prepared via anodization followed by etching. • Highly ordered nano-patterned titanium templates covered with thin Au films. • Enhanced Raman signal indicates on promising sensing material. - Abstract: Currently, roughened metal nanostructures are widely studied as highly sensitive Raman scattering substrates that show application potential in biochemistry, food safety or medical diagnostic. In this work the structural properties and the enhancement effect due to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of highly ordered nano-patterned titanium templates covered with thin (5–20 nm) gold films are reported. The templates are formed by preparation of a dense structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes on a flat Ti surface (2 × 2 cm{sup 2}) and their subsequent etching down to the substrate. SEM images reveal the formation of honeycomb nanostructures with the cavity diameter of 80 nm. Due to the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the Au film discontinuities the measured average enhancement factor (10{sup 7}–10{sup 8}) is markedly higher than observed for bare Ti templates. The enhancement factor and Raman signal intensity can be optimized by adjusting the process conditions and thickness of the deposited Au layer. Results confirm that the obtained structures can be used in surface enhanced sensing.

  3. Effect of Tillage in Day or Night and Application of Reduced Dosage of Imazethapyr and Trifluralin on Weed Control, Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was arranged as a strip-plot on the base of a completely randomized block design with three replications to study the effect of tillage (whether in day or night or in day by light-proof cover and application of reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin on weed control, yield and yield components of chickpea. Main plots consisted of tillage methods and subplots consisted of trifluralin (at doses of 480, 960 and 1440 g ai /ha and imazethapyr (at doses of 50, 100 and 150 g ai /ha, plus weed free and weedy checks. Results showed weed biomass in day tillage, night tillage and in light-proof cover tillage were respectively 86, 127 and 148 g m-2. Therefore tillage at night or by light-proof cover in day time showed not enough efficiency in weed control. Weed biomass increased when application dose of herbicides decreased. Chickpea grain yield showed significant differences when different doses of herbicides applied. The minimum and the maximum seed yield were obtained respectively in weed free (by 208 g m-2 and weedy checks (by 123 g m-2. Reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin could control weeds good enough by no significant decrease in chickpea yield. Efficacy of imazethapyr to control weeds grown in chickpea was significantly better than that of trifluralin

  4. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H{sub 2}S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanh, Le Thi [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Hoa, Tran Thai, E-mail: trthaihoa@yahoo.com [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Cuong, Nguyen Duc [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Hue University, 22 Lam Hoang, Hue City (Viet Nam); Khieu, Dinh Quang [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Quang, Duong Tuan [College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi, Hue City (Viet Nam); Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Van Hieu, Nguyen, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H{sub 2}S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H{sub 2}S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine.

  5. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H2S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanh, Le Thi; Hoa, Tran Thai; Cuong, Nguyen Duc; Khieu, Dinh Quang; Quang, Duong Tuan; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H 2 S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H 2 S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine

  6. Self-standing corrugated Ag and Au-nanorods for plasmonic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Solterbeck, C.-H.

    2011-01-01

    We use home-made Si-supported anodized alumina thin film templates for the electrodeposition of large area self-standing Ag- and Au-nanorod (Au-NR) arrays. The deposition conditions chosen, i.e. electrolyte composition and deposition voltage, lead to a corrugated rod morphology, particularly for Au...

  7. Properties of ordered titanium templates covered with Au thin films for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Sokołowski, Michał; Karczewski, Jakub; Szkoda, Mariusz; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Currently, roughened metal nanostructures are widely studied as highly sensitive Raman scattering substrates that show application potential in biochemistry, food safety or medical diagnostic. In this work the structural properties and the enhancement effect due to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of highly ordered nano-patterned titanium templates covered with thin (5-20 nm) gold films are reported. The templates are formed by preparation of a dense structure of TiO2 nanotubes on a flat Ti surface (2 × 2 cm2) and their subsequent etching down to the substrate. SEM images reveal the formation of honeycomb nanostructures with the cavity diameter of 80 nm. Due to the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the Au film discontinuities the measured average enhancement factor (107-108) is markedly higher than observed for bare Ti templates. The enhancement factor and Raman signal intensity can be optimized by adjusting the process conditions and thickness of the deposited Au layer. Results confirm that the obtained structures can be used in surface enhanced sensing.

  8. Novel potentiometric application for the determination of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in their pure and combined dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Mona T; Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K; Ramadan, Nesrin K; El-Ragehy, Nariman A; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2015-06-01

    Three sensitive and selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix membrane electrodes were developed and investigated. Sensor I was developed using tetraheptylammonium bromide (THB) as an anion exchanger with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE) as a plasticizer for the determination of the anionic drug pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PAN). To determine the cationic drug itopride hydrochloride (ITH), two electrodes (sensors II and III) were developed using potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl) borate (KTCPB) as a cation exchanger with dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. Selective molecular recognition components, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP βCD) and 4-tert-butylcalix[8]arene (tBC8), were used as ionophores to improve the selectivity of sensors II and III, respectively. The proposed sensors had a linear dynamic range of 1×10(-5) to 1×10(-2) mol L(-1) with Nernstian slopes of -54.83±0.451, 56.90±0.300, and 51.03±1.909 mV/decade for sensors I, II and III, respectively. The Nernstian slopes were also estimated over the pH ranges of 11-13, 3.5-8 and 4-7 for the three sensors, respectively. The proposed sensors displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of PAN and ITH in bulk powder, in laboratory prepared mixtures and in combined dosage forms with clear discrimination from several ions, sugars and some common drug excipients. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Statistical comparison between the results from the proposed method and the results from the reference methods showed no significant difference regarding accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd as a top electrode in capacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarpour, S.; Langenberg, E.; Jambois, O.; Ferrater, C.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Polo, M.C.; Varela, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd over the different perovskites was investigated. It is found from electrical properties that crystallographic growth orientation of Au and Pd thin layers attained from X-ray diffraction results indicate the slop of current (I)-voltage (V) plots. Besides, surface morphology and topography was considered using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, respectively. Obtained results showed the Stranski-Krastanov growth of the Pd and Au. Indeed, diminishing of the root-mean-square roughness of Pd/BiMnO 3 /SrTiO 3 following by Au deposition should be concerned due to growth of Au onto the crack-like parts of the substrate. These crack-like parts appeared due to parasitic phases of the Bi-Mn-O system mainly Mn 3 O 4 (l 0 l) and Mn 3 O 4 (0 0 4 l). The different response in the electrical properties of heterostructures suggests that electrical conductance of the Au and Pd thin metallic films have the crystallographic orientation dependence. Furthermore, polycrystallinity of the thin metallic films are desired in electrode applications due to increase the conductivity of the metallic layers.

  10. Intercavitary implants dosage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, B.P.

    The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt

  11. A white-emitting ZnO-Au nanocomposite and its SERS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lanlan [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhao Dongxu, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Ding Meng; Zhao Haifeng; Zhang Zhenzhong; Li Binghui; Shen Dezhen [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2012-08-01

    We reported a simple method to synthesize ZnO-Au nanocomposites (hybrid A) by combining hydrothermal and electric beam evaporation deposition method. It was found that Au deposition time takes an important role in the generation of Au nanoparticles. Changing Au deposition time makes the thickness of Au formed on ZnO nanorods increase from 10 nm to 70 nm. On the other hand, white-emitting ZnO-Au nanocomposites (hybrid B) were obtained after treating hybrid A with HCl solution. Thanks to the covering of Au film and acid etching, it induces many defects on the surface of ZnO NRs, and largely enhances the visible emission of surviving ZnO and finally generates white emission on Au mesocrystals (hybrid B). Both of the ZnO-Au hybrids (A and B) can be applied as substrates in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement. A typical probe molecule, 4-ATP was used to test the SERS activity of the ZnO-Au composites and the results indicated good Raman activity on the substrates.

  12. Observation of Au + AuAu + Au + ρ0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ0 with STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.

    2002-01-01

    First observation of the reactions Au + AuAu + Au + ρ 0 and Au + AuAu* + Au* + ρ 0 with the STAR detector are reported. The ρ are produced at small perpendicular momentum, as expected if they couple coherently to both nuclei. Models of vector meson production and the correlation with nuclear breakup are discussed, as well as a fundamental test of quantum mechanics that is possible with the system. (author)

  13. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Shenna; Zhang, Lingyang; Huang, Haowen; Liu, Fengping; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg 2+ and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag 2 S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.Graphical Abstract

  14. AuCu@Pt Nanoalloys for Catalytic Application in Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance and optimize nanocatalyst ability for nitrophenol (4-NP reduction reaction we look beyond Au-metal nanoparticles and describe a new class of Au nanoalloys with controlled composition for core of AuCu-metals and Pt-metal shell. The reduction of 4-NP was investigated in aqueous media spectroscopically on 7.8 nm Au nanospheres (AuNSs, 8.3 nm AuCuNSs, and 9.1 nm AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs in diameter. The rate constants of the catalyzed reaction at room temperature, activation energies, and entropies of activation of reactions catalyzed by the AuCu@Pt core-shell NSs are found to have different values to those of the pure metal NSs. The results strongly support the proposal that catalysis by nanoparticles is taking place efficiently on the surface of NSs. These core-shell nanocatalysts exhibited stability throughout the reduction reaction and proved that heterogonous type mechanisms are most likely to be dominant in nanoalloy based catalysis if the surface of the NSs is not defected upon shell incorporation.

  15. Recording hydrometer for liquids especially adapted to the continuous measurement of heavy water (1962); Densimetre enregistreur pour liquides specialement adapte au dosage continu de l'eau lourde (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatel, S; Nief, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A glass float, containing a magnetic device, is immersed in the water whose density is to be measured. It is free to move between two stops inside a differential transformer excited by an alternating current. The signal thus produced has an amplitude which increases with the distance separating the float from the lower stop. This signal is amplified, rectified, filtered and re-amplified. The current obtained passes through a coil which attracts the float downwards. The float sets to the level which the ascensional forces is exactly compensated. The intensity of the corresponding current is recorded. The concentration of D{sub 2}O in water can be measured between 0 and 8 per cent with a relative error of about 0.3 per cent without however an absolute possible error of under 20 deuterium atoms per million approximately (0.002 per cent). (authors) [French] Un flotteur en verre, contenant un equipage magnetique, baigne dans l'eau dont on veut mesurer la densite. Il est mobile entre deux butees a l'interieur d'un transformateur differentiel excite par un courant alternatif. Il en resulte un signal dont l'amplitude croit avec la distance du flotteur a la butee inferieure. Ce signal est amplifie, redresse, filtre, amplifie a nouveau. Le courant obtenu est envoye dans une bobine qui attire le flotteur vers le bas. Ce dernier se fixe au niveau pour lequel sa force ascensionnelle est exactement compensee. On enregistre la valeur du courant correspondant. La teneur d'une eau en D{sub 2}O peut etre mesuree entre 0 et 8 pour cent avec une erreur relative de l'ordre de 0,3 pour cent sans que l'erreur absolue, possible puisse descendre cependant au-dessous de 20 atomes de deuterium par million environ (0,002 pour cent). (auteurs)

  16. Contribution to the study of luminous sources for uranium isotope measurements by emission spectrometry; Contribution a l'etude de sources lumineuses destinees au dosage isotopique de l'uranium par spectrometrie d'emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichnam, J P; Capitini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    After a brief summary of results obtained with different hollow cathode luminous sources, the reasons for which they cannot be more widely used are given: an insufficient luminosity when uranium oxides are used in the cathode hollow; the large amount of sample required when it is metallic; the impossibility of effecting a chemical purification of the sample. Electrode-less discharge tubes excited by high frequency whose qualities (luminosity, stability, rapidity of preparation starting from small amounts of sample in various chemical forms, in particular iron) satisfy the conditions laid down for the measurement of uranium 235 by interferometry are used. Tho production process for such lamps is given together with the method of excitation. Examples of recordings obtained with an interferometer of the 'HYPEAC' type and a small grating spectrometer give an idea of the spectral qualities of these sources. (authors) [French] Apres avoir rappele les resultats obtenus avec differentes sources de lumiere a cathode creuse, on explique les raisons qui limitent leur emploi: brillance trop faible lorsque les oxydes d'uranium sont utilises dans le trou cathodique; trop grande quantite d'echantillon necessaire lorsque celui-ci est sous forme metallique; impossibilite de purifier chimiquement l'echantillon. On a employe des tubes a decharge sans electrode excitee par haute frequence, dont les qualites (brillance, stabilite, rapidite de preparation a partir de faibles quantites d'echantillon se presentant sous des formes chimiques diverses, elimination des impuretes chimiques, en particulier du fer) repondent aux conditions imposees pour le dosage isotopique de l'uranium 235 par interferometrie. On decrit le mode operatoire de fabrication de telles lampes et on rappelle le systeme d'excitation. Des exemples d'enregistrement, obtenus avec un appareil interferometrique 'HYPEAC' et un petit spectrometre a reseau, donnent une idee des qualites spectrales de ces sources. (auteurs)

  17. Facile Synthesis of Quasi-One-Dimensional Au/PtAu Heterojunction Nanotubes and Their Application as Catalysts in an Oxygen-Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Huan; Huang, Zhao; Lu, Zhicheng; Foda, Mohamed F; Li, Tingting; Han, Heyou

    2015-05-11

    An intermediate-template-directed method has been developed for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional Au/PtAu heterojunction nanotubes by the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Au on Te/Pt core-shell nanostructures in aqueous solution. The synthesized porous Au/PtAu bimetallic nanotubes (PABNTs) consist of porous tubular framework and attached Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The reaction intermediates played an important role in the preparation, which fabricated the framework and provided a localized reducing agent for the reduction of the Au and Pt precursors. The Pt7 Au PABNTs showed higher electrocatalytic activity and durability in the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO4 than porous Pt nanotubes (PtNTs) and commercially available Pt/C. The mass activity of PABNTs was 218 % that of commercial Pt/C after an accelerated durability test. This study demonstrates the potential of PABNTs as highly efficient electrocatalysts. In addition, this method provides a facile strategy for the synthesis of desirable hetero-nanostructures with controlled size and shape by utilizing an intermediate template. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fabrication of Te and Te-Au Nanowires-Based Carbon Fiber Fabrics for Antibacterial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Mao Chou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria that give rise to diseases every year remain a major health concern. In recent years, tellurium-based nanomaterials have been approved as new and efficient antibacterial agents. In this paper, we developed the approach to directly grow tellurium nanowires (Te NWs onto commercial carbon fiber fabrics and demonstrated their antibacterial activity. Those Te NWs can serve as templates and reducing agents for gold nanoparticles (Au NPs to deposit. Three different Te-Au NWs with varied concentration of Au NPs were synthesized and showed superior antibacterial activity and biocompability. These results indicate that the as-prepared carbon fiber fabrics with Te and Te-Au NWs can become antimicrobial clothing products in the near future.

  19. Lead Telluride Doped with Au as a Very Promising Material for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelija M. Nikolic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PbTe single crystals doped with monovalent Au or Cu were grown using the Bridgman method. Far infrared reflectivity spectra were measured at room temperature for all samples and plasma minima were registered. These experimental spectra were numerically analyzed and optical parameters were calculated. All the samples of PbTe doped with Au or Cu were of the “n” type. The properties of these compositions were analyzed and compared with PbTe containing other dopants. The samples of PbTe doped with only 3.3 at% Au were the best among the PbTe + Au samples having the lowest plasma frequency and the highest mobility of free carriers-electrons, while PbTe doped with Cu was the opposite. Samples with the lowest Cu concentration of 0.23 at% Cu had the best properties. Thermal diffusivity and electronic transport properties of the same PbTe doped samples were also investigated using a photoacoustic (PA method with the transmission detection configuration. The results obtained with the far infrared and photoacoustic characterization of PbTe doped samples were compared and discussed. Both methods confirmed that when PbTe was doped with 3.3 at% Au, thermoelectric and electrical properties of this doped semiconductor were both significantly improved, so Au as a dopant in PbTe could be used as a new high quality thermoelectric material.

  20. Synthesis of Au Nanostars and Their Application as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Activity Tags Inside Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaowei; Shi, Chaowen; Lu, Wenbo; Zhao, Hang; Wang, Man; Tong, Wei; Dong, Jian; Han, Xiaodong; Qian, Weiping

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of Au nanostars (AuNSs) and demonstrates their application as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-activity tags for cellular imaging and sensing. Nile blue A (NBA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as Raman reporter molecules and capping materials, respectively. The SERS-activity tags were tested on human lung adenocarcinoma cell (A549) and alveolar type II cell (AT II) and found to present a low level of cytotoxicity and high chemical stability. These SERS-activity tags not only can be applied in multiplexed cellular imaging, including dark field imaging, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SERS imaging, but also can be used for cellular sensing. The SERS spectra clearly identified cellular important components such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. This study also shows that endocytosis is the main channel of tags internalized in cells. The AuNSs exhibiting strong surface enhanced Raman effects are utilized in the design of an efficient, stable SERS-activity tag for intracellular applications.

  1. Characterization of self-assembled electrodes based on Au-Pt nanoparticles for PEMFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, E. [Politecnica Univ. de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico). Energia y Sustentabilidad; Sebastian, P.J. [Politecnica Univ. de Chiapas, Chiapas (Mexico). Energia y Sustentabilidad; Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Gamboa, S.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Pal, U. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Gonzalez, I. [Autonoma Metropolitana Univ. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by depositing Au, Pt and AuPt nanoparticles on Nafion 115 membrane for use in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) was used to measure the nanoparticle catalyst activity. After deposition of the nanoparticles on the membrane, the surface was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The membrane proton conduction process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with the 4 probe technique. The MEAs fabricated with Nafion/Metal membranes were evaluated in a PEMFC under standard conditions. Colloidal solutions were used to prepare self-assembled electrodes with nanoparticles deposited on Nafion membrane. The particles deposited on Nafion showed good stability and had homogeneous distribution along the membrane surface. The impedance results revealed an increase in the membrane proton resistance of the self-assembled electrodes compared to unmodified Nafion. The Au-Pt nanoparticles were obtained by chemical reduction. The nanoparticle size in the three systems was about 2 nm. The self-assembled electrodes performed well in standard conditions. The optimum colloidal concentration and immersion time must be determined in order to obtain good catalytic activity and high membrane conductance. The self-assembled Nafion/AuPt had the best open circuit potential (887 mV). The Au and Pt self-assemblies showed a similar performance in terms of maximum power and maximum current density. The performance of the Nafion/Au self-assembly was influenced more by ohmic losses, particularly in the membrane. The maximum power generation was obtained at 0.35 V. The mass transport losses increased after this value, thereby affecting the efficiency of the PEMFC. 2 figs.

  2. Simultaneous AuIII Extraction and In Situ Formation of Polymeric Membrane-Supported Au Nanoparticles: A Sustainable Process with Application in Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Tamez, Lucía; Esquivel-Peña, Vicente; Ocampo, Ana L; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Grande, Daniel; de Gyves, Josefina

    2017-04-10

    A polymeric membrane-supported catalyst with immobilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was prepared through the extraction and in situ reduction of Au III salts in a one-step strategy. Polymeric inclusion membranes (PIMs) and polymeric nanoporous membranes (PNMs) were tested as different membrane-support systems. Transport experiments indicated that PIMs composed of cellulose triacetate, 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, and an aliphatic tertiary amine (Adogen 364 or Alamine 336) were the most efficient supports for Au III extraction. The simultaneous extraction and reduction processes were proven to be the result of a synergic phenomenon in which all the membrane components were involved. Scanning electron microscopy characterization of cross-sectional samples suggested a distribution of AuNPs throughout the membrane. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of the AuNPs indicated average particle sizes of 36.7 and 2.9 nm for the PIMs and PNMs, respectively. AuNPs supported on PIMs allowed for >95.4 % reduction of a 0.05 mmol L -1 4-nitrophenol aqueous solution with 10 mmol L -1 NaBH 4 solution within 25 min. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Endotoxin dosage in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endotoxin, a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of septic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF. Its entry into the bloodstream stimulates monocytes/macrophages which once activated produce and release cytokines, nitric oxide and other mediators that induce systemic inflammation, endothelial damage, organ dysfunction, hypotension (shock and MOF.The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative test for the dosage of endotoxin to determine the risk of severe Gram-negative sepsis. Materials and methods. In the period January 2009 - June 2011 we performed 897 tests for 765 patients, mostly coming from the emergency room and intensive care, of which 328 (43% women (mean age 53 and 437 (57% male (mean age 49. Fifty-nine patients, no statistically significant difference in sex, were monitored by an average of two determinations of EA.All patients had procalcitonin values significantly altered.The kit used was EAA (Endotoxin Activity Assay Estor Company, Milan, which has three ranges of endotoxin activity (EA: low risk of sepsis if <0.40 units, medium if between 0.40 and 0.59; high if 0.60. Results. 78 out of 765 patients (10% had a low risk, 447 (58% a medium risk and 240 (32% a high risk.The dosage of EA, combined with that of procalcitonin, has allowed a more targeted antibiotic therapy. Six patients in serious clinical conditions were treated by direct hemoperfusion with Toraymyxin, a device comprising a housing containing a fiber polypropylene and polystyrene with surface-bound polymyxin B, an antibiotic that removes bacterial endotoxins from the blood. Conclusions.The test is useful in risk stratification as well as Gram negative sepsis, to set and monitor targeted therapies, also based on the neutralization of endotoxin.

  4. Approximate treatment of semicore states in GW calculations with application to Au clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Jiawei; Baroni, Stefano; Umari, P

    2014-03-28

    We address the treatment of transition metal atoms in GW electronic-structure calculations within the plane-wave pseudo-potential formalism. The contributions of s and p semi-core electrons to the self-energy, which are essential to grant an acceptable accuracy, are dealt with using a recently proposed scheme whereby the exchange components are treated exactly at the G0W0 level, whereas a suitable approximation to the correlation components is devised. This scheme is benchmarked for small gold nano-clusters, resulting in ionization potentials, electron affinities, and density of states in very good agreement with those obtained from calculations where s and p semicore states are treated as valence orbitals, and allowing us to apply this same scheme to clusters of intermediate size, Au20 and Au32, that would be otherwise very difficult to deal with.

  5. Approximate treatment of semicore states in GW calculations with application to Au clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Jiawei [SISSA – Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Baroni, Stefano [SISSA – Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM Democritos, Theory-Elettra group, Trieste (Italy); Umari, P., E-mail: paolo.umari@unipd.it [CNR-IOM Democritos, Theory-Elettra group, Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-03-28

    We address the treatment of transition metal atoms in GW electronic-structure calculations within the plane-wave pseudo-potential formalism. The contributions of s and p semi-core electrons to the self-energy, which are essential to grant an acceptable accuracy, are dealt with using a recently proposed scheme whereby the exchange components are treated exactly at the G{sub 0}W{sub 0} level, whereas a suitable approximation to the correlation components is devised. This scheme is benchmarked for small gold nano-clusters, resulting in ionization potentials, electron affinities, and density of states in very good agreement with those obtained from calculations where s and p semicore states are treated as valence orbitals, and allowing us to apply this same scheme to clusters of intermediate size, Au{sub 20} and Au{sub 32}, that would be otherwise very difficult to deal with.

  6. Approximate treatment of semicore states in GW calculations with application to Au clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Jiawei; Baroni, Stefano; Umari, P.

    2014-01-01

    We address the treatment of transition metal atoms in GW electronic-structure calculations within the plane-wave pseudo-potential formalism. The contributions of s and p semi-core electrons to the self-energy, which are essential to grant an acceptable accuracy, are dealt with using a recently proposed scheme whereby the exchange components are treated exactly at the G 0 W 0 level, whereas a suitable approximation to the correlation components is devised. This scheme is benchmarked for small gold nano-clusters, resulting in ionization potentials, electron affinities, and density of states in very good agreement with those obtained from calculations where s and p semicore states are treated as valence orbitals, and allowing us to apply this same scheme to clusters of intermediate size, Au 20 and Au 32 , that would be otherwise very difficult to deal with

  7. Characterization of self-assembled electrodes based on Au-Pt nanoparticles for PEMFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, E. [Univ. Politecnica de Chiapas (Mexico). Energia y Sustentabilidad; Sebastian, P.J.; Gamboa, S.A.; Joseph, S. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centrode Investigacion en Energia; Pal, U. [Univ. Autonoma de Puebla, Pue (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Gonzalez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    This paper described the synthesis and characterization of gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and Au-Pt nanoparticles impregnated on a Nafion membrane in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The aim of the study was to fabricate the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) by depositing the nanoparticles on the membrane using an immersion technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to study the deposition process. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the membrane proton conduction process. An elemental mapping analysis was performed in order to study the location of the Au and Pt in the self-assemblies. Results of the study showed that the particles deposited on the Nafion had good stability and a homogenous distribution along the membrane surface. The particles showed a direct relation in size and location with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic distribution phases of the membrane. The main membrane resistance was located between the membrane and the electrolyte. The self-assembled electrodes demonstrated a good performance at standard conditions. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. Partially and fully de-alloyed glassy ribbons based on Au: Application in methanol electro-oxidation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschalidou, Eirini Maria, E-mail: epaschal@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy); Scaglione, Federico [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy); Gebert, Annett; Oswald, Steffen [Leibniz Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung IFW, Helmholtzstraße 20, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Rizzi, Paola; Battezzati, Livio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, electrochemical de-alloying of an amorphous alloy, Au{sub 40}Cu{sub 28}Ag{sub 7}Pd{sub 5}Si{sub 20}, cast in ribbon form by melt spinning, has been performed, obtaining self standing nanoporous materials suitable for use as electrodes for electrocatalytic applications. The de-alloying encompasses removal of less noble elements and the crystallization of Au, resulting in interconnected ligaments whose size and morphology are described as a function of time. Depending on de-alloying time, the crystals may contain residual amounts of Cu, Ag and Pd, as shown by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) in a basic solution. Current density peaks in the 0.16–0.28 V range (vs Ag/AgCl) indicate that the porous ribbons are active for the electro-oxidation of methanol. The partially de-alloyed samples, which still partially contain the amorphous phase because of the shorter etching times, have finer ligaments and display peaks at lower potential. However, the current density decreases rapidly during repeated potential scans. This is attributed to the obstruction of Au sites, mainly by the Cu oxides formed during the scans. The fully de-alloyed ribbons display current peaks at about 0.20 V and remain active for hundreds of scans at more than 60% of the initial current density. They can be fully re-activated to achieve the same performance levels after a brief immersion in nitric acid. The good activity is due to trapped Ag and Pd atoms in combination with ligament morphology. - Graphical abstract: Fine ligaments and pores made by de-alloying a glassy ribbon of a Au-based alloy, homogeneously produced across the thickness (25 μm) for studying methanol's electro-oxidation behavior. - Highlights: • Size and composition of nanoporous layers tailored in de-alloying Au-based glassy ribbons. • From amorphous precursor fine crystals occur in ligaments with residual Pd and Ag. • Fully de

  9. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Behavior of Au nanoparticles-hybridized Pb (II) metal-organic framework and its application in selective sensing hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongmin; Li, Xiaojian; Yan, Tao; Li, Yan; Liu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-02-23

    In this work, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on Au nanoparticles-hybridized Pb (II)-β-cyclodextrin (Pb-β-CD) metal-organic framework for detecting hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed. Pb-β-CD shows excellent ECL behavior and unexpected reducing ability towards Au ions. Au nanoparticles could massively form on the surface of Pb-β-CD (Au@Pb-β-CD) without use of any additional reducing agent. In the presence of coreactant K2S2O8, the ECL emission of Pb-β-CD was enhanced by the formation of Au nanoparticles. Cr(VI) can collisionally quench the ECL behavior of Au@Pb-β-CD/S2O8(2-) system and the detection mechanism was investigated. This ECL sensor is found to have a linear response in the range of 0.01-100 μM and a low detection limit of 3.43 nM (S/N = 3) under the optimal conditions. These results suggest that metal-organic framework Au@Pb-β-CD has great potential in extending the application in the ECL field as an efficient luminophore.

  10. Synthesis by picosecond laser ablation of ligand-free Ag and Au nanoparticles for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Enza; Spadaro, Salvatore; Santoro, Marco; Trusso, Sebastiano; Lucotti, Andrea.; Tommasini, Matteo.; Neri, Fortunato; Maria Ossi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The morphological and optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles prepared by picosecond laser generated plasmas in water were investigated. First, the ablation efficiency was maximized searching the optimal focusing conditions. The nanoparticle size, measured by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, strongly depends on the laser fluence, keeping fixed the other deposition parameters such as the target to scanner objective distance and laser repetition frequency. STEM images indicate narrow gradients of NP sizes. Hence the optimization of ablation parameters favours a fine tuning of nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy helped to determine the appropriate laser wavelength to resonantly excite the localized surface plasmon to carry out Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. The SERS activity of Ag and Au substrates, obtained spraying the colloids synthesized in water, was tested using crystal violet as a probe molecule. The good SERS performance, observed at excitation wavelength 785 nm, is attributed to aggregation phenomena of nanoparticles sprayed on the support.

  11. Optimizing the dosage of stabilizing chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Tomi

    2013-01-01

    A chemical company provides chemical treatment at customer mill in paper industry. This thesis work was done to determine the optimum dosage of stabilizing chemical. The theoretical framework explains the basics of paper brightness and bleaching and how these topics are connected to each other. The knowledge gained is very valuable and can possibly be used in the future in other similar applications as well. This thesis work contains confidential back ground information. Key ...

  12. Novel electrochemical redox-active species: one-step synthesis of polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd and its application for multiplexed immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyuan; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical redox-active species play crucial role in electrochemically multiplexed immunoassays. A one-pot method for synthesizing four kinds of new electrochemical redox-active species was reported using HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 as dual oxidating agents and aniline derivatives as monomers. The synthesized polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd composites, namely poly(N-methyl-o-benzenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd and poly(3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine)-Au/Pd, exhibited electrochemical redox activity at -0.65 V, -0.3 V, 0.12 V, and 0.5 V, respectively. Meanwhile, these composites showed high H2O2 electrocatalytic activity because of the presence of Au/Pd. The as-prepared composites were used as electrochemical immunoprobes in simultaneous detection of four tumor biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA724), and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)). This immunoassay shed light on potential applications in simultaneous gastric cancer (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, CA724) and liver cancer diagnosis (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, AFP). The present strategy to the synthesize redox species could be easily extended to other polymers such as polypyrrole derivatives and polythiophene derivatives. This would be of great significance in the electrochemical detection of more analytes.

  13. Crystallographic investigation of Au nanoparticles embedded in a SrTiO{sub 3} thin film for plasmonics applications by means of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincini, Davide, E-mail: davide.pincini@mail.polimi.it [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 71, avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mazzoli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bernhardt, Hendrik; Katzer, Christian; Schmidl, Frank [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Uschmann, Ingo [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Detlefs, Carsten [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 71, avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-03-14

    Self-organized monocrystalline Au nanoparticles with potential applications in plasmonics are grown in a SrTiO{sub 3} matrix by a novel two-step deposition process. The crystalline preferred orientation of these Au nanoparticles is investigated by synchrotron hard x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles preferentially align with the (111) direction along the substrate normal (001), whereas two in-plane orientations are found with [110]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au} and [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au}. Additionally, a smaller diffraction signal from nanoparticles with the (001) direction parallel to the substrate normal (001) is observed; once again, two in-plane orientations are found, with [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[100]{sub Au} and [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au}. The populations of the two in-plane orientations are found to depend on the thickness of the gold film deposited in the first step of the growth.

  14. Rapid synthesis and characterization of hybrid ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods for high performance, low temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponnuvelu, Dinesh Veeran [Nanosensor Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Pullithadathil, Biji, E-mail: bijuja123@yahoo.co.in [Nanosensor Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Prasad, Arun K.; Dhara, Sandip [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Ashok, Anuradha [Nanosensor Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Mohamed, Kamruddin; Tyagi, Ashok Kumar [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Raj, Baldev [Nanosensor Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hybrid ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods were developed using rapid chemical method that can be used as a high performance, low temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensor. • Surface defect analysis (PL and XPS) clearly illustrates the presence of surface oxygen species and Zn interstitials involved in charge transport properties in-turn affecting gas sensing properties. • Hybrid ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods establish enhanced gas sensing performance at 150 °C compared to ZnO (300 °C) with a lower detection limit of 500 ppb using conventional electrodes. • The enhanced performance of ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods based sensor was owing to the presence of Au nanoclusters on the surface of ZnO nanorods which is attributed to the formation of Schottky contacts at the interfaces leading to sensitization effects. • The hybrid material found to be selective toward NO{sub 2} gas and highly stable in nature. - Abstract: A rapid synthesis route for hybrid ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods has been realized for ultrasensitive, trace-level NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications. ZnO nanorods and hybrid ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods are structurally analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Optical characterization using UV–visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopies elucidate alteration in the percentage of defect and charge transport properties of ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods. The study reveals the accumulation of electrons at metal–semiconductor junctions leading to upward band bending for ZnO and thus favors direct electron transfer from ZnO to Au nanoclusters, which mitigates charge carrier recombination process. The operating temperature of ZnO@Au core–shell nanorods based sensor significantly decreased to 150 °C compared to alternate NO{sub 2} sensors (300 °C). Moreover, a linear sensor response in the range of 0.5–5

  15. Simultaneous determination of linagliptin and metformin by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography method: An application in quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathyusha Vemula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance patient compliance toward treatment in diseases like diabetes, usually a combination of drugs is prescribed. Therefore, an anti-diabetic fixed-dose combination of 2.5 mg of linagliptin 500 mg of metformin was taken for simultaneous estimation of both the drugs by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method. The present study aimed to develop a simple and sensitive RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of linagliptin and metformin in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was designed and evaluated by using linagliptin and metformin working standard and sample solutions in the linearity range. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C 18 column using a mobile phase of 70:30 (v/v mixture of methanol and 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (pH adjusted to 4.6 with orthophosphoric acid delivered at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min and UV detection at 267 nm. Linagliptin and metformin shown linearity in the range of 2-12 μg/mL and 400-2400 μg/mL respectively with correlation co-efficient of 0.9996 and 0.9989. The resultant findings analyzed for standard deviation (SD and relative standard deviation to validate the developed method. The retention time of linagliptin and metformin was found to be 6.3 and 4.6 min and separation was complete in <10 min. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the linearity range of the linagliptin and metformin. The method was found suitable for the routine quantitative analysis of linagliptin and metformin in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  16. A highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au-patterned polydimethylsiloxane membrane for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinchuan; Zhu, Yihao; Nomani, Md W; Koley, Goutam; Wen, Xuejun; Hsia, Tain-Yen

    2013-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au film patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The strain-induced change in the film resistance was utilized to perform the quantitative measurement of absolute pressure. The highest sensitivity obtained for a 200 µm thick PDMS film sensor was 0.23/KPa with a range of 50 mm Hg, which is the best result reported so far, over that range, for any pressure sensor on a flexible membrane. The noise-limited pressure resolution was found to be 0.9 Pa (0.007 mm Hg), and a response time of ∼200 ms, are the best reported results for these sensors. The ultrahigh sensitivity is attributed to the strain-induced formation of microcracks, the effect of which on the resistance change was found to be highly reversible within a certain pressure range. A physical model correlating the sensitivity with the sensor parameters and crack geometry has been proposed. (paper)

  17. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanowires and their sustainability for optoelectronic applications. Comparing Au- and self-assisted growth methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Steffen

    2011-09-28

    In this work the synthesis of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is investigated. A comparison between Au- and self-assisted VLS growth is at the centre of this thesis. While the Au-assisted method is established as a versatile tool for nanowire growth, the recently developed self-assisted variation results from the exchange of Au by Ga droplets and thus eliminates any possibility of Au incorporation. By both methods, we achieve nanowires with epitaxial alignment to the Si(111) substrates. Caused by differences during nanowire nucleation, a parasitic planar layer grows between the nanowires by the Au-assisted method, but can be avoided by the self-assisted method. Au-assisted nanowires grow predominantly in the metastable wurtzite crystal structure, while their self-assisted counterparts have the zincblende structure. All GaAs nanowires are fully relaxed and the strain arising from the lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si of 4.1 % is accommodated by misfit dislocations at the interface. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires are generally found to have vertical and non-polar side facets, while tilted and polar nanofacets were described for Au-assisted GaAs nanowires. We employ VLS nucleation theory to understand the effect of the droplet material on the lateral facets. Optoelectronic applications require long minority carrier lifetimes at room temperature. We fabricate GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires and analyse them by transient photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results are 2.5 ns for the self-assisted nanowires as well as 9 ps for the Au-assisted nanowires. By temperature-dependent PL measurements we find a characteristic activation energy of 77 meV that is present only in the Au-assisted nanowires. We conclude that most likely Au is incorporated from the droplets into the GaAs nanowires and acts as a deep, non-radiative recombination centre.

  19. RESOLUTION DU PROBLEME DE PREDICTION LINEAIRE PAR LA METHODE ULV. APPLICATION AU SIGNAL FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KHELIF

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la spectroscopie RMN, notre objectif est de déterminer le spectre d'absorption du signal de précession libre FID par la méthode de prédiction linéaire (PL. Ceci revient à résoudre le problème de prédiction linéaire en exploitant la méthode de corrélation par l'utilisation de la décomposition en valeurs singulières SVD pour l'inversion de la matrice de corrélation. Or, cette technique est la source d'un certain nombre de problèmes lorsque le signal est noyé dans du bruit. Aussi sera-t-elle coûteuse en temps lorsque les dimensions de la matrice de corrélation sont importantes. Afin de résoudre ce problème, nous exploitons les propriétés d'une nouvelle technique dérivée de la SVD, la décomposition ULV pour minimiser le coût du traitement et assurer une inversion correcte de la matrice de corrélation. Dans ce but, nous déterminons le spectre d'absorption par la technique ULV et nous le comparons avec le spectre déterminé par la SVD et  la FFT. Nous comparons par la suite la qualité des spectres obtenus par rapport au spectre d'absorption idéal  déterminé par FFT.

  20. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Stiripentol: Development, Validation, Kinetics, Structure Elucidation and Application to Commercial Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany W. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, sensitive, and accurate isocratic reversed-phase stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the determination of stiripentol and its degradation product in its bulk form and pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Symmetry C18 column and quantification was achieved using photodiode array detector (DAD. The method was validated in accordance with the ICH requirements showing specificity, linearity (r2=0.9996, range of 1–25 μg/mL, precision (relative standard deviation lower than 2%, accuracy (mean recovery 100.08±1.73, limits of detection and quantitation (LOD = 0.024 and LOQ = 0.081 μg/mL, and robustness. Stiripentol was subjected to various stress conditions and it has shown marked stability under alkaline hydrolytic stress conditions, thermal, oxidative, and photolytic conditions. Stiripentol degraded only under acidic conditions, forming a single degradation product which was well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different retention time values. This degradation product was characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy as well as ion trap mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the method would have a great value when applied in quality control and stability studies for stiripentol.

  1. Validated sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of antihistaminic drug azelastine HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical dosage forms: application to stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Amal A; Hammouda, Mohammed E A; El-Wasseef, Dalia R; El-Ashry, Saadia M

    2017-03-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of azelastine HCl (AZL) in either its pure state or pharmaceutical dosage form. The proposed method was based on measuring the native fluorescence of the studied drug in 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 at λ em  = 364 nm after excitation at λ ex  = 275 nm. Different experimental parameters were studied and optimized carefully to obtain the highest fluorescence intensity. The proposed method showed a linear dependence of the fluorescence intensity on drug concentration over a concentration range of 10-250 ng/mL, with a limit of detection of 1.52 ng/mL and limit of quantitation of 4.61 ng/mL. Moreover, the method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations, with percent recovery values (± SD) of 99.96 (± 0.4) and 100.1 (± 0.52) for nasal spray and eye drops, respectively. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the comparison method, as revealed by Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test. The method was extended to study the stability of AZL under stress conditions, where the drug was exposed to neutral, acidic, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic degradation according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Preparation of Au@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructure and its Applications for Degradation and Detection of Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Peng, Xiange; Zeng, Min; Yu, Lei; Wang, Kan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Guizhen

    2017-09-18

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO 2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO 2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail. It is found that all tested samples can absorb visible light with a maximum absorption at localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths (550-590 nm) which are determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell composites were used as the photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). As compared with pure TiO 2 nanotubes, Au@TiO 2 composites exhibit improved photocatalytic properties towards the degradation of MB. The SERS effect of Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell composites was also performed to investigate the detection sensitivity of MB.

  3. The Preparation of Au@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructure and its Applications for Degradation and Detection of Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Peng, Xiange; Zeng, Min; Yu, Lei; Wang, Kan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Guizhen

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail. It is found that all tested samples can absorb visible light with a maximum absorption at localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths (550-590 nm) which are determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell composites were used as the photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). As compared with pure TiO2 nanotubes, Au@TiO2 composites exhibit improved photocatalytic properties towards the degradation of MB. The SERS effect of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell composites was also performed to investigate the detection sensitivity of MB.

  4. Dosage of trace carbon in sodium (1963); Dosage de traces de carbone dans le sodium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannier, J; Vasseur, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A wet method for dosing carbon in sodium has been developed. The carbon is oxidised in a vacuum using Van SLYKE'S solution. The carbonic acid formed is measured volumetrically; its purity can be controlled by chromatographic analysis. The results obtained show that this method makes it possible to measure carbon in concentrations of about 10 ppm. (authors) [French] Une methode de dosage par voie humide du carbone dans le sodium a ete mise au point. L'oxydation du carbone par la solution de Van SLYKE est realisee sous vide. Le gaz carbonique forme est dose volumetriquement; sa purete peut etre controlee par analyse chromatographique. Les resultats obtenus montrent que cette methode permet de doser des teneurs en carbone de l'ordre de 10 ppm. (auteurs)

  5. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for determination of famotidine and its application in quality control of different pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.S.; Ayub, M.; Ishtiaq, S.; Ahmad; I; Khalid, N.

    2013-01-01

    A precise and fast novel high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Famotidine (FMT) in commercially available pharmaceutical dosage forms. An Agilent 1200 Series High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system having the column C 1 8 (5 micro m particle size, 150*4.6 mm) was used in this study and detection (diode array detector) was made at 280 nm. The mobile phase was acetonitrile, distilled water, triethylamine and phosphoric acid (49.9:49.9:0.1:0.1, v/v), isocratic elution under ambient temperature at flow rate of 1.5 mL min/sup -1/ with injection volume 5 micro L. In this method, the retention times for FMT pure, tablets and suspension were 0.787 min, 0.789 min and 0.839 minutes respectively. The new method was validated by different validation parameters. The procedure provided a linear response over the concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg mL/sup -1/ (r/sup 2/ =0.998) and equation was y=3902.6+18.651. The mean % recovery for inter-day (96.56%) and intra-day (97.36%) assuring a good precision and accuracy was 96-98%. The method was found to be very rapid and the overall assay time was less than 2 minutes and the results obtained were accurate, precise and selective enough to allow the determination of FMT in the presence of certain excipients. (author)

  6. Architecture of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles as investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Chen, Jium-Ming; Shih, Shou-Chu; Wang, Guo-Rung; Liu, Din-Goa; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the unique application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a fundamental characterization tool to help in designing and controlling the architecture of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles within a water-in-oil microemulsion system of water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane. Structural insights obtained from the in situ XAS measurements recorded at each step during the formation process revealed that Pd-Au bimetallic clusters with various Pd-Au atomic stackings are formed by properly performing hydrazine reduction and redox transmetalation reactions sequentially within water-in-oil microemulsions. A structural model is provided to explain reasonably each reaction step and to give detailed insight into the nucleation and growth mechanism of Pd-Au bimetallic clusters. The combination of in situ XAS analysis at both the Pd K-edge and the Au L(III)-edge and UV-vis absorption spectral features confirms that the formation of Pd-Au bimetallic clusters follows a (Pd(nuclei)-Au(stack))-Pd(surf) stacking. This result further implies that the thickness of Au(stack) and Pd(surf) layers may be modulated by varying the dosage of the Au precursor and hydrazine, respectively. In addition, a bimetallic (Pd-Au)(alloy) nanocluster with a (Pd(nuclei)-Au(stack))-(Pd-Au(alloy))(surf) stacking was also designed and synthesized in order to check the feasibility of Pd(surf) layer modification. The result reveals that the Pd(surf) layer of the stacked (Pd(nuclei)-Au)(stack) bimetallic clusters can be successfully modified to form a (Au-Pd alloy)(surf) layer by a co-reduction of Pd and Au ions by hydrazine. Further, we demonstrate the alloying extent or atomic distribution of Pd and Au in Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles from the derived XAS structural parameters. The complete XAS-based methodology, demonstrated here on the Pd-Au bimetallic system, can easily be extended to design and control the alloying extent or atomic distribution, atomic

  7. Fe2O3-Au hybrid nanoparticles for sensing applications via sers analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi; Searles, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles with large amounts of surface area and unique characteristics that are distinct from their bulk material provide an interesting application in the enhancement of inelastic scattering signal. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) strives to increase the Raman scattering effect when chemical species of interest are in the close proximity of metallic nnaostructures. Gold nanoparticles of various shapes have been used for sensing applications via SERS as they demonstrate the greatest effect of plasmonic behavior in the visible-near IR region of the spectrum. When coupled with other nanoparticles, namely iron oxide nanoparticles, hybrid structures with increased functionality were produced. Multifunctional iron oxide-gold hybrid nanostructures have been created via solution chemistries and investigated for analyte detection of a model analyte. By exploiting their magnetic properties, nanogaps or “hot spots” were rationally created and evaluated for SERS enhancement studies.

  8. Colorimetric Analysis on Flocculation of Bioinspired Au Self-Assembly for Biophotonic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles exhibited strong surface plasmon absorption and couplings between neighboring particles within bioactivated self-assembly modified their optical properties. Colorimetric analysis on the optical modification of surface plasmon resoanance (SPR shift and flocculation parameter functionalized bioinspired gold assembly for biophotonic application. The physical origin of bioinspired gold aggregation-induced shifting, decreasing, or broadening of the plasmon absorption spectra could be explained in terms of dynamic depolarization, collisional damping, and shadowing effects.

  9. Development of mercury porosimeter. Application to nuclear graphite studies (1961); Mise au point d'un porosimetre a mercure. Application a l'etude des graphites nucleaires (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, M; Genisson, J; Sailleau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A mercury porosimeter, model IFP-CEA, has been developed for application to nuclear graphite studies. The apparatus is based on the capillary depression phenomenon. The relationship between the radius of a pore and the pressure at which mercury fills it is pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} is the surface tension, {theta} the angle of contact of the mercury). After some theoretical consideration, the apparatus is described. The mercury pressure is increased step-wise from 0 to 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} thus yielding the complete distribution of pores from 92 {mu} to 75 A. Results are, then presented concerning nuclear graphites which show the evolution of the porous structure under the effect of bitumen impregnation. In general, the volume of the large pores decreases while that of the small pores increases. The structure of impregnated products appears to depend to a certain extent on that of the starting materials. It has also been possible to study other products with this porosimeter; the range of measurements possible is such that it may be used for the study of the majority of porous materials. (authors) [French] Un porosimetre a mercure modele IFP-CEA a ete mis au point en vue de son application a l'etude de graphites nucleaires. Le fonctionnement de l'appareil repose sur le phenomene de depression capillaire. On etablit la relation existant entre le rayon r d'un pore et la pression p pour laquelle le mercure peut y penetrer: pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} tension superficielle, {theta} angle de contact du mercure). Apres quelques considerations theoriques, l'appareil utilise est decrit. Il permet de faire varier par palier la pression du mercure entre 0 et 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} et d'etablir ainsi la distribution complete des rayons de pores compris entre 92 {mu} et 75 A. Les resultats d'une etude faite sur des graphites nucleaires sont alors presentes faisant apparaitre l'evolution de la structure poreuse sous l'effet des impregnations au brai. D'une facon

  10. Size selectivity of magnetite core- (Ag/Au) shell nanoparticles for multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pinki; Upadhyay, Chandan

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic and optical properties of nanomaterials play a significant role in the selection of the materials to be used for contrast enhancement in different biological and cell imaging techniques. These nanoparticles can also be used as drug delivery agents. The calculation of absorption efficiency and surface plasmon resonance wavelength has been performed using Mie theory and MATLAB programs. The study of spectrum calculated indicates the dependence of several optical properties such as resonance and absorption efficiency peak on ratio of core radius to the thickness of shell. A systematic study on the effect of nanoparticle dimension has been presented which clearly indicates that the optical properties can be modulated across the visible and near infrared range by changing these parameters. These properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for their application as multimodal imaging agents as they are also magnetically active and biocompatible.

  11. Au102(p-MBA)44 nanocluster, a superatom suitable for bio-applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Hannu

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles, including metals, semiconductors and metal oxides, comprise a common set of structures exhibiting an inorganic core `passivated' by an organic shell. Ligated inorganic nanoparticles currently provoke widespread fundamental interest in their structural, optical and magnetic properties, which differ fundamentally from bulk counterparts. These nanomaterials are already finding applications in biology, medicine, solar energy, and display panels. 1-6 Conjugating inorganic nanoparticles with organic (biological) material for applications in nanobiology and nanomedicine creates significant challenges for controlling the effects on the environment, particularly regarding toxicity. Chemical reactions of almost identical substances can lead to drastically different outcomes in a biological environment. As a simplistic example one can consider the case of ethanol vs. methanol. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) can be consumed by humans while even a small dose of methanol (CH3OH) can be fatal, yet the difference between the molecular formulas of these substances is just the smallest meaningful hydrocarbon unit CH2. This illuminates the fact that minute differences in the size and structure of molecular compounds can have drastically different end effects in a biological environment due to the way the compounds start to react with the environment. In recent years, gold nanoparticles covered by ligands that make them water-soluble have become a popular target for research in nanobiology and nanomedicine. 1,2 In most cases up to now, colloidal nanoparticles (5 nm and larger) have been used for sensing and photothermal applications. However, this class of gold-based nanomaterials still has large uncertainties regarding the atomic composition of the nanoparticle surface and particularly the metal-ligand interface. A simple example illuminates the facts. The density of atoms in the fcc lattice of macrosocopic gold metal is about 59 atoms/nm3. This means that a spherical

  12. Au-Nano-particle Deposition on alumina surfaces for environmental application-a density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It has been found that nanometer size gold particles on different oxide supports can act as catalysts, suggestions include quantum size effects, availability of low coordinated sites, and strain or combined effects of the gold particles and the oxide support. From photo dissociation spectroscopy and theory it has been inferred that the 2D / 3D structural transition occurs between five and seven atoms depending on charge state neutrals and singly positively charged ions. Here we will look into the interaction of gold particles over different sites of the aluminum -oxide surface to tune the catalytic activity of the novel material using first principle periodic calculations and compare them with the reactivity index to formulate a priori rule for metal cluster interaction. The catalytic application is aimed to CO adsorption type reactions for a greener environment. (author)

  13. A rapid green strategy for the synthesis of Au "meatball"-like nanoparticles using green tea for SERS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Xi; Yang, Xiangrui; Hou, Zhenqing; Shi, Yanfeng; Zhong, Lubin; Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Qiqing

    2014-09-01

    We report a simple and rapid biological approach to synthesize water-soluble and highly roughened "meatball"-like Au nanoparticles using green tea extract under microwave irradiation. The synthesized Au meatball-like nanoparticles possess excellent monodispersity and uniform size (250 nm in diameter). Raman measurements show that these tea-generated meatball-like gold nanostructures with high active surface areas exhibit a high enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In addition, the Au meatball-like nanoparticles demonstrate good biocompatibility and remarkable in vitro stability at the biological temperature. Meanwhile, the factors that influence the Au meatball-like nanoparticles morphology are investigated, and the mechanisms behind the nonspherical shape evolution are discussed.

  14. Measurements of Caesium-137 in Finnish Lapps in 1962-1964 by a Mobile Whole-Body Counter; Dosages de Cesium 137 chez les Lapons de Finlande en 1962-1964, au Moyen d'un Anthro- Pogammametre Mobile; 0418 0417 041c 0415 0420 0414 ; Determinacion del Cesio-137 en Lapones Finlandeses, en 1962-1964, Mediante un Antropogammametro Movil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J. K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    1964-11-15

    , were countered. This study included also dietary and medical investigations. Both in September 1962 and in March 1963 about 100 Lapps were counted. The first measurement of caesium-137 m Finnish Lapps was carried out in the Inari county m October 1961 by the Swedish counter. (The average body burden of the most important group, reindeer breeders, men (age 20 to 50 yr), was, in the four measurements: October 1961 274 nc (33 subjects), May 1962 508 nc (20 subjects), September 1962 307 nc (9 subjects), and March 1963, 646 nc (10 subjects). In other groups the body burden was considerably lower and the seasonal variations slightly different. The results of the four investigations are, compared and discussed with reference to the results of the dietary and medical investigations. (author) [French] Le memoire a trait a la construction, a l'etalonnage et a l'utilisation d'un anthro- pogammametre mobile dont le type a ete mis au point en Suede par K. Liden et coll. L'enceinte en plomb de l'appareil (2 t) est installee au centre du chassis d'un gros camion ferme. Le sujet,est place dans un coffre en plomb d'une epaisseur de 4 cm, une epaisseur de plomb de 8 cm protege le cristal de Nal(Tl) (12,5 cm x 7,5 cm) dans toutes les directions autres que celle du coffre. L'instrumentation comporte un.analyseur a 512 canaux, un dispositif d'impression, un enregistreur x, y et un stabilisateur, qui sont tous'emballes pour le transport dans des caisses a l'abri de la poussiere et a l'epreuve des chocs. Le camion est equipe d'un systemerde chauffage a thermostat et de deux cabines d'habillage. Pouf les dosages de cesium 137, on a etalonne T appareil par deux methodes differentes, a savoir: 1. En administrant a plusieurs sujets, par voie buccale, une'quantite exactement connue (soit entre 200 et 300 nc) de cesium 137, et en determinant T efficacite de comptage apres trois a six jours. On a recueilli et analyse les matieres fecales et l'urine pour determiner la fraction excretee de cesium 137

  15. An enhanced photocatalytic response of nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles for eco-friendly water applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Brundo, Maria V; Bergum, Kristin; Zimbone, Massimo; Sanz, Ruy; Buccheri, Maria A; Simone, Francesca; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Svensson, Bengt G; Grimaldi, Maria G; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-10-07

    We propose a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system in order to obtain an enhanced photocatalytic response. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles (∼8 nm mean diameter) with a thin layer of TiO2 (∼4 nm thick). The novel idea of embedding Au nanoparticles with titanium dioxide takes advantage of the presence of metal nanoparticles, in terms of electron trapping, without losing any of the TiO2 exposed surface, so as to favor the photocatalytic performance of titanium dioxide. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The remarkable photocatalytic performance together with the stability of the nano-system was demonstrated by degradation of the methylene blue dye in water. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on the reproductive cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis in an aquatic environment. The originally synthesized material was also compared to conventional TiO2 with Au nanoparticles on top. The latter system showed a dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the liquid environment, due to their instability in the aqueous solution that clearly represents an environmental contamination issue. Thus, the results show that nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles has great potential in eco-friendly water/wastewater purification.

  16. Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotube Networked Films with Au Nanoclusters for Enhanced NO2 Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Penza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT films have been deposited by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system onto alumina substrates, provided with 6 nm thick cobalt (Co growth catalyst for remarkably improved NO2 gas sensing, at working temperature in the range of 100–250∘C. Functionalization of the MWCNTs with nanoclusters of gold (Au sputtering has been performed to modify the surface of carbon nanotube networked films for enhanced and specific NO2 gas detection up to sub-ppm level. It is demonstrated that the NO2 gas sensitivity of the MWCNT-based sensors depends on Au-loading used as surface-catalyst. The gas response of MWCNT-based chemiresistor is attributed to p-type conductivity in the Au-modified semiconducting MWCNTs with a very good short-term repeatability and faster recovery. The sensor temperature of maximum NO2 sensitivity of the Au-functionalized MWCNTs is found to decrease with increasing Au-loading on their surface, and continuous gas monitoring at ppb level of NO2 is effectively performed with Au-modified MWCNT chemiresistors.

  17. Une chaîne de traitement de l'information géographique au service de l'application de la loi Littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick GUILLOPÉ

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available L’application de la loi Littoral nécessitait une approche nouvelle de la part de l’État et la mise en œuvre d’outils nouveaux pour une gestion à long terme. L’apport de traitements automatiques de l’information géographique a été ainsi testé au CETE Normandie-Centre sur trois des grands principes posés par cette loi.

  18. Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body and plays the most important role in protecting against pathogen and foreign matter. Three important modes such as topical, regional and transdermal are widely used for delivery of various dosage forms. Among these modes, the topical dosage forms are preferred because it provides local therapeutic activity when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Additives or pharmaceutical excipients (non-drug component of dosage form) are used as inactive ingredients in dosage form or tools for structuring dosage forms. The main use of topical dosage form additives are controling the extent of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic property and increasing the bulk of the formulation. The overall goal of this article is to provide the clinician with information related to the topical dosage form additives and their current major applications against various diseases.

  19. Induced accumulation of Au, Ag and Cu in Brassica napus grown in a mine tailings with the inoculation of Aspergillus niger and the application of two chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valdez, Eduardo; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Maldonado-Vega, María; Salas-Luévano, Miguel Ángel; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba

    2018-06-15

    This study evaluated the ability of Brassica napus for extracting gold (Au), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) from a mine tailings, with the inoculation of two Aspergillus niger strains, and the application of ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN) or ammonium thiosulfate [(NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 ]. After seven weeks of growth inoculated or non-inoculated plants were applied with 1 or 2 g kg -1 of either NH 4 SCN or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 , respectively. Eight days after the application of the chemical compounds, plants were harvested for determining the total dry biomass, and the content of Au, Ag, and Cu in plant organs. Application of (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 or NH 4 SCN resulted in enhanced Au-accumulation in stems (447% and 507%, respectively), while either (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 +Aspergillus, or NH 4 SCN increased the Au-accumulation in roots (198.5% and 404%, respectively) when compared to the control. Treatments with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 +Aspergillus significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) the accumulation of Ag in leaves (677% and 1376%, respectively), while NH 4 SCN + Aspergillus, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 enhanced the accumulation in stems (7153% and 6717.5%). The Ag-accumulation in roots was stimulated by NH 4 SCN+ Aspergillus, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 + Aspergillus (132.5% and 178%, respectively), when compared to the control. The combination of NH 4 SCN+Aspergillus significantly enhanced the Cu-accumulation in leaves (228%); whereas NH 4 SCN+ Aspergillus, or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 + Aspergillus resulted in greater accumulation of Cu in stems (1233.5% and 1580%, respectively) than the control. Results suggest that either NH 4 SCN or (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 (with or without Aspergillus) improved the accumulation of Au and Ag by B. napus. Accumulation of Au and Ag in plant organs overpassed the hyperaccumulation criterion (> 1 mg kg -1 of plant biomass); whereas Cu-accumulation in stems and roots also overpassed such criterion (> 1000 mg kg -1 ) by applying

  20. Preparation of dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures and their application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zao; Chen Shanjun; Chen Yan; Luo Jiangshan; Wu Weidong; Yi Yougen; Tang Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures have been synthesized via a multi-stage galvanic replacement reaction of Ag dendrites in a chlorauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) solution at room temperature. After five stages of replacement reaction, one obtains structures with protruding nanocubes; these will mature into many porous structures with a few Ag atoms that are left over dendrites. The morphological and compositional changes which evolved with reaction stages were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The replacement of Ag with Au was confirmed. A formation mechanism involving the original development of Ag dendrites into porous structures with the growth of Au nanocubes on this underlying structure as the number of reaction stages is proposed. This was confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures could be used as efficient SERS active substrates. It was found that the SERS enhancement ability was dependent on the stage of galvanic replacement reaction. - Highlights: ► Dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures have been synthesized. ► Protruding cubic nanostructures obtained after 5 stages mature into porous structures. ► SERS results allow confirm the proposed formation mechanism. ► The nanostructures could be used as efficient SERS active substrates.

  1. Colorimetric determination of the fluoride ion - application to uranium metal and to uranous fluoride; Dosage colorimetrique de l'ion fluor - application a l'uranium metal et au fluorure uraneux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, H; Hure, J; Legrand, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

    1949-12-01

    In the determination described for fluoride in U metal, the U is brought into H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution by anodic oxidation, the fluo-silicic acid is distilled by entrainment in water vapor, and the F ion is determined in the distillate by using the fact that it complexes Zr and thus prevents the formation of the Zr-alizarin S lake. For F ion in UF{sub 4}, the compound is dissolved in a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture, and F is determined in the solution by the colorimetric method described. (author)

  2. Colorimetric determination of the fluoride ion - application to uranium metal and to uranous fluoride; Dosage colorimetrique de l'ion fluor - application a l'uranium metal et au fluorure uraneux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, H.; Hure, J.; Legrand, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

    1949-12-01

    In the determination described for fluoride in U metal, the U is brought into H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution by anodic oxidation, the fluo-silicic acid is distilled by entrainment in water vapor, and the F ion is determined in the distillate by using the fact that it complexes Zr and thus prevents the formation of the Zr-alizarin S lake. For F ion in UF{sub 4}, the compound is dissolved in a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture, and F is determined in the solution by the colorimetric method described. (author)

  3. Highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au nanostructures prepared by simple electrodeposition: origin of surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and applications as electrochemical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhee; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Jongwon

    2013-05-24

    The fabrication of effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates has been the subject of intensive research because of their useful applications. In this paper, dendritic gold (Au) rod (DAR) structures prepared by simple one-step electrodeposition in a short time were examined as an effective SERS-active substrate. The SERS activity of the DAR surfaces was compared to that of other nanostructured Au surfaces with different morphologies, and its dependence on the structural variation of DAR structures was examined. These comparisonal investigations revealed that highly faceted sharp edge sites present on the DAR surfaces play a critical role in inducing a high SERS activity. The SERS enhancement factor was estimated to be greater than 10(5), and the detection limit of rhodamine 6G at DAR surfaces was 10(-8)M. The DAR surfaces exhibit excellent spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate SERS enhancement reproducibility, and their long-term stability is very good. It was also demonstrated that the DAR surfaces can be effectively utilized in electrochemical SERS systems, wherein a reversible SERS behavior was obtained during the cycling to cathodic potential regions. Considering the straightforward preparation of DAR substrates and the clean nature of SERS-active Au surfaces prepared in the absence of additives, we expect that DAR surfaces can be used as cost-effective SERS substrates in analytical and electrochemical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 nanoparticles for dye sensitized solar cell applications and evaluation of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Kumaraguru, S.; Bhakyaraj, K.; Thirumal, S.; Arumugam, A.

    2016-04-01

    Driven by the demand of pure TiO2, Au and Pt doped TiO2 NPs were successfully synthesized using Terminalia arjuna bark extract. The eco-friendly synthesized NPs were characterized by UV-Vis-DRS, ATR-FT-IR, PL, XRD, Raman, SEM with EDX and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were investigation for dye sensitized solar cell applications. UV-Vis-Diffused Reflectance Spectra clearly showed that the expected TiO2 inter band absorption below 306 nm, incorporation of gold shows surface plasma resonant (SPR) near 555 nm and platinum incorporated TiO2 NPs shows absorbance at 460 nm. The energy conversion efficiency for Au doped TiO2 NPs when compared to pure and Pt doped TiO2 NPs. In addition to that, Au noble metal present TiO2 matrix and an improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of DSSC. Synthesized NPs was evaluated into antibacterial and antifungal activities by disk diffusion method. It is observed that NPs have not shown any activities in all tested bacterial and fungal strains. In this eco-friendly synthesis method to provide non toxic and environmental friendly nanomaterials can be used for solar energy device application.

  5. Recent Advances in Laser-Ablative Synthesis of Bare Au and Si Nanoparticles and Assessment of Their Prospects for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Kattan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Driven by surface cleanness and unique physical, optical and chemical properties, bare (ligand-free laser-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs are now in the focus of interest as promising materials for the development of advanced biomedical platforms related to biosensing, bioimaging and therapeutic drug delivery. We recently achieved significant progress in the synthesis of bare gold (Au and silicon (Si NPs and their testing in biomedical tasks, including cancer imaging and therapy, biofuel cells, etc. We also showed that these nanomaterials can be excellent candidates for tissue engineering applications. This review is aimed at the description of our recent progress in laser synthesis of bare Si and Au NPs and their testing as functional modules (additives in innovative scaffold platforms intended for tissue engineering tasks.

  6. Dosage of DTPA administration by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuji; Iida, Haruzo; Shimo, Michikuni

    2000-01-01

    The administration of DTPA by inhalation was examined as an emergency medical treatment. In order to estimate the practical dosage to the human, an accurate model of the human air way was connected to a anesthetizer and respiration was simulated. Ca-DTPA, aerosolized by an ultra-sonic nebulizer, was administered by inhalation to the model. For the experiments, the respiratory volume (tidal volume) and the respiration rate was 12 per minute. Irrigation water from the model of larynx and mouth, and the air filter were collected and measured by chelate titration in order to determine the quantity of aerosolized DTPA and the amount deposited on the trachea and lang. The results indicated that the quantity of aerosolized DTPA varied with dilution of the DTPA solution in a ample. It was found that a 3 time dilution was the most practical and that 73 mg of DTPA per minute could be aerosolized. Furthermore, the results indicated that 46% of the aerosolized DTPA was taken in through inhalation and that 26% of DTPA was deposited in the trachea and lung. These results suggest that in practical application in the emergency medical treatment, 15 minutes of inhalation could delivered to approximately 500 mg of DTPA, and 130 mg could be delivered to the trachea and lung. It is considered that these quantity are enough amount to increase the effects of radioactive nuclides from the body, comparing with the recommended dosage for injection administration. (author)

  7. The characteristics of novel dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić-Aškrabić Jela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of pharmaceutical-technological development is to find a procedure of transforming an active substance (a drug into a drug dosage form which is not only acceptable for application, but also enables the active substance to be released following administration, pursuant to therapy objectives. The aim is that the concentration of the active substance in the action location rapidly reaches a therapeutic level and maintains an approximately constant level in the course of a particular time, according to the established therapeutic goal. The primary objective is to present the active ingredient (drug in the form and concentration/quantity that enables the corresponding therapeutic response, i.e. to control the site and rate of medicinal substance release from the drug, as well as the rate at which it reaches the membranes and surfaces to which it is absorbed, while applying a common method of administration. The procedures used to achieve this goal are becoming highly complex and demanding and are aiming at sophisticated drug delivery systems and functional packaging material. Development from the existing drug molecule, through the conventional drug dosage form, to a new system of drug "delivery" (novel delivery system, can improve the drug (active substance characteristics significantly in view of compliance (acceptability by the patient, safety and efficiency. The paper presents an overview of the most important examples of pharmaceutical forms with controlled release and advanced drug "carriers".

  8. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014. Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL, estimated total blood loss (ETBL, and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg. Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb level and body mass index (BMI were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p<0.0001 and 0.003, resp.. Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p<0.0001. Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p<0.05 all. Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p=0.0001 and 0.002, resp.. Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL.

  9. Simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin and H2 receptor antagonist in pharmaceutical dosage formulations by RP-HPLC: application to in vitro drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najma Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous determination of moxifloxacin (MOX and H2-antagonists was first time developed in bulk and formulations. Purospher STAR C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm column was used. The mobile phase (methanol: water: ACN, 60:45:5 v/v/v, pH 2.7 was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1, eluent was monitored at 236, 270 and 310 nm for cimetidine, famotidine and ranitidine, respectively. The proposed method is specific, accurate (98-103%, precise (intra-day and inter-day variation 0.098-1.970% and linear (r>0.998. The LOD and LOQ were 0.006-0.018 and 0.019-0.005 μg mL-1, respectively. The statistical parameters were applied to verify the results. The method is applicable to routine analysis of formulations and interaction of MOX with H2-antagonist.

  10. Development of the rectal dosage form with silver-coated glass beads for local-action applications in lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Fichna, Jakub; Zatorski, Hubert; Karolewicz, Bożena; Klimek, Leszek; Owczarek, Artur

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings indicating the anti-inflammatory action of silver preparations through modulation of the gut microbiota and apoptosis of inflammatory cells predestine silver use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to validate the possibility of effective silver release from silver-coated glass beads for anti-inflammatory local application in the lower sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Silver-coated glass beads were prepared using magnetron method. Release of silver from the silver-coated glass bead surface was carried out in BIO-DIS reciprocating cylinder apparatus. Erosion of silver coating and indirect estimation of the silver release dynamics was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Rectal suppositories containing silver-coated glass beads were prepared using five different methods (M1-M5) and X-ray scanned for their composition. The XR microanalysis and the chemical composition analysis evidenced for a rapid (within 30 min) release of nearly 50% of silver from the coating of the glass beads, which remained stable up to 24 h of incubation. The most homogeneous distribution of beads in the entire volume of the suppository was obtained for formulation M5, where the molten base was poured into mold placed in an ice bath, and the beads were added after 10 s. Our study is the first to present the concept of enclosing silver-coated glass beads in the lipophilic suppository base to attenuate inflammation in the lower GI tract and promises efficient treatment with reduced side effects.

  11. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  12. Silver Nanopartical over AuFON Substrate for Enhanced Raman Readout and Their Application in Pesticide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman detection of thiram is demonstrated by using Ag-nanoparticles (Ag NPs on Au film over nanosphere (AuFON substrate as the hybrid substrate. The SERS signal of the Ag NPs attached to solid supports is studied. The close coupling together of thousands of Ag NPs on AuFON leads to the generation of hot spots for SERS. The Ag NPs on AuFON can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G with the detection limitation of 10−11 M and the pesticide thiram in acetone with a detection limit of as low as 0.24 ppm, which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. The hybrid substrates are shown to be highly sensitive for the detection of thriam, which produce highly enhanced Raman signals with good uniformity and reproducibility due to having plenty of hot spots on its surface.

  13. Controlled Vectorial Electron Transfer and Photoelectrochemical Applications of Layered Relay/Photosensitizer-Imprinted Au Nanoparticle Architectures on Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Tzuriel S; Tel-Vered, Ran; Willner, Itamar

    2016-03-23

    Two configurations of molecularly imprinted bis-aniline-bridged Au nanoparticles (NPs) for the specific binding of the electron acceptor N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (MV(2+) ) and for the photosensitizer Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)-PP-IX) are assembled on electrodes, and the photoelectrochemical features of the two configurations are discussed. Configuration I includes the MV(2+) -imprinted Au NPs matrix as a base layer, on which the Zn(II)-PP-IX-imprinted Au NPs layer is deposited, while configuration II consists of a bilayer corresponding to the reversed imprinting order. Irradiation of the two electrodes in the presence of a benzoquinone/benzohydroquinone redox probe yields photocurrents of unique features: (i) Whereas configuration I yields an anodic photocurrent, the photocurrent generated by configuration II is cathodic. (ii) The photocurrents obtained upon irradiation of the imprinted electrodes are substantially higher as compared to the nonimprinted surfaces. The high photocurrents generated by the imprinted Au NPs-modified electrodes are attributed to the effective loading of the imprinted matrices with the MV(2+) and Zn(II)-PP-IX units and to the effective charge separation proceeding in the systems. The directional anodic/cathodic photocurrents are rationalized in terms of vectorial electron transfer processes dictated by the imprinting order and by the redox potentials of the photosensitizer/electron acceptor units associated with the imprinted sites in the two configurations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Application de la pensée systémique au renforcement de l'équité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sida ou à l'accroissement des taux de vaccination contre des maladies infantiles courantes. Mais en fin de ... Stratégies d'amélioration de la qualité des services de santé - tirer des enseignements des expériences vécues en Uruguay et au Chili.

  15. Magnetic gold nanocatalyst (nanocat-Fe–Au): catalytic applications for the oxidative esterification and hydrogen transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient and sustainable protocol is described for the oxidative esterification of aldehydes and the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds that uses magnetically separable and reusable maghemite-supported gold nanocatalyst (nanocat-Fe-Au) under mild conditions. The complex ch...

  16. Fast and facile preparation of CTAB based gels and their applications in Au and Ag nanoparticles synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant, E-mail: rkupadhyay85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, 201314 Uttar Pradesh (India); Soin, Navneet, E-mail: n.soin@bolton.ac.uk [Knowledge Centre for Materials Chemistry (KCMC), Institute for Materials Research and Innovation (IMRI), University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Saha, Susmita, E-mail: ssaha@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Sinha Roy, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.roy@snu.edu.in [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, 201314 Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-04-15

    We have demonstrated that the gel-like mesophase of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can be synthesized by judicial adjustment of water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), without using any additional salts, gelating agents or co-surfactants. Gel formation was found to be highly dependent on the water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), with the lowest value of W{sub 0} (41.5) resulting in rapid gel formation. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis revealed that the gel was comprised of interconnected cylindrical structures. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the gel-like mesophase was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Rheology measurements revealed that all the gel samples were highly viscoelastic in nature. Furthermore, Au and Ag containing CTAB gels were explored as precursors for the preparation of spherical Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) nanoparticles using Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent. The effects of NaBH{sub 4} concentration on the particle size and morphology of the Au and Ag nanoparticles have also been studied. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of CTAB based gel-like mesophase is reported. • CTAB gels were obtained by adjusting water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}). • FTIR analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in gel formation. • Au, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using CTAB gel and NaBH{sub 4}.

  17. How Does Amino Acid Ligand Modulate Au Core Structure and Characteristics in Peptide Coated Au Nanocluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Li, Xu; Zhao, Hongkang; Zhao, Lina

    2018-03-01

    The atomic structures and the corresponding physicochemical properties of peptide coated Au nanoclusters determine their distinctive biological targeting applications. To learn the modulation of amino acid ligand on the atomic structure and electronic characteristics of coated Au core is the fundamental knowledge for peptide coated Au nanocluster design and construction. Based on our recent coated Au nanocluster configuration study (Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 11454), we built the typically simplified Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) system to more clearly learn the basic modulation information of amino acid ligand on Au core by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. There are two isomers as ligand adjacent bonding (Iso1) and diagonal bonding (Iso2) to Au13 cores. The geometry optimizations indicate the adjacent bonding Iso1 is more stable than Iso2. More important, the Au13 core of Iso1 distorts much more significantly than that of Iso2 by Cys-Au-Cys bonding through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) analysis, which modulate their electronic characteristics in different ways. In addition, the frontier molecular orbital results of Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) isomers confirm that the Au cores mainly determine the blue shifts of Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) systems versus the original Au13 core in their UV-visible absorption spectrum studies. The configuration of Au13 core performs deformation under Cys-Au-Cys ligand modulation to reach new stability with distinct atomic structure and electronic properties, which could be the theory basis for peptide coated AuNCs design and construction.

  18. Ab initio simulations of scanning-tunneling-microscope images with embedding techniques and application to C58-dimers on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jan; Walz, Michael; Stendel, Melanie; Bagrets, Alexei; Evers, Ferdinand

    2013-05-14

    We present a modification of the standard electron transport methodology based on the (non-equilibrium) Green's function formalism to efficiently simulate STM-images. The novel feature of this method is that it employs an effective embedding technique that allows us to extrapolate properties of metal substrates with adsorbed molecules from quantum-chemical cluster calculations. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we present an application to STM-images of C58-dimers immobilized on Au(111)-surfaces that is motivated by recent experiments.

  19. The graphene/Au/Ni interface and its application in the construction of a graphene spin filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybkina, A A; Rybkin, A G; Adamchuk, V K; Marchenko, D; Shikin, A M; Varykhalov, A; Sánchez -Barriga, J

    2013-01-01

    A modification of the contact of graphene with ferromagnetic electrodes in a model of the graphene spin filter allowing restoration of the graphene electronic structure is proposed. It is suggested for this aim to intercalate into the interface between the graphene and the ferromagnetic (Ni or Co) electrode a Au monolayer to block the strong interaction between the graphene and Ni (Co) and, thus, prevent destruction of the graphene electronic structure which evolves in direct contact of graphene with Ni (Co). It is also suggested to insert an additional buffer graphene monolayer with the size limited by that of the electrode between the main graphene sheet providing spin current transport and the Au/Ni electrode injecting the spin current. This will prevent the spin transport properties of graphene from influencing contact phenomena and eliminate pinning of the graphene electronic structure relative to the Fermi level of the metal, thus ensuring efficient outflow of injected electrons into the graphene. The role of the spin structure of the graphene/Au/Ni interface with enhanced spin–orbit splitting of graphene π states is also discussed, and its use is proposed for additional spin selection in the process of the electron excitation. (paper)

  20. Highly selective epoxidation of styrene over mesoporous Au-Ti-SBA-15 via photocatalysis process: Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yajie; Liu Zhengwang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, Anhui (China); Wang Guangjian, E-mail: wgj2260@chnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, Anhui (China); Huang Yanhog; Kang Fangfang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, Anhui (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highly ordered Au-Ti-SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieves were successfully synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in acid medium, and were characterized by XRD, UV-vis, SEM, element-mapping, HRTEM, N{sub 2} adsorption, XPS, {sup 29}Si MAS NMR, NH{sub 3}-TPD and FT-IR. The as-prepared Au-Ti-SBA-15 samples were possessed of highly ordered mesostructures with larger pore diameter, pore volume and uniform mesopore size distribution. In the oxidation of styrene with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant over Au-Ti-SBA-15 catalyst under photo-irradiation, reaction parameters, such as molar ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to styrene, reaction time, solvent, the amount of catalyst, catalyst species, and the amount of 3% NaOH, were conditioned at length. As a result, highly selective epoxidation of styrene over catalyst was carried out perfectly for 10 min with high TOF of 4.75 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} min{sup -1}.

  1. Central Au on Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V. [Labo de Phys. Corp., IN2P3-CRNS, Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Fd. (France); Basrak, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others; FOPI-Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions the initial relative kinetic energy of target and projectile is available for internal excitation of the interacting system; it is however still not well established to what extent local equilibrium and thermalisation occur. Local equilibrium is of interest to derive, within the formalism of transport equations and of the equation of state, (EOS), general properties of compressed and excited nuclear matter. Such approach describes in relatively simple terms the complex many body interactions occuring within extended baryonic and hadronic (or quark) matter. For a basic microscopic understanding it is highly desirable to investigate the elementary in-medium interactions in relation to the free elementary processes. Excitation function measurements of central collisions between the heaviest available nuclei (like Au on Au), supply the best ground for such studies: the highest degree of thermalisation and compression is expected for such reactions. The consideration presented here of energy thermalisation and of an expanding system clusterizing at freeze-out in a situation close to the liquid gas phase transition can be of interest to astrophysics as well as to the quark gluon plasma deconfinement studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the higher energy regime of CERN and Brookhaven. (orig.).

  2. Improved decision making for prioritizing tumor targeting antibodies in human xenografts: Utility of fluorescence imaging to verify tumor target expression, antibody binding and optimization of dosage and application schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Michael; Haupt, Ute; Scheuer, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Preclinical efficacy studies of antibodies targeting a tumor-associated antigen are only justified when the expression of the relevant antigen has been demonstrated. Conventionally, antigen expression level is examined by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue section. This method represents the diagnostic "gold standard" for tumor target evaluation, but is affected by a number of factors, such as epitope masking and insufficient antigen retrieval. As a consequence, variances and discrepancies in histological staining results can occur, which may influence decision-making and therapeutic outcome. To overcome these problems, we have used different fluorescence-labeled therapeutic antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family members and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in combination with fluorescence imaging modalities to determine tumor antigen expression, drug-target interaction, and biodistribution and tumor saturation kinetics in non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. For this, whole-body fluorescence intensities of labeled antibodies, applied as a single compound or antibody mixture, were measured in Calu-1 and Calu-3 tumor-bearing mice, then ex vivo multispectral tumor tissue analysis at microscopic resolution was performed. With the aid of this simple and fast imaging method, we were able to analyze the tumor cell receptor status of HER1-3 and IGF1R, monitor the antibody-target interaction and evaluate the receptor binding sites of anti-HER2-targeting antibodies. Based on this, the most suitable tumor model, best therapeutic antibody, and optimal treatment dosage and application schedule was selected. Predictions drawn from obtained imaging data were in excellent concordance with outcome of conducted preclinical efficacy studies. Our results clearly demonstrate the great potential of combined in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging for the preclinical development and characterization of

  3. Investigation of the bond strength between the photo-sensitive polymer SU-8 and Au

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordstrom, Maria; Johansson, Alicia; Sanches-Noguerón, E.

    2004-01-01

    promotors between the SU-8 and Au (ii) the effect of the processing sequence, either keeping SU-8 as bottum layer or Au (iii) varying the UV exposure dosage of the SU-8. For comparison, also the bond strength between SU-8 and other materials was measured. We report on bond strength of 4.8 +/- 1.2 MPa...

  4. Hydraulic Modular Dosaging Systems for Machine Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kotlobai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The justified principle of making modular dosaging systems for positive-displacement multimotor hydraulic drives used in running gear and technological equipment of mobile construction, road and agricultural machines makes it possible to synchronize motion of running parts. The examples of the realization of modular dosaging systems and an algorithm of their operation are given in the paper.

  5. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  6. Precursor polymers for the carbon coating of Au@ZnO multipods for application as active material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Bresser, Dominic; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of statistical and block copolymers based on polyacrylonitrile, as a source for carbonaceous materials, and thiol-containing repeating units as inorganic nanoparticle anchoring groups is reported. These polymers are used to coat Au@ZnO multipod heteroparticles with polymer brushes. IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy prove the successful binding of the polymer onto the inorganic nanostructures. Thermogravimetric analysis is applied to compare the binding ability of the block and statistical copolymers. Subsequently, the polymer coating is transformed into a carbonaceous (partially graphitic) coating by pyrolysis. The obtained carbon coating is characterized by Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The benefit of the conformal carbon coating of the Au@ZnO multipods regarding its application as lithium-ion anode material is revealed by performing galvanostatic cycling, showing a highly enhanced and stabilized electrochemical performance of the carbon-coated particles (still 831 mAh g(-1) after 150 cycles) with respect to the uncoated ones (only 353 mAh g(-1) after 10 cycles). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Quantitative determination of five metabolites of aspirin by UHPLC-MS/MS coupled with enzymatic reaction and its application to evaluate the effects of aspirin dosage on the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-05-10

    Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, ASA) is a famous drug for cardiovascular diseases in recent years. Effects of ASA dosage on the metabolic profile have not been fully understood. The purpose of our study is to establish a rapid and reliable method to quantify ASA metabolites in biological matrices, especially for glucuronide metabolites whose standards are not commercially available. Then we applied this method to evaluate the effects of ASA dosage on the metabolic and excretion profile of ASA metabolites in rat urine. Salicylic acid (SA), gentisic acid (GA) and salicyluric acid (SUA) were determined directly by UHPLC-MS/MS, while salicyl phenolic glucuronide (SAPG) and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUAPG) were quantified indirectly by measuring the released SA and SUA from SAPG and SUAPG after β-glucuronidase digestion. SUA and SUAPG were the major metabolites of ASA in rat urine 24h after ASA administration, which accounted for 50% (SUA) and 26% (SUAPG). When ASA dosage was increased, the contributions dropped to 32% and 18%, respectively. The excretion of other three metabolites (GA, SA and SAPG) however showed remarkable increases by 16%, 6% and 4%, respectively. In addition, SUA and SUAPG were mainly excreted in the time period of 12-24h, while GA was excreted in the earlier time periods (0-4h and 4-8h). SA was mainly excreted in the time period of 0-4h and 12-24h. And the excretion of SAPG was equally distributed in the four time periods. We went further to show that the excretion of five metabolites in rat urine was delayed when ASA dosage was increased. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive method to determine the five ASA metabolites (SA, GA, SUA, SAPG and SUAPG) in rat urine. We showed that ASA dosage could significantly influence the metabolic and excretion profile of ASA metabolites in rat urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral Matrix Filtering Applied to Vsp Processing Application du filtrage matriciel au traitement des profils sismiques verticaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    données et de séparer ces signaux. Nous montrons que les signaux peuvent être automatiquement séparés sans connaissance a priori sur leurs vitesses apparentes, en fonction du produit scalaire (calculé dans le domaine fréquentiel et de l'amplitude relative des signaux. Nous montrons des exemples d'application sur des données de sismique de puits. Le filtrage matriciel est effectué dans le domaine fréquentiel en utilisant la matrice spectrale construite à l'aide des intercorrélations des différents enregistrements constituant les données à traiter. Les méthodes d'estimation de la matrice spectrale sont des méthodes de moyenne : moyenne en fréquence (méthode du périodogramme lissé et/ou moyenne en distance (lissage réalisé le long des diagonales de la matrice spectrale. Le lissage en fréquence est obtenu par l'intermédiaire d'une fonction de pondération (par exemple fenêtre de Hanning élevée à une puissance donnée appliquée à chaque corrélation. Les moyennes sont utilisées pour décorréler les signaux et de ce fait favoriser la séparation. Une fois correctement estimée, la matrice spectrale est diagonalisée sur toutes les fréquences du spectre moyenné, et décomposée selon ses vecteurs propres qui sont orthogonaux entre eux et normalisés. Chaque vecteur propre a une valeur propre associée qui représente la répartition d'énergie en fonction de la fréquence du modèle lié au vecteur propre. Le filtrage est réalisé par projection des données sur les différents vecteurs propres issus de la matrice spectrale. Il est à noter cependant que la séparation des différents signaux (projection sur vecteur propre n'est réalisée en terme d'indicatrice sismique que si les événements sismiques sont naturellement orthogonaux et alignés sur les vecteurs propres. Glangeaud et al (1989 ont étudié l'influence des amplitudes relatives et du produit scalaire de deux ondes. Si la vitesse apparente d'une onde est connue, cette derni

  9. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation.

  10. Low cost technology for the rapid and safe in-house (hospital-based) preparation of dual - radiotherapeutic (Rx) and radiodiagnostic (Dx) - dosage forms of high specific activity 131I-mIBG for clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sonawane, G.A.; Samuel, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Radioiodinated mIBG is finding increasing utility in nuclear medicine. However, its widespread use in developing countries is precluded by logistic constraints owing to the relative instability of the labelled molecule with respect to time and temp., and high costs. This prompted us to develop a low cost in-house batch process technology that could be used for the small-scale preparation of 131 I-mIBG even in a less equipped hospital-based radiopharmacy. The production of large amounts of 131 I-mIBG for clinical use requires sophisticated infrastructure (a scarce resource) to contain / safeguard against internal and external radiation exposures. We have indigenously designed a semi-automated, self-shielded, remote-controlled and safe microplant + process assemblies using easily accessible and cheap inputs, and developed the complete technology for the rapid and safe production of dual dosage forms of 131 I-mIBG, a radiotherapeutic (R x ) single dosage form of high activity along with 1-3 low activity radiodiagnostics (D x ) as multidosage forms. The radioiodide exchange reaction was effected in the solid / melt phase at 190 deg. C in 1.0 h. The radiolabelling yield was ∼80.0-86.0%, and the radiochemical purity > 99.5% and specific activity of R x /D x =900-1300/60-800 MBq ( x dosage forms at 3 weeks. The dosage forms (especially R x ) were only made against firm patient appointment(s). Thus far we have prepared 14 R x (49.0 GBq) and 70 + 14 batches (43.43 GBq) of (∼150 nos.) D x forms, and used them in 14 and > 1100 patients respectively. (author)

  11. Application of Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Glow Microdischarge Generated in Contact with a Flowing Liquid Solution for Synthesis of Au-Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimitrowicz, Anna; Jamroz, Piotr; Nyk, Marcin; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-06

    A direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) generated between an Ar nozzle microjet and a flowing liquid was applied to produce Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AgCSNPs) in a continuous flow system. Firstly, operating dc-μAPGD with the flowing solution of the Au(III) ions as the cathode, the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) core was produced. Next, to produce the core-shell nanostructures, the collected AuNPs solution was immediately mixed with an AgNO₃ solution and passed through the system with the reversed polarity to fabricate the Ag nanoshell on the AuNPs core. The formation of Au@AgCSNPs was confirmed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Three localized surface plasmon resonance absorption bands with wavelengths centered at 372, 546, and 675 nm were observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of Au@AgCSNPs, confirming the reduction of both the Au(III) and Ag(I) ions. The right configuration of metals in Au@AgCSNPs was evidenced by TEM. The Au core diameter was 10.2 ± 2.0 nm, while the thickness of the Ag nanoshell was 5.8 ± 1.8 nm. The elemental composition of the bimetallic nanoparticles was also confirmed by EDS. It is possible to obtain 90 mL of a solution containing Au@AgCSNPs per hour using the applied microdischarge system.

  12. Developpement d'une methode de Monte Carlo dependante du temps et application au reacteur de type CANDU-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Mehdi

    La resolution de l'equation de Boltzmann demeure une etape importante dans la prediction du comportement d'un reacteur nucleaire. Malheureusement, la resolution de cette equation presente toujours un defi pour une geometrie complexe (reacteur) tout comme pour une geometrie simple (cellule). Ainsi, pour predire le comportement d'un reacteur nucleaire,un schema de calcul a deux etapes est necessaire. La premiere etape consiste a obtenir les parametres nucleaires d'une cellule du reacteur apres une etape d'homogeneisation et condensation. La deuxieme etape consiste en un calcul de diffusion pour tout le reacteur en utilisant les resultats de la premiere etape tout en simplifiant la geometrie du reacteur a un ensemble de cellules homogenes le tout entoure de reflecteur. Lors des transitoires (accident), ces deux etapes sont insuffisantes pour pouvoir predire le comportement du reacteur. Comme la resolution de l'equation de Boltzmann dans sa forme dependante du temps presente toujours un defi de taille pour tous types de geometries,un autre schema de calcul est necessaire. Afin de contourner cette difficulte, l'hypothese adiabatique est utilisee. Elle se concretise en un schema de calcul a quatre etapes. La premiere et deuxieme etapes demeurent les memes pour des conditions nominales du reacteur. La troisieme etape se resume a obtenir les nouvelles proprietes nucleaires de la cellule a la suite de la perturbation pour les utiliser, au niveau de la quatrieme etape, dans un nouveau calcul de reacteur et obtenir l'effet de la perturbation sur le reacteur. Ce projet vise a verifier cette hypothese. Ainsi, un nouveau schema de calcul a ete defini. La premiere etape de ce projet a ete de creer un nouveau logiciel capable de resoudre l'equation de Boltzmann dependante du temps par la methode stochastique Monte Carlo dans le but d'obtenir des sections efficaces qui evoluent dans le temps. Ce code a ete utilise pour simuler un accident LOCA dans un reacteur nucleaire de type

  13. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...

  14. Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism of Au3+, Pd2+ and Ag+ ions adsorption from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide functionalized persimmon tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongmin; Li, Xiaojuan; Liang, Haijun; Ning, Jingliang; Zhou, Zhide; Li, Guiyin

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a novel bio-adsorbent (PT-GO) was prepared by functionalization persimmon tannin (PT) with graphene oxide (GO) and the effective adsorption behaviors of Au 3+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The PT-GO was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Zeta potential. Many influence factors such as pH value, bio-adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of metal ions and contact time were optimized. The maximum adsorption capacity for Au 3+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + was 1325.09mg/g, 797.66mg/g and 421.01mg/g, respectively. The equilibrium isotherm for the adsorption of Au 3+ and Ag + on PT-GO were found to obey the Langmuir model, while the Freundlich model fitted better for Pd 2+ . The adsorption process of Au 3+ , Pd 2+ presented relatively fast adsorption kinetics with pseudo-second-order equation as the best fitting model, while the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was suitable for describing the adsorption of Ag + . Combination of ion exchange, electrostatic interaction and physical adsorption was the mechanism for adsorption of Au 3+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + onto PT-GO bio-adsorbent. Therefore, the PT-GO bio-adsorbent would be an ideal adsorbent for removal of precious metal ions and broaden the potential applications of persimmon tannin in environmental research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  16. Contribution to the improvement of VRLA batteries for cycling applications; Contribution a l'amelioration des batteries au plomb fermees pour l'application au vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, M.

    2001-07-01

    Life time and performance of lead batteries for electric-powered vehicles have been optimized by the application of a mechanical pressure on electrodes blocks with a new separator AJS. On the positive grid, the corrosion decreases as the associated effects because AJS stabilizes mechanically the block. The use of phosphoric acid increases the high discharge currant cells performance if they are loaded by an adequate regime. This effect disappears during the cycle. (A.L.B.)

  17. QR encoded smart oral dosage forms by inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Genina, Natalja

    2018-01-30

    The use of inkjet printing (IJP) technology enables the flexible manufacturing of personalized medicine with the doses tailored for each patient. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of IJP in the production of edible dosage forms in the pattern of a quick response (QR) code. This printed pattern contains the drug itself and encoded information relevant to the patient and/or healthcare professionals. IJP of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing ink in the pattern of QR code was performed onto a newly developed porous and flexible, but mechanically stable substrate with a good absorption capacity. The printing did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. The actual drug content of the printed dosage forms was in accordance with the encoded drug content. The QR encoded dosage forms had a good print definition without significant edge bleeding. They were readable by a smartphone even after storage in harsh conditions. This approach of efficient data incorporation and data storage combined with the use of smart devices can lead to safer and more patient-friendly drug products in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization of Ag-Au core-shell bimetal nanoparticles and its application for electrocatalytic oxidation/sensing of L-methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugavelu, M.; Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: bkarthi_au@yahoo.com

    2017-01-01

    The Ag-Au core-shell bimetal nanoparticles (BNPs) was prepared using chemical reduction method. The prepared Ag-Au core-shell BNPs were characterized by UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) pattern. These results showed the Ag-Au BNPs exhibited core-shell shape. The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs was examined towards electrocatalytic oxidation of L-methionine (L-Met) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry. According to the results, L-Met is determined with detection limit of 30 μM. Interference studies in biological buffer was also studied. - Highlights: • The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs are synthesized and characterized • Ag-Au core-shell BNPs modified (Ag-Au/GCE) has been examined for L-methionine oxidation/sensing by using electrochemical method. • The Ag-Au/GCE exhibited good performance for the detection of L-methionine.

  19. [Post-marketing re-evaluation about usage and dosage of Chinese medicine based on human population pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are determined by rigorous evaluation which include four clinical trail stages: I, II, III. But the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are lacked re-evaluation after marketing. And this lead to unchanging or fixed of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine instead of different quantity based on different situations in individual patients. The situation of Chinese patent medicine used in clinical application is far away from the idea of the "Treatment based on syndrome differentiation" in traditional Chinese medicine and personalized therapy. Human population pharmacokinetics provides data support to the personalized therapy in clinical application, and achieved the postmarking reevaluating of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine. This paper briefly introduced the present situation, significance and the application of human population pharmacokinetics about re-evaluation of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine after marketing.

  20. An Appraisal of Analytical Methods for Plutonium and their Applications to the Analysis of Nuclear Materials; Evaluation des Methodes Analytiques de Dosage du Plutonium et de Leur Application a l'Analyse des Matieres Nucleaires; Otsenka analiticheskikh metodov opredeleniya plutoniya i ikh primenenie dlya analiza yadernykh materialov; Metodos Analiticos de Determinacion del Plutonio y su Empleo en el Analisis de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, G. W.C.; Phillips, G. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-02-15

    programmes for new nuclear fuels. (author) [French] Il existe plusieurs methodes de dosage de la teneur en plutonium des matieres nucleaires. Pour les quantites de l'ordre du milligramme, les methodes utilisables sont la spectro- photometiie differentielle fondee sur la couleur de Pu (III), la gravimetrie fondee sur PuO{sub 2}, le comptage gamma et les methodes de reduction/oxydation comprenant les titrages poientiometriques et amperemetriques et la coulombmetrie a potentiel constant. Pour les quantites de Tordre du microgramme, le comptage alpha, la dilution isotopique et les methodes polarigraphiques sont a utiliser. Certaines methodes conviennent mieux que d'autres a des types determines d'echantillons et l'analyste soucieux d'obtenir les meilleurs resultats se heurte a un choix difficile. Les auteurs exposent les avantages et les inconvenients des methodes citees tels qu'ils se sont degages de l'experience acquise au cours des annees a l'Atomic Energy Research Establishment, et ils discutent l'exactitude, la precision, la sensibilite de ces methodes, et d'autres caracteristiques presentant un interet particulier. Certaines methodes ne peuvent etre utilisees si l'on n'a, dans une certaine mesure, separe le plutonium des autres constituants de l'echantillon et le memoire commente l'experience acquise avec l'echange d'anions et les procedes de chromatographie a phase inversee utilises a cette fin, en insistant surtout sur la mesure dans laquelle cette methode convient aux echantillons radioactifs. Les auteurs etudient en outre les nombreux problemes qui se sont poses lors de l'application (d'ailleurs couronnee de succes) de ces methodes a l'analyse des alliages de plutonium, des ceramiques et des cermets dans differentes combinaisons contenant de l'uranium, du thorium, du fer, du chrome, du molybdene, du cerium et du cobalt. Us exposent les difficultes de la dissolution des echantillons et de la reduction du plutonium a l'etat de valence voulu, ainsi que les avantages

  1. Fe2O3-Au hybrid nanoparticles for sensing applications via sers analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Searles, Emily [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-25

    Nanoparticles with large amounts of surface area and unique characteristics that are distinct from their bulk material provide an interesting application in the enhancement of inelastic scattering signal. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) strives to increase the Raman scattering effect when chemical species of interest are in the close proximity of metallic nnaostructures. Gold nanoparticles of various shapes have been used for sensing applications via SERS as they demonstrate the greatest effect of plasmonic behavior in the visible-near IR region of the spectrum. When coupled with other nanoparticles, namely iron oxide nanoparticles, hybrid structures with increased functionality were produced. Multifunctional iron oxide-gold hybrid nanostructures have been created via solution chemistries and investigated for analyte detection of a model analyte. By exploiting their magnetic properties, nanogaps or “hot spots” were rationally created and evaluated for SERS enhancement studies.

  2. Synthesis and application of strawberry-like Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles as CT-MR dual-modality contrast agents in accurate detection of the progressive liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui Y; Liu, Sen; He, Jian; Pan, Chao C; Li, Hui; Zhou, Zheng Y; Ding, Yin; Huo, Da; Hu, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Development of non-invasive assay for the accurate diagnosis of progressive liver diseases (e.g., fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) is of great clinical significance and remains to be a big challenge. Herein, we reported the synthesis of strawberry-like Fe3O4-Au hybrid nanoparticles at room temperature that simultaneously exhibited fluorescence, enhanced X-ray attenuation, and magnetic properties. The results of in vitro fluorescence assay showed that the nanoparticles had significant photo-stability and could avoid the endosome degradation in cells. The in vivo imaging of normal mice demonstrated that the Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles provided 34.61-fold contrast enhancement under magnetic resonance (MR) guidance 15 min post the administration. Computed tomography (CT) measurements showed that the highest Hounsfield Unit (HU) was 174 at 30 min post the injection of Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles. In vivo performance of the Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles was further evaluated in rat models bearing three different liver diseases. For the fatty liver model, nearly homogeneous contrast enhancement was observed under both MR (highest contrast ratio 47.33) and CT (from 19 HU to 72 HU) guidances without the occurrences of focal nodules or dysfunction. For the cirrhotic liver and HCC, pronounced enhancement under MR and CT guidance could be seen in liver parenchyma with highlighted lesions after Fe3O4-Au injection. Furthermore, pathological, hematological and biochemical analysis revealed the absence of acute and chronic toxicity, confirming the biocompatibility of our platform for in vivo applications. Collectively, These Fe3O4-Au nanoparticles showed great promise as a candidate for multi-modality bio-imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligent system for improving dosage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cosme Rodrigues dos Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is one of the most important processes in a drinking-water treatment plant, and it is applied to destabilize impurities in water for the subsequent flocculation stage. Several techniques are currently used in the water industry to determine the best dosage of the coagulant, such as the jar-test method, zeta potential measurements, artificial intelligence methods, comprising neural networks, fuzzy and expert systems, and the combination of the above-mentioned techniques to help operators and engineers in the water treatment process. Current paper presents an artificial neural network approach to evaluate optimum coagulant dosage for various scenarios in raw water quality, using parameters such as raw water color, raw water turbidity, clarified and filtered water turbidity and a calculated Dose Rate to provide the best performance in the filtration process. Another feature in current approach is the use of a backpropagation neural network method to estimate the best coagulant dosage simultaneously at two points of the water treatment plant. Simulation results were compared to the current dosage rate and showed that the proposed system may reduce costs of raw material in water treatment plant.

  4. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  5. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depression of X-linked gene activity in the female, as well as by hyperexpression of the ... to the Harvey lecture, Muller had presented important ideas relative to dosage ... at Columbia. I do recall a talk by the popular physical anthro- pologist ...

  6. Silica diatom shells tailored with Au nanoparticles enable sensitive analysis of molecules for biological, safety and environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.; Villani, M.; Coluccio, M. L.; Majewska, R.; Alabastri, A.; Battista, E.; Schirato, A.; Calestani, D.; Coppedé , N.; Cesarelli, M.; Amato, F.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, F.

    2018-01-01

    Diatom shells are a natural, theoretically unlimited material composed of silicon dioxide, with regular patterns of pores penetrating through their surface. For their characteristics, diatom shells show promise to be used as low cost, highly efficient drug carriers, sensor devices or other micro-devices. Here, we demonstrate diatom shells functionalized with gold nanoparticles for the harvesting and detection of biological analytes (bovine serum albumin—BSA) and chemical pollutants (mineral oil) in low abundance ranges, for applications in bioengineering, medicine, safety, and pollution monitoring.

  7. Silica diatom shells tailored with Au nanoparticles enable sensitive analysis of molecules for biological, safety and environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.

    2018-04-19

    Diatom shells are a natural, theoretically unlimited material composed of silicon dioxide, with regular patterns of pores penetrating through their surface. For their characteristics, diatom shells show promise to be used as low cost, highly efficient drug carriers, sensor devices or other micro-devices. Here, we demonstrate diatom shells functionalized with gold nanoparticles for the harvesting and detection of biological analytes (bovine serum albumin—BSA) and chemical pollutants (mineral oil) in low abundance ranges, for applications in bioengineering, medicine, safety, and pollution monitoring.

  8. Tantalum electrodes modified with well-aligned carbon nanotube-Au nanoparticles: application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of cefazolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayazfar, Haniyeh; Afshar, Abdollah; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2014-07-01

    Carbon nanotube/nanoparticle hybrid materials have been proven to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity suggesting broad potential applications in the field of electroanalysis. For the first time, modification of Ta electrode with aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Au nanoparticles introduced for the sensitive determination of the antibiotic drug, cefazolin (CFZ). The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward CFZ were investigated by means of cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of CFZ, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and a significant increase of peak current. Under optimum conditions, the highly sensitive modified electrode showed a wide linear range from 50 pM to 50 μM with a sufficiently low detection limit of 1 ± 0.01 pM (S/N = 3). The results indicated that the prepared electrode presents suitable characteristics in terms of sensitivity (458.2 ± 2.6 μAcm(-2)/μM), accuracy, repeatability (RSD of 1.8 %), reproducibility (RSD of 2.9 %), stability (14 days), and good catalytic activity in physiological conditions. The method was successfully applied for accurate determination of trace amounts of CFZ in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations without the necessity for samples pretreatment or any time-consuming extraction or evaporation steps prior to the analysis.

  9. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  10. Ionic liquid assisted synthesis of nano Pd-Au particles and application for the detection of epinephrine, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsuan; Thiagarajan, Soundappan; Chen Shenming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net; Cheng Chingyi

    2012-01-31

    Nano Pd-Au particles have been electrochemically fabricated utilizing ionic liquid as green electrolyte (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate). Nano Pd-Au particles modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes were examined using atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction studies. Electrodeposited nano Pd-Au particles' average diameter was found as 33 nm. Nano Pd-Au particle modified GCE was electrochemically active and stable in various pH solutions. The proposed nano particle modified GCE reduces the over potential and shows the well defined oxidation peaks for the detection of epinephrine and simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid (in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution) using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry.

  11. Determination of strontium 90 in milk Ash; Dosage du strontium 90 dans les cendres de lait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballada, J; Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report describes a method of determination of {sup 90}Sr in milk ashes by extraction of {sup 90}Y in TBP. The tests which led to the choice of the operating process are presented together with tire result of an intercomparison. (author) [French] Le document decrit une methode de dosage du {sup 90}Sr dans les cendres de lait par extraction de {sup 90}Y dans le TBP. De plus, les auteurs rapportent les essais qui ont conduit au choix du mode operatoire presente, ainsi que les resultats d'une intercomparaison. (auteur)

  12. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl 4 with NaBH 4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO 2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO 2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe 3 O 4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min −1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h −1 . (paper)

  13. A study on the effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on Au/TiO_2 system for its application in photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Anuradha; Srivastav, Anupam; Sharma, Dipika; Banerjee, Anamika; Sharma, Shailja; Satsangi, Vibha Rani; Shrivastav, Rohit; Avasthi, Devesh Kumar; Dass, Sahab

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO_2 thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate via sol–gel technique and were modified by plasmonic Au layer. The plasmonic Au modified TiO_2 (Au/TiO_2) thin films were then irradiated with 500 keV Ar"2"+ ion beam at different ion fluences viz. 1 × 10"1"6, 3 × 10"1"6 and 1 × 10"1"7 to study the effect of nuclear energy deposition on the morphology, crystallinity, band gap, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak exhibited by Au particles and photoelectrochemical properties of the system. Prepared thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements and UV–visible spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements revealed that both Au/TiO_2 and Au/TiO_2 thin film irradiated at 1 × 10"1"6 fluence exhibits enhanced photoelectrochemical response in comparison to pristine TiO_2. The film irradiated at 1 × 10"1"6 fluence offered maximum applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) and shows 6 times increment in photocurrent density which was attributed to more negative flat band potential, maximum decrease in band gap, high open circuit voltage (V_o_c) and reduced charge transfer resistance.

  14. Determination of elements in citrus leaves; Dosage des elements dans les feuilles de citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masozera, C.; Compernolle, G. van; Brandstetr, J.; Krivanek, M. [Centre nucléaire TRICO, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Université Lovanium, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the)

    1970-01-15

    facteurs, entre autres l'épuisement du sol ou l'application d'engrais dont la formule n’ est pas appropriée. L' appauvrissement chimique du sol est lié à deux causes: d' une part au phénomène de lessivage, d’entrainement de bases, d’autre part aux «exportations» d'éléments fertilisants sous forme de récoltes pendant des années sans contrepartie. Ces pertes sont particulièrement néfastes si la roche-mère ne contient pas suffisamment de réserves minérales susceptibles de les compenser par altération lente. Cet appauvrissement est mis en évidence par les analyses du sol et par les analyses foliaires. Les auteurs ont essayé de doser les éléments suivants: Mn, P, Cu, Cl, et K (ces derniers pour trois échantillons seulement) pour le Citrus. Après prélèvement ils ont traité les échantillons selon la méthode utilisée par Bransolten (Rapport de recherche TRICO n° 15/1968), séchage pendant au moins 12 h à 105°C et broyage des feuilles en poudre, puis ils ont procédé au dosage. Le dosage du Mn et du Cl est très facile, tout comme celui du Cu. Ce dernier est dosé par activation aux neutrons lents pour éviter la formation de Zn. Quant au phosphore, il a été dosé en mesurant le rayonnement ß émis par les radioéléments. Ici, des précautions particulières doivent être prises pour avoir la même couche pour les échantillons et les étalons vu que le rayonnement ß est absorbé par ces couches. Le K et le Na ont été dosés en utilisant les neutrons thermiques pour l'activation et un détecteur au Ge(Li) pour les mesures des spectres y. La grande résolution du détecteur a permis de doser ces deux éléments sans séparation. (author)

  15. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng, E-mail: xhliu@mail.njust.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An inversed Au/ZnO nanostructure was fabricated with ZnO loaded onto Au. • The Au/ZnO nanocomposites showed enhanced properties in visible-light photocatalysis. • The SPR effect of Au was considered important for visible-light photocatalysis. - Abstract: In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  16. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An inversed Au/ZnO nanostructure was fabricated with ZnO loaded onto Au. • The Au/ZnO nanocomposites showed enhanced properties in visible-light photocatalysis. • The SPR effect of Au was considered important for visible-light photocatalysis. - Abstract: In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  17. The Effect of Different Dosages of bFGF and Sucralfate Local Application during Continuous Tissue Expansion%bFGF和硫糖铝局部应用促扩张术方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚兰; 郭树忠; 鲁开化

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF)不同剂量、用药方法对扩张组织的影响.方法以白色家猪为实验动物,采用持续恒压扩张技术,观察不同剂量和不同给药时间,bFGF和硫糖铝对扩张组织的影响及组织结构变化.结果扩张术同时每日2次局部应用bFGF 9AU/cm2+硫糖铝100μg/ml,共7 d,浸于明胶海绵上缓慢持续释放对扩张组织的影响最明显,效果最佳,扩张器内实际注液量、扩张所获得的皮肤净增面积明显增加,皮瓣回缩率降低.表皮细胞层数增多,胶原纤维、弹力纤维、成纤维细胞密度和毛细血管密度显著增高.药量增加效果未随之增加.结论持续恒压扩张术时合用bF-GF 9AU/cm2+硫糖铝100μg/ml,每日2次注药浸入明胶海绵持续缓慢释放效果最佳.

  18. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Au-based monolayer derivatives in honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Pooja, E-mail: pupooja16@gmail.com; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Centre for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We present electronic properties of atomic layer of Au, Au{sub 2}-N, Au{sub 2}-O and Au{sub 2}-F in graphene-like structure within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The lattice constant of derived monolayers are found to be higher than the pristine Au monolayer. Au monolayer is metallic in nature with quantum ballistic conductance calculated as 4G{sub 0}. Similarly, Au{sub 2}-N and Au{sub 2}-F monolayers show 4G{sub 0} and 2G{sub 0} quantum conductance respectively while semiconducting nature with calculated band gap of 0.28 eV has been observed for Au{sub 2}-O monolayer. Most interestingly, half metalicity has been predicted for Au{sub 2}-N and Au{sub 2}-F monolayers. Our findings may have importance for the application of these monolayers in nanoelectronic and spintronics.

  19. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  20. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... traités au service de chirurgie maxillo-faciale et chirurgie plastique de l'hôpital ... qui est la fracture simple isolée du corps, on a inclut ce type de fracture ... sion latérale au niveau de la queue du sourcil. La voie vestibulaire ...

  1. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  2. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  3. Shocks in magneto-reactive-gas dynamics with application to the piston problem; Sur les chocs dans un milieu magnetodynamique reactif avec application au probleme du piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubbaramayer, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    electrique et thermique). Enfin on discute de toutes les solutions possibles du probleme du piston dans un cas simple. Les methodes developpees ici peuvent etre etendues au choc ionisant. (auteur)

  4. Application of a parallel genetic algorithm to the global optimization of medium-sized Au-Pd sub-nanometre clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Heider A.; Demiroglu, Ilker; Johnston, Roy L.

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to the discussion of the high activity and reactivity of Au-Pd system, we have adopted the BPGA-DFT approach to study the structural and energetic properties of medium-sized Au-Pd sub-nanometre clusters with 11-18 atoms. We have examined the structural behaviour and stability as a function of cluster size and composition. The study suggests 2D-3D crossover points for pure Au clusters at 14 and 16 atoms, whereas pure Pd clusters are all found to be 3D. For Au-Pd nanoalloys, the role of cluster size and the influence of doping were found to be extensive and non-monotonic in altering cluster structures. Various stability criteria (e.g. binding energies, second differences in energy, and mixing energies) are used to evaluate the energetics, structures, and tendency of segregation in sub-nanometre Au-Pd clusters. HOMO-LUMO gaps were calculated to give additional information on cluster stability and a systematic homotop search was used to evaluate the energies of the generated global minima of mono-substituted clusters and the preferred doping sites, as well as confirming the validity of the BPGA-DFT approach.

  5. Near-infrared-responsive, superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadee Vittur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a new type of nanomaterial, namely superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains with optical extinctions in the near infrared (NIR. The Au@Co nanochains were synthesized via a one-pot galvanic replacement route involving a redox-transmetalation process in aqueous medium, where Au salt was reduced to form Au shells on Co seed templates, affording hollow Au@Co nanochains. The Au shells serve not only as a protective coating for the Co nanochain cores, but also to give rise to the optical properties of these unique nanostructures. Importantly, these bifunctional, magneto-optical Au@Co nanochains combine the advantages of nanophotonics (extinction at ca. 900 nm and nanomagnetism (superparamagnetism and provide a potentially useful new nanoarchitecture for biomedical or catalytic applications that can benefit from both activation by light and manipulation using an external magnetic field.

  6. Synthesis of SERS active Au nanowires in different noncoordinating solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhang Xiaoling, E-mail: zhangxl@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Fang Yan, E-mail: fangyan@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Nano-Photonics and Nano-Structure (NPNS), Capital Normal University (China); Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China)

    2011-06-15

    Au nanowires with length up to micrometers were synthesized through a simple and one-pot solution growth method. HAuCl{sub 4} was reduced in a micellar structure formed by 1-octadecylamine and oleic acid in hexane, heptane, toluene and chloroform, respectively. As the non-polarity of noncoordinating solvents can affect the nucleation and growth rates of Au nanostructures, Au nanowires with different diameters could be obtained by changing the noncoordinating solvents in the synthetic process. The influences of the solvents on the morphology of Au nanowires were systematically studied. When using hexane as reaction solvent, the product turned to be high portion of Au nanowires with more uniform size than the others. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of 2-thionaphthol was obtained on the Au nanowire-modified substrate, indicating that the as-synthesized Au nanowires have potential for highly sensitive optical detection application.

  7. Intense fluorescence of Au 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chongqi; Harbich, Wolfgang; Sementa, Luca; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Apra, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Brune, Harald

    2017-08-21

    Ligand-protected Au clusters are non-bleaching fluorescence markers in bio- and medical applications. We show that their fluorescence is an intrinsic property of the Au cluster itself. We find a very intense and sharp fluorescence peak located at λ =739.2 nm (1.68 eV) for Au20 clusters in a Ne matrix held at 6 K. The fluorescence reflects the HOMO-LUMO diabatic bandgap of the cluster. The cluster shows a very rich absorption fine structure reminiscent of well defined molecule-like quantum levels. These levels are resolved since Au20 has only one stable isomer (tetrahedral), therefore our sample is mono-disperse in cluster size and conformation. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations clarify the nature of optical absorptionand predict both main absorption peaks and intrinsic fluorescence in good agreement with experiment.

  8. Intrathecal application of /sup 198/Au colloid in acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in chilhood. 2. Metaphylaxis of meningosis neoplastica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, O; Unverricht, A; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-08-01

    7 children suffering from acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, resp., were injected intrathecally with /sup 198/Au colloid for metaphylaxis. The children had been cured of 8 relapses of miningosis and received irregularly intrathecal injections of methotrexate for cerebral maintenance therapy. The median cerebral period of remission was 52 weeks. 1 child suffering from ALL had been free from meningosis relapses for 128 weeks. Continuous cytostatic therapy is necessary for methaphylaxis. However, despite of the good results presented, /sup 198/Au colloid can not be recommended for long-term therapy because radiation injuries are to be expected.

  9. Effects of pharmaceutical processing on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Katalin; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2013-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmaceutical technological methods on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms. The circumstances of direct compression and wet granulation were modeled. During direct compression, the heat and the compression force must be taken into consideration. The effects of these parameters were investigated in three materials (pure pepsin, and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-tartaric acid and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-citric acid powder mixtures). It was concluded that direct compression is appropriate for the formulation of solid dosage forms containing pepsin through application without acids or with acids at low compression force. The effects of wet granulation were investigated with a factorial design for the same three materials. The factors were time, temperature and moisture content. There was no significant effect of the factors when acids were not applied. Temperature was a significant factor when acids were applied. The negative effect was significantly higher for citric acid than for tartaric acid. It was found that wet granulation can be utilized for the processing of pepsin into solid dosage forms under well-controlled circumstances. The application of citric acid is not recommended during the formulation of solid dosage forms through wet granulation. A mathematically based optimization may be necessary for preformulation studies of the preparation of dosage forms containing sensitive enzymes.

  10. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.)

  11. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R. (Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.).

  13. DOSAGE DES ELEMENTS EN TRACE DES CALCAIRES AU SERVICE DE L'ARCHEOLOGIE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLANC, A.; HOLMES, L.; HARBOTTLE, G.

    1998-01-01

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows them to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin

  14. A ternary functional Ag@GO@Au sandwiched hybrid as an ultrasensitive and stable surface enhanced Raman scattering platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-yun; Hao, Rui; Zhao, Bin; Hao, Yao-wu; Liu, Ya-qing

    2017-07-01

    The graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by virtues of plasmonic metal nanostructures and graphene or its derivatives have attracted tremendous interests which are expected to make up the deficiency of traditional plasmonic metal substrates. Herein, we designed and fabricated a novel ternary Ag@GO@Au sandwich hybrid wherein the ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films were seamlessly wrapped around the hierarchical flower-like Ag particle core and meanwhile provided two-dimensional anchoring scaffold for the coating of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coverage density of loading Au NPs could be readily controlled by tuning the dosage amount of Au particle solutions. These features endowed the sandwiched structures high enrichment capability for analytes such as aromatic molecules and astonishing SERS performance. The Raman signals were enormously enhanced with an ultrasensitive detection limit of rhodamine-6G (R6G) as low as 10-13 M based on the chemical enhancement from GO and multi-dimensional plasmonic coupling between the metal nanoparticles. In addition, the GO interlayer as an isolating shell could effectively prevent the metal-molecule direct interaction and suppress the oxidation of Ag after exposure at ambient condition which enabled the substrates excellent reproducibility with less than 6% signal variations and prolonged life-time. To evaluate the feasibility and the practical application for SERS detection in real-world samples based on GO sandwiched hybrid as SERS-active substrate, three different prohibited colorants with a series of concentrations were measured with a minimum detected concentration down to 10-9 M. Furthermore, the prepared GO sandwiched nanostructures can be used to identify different types of colorants existing in red wine, implying the great potential applications for single-particle SERS sensing of biotechnology and on-site monitoring in food security.

  15. Conductive Au nanowires regulated by silk fibroin nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo-Ju; Lu, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Conductive Au-biopolymer composites have promising applications in tissue engineering such as nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, silk fibroin nanofibers were formed in aqueous solution by regulating silk self-assembly process and then used as template for Au nanowire fabrication. We performed the synthesis of Au seeds by repeating the seeding cycles for several times in order to increase the density of Au seeds on the nanofibers. After electroless plating, densely decorated Au seeds grew into irregularly shaped particles following silk nanofiber to fill the gaps between particles and finally form uniform continuous nanowires. The conductive property of the Au-silk fibroin nanowires was studied with current-voltage ( I-V) measurement. A typical ohmic behavior was observed, which highlighted their potential applications in nerve tissue regeneration.

  16. Facile synthesis and electrochemiluminescence application of concave trisoctahedral Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals bound by {331} high-index facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Niu, Wenxin; Li, Zhiyuan; Xu, Guobao

    2011-10-07

    Concave trisoctahedral (TOH) Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals bound by {331} facets have been synthesized for the first time. Pd nanocubes and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride were used as the structure-directing cores and capping agents, respectively. Their optical and electrocatalytic properties were investigated. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  17. One-step construction of an electrode modified with electrodeposited Au/SiO2 nanoparticles, and its application to the determination of NADH and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Li, B.; Wang, X.; Li, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new electrode was developed by one-step potentiostatic electrodeposition (at -2. 0 V for 20 s) of Au/SiO 2 nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting electrode (nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE) was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical behavior of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at the nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the overpotential decreased by about 300 mV, and the current response significantly increased. These changes indicated that the modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity in the oxidation of NADH. A linear relationship was obtained in the NADH concentration range from 1. 0 x 10 -6 to 1. 0 x 10 -4 mol L -1 . In addition, amperometric sensing of ethanol at the nano-Au/SiO 2 /GCE in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide was successfully demonstrated. A wide linear response was also found for ethanol in the range from 5. 0 x 10 -5 to 1. 0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 and 1. 0 x 10 -3 to 1. 0 x 10 -2 mol L -1 , respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine ethanol in beer and biological samples. (author)

  18. Facile Synthesis of Au Nanocube-CdS Core-Shell Nanocomposites with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Liang, Shan; Li, Min; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Qua

    2014-06-01

    Au nanocube-CdS core-shell nanocomposites are prepared by using a one-pot method in aqueous phase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant. The extinction properties and photocatalytic activity of Au-CdS nanocomposites are investigated. Compared with the pure Au nanocubes, the Au-CdS nanocomposites exhibit enhanced extinction intensity. Compared with CdS nanoparticles, the Au-CdS nanocomposites exhibit improved photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the photocatalytic efficiency is even better with the increase in the core size of the Au-CdS nanocomposites. Typically, the photocatalytic efficiency of the Au-CdS with 62 nm sized Au nanocubes is about two times higher than that of the pure CdS. It is believed that the Au-CdS nanocomposites may find potential applications in environmental fields, and this synthesis method can be extended to prepare a wide variety of functional composites with Au cores.

  19. Study of hydrogels based on polyacrilamide as new controlled release dosage forms produced by frontal polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Sechi, Rossana; Gavini, Elisabetta; Mariani, Alberto; Bidali, Simone; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Vanna Annunziata; Rassu, Giovanna; Pirisino, Gerolamo Antonio; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The work purpose was the evaluation of the potential application of the Frontal Polymerization (FP) technique as a new method for the preparation of controlled release dosage forms based on polyacrilamide, in which the drug loading and the polymer preparation occur at the same time.

  20. Dosage-dependent non-linear effect of L-dopa on human motor cortex plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Silva, Katia; Liebetanz, David; Grundey, Jessica; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2010-09-15

    The neuromodulator dopamine affects learning and memory formation and their likely physiological correlates, long-term depression and potentiation, in animals and humans. It is known from animal experiments that dopamine exerts a dosage-dependent, inverted U-shaped effect on these functions. However, this has not been explored in humans so far. In order to reveal a non-linear dose-dependent effect of dopamine on cortical plasticity in humans, we explored the impact of 25, 100 and 200 mg of L-dopa on transcranial direct current (tDCS)-induced plasticity in twelve healthy human subjects. The primary motor cortex served as a model system, and plasticity was monitored by motor evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. As compared to placebo medication, low and high dosages of L-dopa abolished facilitatory as well as inhibitory plasticity, whereas the medium dosage prolonged inhibitory plasticity, and turned facilitatory plasticity into inhibition. Thus the results show clear non-linear, dosage-dependent effects of dopamine on both facilitatory and inhibitory plasticity, and support the assumption of the importance of a specific dosage of dopamine optimally suited to improve plasticity. This might be important for the therapeutic application of dopaminergic agents, especially for rehabilitative purposes, and explain some opposing results in former studies.

  1. The synthesis of Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite and its application in enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yayun; Li, Yuhui; Jiang, Yingying [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Yancai, E-mail: liyancai@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized by SEM(*), TEM and EDS, etc. • The synthesized Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite showed high sensitivity and selectivity to electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and can be used to fabricate enzyme-free H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrochemical sensor. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor has two linear range of 9.0 μM–1.86 mM and 1.86 mM–7.11 mM, respectively, with a low limit of detection of 0.13 μM. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor also displays high anti-interference ability, good stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: A novel Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was synthesized and used to fabricate enzyme-free electrochemical sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The well-designed Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy-dispersed spectrum (EDS). The Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Au@C@Pt/GCE) exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction at 0.0 V and can be used as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor. The sensor displays two wide linear ranges towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. The one is 9.0 μM–1.86 mM with high sensitivity of 144.7 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and the other is 1.86 mM–7.11 mM with sensitivity of 80.1 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. When signal to noise (S/N) is 3, the calculated detection limit (LOD) is 0.13 μM. Furthermore, the interference from the common interfering species such as glucose, ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid can be effectively avoided to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. Additionally, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor also displays good stability and reproducibility.

  2. Preparation, extraction and dosage of labelled cholesterol (D and C{sup 14}); Preparation, extraction et dosage de cholesterol marque (D et C{sup 14})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnard, L; Chevallier, F; Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    We returned in this note the techniques that we used for the preparation of labelled cholesterol. The chemical exchange of hydrogen enabling to contain deutero-cholesterol until 4 percent deuterium. The biologic synthesis, done on living rats or on their liver maintained in survival, permits, on the other hand, to get active cholesterol from acetate of containing sodium of the carbon 14. We indicated the techniques of extraction and dosage of the marked cholesterol. The radioactivity is measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons rapporte dans cette note les techniques que nous avons utilisees pour la preparation de cholesterol marque. L'echange chimique d'hydrogene conduit a du deuterio-cholesterol pouvant contenir jusqu'a 4 pour cent de deuterium. La synthese biologique, effectuee sur des rats vivants ou sur leur foie maintenu en survie, permet, d'autre part, d'obtenir du cholesterol radio-actif a partir d'acetate de sodium contenant du carbone 14. Nous avons indique les techniques d'extraction et de dosage du cholesterol marque. Sa radioactivite est mesuree au compteur de Geiger-Muller. (M.B.)

  3. La qualité en industrie, application : travail sur la qualité produit au sein d'une industrie agro-alimentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ispa, Myriam

    2004-01-01

    L'important développement industriel et les évolutions sociales majeures de ces dernières décennies sont à l'origine de l'avènement de la qualité qui occupe aujourd'hui une place à part entière dans les entreprises. Son importance est universellement reconnue et elle se situe maintenant au coeur des dernières théories managériales. Après avoir défini le concept de qualité et retracé son évolution au cours du temps, cette étude établit, dans un premier temps, une présentation complète du manag...

  4. A measuring method of photo-electric cross section. Application to high-Z elements between 40 keV and 220 keV. Measurement of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, J.-L.

    1977-09-01

    This study first describes a bent crystal monochromator developed for the production of monochromatic beams in a continuous energy range from 30 to 250 keV; it is completed by a metrological application of the device (determination of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu). A method and the associated experimental procedure were developed to measure the photo-electric cross section for high-Z elements; the results are presented with a relative uncertainty ranging between 3 and 6%. Finally, the experimental values are compared with values calculated from theories using self-consistent potential models [fr

  5. [Oral films as perspective dosage form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicová, Veronika; Gajdziok, Jan

    Oral films, namely buccal mucoadhesive films and orodispersible films represent innovative formulations for administration of a wide range of drugs. Oral films show many advantageous properties and are intended for systemic drug delivery or for local treatment of the oral mucosa. In both cases, the film represents a thin layer, which could be intended to adhere to the oral mucosa by means of mucoadhesion; or to rapid dissolution and subsequent swallowing without the need of liquid intake, in the case of orodispersible films. Main constitutive excipients are film-forming polymers, which must in the case of mucoadhesive forms remain on the mucosa within the required time interval. Oral films are currently available on the pharmaceutical market and could compete with conventional oral dosage forms in the future. oral cavity oral films buccal mucoadhesive films orodispersible films film-forming polymers.

  6. Enalapril dosage in progressive chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Sonne, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In chronic renal failure, clearance of enalapril is reduced. Hence, a renoprotective effect may be achieved with lower doses than conventionally used. Since marked inter-patient variation in concentrations of enalaprilat has been shown in patients with renal failure despite equivalent...... dosage of enalapril, a direct comparison of the effect of high versus low plasma concentrations of enalaprilat on the progression of renal failure was undertaken. METHODS: Forty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 17 (6-35) ml/min/1.73 m2 were studied in an open-label, randomised...... intervals by the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, and the individual rates of progression of renal failure were calculated as the slope of GFR versus time plot. RESULTS: In the high-concentration group, the median enalaprilat trough concentration was 92.9 ng/ml (21.8-371.0 ng/ml) and in the low...

  7. The effect of dosages of microbial consortia formulation and synthetic fertilizer on the growth and yield of field-grown chili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istifadah, N.; Sapta, D.; Krestini, H.; Natalie, B.; Suryatmana, P.; Nurbaity, A.; Hidersah, R.

    2018-03-01

    Chili (Capsicum annuum, L) is one of important horticultural crop in Indonesia. Formulation of microbial consortia containing Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp., Azotobacter chroococcum and Trichoderma harzianum has been developed. This study evaluated the effects of dosage of the microbial formulation combined with NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of chili plants in the field experiment. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design of factorial, in which the first factor was dosage of formulation (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 g per plant) and the second factor was NPK fertilizer dosage (0, 25, 50 and 75% of the standard dosage). The treatments were replicated three times. For application, the formulation was mixed with chicken manure 1:10 (w/v). The results showed that application of microbial formulation solely improved the chili growth. There was interaction between dosages of the microbial formulation and NPK fertilizer in improving plant height, nitrogen availability and the chili yield, while there was no interaction between those dosages in improving the root length. Combination between microbial formulation at the dosage of 5.0-7.5 g per plant combined with NPK fertilizer with the dosage 50 or 75% of the standard dosage support relatively better growth and the chili yield.

  8. AuNP-RF sensor: An innovative application of RF technology for sensing pathogens electrically in liquids (SPEL) within the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Leann Lerie; Karuppuswami, Saranraj; Chahal, Premjeet; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2018-07-15

    Rapid detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria in the liquid food supply chain are of significant research interest due to their pivotal role in preventing foodborne outbreaks, and in maintaining high standards of public health and safety. Milk and dairy products are of particular interest due to their widespread consumption across the globe. In this paper, a biosensor for detecting pathogenic bacteria in milk using dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (d-AuNP) as labels decoded at microwave frequencies is presented. The SPEL (sensing pathogens electrically in liquids) biosensor consists of a 3D printed vial and uses an RF reader and an RFID (radio-frequency identification) compatible Split Ring Resonator (SRR) based tag. The SPEL biosensor is capable of detecting bacteria at 5 log CFU/mL within 75 min, with the possibility of testing multiple concurrent samples. Detection is based on impedance loading of SRR by d-AuNP bound to pathogenic bacteria. Spectrophotometry, along with carbohydrate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) cell capture, is used to verify the sensitivity of the SPEL biosensor with respect to d-AuNP presence. The proof-of-concept device, along with challenges and opportunities for commercialization, are also outlined. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Vital Function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for Hydrolase Biosensor Design and Its Application in Detection of Methyl Parathion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-02-04

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH–NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned by OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of P–S containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.

  10. Electrochemical Properties of Alkanethiol Monolayers Adsorbed on Nanoporous Au Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yeon Yi; Seo, Bora; Kim, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on NPG surfaces by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the results are compared to those on flat Au surfaces. The reductive desorption of alkanethiols on NPG surfaces is observed in more negative potential regions than that on flat Au surfaces due the stronger S-Au interaction on NPG surfaces. While the electron transfer through alkanethiol monolayers on flat Au surfaces occurs via a tunneling process through the monolayer films, the redox species can permeate through the monolayers on NPG surfaces to transfer the electrons to the Au surfaces. The results presented here will help to elucidate the intrinsic electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on curved Au surfaces, particularly on the surface of AuNPs. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces have been the subject of intensive research for the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The well-organized surface structures of thiolate SAMs with various end-group functionalities can be further utilized for many applications in biology and nanotechnology. In addition to the practical applications, SAMs of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces also provide unique opportunities to address fundamental issues in surface chemistry such as self-organized surface structures, electron transfer behaviors, and moleculesubstrate interactions. Although there have been numerous reports on the fundamental physical and chemical properties of thiolate SAMs on Au surfaces, most of them were investigated on flat Au surfaces, typically on well-defined Au(111) surfaces

  11. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l'intensite de la scintillation et le

  12. A rapid method of dosing plutonium in radioactive effluents; Methode de dosage rapide du plutonium dans les effluents radioactifs (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, J; Messainguiral, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The plutonium is first separated by a lanthanum fluoride precipitation. The precipitated fluorides are dissolved in normal nitric acid solution in the presence of aluminium nitrate. The plutonium transformed to the tetravalent state is then extracted with thenoyltrifluoroacetone and returned to the aqueous phase with 10 N nitric acid. After evaporation on a watch glass the residue is calcined on a Meker burner and counted using a counting system fitted with a zinc sulphide scintillator. When necessary, the calcium is eliminated at the beginning of the dosage by a fluoride precipitation, the plutonium being oxidised to the valency IV. (authors) [French] Le plutonium est d'abord separe par entrainement au fluorure de lanthane. Le precipite des fluorures est remis en solution en milieu acide nitrique normal, en presence de nitrate d'aluminium. Le plutonium amene a la valence IV est alors extrait par la thenoyltrifluoroacetone et remis en phase aqueuse dans l'acide nitrique 10 N. Apres evaporation sur verre de montre, le residu est calcine sur bec Meker et compte sur un ensemble de comptage equipe d'un scintillateur au sulfure de zinc. Lorsque cela est necessaire, le calcium est elimine, au debut du dosage, par precipitation du fluorure, le plutonium etant oxyde a la valence VI. (auteurs)

  13. Investigation of radiation exposure dosage in dental and panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    Dental radiography and a 10-sheet procedure were conducted at 10 sites in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth and at both sides of the premolar and molar teeth sections with and without a protective apron (total 22 patterns). Experiments, which included a total of five patterns, involving standard ortho-radiography were performed with and without a protective apron, positioning of an apron exclusively on the anterior or the posterior portion of the body and utility of an apron that covered the entire body. Results are as follows: In dental radiography, internal organs included in a bundle demonstrated high radiation exposure, whereas organs excluded from the bundle exhibited low radiation exposure. In organs situated below the thyroid gland, utilization of aprons resulted in lower radiation exposure. In ortho-radiography, radiation exposure was greatest in the parotid gland, followed by the mandibular, sublingual and thyroid glands, respectively. The protective apron resulted in lower radiation exposure at sites situated below the mammary glands; moreover, a protector covering the entire body led to lower radiation exposure in comparison to an apron worn exclusively on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. No significant difference was observed in terms of exposure between protective aprons worn on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. Furthermore, a protective collar resulted in nearly zero radiation exposure in the thyroid gland. However, a protective collar largely interferes with interpretation of the radiograph; thus, in order to produce interpretable radiographs, protection of the thyroid gland is not possible. In conclusion, radiation exposure dosage can be reduced via utilization of a protective apron positioned below the thyroid gland during dental radiography and below the mammary glands during ortho-radiography. We confirmed evidence indicating that application of a protective apron can reduce patient radiation exposure dosage

  14. Fumigant dosages below maximum label rate control some soilborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachaf Triky-Dotan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of commercial soil fumigants on some key soilborne pathogens was assessed in sandy loam soil under controlled conditions. Seven soil fumigants that are registered in California or are being or have been considered for registration were used in this study: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS mixed with chloropicrin (Pic (79% DMDS and 21% Pic, Tri-Con (50% methyl bromide and 50% Pic, Midas Gold (33% methyl iodide [MI] and 67% Pic, Midas Bronze (50% MI and 50% Pic, Midas (MI, active ingredient [a.i.] 97.8%, Pic (a.i. 99% trichloronitromethane and Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic and 37% 1,3-dichloropropene [1–3,D]. Dose-response models were calculated for pathogen mortality after 24 hours of exposure to fumigants. Overall, the tested fumigants achieved good efficacy with dosages below the maximum label rate against the tested pathogens. In this study, Pythium ultimum and citrus nematode were sensitive to all the fumigants and Verticillium dahliae was resistant. For most fumigants, California regulations restrict application rates to less than the maximum (federal label rate, meaning that it is possible that the fumigants may not control major plant pathogens. This research provides information on the effectiveness of these alternatives at these lower application rates. The results from this study will help growers optimize application rates for registered fumigants (such as Pic and 1,3-D and will help accelerate the adoption of new fumigants (such as DMDS if they are registered in California.

  15. Direct electron transfer biosensor for hydrogen peroxide carrying nanocomplex composed of horseradish peroxidase and Au-nanoparticle – Characterization and application to bienzyme systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A reagentless electrochemical biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was fabricated. The sensor carries a monolayer of nanocomplex composed of horseradish peroxidase and Au-nanoparticle, and responds to hydrogen peroxide through the highly efficient direct electron transfer at a mild electrode potential without any soluble mediator. Formation of the nanocomplex was studied with visible spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. The sensor performance was analyzed based on a hydrodynamic electrochemical technique and enzyme kinetics. The sensor was applied to fabrication of sensors for glucose and uric acid through further modification of the nanocomplex-carrying electrode with the corresponding hydrogen peroxide-generating oxidases, glucose oxidase and urate oxidase, respectively.

  16. Oxidation and reduction kinetics of eutectic SnPb, InSn, and AuSn: a knowledge base for fluxless solder bonding applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Preuss, A.; Adolphi, B.

    1998-01-01

    : (1) SnPb; (2) InSn; (3) AuSn. The studies of the oxidation kinetics show that the growth of the native oxide, which covers the solder surfaces from the start of all soldering operations is self-limiting. The rate of oxidation on the molten, metallic solder surfaces is significantly reduced...... and reduction kinetics, are applied to flip-chip (FC) bonding experiments in vacuum with and without the injection of H2. Wetting in vacuum is excellent but the self-alignment during flip-chip soldering is restricted. The desired, perfectly self-aligned FC-bonds have been only achieved, using evaporated...

  17. Thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe2O3/Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105: Synthesis, characterization and application in MR imaging of tumor angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Song; Gong, Mingfu; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Hua; Gao, Fabao; Zou, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect tumor angiogenesis in tumor-bearing mice using thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105 on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles (hybrids) were prepared by reducing Au 3+ on the surface of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. Hybrids were stabilized with thiol-PEG-carboxyl via the Au–S covalent bond, and further conjugated with anti-CD105 antibodies through amide linkages. Characteristics of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles were evaluated. Using these nanoparticles, the labeling specificity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated in vitro. MRI T2*-weighted images were obtained at different time points after intravenous administration of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles in the tumor-bearing mice. After MR imaging, the breast cancer xenografts were immediately resected for immunohistochemistry staining and Prussian blue staining to measure the tumor microvessel density (MVD) and evaluate the labeling of blood microvessels by the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles in vivo. Results: The mean diameter of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was 56.6 ± 8.0 nm, as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immune activity of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was 53% of that of the anti-CD105 antibody, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specific binding of HUVECs with the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was proved by immunostaining and Prussian blue staining in vitro. For breast cancer xenografts, the combination of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles with blood microvessels was detectable by MRI after 60 min administration of the contrast agent. The T2* relative signal intensity (SI R ) was positively correlated with the tumor MVD (R 2 = 0.8972). Conclusion: Anti-CD105 antibody-coupled, thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized core–shell Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles can efficiently target CD105 expressed by HUVECs. Furthermore, the hybrid-PEG-CD105

  18. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral...

  20. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696 Penicillin...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660 Section 522.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. ...

  2. 21 CFR 520.905 - Fenbendazole oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. 520.905 Section 520.905 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. ...

  3. 21 CFR 520.45 - Albendazole oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albendazole oral dosage forms. 520.45 Section 520.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45 Albendazole oral...

  4. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  5. Radiation dosage of various CT-methods in lung diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz-Peer, G.; Weninger, F.; Nowotny, R.; Herold, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction of the computed tomography index CTDI and the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) has led to standardization of the dose description in CT examinations. Despite the use of these dose parameters, many different dosages are reported in the literature for different CT methods. In addition, there is still a wide range of radiation dosimetry results reported for conventional CT, helical CT, and HRCT used in chest examinations. The variations in dosage are mainly due to difference in factors affecting the dose, i.e. beam geometry, beam quality, scanner geometry ('generation'), and operating parameters. In addition, CT dosimetry instrumentation and methodology make a contribution to dosages. Recent studies calculating differences in factors affecting dosage and CT dosimetry and using similar operating parameters, show similar results in CT dosimetry for conventional and helical CT. On the other hand, dosages for HRCT were greatly reduced. This was mainly caused by narrow beam collimation and increasing section spacing. (orig.) [de

  6. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 1. Application of developed investment for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Nakai, Akira; Goto, Shin-ichi; Wakamatsu, Yasushi; Yara, Atushi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. The experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which the metallic powders such as boron (B), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) were added as oxidizing agents. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The effect of the addition of each metal powder was evaluated from the color difference between the as-cast surface and the polished surface of the cast specimen. The color of the as-cast surface approached that of the polished surface with increasing B and Al content. A lower mean value in the color difference was obtained at 0.25-1.00 mass% B content. B and Al are useful as an additive in a gypsum-bonded investment to prevent the blackening of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. The effects of Si and Ti powder addition could not be found.

  7. Dosage of fission products in irradiated fuel treatment effluents (radio-chemical method); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents du traitement des combustibles irradies (methode radiochimique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The dosage methods presented here are applicable to relatively long-lived fission products present in the effluents resulting from irradiated fuel treatment processes (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). The methods are based on the same principle: - addition of a carrying-over agent - chemical separation over several purification stages, - determination of the chemical yield by calorimetry - counting of an aliquot liquid portion. (author) [French] Les methodes de dosage presentees concernent les produits de fission a vie relativement longue presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). Elles sont toutes basees sur le meme principe: - addition d'entraineur, - separation chimique en plusieurs stades de purification, - determination du rendement chimique par calorimetrie, - comptage d'une aliquote liquide. (auteur)

  8. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  9. Stability, structural and electronic properties of benzene molecule adsorbed on free standing Au layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoch, Neha, E-mail: nehakatoch2@gmail.com; Kapoor, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Center for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We report stability and electronic properties of benzene molecule adsorbed on the Au atomic layer within the framework of density function theory (DFT). Horizontal configuration of benzene on the top site of Au monolayer prefers energetically over other studied configurations. On the adsorption of benzene, the ballistic conductance of Au monolayer is found to decrease from 4G{sub 0} to 2G{sub 0} suggesting its applications for the fabrications of organic sensor devices based on the Au atomic layers.

  10. LA DIVERSITÉ DÉPLOYÉE AU SEIN DE L’UNIVERSITÉ D’ENTREPRISE : L’APPLICATION CONCRÈTE D’UNE VALEUR ADOPTÉE PAR LA DIRECTION GÉNÉRALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Drummond-Guitel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La diversité devenue une valeur incontournable adoptée par les grands groupes, encore faut-t-il trouver les moyens concrets pour l’intégrer dans les pratiques des ressources humaines et dans les mentalités des personnes. Le présent papier a pour but de montrer comment les valeurs de la diversité adoptées par la direction générale ont été déclinées et appliquées dans un processus de sélection de candidats pour une formation continue au sein d’une grande organisation internationale. A travers l’application d’une méthode qualitative de recherche, 10 (dix dirigeants ayant conçu la formation et 42 (quarante-deux managers ayant suivi le programme confirment l’atteinte du but stratégique de cette formation, autrement dit, l’atteinte d’une vision partagée (SENGE, 1991, à travers la consolidation d’un fort sentiment d’appartenance à la culture organisationnelle (SCHEIN, 1995. Les managers ont été sélectionnés selon leurs différentes professions, cultures nationales et différents secteurs d’activités, confirmant ainsi une promotion de la diversité au sein de l’organisation.

  11. Effect of Silicon on Activity Coefficients of Siderophile Elements (P, Au, Pd, As, Ge, Sb, and In) in Liquid Fe, with Application to Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L. R.; Humayun, M.; Righter, M.; Lapen, T.; Boujibar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Earth's core contains approximately 10 percent light elements that are likely a combination of S, C, Si, and O, with Si possibly being the most abundant. Si dissolved into Fe liquids can have a large effect on the magnitude of the activity coefficient of siderophile elements (SE) in Fe liquids, and thus the partitioning behavior of those elements between core and mantle. The effect of Si can be small such as for Ni and Co, or large such as for Mo, Ge, Sb, As. The effect of Si on many siderophile elements is unknown yet could be an important, and as yet unquantified, influence on the core-mantle partitioning of SE. Here we report new experiments designed to quantify the effect of Si on the partitioning of P, Au, Pd, and many other SE between metal and silicate melt. The results will be applied to Earth, for which we have excellent constraints on the mantle siderophile element concentrations.

  12. Contribution au développement d’une nouvelle technologie de séchage solaire. Application à la mangue.

    OpenAIRE

    Heilporn, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Le séchage de denrées alimentaires est une filière clé de la transformation des aliments, tant dans nos pays que dans les pays en voie de développement. Cette opération, largement utilisée dans l’industrie agro-alimentaire, permet d’augmenter significativement la durée et la diversité d’utilisation de nombreux aliments. Néanmoins, au cours d’une opération de séchage, l’élévation de la température et l’exposition à des débits d’air importants peuvent entraîner des altérations biologiques, chim...

  13. Synthesis of Fulvic Acid-Coated Magnetite (Fe3O4–FA and Its Application for the Reductive Adsorption of [AuCl4]–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Anggo Krisbiantoro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid-coated magnetite (Fe3O4–FA has been synthesized through coprecipitation method using NH4OH. Synthesis conducted by cheap and environmentally friendly preparation used iron salts and extracted fulvic acid (FA from Peat soil of Rawa Pening, Central Java, Indonesia. Characterization using FT–IR indicated that the coating of FA on Fe3O4 occurred through the formation of chemical bond between iron of Fe3O4 and carboxyl group of FA. The XRD measurement indicated that coated Fe3O4 successfully dispersed in smaller size than uncoated Fe3O4, i.e. from 16.67 to 14.84 nm for Fe3O4 and Fe3O4–FA, respectively. Synthesized Fe3O4–FA has pHPZC 6.37 and stable at pH > 3.0. The extracted FA has total acidity 866.61 cmol kg–1, –COOH content 229.77 cmol kg–1 and –OH content 636.84 cmol kg–1. Fe3O4–FA has total acidity 494.86 cmol kg–1, –COOH content 67.80 cmol kg–1 and –OH content 427.06 cmol kg–1. The adsorption rate constant (k of [AuCl4]– on Fe3O4–A according to the Ho kinetic model was 8006.53 g mol–1 min–1. The adsorption capacity (qmax according to Langmuir isotherm model was 1.24 × 10–4 mol g–1. The presence of reduction towards the adsorbed [AuCl4]– was shown by the appearance of peaks at 2θ: 37.41; 43.66; 64.25, and 76.67° in the XRD diffractogram.

  14. Determining S-1 dosage at hospitals prioritizing cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Shigefumi; Kitada, Noriaki; Anami, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    Although it is recommended that the standard S-1 dosage should be based on how large the body surface area is, an on-site setting of the appropriate dosage is often lower than the standard one, depending on the individual's condition and considering possible side effects and so, on. Here, we investigated usage conditions for S-1 as a part of field training for expert pharmacists at our hospital that performs total clinical treatments. Decreases in dosage per day for elderly patients were although the standard dosage is generally determined according to the amount of a patient's body surface. We conducted a retrospective survey with a total 90 patients by creating a tree-diagram to identify a reduction standard. It was found that the S-1 dosage was decreased when there were side effects, aggravation in performance status, decrease in kidney function, old age, combined injection chemotherapy, and a decrease in radiation therapy performance. The dosage decreases without such medical reasons were seen in only 4 of the 90 patients. At hospitals giving priority to chemotherapy, it became clear that appropriate treatment was promoted by decreasing. The individual target dosage on the basis of daily medical examination. (author)

  15. Le CRDI au Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pour prévenir le paludisme, des études ayant démontré que leur utilisation pouvait réduire considérablement la mortalité infantile. Les chercheurs ont également suggéré aux gouvernements différents moyens pour inciter les gens à acheter les moustiquaires et à les utiliser correctement. Les TI au service de la démocratie.

  16. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et traité à temps, le risque de complications et de morbidité peut être écarté. Les auteurs rapportent 2 cas de kystes de la vallécule. La tomodensitométrie a confirmé la présence d'une formation kystique prenant origine au niveau de la val- lécule. Une laryngoscopie directe a été faite pour les 2 patients sous anesthésie ...

  17. Identification and analcime quantification; Identification et dosage de l'analcime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantret, F; Guillemaut, A; Pouget, R

    1962-07-01

    The authors are comparing thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods for the estimation of analcime in rocks. From application to the analcimolithes of Agades - Republic of Niger - it appears that X-ray diffractometry is better convenient, both for identification and estimation; nevertheless, thermal analysis combined with chemical analysis allows to detect variations in the composition of analcime inside a given series. [French] Les auteurs comparent les techniques d'analyse thermique et de diffraction X pour le dosage de l'analcime dans les roches. L'application aux analcimolites d'Agades - Republique du Niger - montre que la diffractometrie X est mieux adaptee a la fois dans l'identification et le dosage; neanmoins, l'analyse thermique, associee a l'analyse chimique, permet de suivre les fluctuations de composition de l'analcime a l'interieur d'une serie determinee. (auteurs)

  18. Fluorometric determination of uranium in urine; Dosage fluorimetrique de l'uranium urinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronteix, C; Hugot, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    For the medical supervision of personnel the most sensitive analytical methods must be used. The fluorimetric method, enabling determinations to be made without previous concentration, is undoubtedly the quickest and most effective. This report is intended to help users of the method to avoid loss of time in the practical application. It therefore describes in great detail the material used, and also gives precise technical information acquired by experience. (author) [French] Pour la surveillance medicale du personnel, il est necessaire d'utiliser les methodes de dosages les plus sensibles. La methode fluorimetrique qui permet d'effectuer le dosage sans concentration prealable est, sans conteste, la plus rapide et la plus efficace. Le present rapport a pour but de permettre aux utilisateurs de cette methode, d'eviter des pertes de temps dans l'application pratique. Il contient donc, tres detaille, le materiel utilise ainsi que des precisions techniques acquises par l'experience. (auteur)

  19. Efficient H2 production over Au/graphene/TiO2 induced by surface plasmon resonance of Au and band-gap excitation of TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Hongtao; Wang, Hua; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Both surface plasmon resonance and band-gap excitation were used for H 2 production. • Au/Gr/TiO 2 composite photocatalyst was synthesized. • Au/Gr/TiO 2 exhibited enhancement of light absorption and charge separation. • H 2 production rate of Au/Gr/TiO 2 was about 2 times as high as that of Au/TiO 2 . - Abstract: H 2 production over Au/Gr/TiO 2 composite photocatalyst induced by surface plasmon resonance of Au and band-gap excitation of TiO 2 using graphene (Gr) as an electron acceptor has been investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance study indicated that, in this composite, Gr collected electrons not only from Au with surface plasmon resonance but also from TiO 2 with band-gap excitation. Surface photovoltage and UV–vis absorption measurements revealed that compared with Au/TiO 2 , Au/Gr/TiO 2 displayed more effective photogenerated charge separation and higher optical absorption. Benefiting from these advantages, the H 2 production rate of Au/Gr/TiO 2 composite with Gr content of 1.0 wt% and Au content of 2.0 wt% was about 2 times as high as that of Au/TiO 2 . This work represents an important step toward the efficient application of both surface plasmon resonance and band-gap excitation on the way to converting solar light into chemical energy

  20. Studies on implantation of 198Au-grain as a radiation therapy to cancer tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Seiro

    1975-01-01

    The most effective dose of 198 Au-grain to be implanted and the clinicopathological findings after treatment are discussed. A safe dose of 198 Au-grain which could be implanted subcutaneously in rats, was under 2 mCi migration of 198 Au-grain was not recognized. In Yoshida sarcoma, transplanted subcutaneously into the backs of rats the most effective dose of 198 Au-grain was 2mCi/g of tumour tissue. However, about half of the rats implanted with this dosage died from the growing tumour. Histological examination of the implanted tumour tissue, revealed necrosis within a distance of only 0.4 mm from 198 Au-grain particles. In small metastatic tumours after 198 Au-grain implantation, there was necrosis i.e. pyknosis and karyolysis of the tumour cells, fibrosis and hyaline degeneration of the stroma. However, hardly any change in tumour size was detectable because of swelling and induration around the tumour. In some of the cases treated with 198 Au-grain combined with 60 Co or with chemotherapeutics, the tumour size was evidently reduced and became non-palable. Side effects were minimal except in one case which was afflicted temporarily with radiation sickness after an implantation of 200 mCi 198 Au-grain. In conclusion, the implantation of 198 Au-grain into the tumour was found to be very safe for the patients with surgically incurable cancer. Because of the short range of 198 Au-grain radioactivity, homogeneous density of 198 Au-grain into the whole tumour tissue is required. A combination with other radiations and/or with chemotherapeutics is also recommended. (author)

  1. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Bullier, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with Au-nanoparticle substrate fabricated by using femtosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Li, Cheng; Gao, Kun; Lu, Fanfan; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Zhang, Lu; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Huang, Ligang; Mei, Ting; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-05-01

    Au-nanoparticle (Au-NP) substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were fabricated by grid-like scanning a Au-film using a femtosecond pulse. The Au-NPs were directly deposited on the Au-film surface due to the scanning process. The experimentally obtained Au-NPs presented local surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible spectral range, as verified by finite difference time domain simulations and measured reflection spectrum. The SERS experiment using the Au-NP substrates exhibited high activity and excellent substrate reproducibility and stability, and a clearly present Raman spectra of target analytes, e.g. Rhodamine-6G, Rhodamine-B and Malachite green, with concentrations down to 10‑9 M. This work presents an effective approach to producing Au-NP SERS substrates with advantages in activity, reproducibility and stability, which could be used in a wide variety of practical applications for trace amount detection.

  3. Development and clinical application of oral dosage forms of taxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death in the Western World. Despite the development and introduction of new anti-cancer agents, docetaxel and paclitaxel remain the cornerstone of adjuvant and metastatic chemotherapy against solid tumors. Taxanes belong to the class of anti-mitotic

  4. Synthesis and electrocatalytic activity of Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinyi; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Dong; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

    2012-02-01

    Gold/Platinum (Au/Pt) bimetallic nanodendrites were successfully synthesized through seeded growth method using preformed Au nanodendrites as seeds and ascorbic acid as reductant. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of a series of Au/Pt nanodendrites modified electrodes in 1M KOH solution containing 1M ethanol showed that the electrocatalyst with a molar ratio (Au:Pt) of 3 exhibited the highest peak current density and the lowest onset potential. The peak current density of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au(3)Pt(1) electrode) is about 16, 12.5, and 4.5 times higher than those on the polycrystalline Pt electrode, polycrystalline Au electrode, and Au nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au dendrites electrode), respectively. The oxidation peak potential of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) electrode is about 299 and 276 mV lower than those on the polycrystalline Au electrode and Au dendrites electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that the Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites may find potential application in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-compacting concretes (SCC: comparison of methods of dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Tutikian

    Full Text Available The composition of a self-compacting concrete (SCC should be defined to fulfills a number of requirements, such as self-compactibility, strength and durability. This study aims to compare three methods of dosage for SCC with local materials, so as to determine which one is the most economical and rational, thus assisting the executor in making a decision and enabling economic and technical feasibility for its application. The methods used in the experimental program were: Nan Su et al., which was developed in 2001 [1]; Repette-Melo, which was proposed in 2005 [2]; and Tutikian & Dal Molin, which was developed in 2007 [3]. From the results obtained in the experimental program, it was observed that the method which presented the lowest cost and highest compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 and 91 days was Tutikian & Dal Molin, while the one which reached the lowest chloride ion penetration, best compactness and highest elasticity modulus was Repette-Melo. In tests carried out in the fresh state, all tested methods yielded mixtures which comply with the self-compactibility levels required by ABNT NBR 15823:2010 [4].

  6. Tourisme et communautés rurales au Venezuela : vers une application des principes du Développement Durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dehoorne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution récente du tourisme international au Venezuela est particulièrement intéressante : l'activité touristique qui reste très largement concentrée sur la côte caribéenne, et notamment l’île de Margarita, se diversifie au profit de nouveaux centres d’intérêt dans les régions intérieures. L’affichage de nouvelles volontés politiques sur la scène régionale et internationale, sous l’impulsion du président Chavez, a perturbé le marché touristique national qui était dominé pour les clientèles nord-américaines ; le Venezuela apparaît désormais aux yeux des Etats-Unis comme un pays à risque, instable. C’est dans ce contexte que s’inscrit le « Programa Andes Tropicales » [PAT] qui soutient le  développement rural dans les parcs nationaux ; ce programme repose sur la participation des populations locales et leur implication dans les politiques de conservation des ressources naturelles et culturelles sources de revenus. Le soutien financier des microprojets familiaux et communautaires doivent permettent de lutter contre la pauvreté.The recent evolution of international tourism in Venezuela is particularly interesting. Even if tourism activity remains heavily concentrated on the Caribbean coast, in particular on the island of Margarita, it is nevertheless diversifying gradually to make way for new areas of interest in the country’s interior. The display of new political will on the regional and international scene, under the leadership of President Chavez, has disrupted the national tourism market which was dominated by North American customers. Venezuela now appears in the eyes of the United States as a country that is at risk,and therefore unstable. It is in this context that the “Programa Andes Tropicales" [PAT] was developed to promote rural development in national parks; This program is based on the participation and involvement of local populations in the development of appropriate

  7. Automatic identification and normalization of dosage forms in drug monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Each day, millions of health consumers seek drug-related information on the Web. Despite some efforts in linking related resources, drug information is largely scattered in a wide variety of websites of different quality and credibility. Methods As a step toward providing users with integrated access to multiple trustworthy drug resources, we aim to develop a method capable of identifying drug's dosage form information in addition to drug name recognition. We developed rules and patterns for identifying dosage forms from different sections of full-text drug monographs, and subsequently normalized them to standardized RxNorm dosage forms. Results Our method represents a significant improvement compared with a baseline lookup approach, achieving overall macro-averaged Precision of 80%, Recall of 98%, and F-Measure of 85%. Conclusions We successfully developed an automatic approach for drug dosage form identification, which is critical for building links between different drug-related resources. PMID:22336431

  8. Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some antibiotics reduced serum testosterone in male rats. FO Awobajo, Y Raji, II Olatunji-Bello, FT Kunle-Alabi, AO Adesanya, TO Awobajo ...

  9. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  10. Dosage compensation of serine-4 transfer RNA in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchler, J.A.; Owenby, R.K.; Jacobson, K.B.

    1982-01-01

    A dosage series of the X chromosome site for serine-4 transfer RNA consisting of one of three copies in females and one to two in males was constructed to test whether transfer RNA expression is governed by dosage compensation. A dosage effect on the level of the serine-4 isoacceptor was observed in both females and males when the structural locus was varied. However, in males, each dose had a relatively greater expression so the normal one dose was slightly greater than the total female value and the duplicated male had the highest relative expression of all the types examined. Serine-4 levels in males and females from an isogenic Oregon-R stock were similar. Thus the transfer RNA levels conform to the expectations of dosage compensation

  11. Application of modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent for simultaneous separation and preconcentration trace amounts of Au(III) and Mn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamspur, Tayebeh; Mostafavi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure is proposed for simultaneous separation and preconcentration trace amounts of Au(III) and Mn(II) in an aqueous medium by using a column of multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with the analytical reagent N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,2'(aminophenylthio)ethane. An implementation, it was found that the sorption is quantitative in the pH range 5.0-7.5, whereas quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 4.0 mL of 0.1 mol L -1 Na 2 S 2 O 3. Selected elements were also determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Linearity was maintained between 0.2 ng mL -1 to 25 μg mL -1 for gold and 0.08 ng mL -1 to 5 μg mL -1 for manganese in the original solution. Various parameters such as the effect of pH, flow rate, type and amount of eluent, breakthrough volume and interference of a large number of anions and cations on the recovery of the selected ions was studied. Under optimum conditions, the detection limits (3 s, n = 10) for analytes were 0.03 ng mL -1 (gold) and 0.01 ng mL -1 (manganese). The method was successfully applied for separation and determination of gold and manganese ions in water and standard samples.

  12. L’olivier au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouhtadi Issam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive mais pour conquérir de nouveaux marchés au niveau mondial et profiter ainsi de l’engouement que connaît cette huile reconnue pour ses bienfaits. Le plan national « Maroc Vert » permet ainsi, grâce à des subventions conséquentes, non seulement de renouveler les vergers existant avec la variété traditionnelle picholine du Maroc, mais également la plantation de nouvelles variétés en super-intensif dans le but d’industrialiser au maximum de nouveaux vergers. Il en est de même pour la transformation des olives en huile de bonne qualité avec la mise en place d’unités de trituration modernes qui doivent supplanter à terme la multitude de « maâsra » et réduire ainsi l’impact environnemental dû aux margines. L’olive ne sera plus dans l’avenir que représentée par son huile et ses formes comestibles, mais les résidus de son extraction seront valorisés soit sous forme de combustible élaboré pour le grignon, soit sous forme d’une base de chimie verte pour les sous-produits du raffinage. D’autres applications sont actuellement à l’étude, car le Maroc à compris, comme tous les autres grands pays producteurs, que l’olive était un nouveau gisement de richesses.

  13. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  14. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  15. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... the au pairs resist and embrace such dominant representations, and on how such representations are ascribed different meanings in the transnational social fields of which the migrant are a part. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Denmark, the Philippines...

  16. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.; Eckern, Ulrich; Rungger, Ivan; Schuster, Cosima; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  17. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2009-12-29

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  18. Optimizing the planar structure of (1 1 1) Au/Co/Au trilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumah, D P; Cebollada, A; Clavero, C; Garcia-MartIn, J M; Skuza, J R; Lukaszew, R A; Clarke, R

    2007-01-01

    Au/Co/Au trilayers are interesting for a range of applications which exploit their unusual optical and electronic transport behaviour in a magnetic field. Here we present a comprehensive structural and morphological study of a series of trilayers with 0-7 nm Co layer thickness fabricated on glass by ultrahigh vacuum vapour deposition. We use a combination of in situ electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and x-ray scattering to determine the optimum deposition conditions for highly textured, flat and continuous layered structures. The 16 nm Au-on-glass buffer layer, deposited at ambient temperature, is found to develop a smooth (1 1 1) texture on annealing at 350 deg. C for 10 min. Subsequent growth of the Co layer at 150 deg. C produces a (1 1 1) textured film with lateral grain size of ∼150 nm in the 7 nm-thick Co layer. A simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane Co lattice expansion is observed for the thinnest Co layers, converging to bulk values for the thickest films. The roughness of the Co layer is similar to that of the Au buffer layer, indicative of conformal growth. The 6 nm Au capping layer smoothens the trilayer surface, resulting in a surface roughness independent of the Co layer thickness

  19. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak

    2018-01-01

    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  20. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  1. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  2. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castendyk, Devin N.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Webster, Jenny G.

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  3. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castendyk, Devin N. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)]. E-mail: d.castendyk@auckland.ac.nz; Mauk, Jeffrey L. [Geology Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Webster, Jenny G. [Environmental Science, SGES, University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2005-01-01

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks in Evaluation and Optimization of Modified Release Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Djurić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM is the one most frequently used. Progress of computer science has had an impact on pharmaceutical development as well. Simultaneous with the implementation of statistical methods, machine learning tools took an important place in drug formulation. Twenty years ago, the first papers describing application of artificial neural networks in optimization of modified release products appeared. Since then, a lot of work has been done towards implementation of new techniques, especially Artificial Neural Networks (ANN in modeling of production, drug release and drug stability of modified release solid dosage forms. The aim of this paper is to review artificial neural networks in evaluation and optimization of modified release solid dosage forms.

  5. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  6. Cluster-to-cluster transformation among Au6, Au8 and Au11 nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuqing; Fu, Junhong; Lin, Xinzhang; Fu, Xuemei; Yan, Jinghui; Wu, Ren'an; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jiahui

    2018-05-22

    We present the cluster-to-cluster transformations among three gold nanoclusters, [Au6(dppp)4]2+ (Au6), [Au8(dppp)4Cl2]2+ (Au8) and [Au11(dppp)5]3+ (Au11). The conversion process follows a rule that states that the transformation of a small cluster to a large cluster is achieved through an oxidation process with an oxidizing agent (H2O2) or with heating, while the conversion of a large cluster to a small one occurs through a reduction process with a reducing agent (NaBH4). All the reactions were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ESI-MS. This work may provide an alternative approach to the synthesis of novel gold nanoclusters and a further understanding of the structural transformation relationship of gold nanoclusters.

  7. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H@PPy@Au spheres: Fabrication, characterization and application in SERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Guohong; Shang, Mengying; Zou, Hanzhi; Wang, Wenqin, E-mail: wangwenqin@nbu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In this work, the sulfonic acid (–SO{sub 3}H) group terminated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} magnetic spheres were prepared. Polypyrrole (PPy) was in-situ polymerized on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H spheres due to the dual roles of the –SO{sub 3}H groups: acting as both “anchoring sites” for adsorbing of pyrrole monomer and dopant agent in PPy. By adsorbing gold nanoseeds on the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H@PPy spheres followed the seed-mediated growth method, the multifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H@PPy@Au spheres were obtained. The application of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H@PPy@Au spheres in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated, and the results exhibited the enhancement in the order of 10{sup 4} using 4-aminothiophenol as the probe molecule. - Highlights: • The sulfonic acid-terminated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H) spheres were prepared. • The –SO{sub 3}H groups of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H spheres played dual roles in adsorbing pyrrole and protonating polypyrrole. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–SO{sub 3}H@PPy core/gold shell composites can act as SERS substrate for detecting 4-ATP molecule.

  8. LA DIVERSITÃ DÃPLOYÃE AU SEIN DE LâUNIVERSITÃ DâENTREPRISE : LâAPPLICATION CONCRÃTE DâUNE VALEUR ADOPTÃE PAR LA DIRECTION GÃNÃRALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Drummond-Guitel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La diversité devenue une valeur incontournable adoptée par les grands groupes, encore faut-t-il trouver les moyens concrets pour lâintégrer dans les pratiques des ressources humaines et dans les mentalités des personnes. Le présent papier a pour but de montrer comment les valeurs de la diversité adoptées par la direction générale ont été déclinées et appliquées dans un processus de sélection de candidats pour une formation continue au sein dâune grande organisation internationale. A travers lâapplication dâune méthode qualitative de recherche, 10 (dix dirigeants ayant conçu la formation et 42 (quarante-deux managers ayant suivi le programme confirment lâatteinte du but stratégique de cette formation, autrement dit, lâatteinte dâune vision partagée (SENGE, 1991, à travers la consolidation dâun fort sentiment dâappartenance à la culture organisationnelle (SCHEIN, 1995. Les managers ont été sélectionnés selon leurs différentes professions, cultures nationales et différents secteurs dâactivités, confirmant ainsi une promotion de la diversité au sein de lâorganisation.

  9. Linear response at the 4-component relativistic density-functional level: application to the frequency-dependent dipole polarizability of Hg, AuH and PtH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, Pawel; Helgaker, Trygve; Saue, Trond

    2005-01-01

    We report the implementation and application of linear response density-functional theory (DFT) based on the 4-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. The theory is cast in the language of second quantization and is based on the quasienergy formalism (Floquet theory), replacing the initial state dependence of the Runge-Gross theorem by periodic boundary conditions. Contradictions in causality and symmetry of the time arguments are thereby avoided and the exchange-correlation potential and kernel can be expressed as functional derivatives of the quasienergy. We critically review the derivation of the quasienergy analogues of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and the Kohn-Sham formalism and discuss the nature of the quasienergy exchange-correlation functional. Structure is imposed on the response equations in terms of Hermiticity and time-reversal symmetry. It is observed that functionals of spin and current densities, corresponding to time-antisymmetric operators, contribute to frequency-dependent and not static electric properties. Physically, this follows from the fact that only a time-dependent electric field creates a magnetic field. It is furthermore observed that hybrid functionals enhance spin polarization since only exact exchange contributes to anti-Hermitian trial vectors. We apply 4-component relativistic linear response DFT to the calculation of the frequency-dependent polarizability of the isoelectronic series Hg, AuH and PtH 2 . Unlike for the molecules, the effect of electron correlation on the polarizability of the mercury atom is very large, about 25%. We observe a remarkable performance of the local-density approximation (LDA) functional in reproducing the experimental frequency-dependent polarizability of this atom, clearly superior to that of the BLYP and B3LYP functionals. This allows us to extract Cauchy moments (S(-4) = 382.82 and S(-6) = 6090.89 a.u.) that we believe are superior to experiment since we go to higher order in the Cauchy

  10. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of ...

  11. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiene Helmut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viscum album L extracts (VAE, mistletoe and isolated mistletoe lectins (ML have immunostimulating properties and a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. They are frequently used in complementary cancer treatment, mainly to improve quality of life, but partly also to influence tumour growth, especially by injecting VAE locally and in high dosage. The question is raised whether these higher dosages can induce any harm or immunosuppressive effects. Methods Systematic review of all experiments and clinical studies investigating higher dosages of VAE in animals and humans (Viscum album > 1 mg in humans corresponding to > 0.02 mg/kg in animals or ML > 1 ng/kg and assessing immune parameters or infections or adverse drug reactions. Results 69 clinical studies and 48 animal experiments reported application of higher doses of VAE or ML and had assessed immune changes and/or harm. In these studies, Viscum album was applied in dosages up to 1500 mg in humans and 1400 mg/kg in animals, ML was applied up to 6.4 μg/kg in humans and in animals up to 14 μg/kg subcutaneously, 50 μg/kg nasally and 500 μg/kg orally. A variety of immune parameters showed fluctuating or rising outcomes, but no immunosuppressive effect. Side effects consisted mainly of dose-dependent flu-like symptoms (FLS, fever, local reactions at the injection site and various mild unspecific effects. Occasionally, allergic reactions were reported. After application of high doses of recombinant ML, reversible hepatotoxicity was observed in some cases. Conclusions Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.

  12. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  13. Enhanced middle-infrared light transmission through Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au aperture arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gongli; Yao, Xiang; Ji, Xinming; Zhou, Jia; Bao, Zongming; Huang, Yiping

    2011-12-01

    The enhanced middle-infrared light transmission through Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au aperture arrays by changing the refractive index and the thickness of a dielectric layer was studied experimentally. The results indicated that the transmission spectra was highly dependent on the refractive index and the thickness of SiO(x)N(y). We found that the transmission peaks redshifted regularly along with the refractive index from 1.6 to 1.8, owing to the role of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) coupling in the Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au cascaded metallic structure. Simultaneously, a higher transmission efficiency and narrower transmission peak was obtained in Au/SiO2.1N0.3/Au cascaded metallic structure with small refractive index (1.6) than in Au/SiO0.6N1/Au cascaded metallic structure with large refractive index (1.8). When the thickness of SiO(x)N(y) changes from 0.2 to 0.4 microm, the shape of transmission spectra exhibits a large change. It was found that a higher transmission efficiency and narrower transmission peak was obtained in Au/SiO(x)N(y)/Au cascaded metallic structure with a thin dielectric film (0.2 microm), with the increase of SiO(x)N(y) film's thickness, the transmission peak gradually widened and disappeared finally. This effect is useful in applications of biochemical sensing and tunable integrated plasmonic devices in the middle-infrared region.

  14. Synthesis; characterization; and growth mechanism of Au/CdS heterostructured nanoflowers constructed with nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Qingcheng; Wu Rong; Feng Xiumei; Ye Cui; Hu Guanqi; Hu Jianqiang; Chen Zhiwu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Well-defined and flower-shaped Au/CdS heterostructured nanocrystals were for the first time synthesized. → The Au-nanorod-induced hydrothermal strategy was for the first time used to fabricate metal/semiconductor heterostructured nanomaterials. → A preliminary crystal growing mechanism was also proposed for better understanding the growth process of other Au/semiconductor heterostructure nanocrystals. → The route devised here should also be extendable to fabricate other Au/semiconductor heterostructure nanomaterials. - Abstract: Gold/sulfide cadmium (Au/CdS) heterostructured nanocrystals with a flower-like shape were for the first time synthesized through an Au-nanorod-induced hydrothermal method. The Au/CdS nanoflowers possessed the average size of about 350 nm while the nanorods constructing the nanoflowers had the average diameter, length, and aspect ratio of approximately 50 nm, 100 nm, and 2, respectively. Our method suggested that Au-nanorods played a decisive role in the formation of Au/CdS heterostructured nanoflowers, demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements. A preliminary experiment model to reveal the Au/CdS growth mechanism was also put forward. The route devised here should be perhaps extendable to fabricate other Au/semiconductor heterostructured nanomaterials, and the Au/CdS nanoflowers may have potential applications in nanodevices, biolabels, and clinical detection and diagnosis.

  15. Developing an aqueous approach for synthesizing Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars with plasmonic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jingshan; Yu, Junjie; Xiong, Yalin; Lin, Zhuoqing; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticles show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which make it attractive in optical, sensing, and biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a general and facile strategy towards aqueous synthesis of Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars by reducing HAuCl4 with ethanolamine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). According to electron microscopic observation and spectral monitoring, we found that the layered...

  16. Investigation of contrast agent dosage for perfusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, G.; Benner, T.; Heiland, S.; Reith, W.; Sartor, K.; Forsting, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we investigated, whether increasing the dosage of a paramagnetic contrast agent results in a stronger signal decrease in T 2 *-weighted perfusion sequences and therefore more meaningful parameter maps. Material and methods: In a prospective study bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA was performed at dosages of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mmol/kg body weight (BW) in 10 patients each. Before, during and after bolus injection 40 T 2 *-weighted images of a reference brain slice were acquired within 65.6 seconds on a 1.0 T clinical scanner and perfusion parameters were calculated. Results: Due to the limited signal decrease during bolus passage and the resulting low signal-difference-to-noise ratio (ΔS/N) no reliable differentiation of gray and white matter was possible at a contrast agent dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg BW. Only at higher dosages, both, signal decrease and ΔS/N were strong enough to allow differentiation of gray and white matter and to yield reliable parameter maps. Conclusion: For meaningful MR perfusion imaging at 1.0 T and with the given sequence a contrast agent dosage of at least 0.2 mmol/kg BW is necessary, if a 0.5-molar contrast agent is used. (orig.) [de

  17. Stabilizing ultrasmall Au clusters for enhanced photoredox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Bo; Lu, Kang-Qiang; Tang, Zichao; Chen, Hao Ming; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2018-04-18

    Recently, loading ligand-protected gold (Au) clusters as visible light photosensitizers onto various supports for photoredox catalysis has attracted considerable attention. However, the efficient control of long-term photostability of Au clusters on the metal-support interface remains challenging. Herein, we report a simple and efficient method for enhancing the photostability of glutathione-protected Au clusters (Au GSH clusters) loaded on the surface of SiO 2 sphere by utilizing multifunctional branched poly-ethylenimine (BPEI) as a surface charge modifying, reducing and stabilizing agent. The sequential coating of thickness controlled TiO 2 shells can further significantly improve the photocatalytic efficiency, while such structurally designed core-shell SiO 2 -Au GSH clusters-BPEI@TiO 2 composites maintain high photostability during longtime light illumination conditions. This joint strategy via interfacial modification and composition engineering provides a facile guideline for stabilizing ultrasmall Au clusters and rational design of Au clusters-based composites with improved activity toward targeting applications in photoredox catalysis.

  18. Une méthode pour estimer l’interception du rayonnement par un couvert bas : application au colza avant montaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoroy Pascal

    2002-01-01

    introduire dans l’équation 2 un paramètre représentant le taux de couverture du sol. Si l’estimation par mesure directe de epsiloni et donc l’estimation de k sont assez simples, au moins dans le principe pour un couvert développé en hauteur (colza après montaison [3], une telle mesure devient beaucoup plus complexe dans le cas d’un couvert discontinu et bas. Dans ce milieu hétérogène (et souvent dans des conditions hivernales sévères, une distribution représentative des capteurs de rayonnement est difficile, les risques de perturbation de la mesure (salissure des capteurs, déréglages sont élevés. Plusieurs études ont déjà traité de epsiloni et k dans le cas du colza [3-7]. Elles sont fondées sur des mesures d’interception du rayonnement et concernent des couverts fermés, après montaison. Une autre approche consiste à effectuer un calcul précis de PARi avec des modèles détaillés utilisant une description complète des paramètres (géométriques et radiatifs du feuillage, et du rayonnement incident [8]. Mais les données nécessaires sont alors nombreuses, complexes à obtenir et donc généralement non disponibles en expérimentation. Pour répondre aux besoins de calcul de l’interception du rayonnement dans les phases d’installation du colza, cet article présente une méthode permettant de calculer epsiloni en tenant compte des principales caractéristiques de la morphologie du couvert et du régime radiatif auquel ce dernier est soumis. Les données nécessaires sont limitées : l’indice foliaire, les taux de couverture du sol (deux définitions, la latitude du lieu considéré, la date et le rayonnement incident quotidien. Ce calcul permet une estimation du coefficient moyen d’extinction k (équation 2. On verra que k peut être corrélé à l’IF, la période de l’année et la latitude du lieu, ce qui permet de proposer une estimation simple de k et donc un calcul simplifié de epsiloni, adapté au cas des faibles IF

  19. Preactivated thiolated nanoparticles: A novel mucoadhesive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Bonengel, Sonja; Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Laffleur, Flavia; Prüfert, Felix; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-30

    Within this study a novel form of mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) exhibiting a prolonged residence time on mucosal tissues was developed. In order to achieve this goal a new thiomer was synthesized by the covalent attachment of the amino acid l-cysteine ethyl ester to poly(acrylic acid) (100 kDa). The free thiol groups were in the following preactivated with the aromatic thiol bearing ligand 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA) and the amount of coupled l-cysteine ethyl ester as well as the amount of attached 2-MNA was determined. Based on this, preactivated thiomer NPs were prepared by ionic gelation with polyethylenimine (PEI). The resulting NPs were characterized regarding size and zeta potential. Furthermore their mucoadhesive properties were investigated via rheological measurements with porcine intestinal mucus and via determination of the particles' mucosal residence time. Results showed that 1666.74 μmol l-cysteine ethyl ester and 603.07 μmol 2-MNA could be attached per gram polymer. NPs were in a size range of 112.67-252.84 nm exhibiting a zeta potential of -29 mV. Thiolated NPs only led to a 2-fold increase in mucus viscosity whereas preactivated NPs showed a 6-fold higher mucus viscosity than unmodified NPs. The mucosal residence time of thiolated NPs was 1.6-fold prolonged and that of preactivated NPs even 4.4-fold higher compared to unmodified particles. Accordingly, preactivated thiolated NPs providing a prolonged residence time on mucosal membranes could be a promising dosage form for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; Grillo, A A; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5 nC charge application within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10 nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 106 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450 V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1 μs due to a charge screening effect. A...

  1. Doubled dosage of sofosbuviris expected for inhibiting Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2017-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is a new antiviral drug that has been recommended for management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) for a few years. New researches support that sofosbuvir might be useful for the management of Zika virus infection. Based on the pharmacological activity, inhibiting the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or NS5 protein), sofosbuvir is proposed for its effectiveness against Zika virus infection. Here, the authors used a mathematical modelling theoretical approach to predict the expected dosage of sofosbuvir for inhibiting Zika virus infection. Based on the modeling study, if sofosbuvir is assigned for management of Zika virus infection, doubled dosage of the present dosage for hepatitis C management is recommended.

  2. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursier, J.; Hure, J.; Platzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [fr

  3. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes.

  4. Strain Distribution of Au and Ag Nanoparticles Embedded in Al2O3 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Au and Ag nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Al2O3 matrix are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD method and rapid thermal annealing (RTA technique, which are confirmed by the experimental high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM results, respectively. The strain distribution of Au and Ag nanoparticles embedded in the Al2O3 matrix is investigated by the finite-element (FE calculations. The simulation results clearly indicate that both the Au and Ag nanoparticles incur compressive strain by the Al2O3 matrix. However, the compressive strain existing on the Au nanoparticle is much weaker than that on the Ag nanoparticle. This phenomenon can be attributed to the reason that Young’s modulus of Au is larger than that of Ag. This different strain distribution of Au and Ag nanoparticles in the same host matrix may have a significant influence on the technological potential applications of the Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles.

  5. Colloidal Au and Au-alloy catalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells: Electrocatalysis and fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Macdonald, Charles L. B.; Northwood, Derek O.; Gyenge, Elod L.

    Supported colloidal Au and Au-alloys (Au-Pt and Au-Pd, 1:1 atomic ratio) on Vulcan XC-72 (with 20 wt% metal load) were prepared by the Bönneman method. The electrocatalytic activity of the colloidal metals with respect to borohydride electro-oxidation for fuel cell applications was investigated by voltammetry on static and rotating electrodes, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. The fundamental electrochemical techniques showed that alloying Au, a metal that leads to the maximum eight-electron oxidation of BH 4 -, with Pd or Pt, well-known catalysts of dehydrogenation reactions, improved the electrode kinetics of BH 4 - oxidation. Fuel cell experiments corroborated the kinetic studies. Using 5 mg cm -2 colloidal metal load on the anode, it was found that Au-Pt was the most active catalyst giving a cell voltage of 0.47 V at 100 mA cm -2 and 333 K, while under identical conditions the cell voltage using colloidal Au was 0.17 V.

  6. Colloidal Au and Au-alloy catalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells: Electrocatalysis and fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwan, Mohammed H.; Northwood, Derek O. [Department of Mechanical, Auto and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor (Canada N9B 3P4); Macdonald, Charles L.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor (Canada N9B 3P4); Gyenge, Elod L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1Z4)

    2006-07-14

    Supported colloidal Au and Au-alloys (Au-Pt and Au-Pd, 1:1 atomic ratio) on Vulcan XC-72 (with 20wt% metal load) were prepared by the Bonneman method. The electrocatalytic activity of the colloidal metals with respect to borohydride electro-oxidation for fuel cell applications was investigated by voltammetry on static and rotating electrodes, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. The fundamental electrochemical techniques showed that alloying Au, a metal that leads to the maximum eight-electron oxidation of BH{sub 4}{sup -}, with Pd or Pt, well-known catalysts of dehydrogenation reactions, improved the electrode kinetics of BH{sub 4}{sup -} oxidation. Fuel cell experiments corroborated the kinetic studies. Using 5mgcm{sup -2} colloidal metal load on the anode, it was found that Au-Pt was the most active catalyst giving a cell voltage of 0.47V at 100mAcm{sup -2} and 333K, while under identical conditions the cell voltage using colloidal Au was 0.17V. (author)

  7. Evidence for oral agmatine sulfate safety--a 95-day high dosage pilot study with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2013-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, exerts beneficial effects in various experimental disease models. Clinical trials indicate the safety and effectiveness of short-term (up to 21 days) high dose regimens of oral agmatine sulfate, but longer term studies are lacking. This pilot study undertook to assess the safety of a longer term high dosage oral agmatine sulfate in laboratory rats. Adult Wistar rats consumed 5.3 g/l agmatine sulfate in their drinking water for 95 days, a regimen estimated to result in a daily dosage of absorbed agmatine of about 100mg/kg. Animals' body weight, water consumption and blood pressure were periodically measured, and general cage behavior, fur appearance, urination and feces appearance monitored. These parameters were also determined at 20 days after treatment cessation (day 115). On days 95 and 115, animals were euthanized for gross necropsy assessment. Agmatine-treated rats showed slight, but significant reductions in body weight and blood pressure, and reduced water consumption during treatment, which recovered completely within 20 days after treatment cessation. Otherwise, no abnormal behaviors or organ pathologies were observed. These findings are first to suggest apparent safety of sub-chronic high dosage dietary agmatine sulfate in laboratory rats, thus lending further support to the therapeutic applications of agmatine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of spin contamination error in dissociative adsorption of Au2 onto MgO(0 0 1) surface: First application of approximate spin projection (AP) method to plane wave basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kohei; Koga, Hiroaki; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Tanaka, Shingo

    2018-06-01

    Spin contamination error in the total energy of the Au2/MgO system was estimated using the density functional theory/plane-wave scheme and approximate spin projection methods. This is the first investigation in which the errors in chemical phenomena on a periodic surface are estimated. The spin contamination error of the system was 0.06 eV. This value is smaller than that of the dissociation of Au2 in the gas phase (0.10 eV). This is because of the destabilization of the singlet spin state due to the weakening of the Au-Au interaction caused by the Au-MgO interaction.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of torsemide on warfarin dosage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sophia; Momper, Jeremiah D; Yam, Felix K

    2017-08-01

    Background According to drug interaction databases, torsemide may potentiate the effects of warfarin. Evidence for this drug-drug interaction, however, is conflicting and the clinical significance is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of torsemide initiation on warfarin dosage requirements. Setting This study was conducted at the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, California. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Veterans Affairs data from patients who were converted from bumetanide to torsemide between March 2014 and July 2014. Patients were also prescribed and taking warfarin during the observation period. Warfarin dosage requirements were evaluated to determine if any changes occurred within the first 3 months of starting torsemide. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the average weekly warfarin dose before and after torsemide initiation. Results Eighteen patients met study inclusion criteria. The weekly warfarin dose before and after initiation of torsemide was not significantly different (34 ± 15 and 34 ± 13 mg, p > 0.05). Of those eighteen patients, only two experienced elevations in INR that required a decrease in warfarin dosage after torsemide initiation. Between those two patients, dosage reductions ranged from 5.3 to 18%. Conclusion These results indicated that most patients did not require any warfarin dosage adjustments after torsemide was initiated. The potential for interaction, however, still exists. While empiric warfarin dosage adjustments are not recommended when initiating torsemide, increased monitoring is warranted to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

  10. Dosage-based parameters for characterization of puff dispersion results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbekar, Eva; Harms, Frank; Leitl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A set of parameters is introduced to characterize the dispersion of puff releases based on the measured dosage. These parameters are the dosage, peak concentration, arrival time, peak time, leaving time, ascent time, descent time and duration. Dimensionless numbers for the scaling of the parameters are derived from dimensional analysis. The dimensionless numbers are tested and confirmed based on a statistically representative wind tunnel dataset. The measurements were carried out in a 1:300 scale model of the Central Business District in Oklahoma City. Additionally, the effect of the release duration on the puff parameters is investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled electrodeposition of Au monolayer film on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiang; Pang, Liuqing; Li, Man; Zhang, Yunxia; Ren, Xianpei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong Frank, E-mail: szliu@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We fabricate Au monolayer film on Ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition technique. • Au monolayer film was deposited on a “soft substrate” for the first time. • Au monolayer film can contribute extra Raman enhancement. - Abstract: Gold (Au) nanoparticles have been attractive for centuries for their vibrant appearance enhanced by their interaction with sunlight. Nowadays, there have been tremendous research efforts to develop them for high-tech applications including therapeutic agents, sensors, organic photovoltaics, medical applications, electronics and catalysis. However, there remains to be a challenge to fabricate a monolayer Au coating with complete coverage in controlled fashion. Here we present a facile method to deposit a uniform Au monolayer (ML) film on the [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition process. It demonstrates that it is feasible to prepare a solid phase coating on the liquid-based substrate. Moreover, the thickness of the monolayer coating can be controlled to a layer-by-layer accuracy.

  12. Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, T.; Bauch, M.; Wibowo, R.A.; Bansal, N.; Hamid, R.; Auer, M.; Jäger, M.; List-Kratochvil, E.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent, low resistive AZO/Au/AZO layers were sputtered on PET substrates. • AZO/Au/AZO has higher figure of merit than ITO for specific Au thicknesses. • The resistance of AZO/Au/AZO is stable against repetitive substrate bending. • AZO/Au/AZO electrode performance is comparable to ITO in light emitting diodes. - Abstract: We investigate the structural, electrical and optical properties of transparent electrodes, consisting of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and ultrathin Au layers, sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These electrodes are relevant for optoelectronic devices and thin film photovoltaics. When deposited on AZO, Au films as thin as 3 nm form electrically conductive, meandering structures, whereas uniform Au films are obtained from a thickness of 5 nm. The sheet resistance decreases with Au thickness, reaching 7 Ω for 11 nm-thick Au. AZO/Au/AZO trilayers combine lowest resistance with highest transparency, while their resistance stability against bending fatigue is superior to the Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) electrode. The figure of merit of AZO/Au/AZO is larger than of ITO for Au thickness equal to or larger than 9 nm. To demonstrate the applicability of the AZO/Au/AZO transparent electrode, simple organic light emitting diodes were fabricated and tested in comparison to PET/ITO standard substrates

  13. Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, T., E-mail: theodoros.dimopoulos@ait.ac.at [AIT-Austrian Institute of Technology, Energy Department, Photovoltaic Systems, Giefinggasse 2, 1210, Vienna (Austria); Bauch, M.; Wibowo, R.A.; Bansal, N. [AIT-Austrian Institute of Technology, Energy Department, Photovoltaic Systems, Giefinggasse 2, 1210, Vienna (Austria); Hamid, R. [AIT-Austrian Institute of Technology, Mobility Department, Electric Drive Technologies, Giefinggasse 2, 1210, Vienna (Austria); Auer, M.; Jäger, M. [NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 32, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); List-Kratochvil, E.J.W. [NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 32, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Transparent, low resistive AZO/Au/AZO layers were sputtered on PET substrates. • AZO/Au/AZO has higher figure of merit than ITO for specific Au thicknesses. • The resistance of AZO/Au/AZO is stable against repetitive substrate bending. • AZO/Au/AZO electrode performance is comparable to ITO in light emitting diodes. - Abstract: We investigate the structural, electrical and optical properties of transparent electrodes, consisting of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and ultrathin Au layers, sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These electrodes are relevant for optoelectronic devices and thin film photovoltaics. When deposited on AZO, Au films as thin as 3 nm form electrically conductive, meandering structures, whereas uniform Au films are obtained from a thickness of 5 nm. The sheet resistance decreases with Au thickness, reaching 7 Ω for 11 nm-thick Au. AZO/Au/AZO trilayers combine lowest resistance with highest transparency, while their resistance stability against bending fatigue is superior to the Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) electrode. The figure of merit of AZO/Au/AZO is larger than of ITO for Au thickness equal to or larger than 9 nm. To demonstrate the applicability of the AZO/Au/AZO transparent electrode, simple organic light emitting diodes were fabricated and tested in comparison to PET/ITO standard substrates.

  14. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  15. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611}high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H_2PtCl_6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells. (paper)

  16. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Grillo, AA; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5nC charge injection within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 10^6 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1μs due to a charge screening effect. A seco...

  17. GESTION DES FLUX ÉNERGÉTIQUE DANS UN SYSTÈME PHOTOVOLTAÏQUE AVEC STOCKAGE CONNECTER AU RÉSEAU – Application à l'habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Riffonneau , Yann

    2009-01-01

    The work done during this thesis contributes to the intensive penetration of the photovoltaic electricity production into the electric grid. Photovoltaic energy holds an immense potential, in particular in the housing sector, but intermittent nature limits its large scale development. In this thesis, we propose to add a storage element to the grid connected photovoltaic system (housing application). First, we introduce the notion of energy management in these systems called « hybrids systems ...

  18. Commande de systèmes linéaires sous contraintes fréquentielles et temporelles – Application au lanceur flexible

    OpenAIRE

    Chambon , Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    In modern control design problems, both frequency- and time-domain requirements are usually considered such that the resulting control law satisfies the specifications. Novel non-smooth optimisation techniques can be used to achieve multiple frequency-domain specifications over a family of linear models. Examples of applications include robust control design where multiple critical models for different values of the uncertain parameters are considered. This is illustrated in this thesis manus...

  19. Advanced and Integrated Petrophysical Characterization for CO2 Storage: Application to the Ketzin Site Caractérisation pétrophysique intégrée pour le stockage de CO2 : application au site de Ketzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced and Integrated Petrophysical Characterization for CO2 Storage: Application to the Ketzin Site — Reservoir simulations and monitoring of CO2 storage require specific petrophysical data. We show a workflow that can be applied to saline aquifers and caprocks in order to provide the minimum data set for realistic estimations of storage potential and perform pertinent simulations of CO2 injection. The presented series of experiments are fully integrated with quantitative log data analysis to estimate porosity, irreducible saturation, drainage capillary pressure and water relative permeability, residual gas saturation, resistivity-saturation relationships and caprock transport properties (permeability and diffusivity. The case considered is a saline aquifer of the Triassic Stuttgart formation studied in the framework of the CO2SINK onshore research storage, the first in situ testing site of CO2 injection in Germany located near the city of Ketzin. We used petrophysical methods that can provide the required data in a reasonable amount of time while still being representative of the in situ injection process. For two phase transport properties, we used the centrifuge technique. For resistivity measurements, we used the Fast Resistivity Index Measurement (FRIM method in drainage and imbibition, at ambient and storage conditions. For caprock characterization, we used a fast NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance deuterium tracer technique to measure diffusivity and a modified steady state innovative technique to determine permeability. Entry pressure has also been evaluated using several methods. Resistivity and NMR logs were analyzed to provide a continuous estimation of irreducible saturation for the entire storage zone and to judge on the representativity of the samples analyzed in the laboratory. For the Ketzin site, the storage zone is a clayey sandstone of fluvial origin locally highly cemented, with porosity around 30% and permeability ranging

  20. Multifragmentation in Au + Au collisions studied with AMD-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1998-07-01

    AMD-V is an optimum model for calculation of multifragmentation in Au + Au collisions. AMD-V consider anti-symmetry of incident nucleus, target nucleus and fragments, furthermore, it treat the quantum effect to exist many channels in the intermediate and final state. 150 and 250 MeV/nucleon incident energy were used in the experiments. The data of multifragment atom in {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions was reproduced by AMD-V calculation using Gognny force, corresponding to the imcompressibility of nuclear substance K = 228 MeV and its mean field depend on momentum. When other interaction (SKG 2 force, corresponding to K = 373 KeV) was used an mean field does not depend on momentum, the calculation results could not reproduce the experimental values, because nucleus and deuteron were estimated too large and {alpha}-particle and intermediate fragments estimated too small. (S.Y.)

  1. Fabrication of Au-Pd Core-shell Nanoparticles using Au Thin-Film Dewetting at High Temperature and Chemical Synthesis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hye-Jung; Oh, Yong-Jun [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have received a lot of attention in the fields of catalysts and hydrogen sensors. In this study, Au-Pd core-shell NP arrays were successfully fabricated using two steps: formation of the ordered array of Au NPs cores via solid-state dewetting of a Au thin film on a topographic silica substrate, and Pd shell formation via chemical synthesis using two different surfactants (CTAB and CTAC). Using the CTAB surfactant in particular, a 2-D composite structure comprised of an ordered array of Au-Pd NPs, with smaller Pd NPs on the nanoscopic gaps between the Au-Pd NPs, could be formed. This structure is expected to have potential application in resistance-base hydrogen sensors.

  2. Transverse expansion in 197 Au + 197 Au collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Liu, F.; Liu, K.; Schweda, K.; Xu, N.

    2003-01-01

    Using the RQMD model, transverse momentum distributions and particle ratios are studied for 197 Au + 197 Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV. In particular, they present results on the mean transverse momentum of charged pions, charged kaons, protons and anti-protons and compare with experimental measurements. They discuss an approach to study early partonic collectivity in high energy nuclear collisions

  3. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  4. 76 FR 59023 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  5. 77 FR 3927 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  6. 76 FR 18648 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  7. 76 FR 40808 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  8. 77 FR 15960 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  9. 75 FR 67031 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  10. 76 FR 78149 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  11. Pharmaceutical development of an intravenous dosage form of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Nuijen, Bastiaan; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2004-01-01

    A solid dosage form for multiple use was developed for parenteral administration of diacetylmorphine in a clinical trial on co-prescription of heroin to heroin addicts. A 300-mg/mL diacetylmorphine hydrochloride solution was lyophilised as 10-mL aliquots in 30-mL glass vials, to be reconstituted to

  12. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  13. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.; McCollum, T.G.; Smittle, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  14. Dosage plasmatique et globulaire du magnesium dans l'exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The allergic rhinitis represents a real public health problem. The goal of this survey is to value the interest of the dosage plasmatical and globular of magnesium in the diagnosis of the allergic rhinitis. Materials and methods : Analytic and prospective survey of 80 files, on one period of 4 years and 5 months (from ...

  15. Determination of methadone hydrochloride in a maintenance dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T J; Thompson, R D

    1975-07-01

    A colorimetric method for direct quantitative assay of methadone hydrochloride in liquid oral dosage forms is presented. The procedure involves the formation of a dye complex with bromothymol blue buffer solution. The resultant complex is extracted with benzene and measured spectrophotometrically. Duplicate tests on the formulation showed 99.2% of the labeled amount of methadone.

  16. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monensin oral dosage forms. 520.1448 Section 520.1448 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... distance the spots travel from the starting line divided by the distance the solvent front travels from the...

  17. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN-SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  18. Gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A K; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1977-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to estimate gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography of labrador retriever dogs. The mean radiation dose to the unshielded testes was 100 millirad (mrad) and the estimated dose to the shielded testes was 9 mrad. It was considered unnecessary to shield the ovaries.

  19. Fuzzy-based dosage model of aqueous decoction of Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in the area of traditional medicine, no much attention has been given to its enhancement with the use of information technology especially in the area of herbal prescription. ... The mass of herb and volume of solvent were used as input parameters to design the dosage model, and simulated using MATLAB.

  20. Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form. GC Onunkwo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 29-33. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjms.v5i1.10145.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of tablet dosage form of Hunteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at formulating and evaluating tablet dosage form of Hunteria umbellata (HU) seed aqueous and purified extracts. HU seeds were dried, pulverized and the powder macerated in water to obtain aqueous extract, while alkaloidal extraction process was used to obtain purified extract. Extracts ...

  2. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: cimetidine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantratid, E; Prakongpan, S; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Barends, D M

    2006-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing cimetidine are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), cimetidine would be assigned

  3. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN - SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  4. X chromosome dosage compensation via enhanced transcriptional elongation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larschan, Erica; Bishop, Eric P; Kharchenko, Peter V; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T; Park, Peter J; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2011-03-03

    The evolution of sex chromosomes has resulted in numerous species in which females inherit two X chromosomes but males have a single X, thus requiring dosage compensation. MSL (Male-specific lethal) complex increases transcription on the single X chromosome of Drosophila males to equalize expression of X-linked genes between the sexes. The biochemical mechanisms used for dosage compensation must function over a wide dynamic range of transcription levels and differential expression patterns. It has been proposed that the MSL complex regulates transcriptional elongation to control dosage compensation, a model subsequently supported by mapping of the MSL complex and MSL-dependent histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation to the bodies of X-linked genes in males, with a bias towards 3' ends. However, experimental analysis of MSL function at the mechanistic level has been challenging owing to the small magnitude of the chromosome-wide effect and the lack of an in vitro system for biochemical analysis. Here we use global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to examine the specific effect of the MSL complex on RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) on a genome-wide level. Results indicate that the MSL complex enhances transcription by facilitating the progression of RNAP II across the bodies of active X-linked genes. Improving transcriptional output downstream of typical gene-specific controls may explain how dosage compensation can be imposed on the diverse set of genes along an entire chromosome.

  5. Dosage compensation and demasculinization of X chromosomes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtrog, Doris; Toda, Nicholas R T; Lockton, Steven

    2010-08-24

    The X chromosome of Drosophila shows a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, whereas mammalian X chromosomes are enriched for spermatogenesis genes expressed premeiosis and multicopy testis genes. Meiotic X-inactivation and sexual antagonism can only partly account for these patterns. Here, we show that dosage compensation (DC) in Drosophila may contribute substantially to the depletion of male genes on the X. To equalize expression between X-linked and autosomal genes in the two sexes, male Drosophila hypertranscribe their single X, whereas female mammals silence one of their two X chromosomes. We combine fine-scale mapping data of dosage compensated regions with genome-wide expression profiles and show that most male-biased genes on the D. melanogaster X are located outside dosage compensated regions. Additionally, X-linked genes that have newly acquired male-biased expression in D. melanogaster are less likely to be dosage compensated, and parental X-linked genes that gave rise to an autosomal male-biased retrocopy are more likely located within compensated regions. This suggests that DC contributes to the observed demasculinization of X chromosomes in Drosophila, both by limiting the emergence of male-biased expression patterns of existing X genes, and by contributing to gene trafficking of male genes off the X. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cilostazol in tablet dosage form. Methods: Cilostazol was dissolved in 50 % methanol and its absorbance was scanned by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Both linear regression equation and standard absorptivity were ...

  7. Charge trapping characteristics of Au nanocrystals embedded in remote plasma atomic layer-deposited Al2O3 film as the tunnel and blocking oxides for nonvolatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Hyungchul; Park, Taeyong; Ko, Youngbin; Ryu, Jaehun; Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2012-01-01

    Remote plasma atomic layer deposited (RPALD) Al 2 O 3 films were investigated to apply as tunnel and blocking layers in the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor memory utilizing Au nanocrystals (NCs) for nonvolatile memory applications. The interface stability of an Al 2 O 3 film deposited by RPALD was studied to observe the effects of remote plasma on the interface. The interface formed during RPALD process has high oxidation states such as Si +3 and Si +4 , indicating that RPALD process can grow more stable interface which has a small amount of fixed oxide trap charge. The significant memory characteristics were also observed in this memory device through the electrical measurement. The memory device exhibited a relatively large memory window of 5.6 V under a 10/-10 V program/erase voltage and also showed the relatively fast programming/erasing speed and a competitive retention characteristic after 10 4 s. These results indicate that Al 2 O 3 films deposited via RPALD can be applied as the tunnel and blocking oxides for next-generation flash memory devices.

  8. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  9. Maths anxiety and medication dosage calculation errors: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Davis, Samantha

    2016-09-01

    A student's accuracy on drug calculation tests may be influenced by maths anxiety, which can impede one's ability to understand and complete mathematic problems. It is important for healthcare students to overcome this barrier when calculating drug dosages in order to avoid administering the incorrect dose to a patient when in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maths anxiety on healthcare students' ability to accurately calculate drug dosages by performing a scoping review of the existing literature. This review utilised a six-stage methodology using the following databases; CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Trip database (http://www.tripdatabase.com/) and Grey Literature report (http://www.greylit.org/). After an initial title/abstract review of relevant papers, and then full text review of the remaining papers, six articles were selected for inclusion in this study. Of the six articles included, there were three experimental studies, two quantitative studies and one mixed method study. All studies addressed nursing students and the presence of maths anxiety. No relevant studies from other disciplines were identified in the existing literature. Three studies took place in the U.S, the remainder in Canada, Australia and United Kingdom. Upon analysis of these studies, four factors including maths anxiety were identified as having an influence on a student's drug dosage calculation abilities. Ultimately, the results from this review suggest more research is required in nursing and other relevant healthcare disciplines regarding the effects of maths anxiety on drug dosage calculations. This additional knowledge will be important to further inform development of strategies to decrease the potentially serious effects of errors in drug dosage calculation to patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast neutron dosimetry for radioprotection near large accelerators. Application to the proton synchrotron Saturne; Dosimetrie des neutrons rapides en vue de la radioprotection aupres des grands accelerateurs. Application au synchrotron a protons Saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy-Joubert, P

    1963-07-01

    Methods are described that are used for the measurement of a neutron flux, and of the corresponding energy flux and dose absorbed. The methods are checked experimentally by the use of neutron sources of known energy distribution. The conditions of use of a proportional counter for recoil protons are described. The experimental results obtained with the synchrotron SATURNE at Saclay are described. (author) [French] L'auteur presente les methodes utilisables pour la mesure d'un flux de neutrons, du flux d'energie et de la dose absorbee correspondants. Les methodes sont verifiees experimentalement au moyen de sources de neutrons de spectre connu. Les conditions d'emploi d'un compteur proportionnel a protons de recul sont definies. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus aupres du synchrotron Saturne de Saclay sont presentes. (auteur)

  11. La micro-entreprise moyen de lutte contre la pauvreté: mise en évidence par application au niveau des régions tunisiennes = Micro-enterprises are the medium against poverty: Its application in Tunisian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram Gaaliche

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La contribution du secteur des micro-entreprises en Tunisie, dans la lutte contre la pauvreté, s’est manifestée de telle sorte que, tout accroissement du nombre d’unité de micro-entreprise entraîne une réduction du taux de pauvreté. En outre, il s’est avérée que la participation de ces petites unités dans la lutte contre la pauvreté, varie d’une région à une autre, selon le secteur d’activité y exerçantes. La détection d’une telle spécialisation sectorielle au niveau de la lutte contre la pauvreté, permet l’adoption de politiques régionales ciblées, destinées à encourager la création de micro-entreprises, au niveau des secteurs d’activité les plus pertinents.In Tunisia, the contribution of the microentreprises sector, in the fight against poverty, has appeared so that, every increasing in the number of the microentreprises involves a reduction of the poverty rate. In addition, it proved that the participation of these small unities in the fight against poverty varies from one area to another, according to the activity sectors. The detection of such sectoral specialization on the level of the fight against poverty, allows the adoption of targeted regional policies, intended to encourage the creation of microentreprises, in the most relevant activity sectors.

  12. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Marcos Rodrigues de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.

  13. Bonding properties of FCC-like Au 44 (SR) 28 clusters from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.; Chevrier, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.; Zeng, Chenjie [Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.; Jin, Rongchao [Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.; Zhang, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.

    2017-11-01

    Thiolate-protected gold clusters with precisely controlled atomic composition have recently emerged as promising candidates for a variety of applications because of their unique optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. The recent discovery of the Au44(SR)28 total structure is considered as an interesting finding in terms of the face-centered cubic (FCC)-like core structure in small gold-thiolate clusters. Herein, the unique bonding properties of Au44(SR)28 is analyzed using temperature-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements at the Au L3-edge and compared with other FCC-like clusters such as Au36(SR)24 and Au28(SR)20. A negative thermal expansion was detected for the Au–Au bonds of the metal core (the first Au–Au shell) and was interpreted based on the unique Au core structure consisting of the Au4 units. EXAFS fitting results from Au28(SR)20, Au36(SR)24, and Au44(SR)28 show a size-dependent negative thermal expansion behavior in the first Au–Au shell, further highlighting the importance of the Au4 units in determining the Au core bonding properties and shedding light on the growth mechanism of these FCC-like Au clusters.

  14. Electrografting of thionine diazonium cation onto the graphene edges and decorating with Au nano-dendrites or glucose oxidase: Characterization and electrocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Amini, Akbar; Sadeghi, Nima

    2016-03-15

    Thionine (Th) diazonium cation is covalently attached onto the glassy carbon (GC) electrode via graphene nanosheets (GNs) (GC-GNs-Th). The GC-GNs-Th electrode is subjected to further modifications to fabricate (i) glucose and (ii) nitrite sensors. Further modifications include: (i) direct immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) and (ii) electrodeposition of gold dendrite-like nanostructures (DGNs) on the GC-GNs-Th surface, constructing GC-GNs-Th-GOx and GC-GNs-Th-DGNs modified electrodes, respectively. The GC-GNs-Th-GOx biosensor exhibited a linear response range to glucose, from 0.5 to 6.0mM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 9.6 μM and high sensitivity of 43.2 µAcm(-2)mM(-1). Also, the GC-GNs-Th-DGNs sensor showed a wide dynamic response range for NO2(-) ion with two linear parts, from 0.05 μM to 1.0 μM and 30.0 μM to 1.0mM, a sensitivity of 263.2 μAmM(-1) and a LOD of 0.01 μM. Applicability of the modified electrodes was successfully tested by determination of glucose in human blood serum and nitrite in water based on addition/recovery tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Architecture effects of glucose oxidase/Au nanoparticle composite Langmuir-Blodgett films on glucose sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Hsuan; Wu, Jau-Yann; Chen, Liang-Huei; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-03-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique is employed to prepare nano-composite films consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for glucose sensing applications. The GOx and AuNPs are co-adsorbed from an aqueous solution onto an air/liquid interface in the presence of an octadecylamine (ODA) template monolayer, forming a mixed (GOx-AuNP) monolayer. Alternatively, a composite film with a cascade architecture (AuNP/GOx) is also prepared by sequentially depositing monolayers of AuNPs and GOx. The architecture effects of the composite LB films on the glucose sensing are studied. The results show that the presence of AuNPs in the co-adsorption system does not affect the adsorption amount and preferred conformation (α-helix) of GOx. Furthermore, the incorporation of AuNPs in both composite films can significantly improve the sensing performance. However, the enhancement effects of the AuNPs in the two architectures are distinct. The major effect of the AuNPs is on the facilitation of charge-transfer in the (GOx-AuNP) film, but on the increase of catalytic activity in the (AuNP/GOx) one. Therefore, the sensing performance can be greatly improved by utilizing a film combining both architectures (AuNP/GOx-AuNP).

  16. The Development of Materials for Application to Control Rod Systems in Graphite moderated Reactors; Mise au Point de Materiaux pour les Dispositifs de Controle a Barres, Utilbes dans les Reacteurs Ralentis au Graphite; Razrabotka materialov , primenyaemykh v sistemakh upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej v reaktorakh s grafitovym zamedlitelem; Perfeccionamiento de Materiales Aplicables a las Barras de Control en los Reactores Moderados por Grafito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G. E.; Kempf, F. J. [Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1964-06-15

    Material problems associated with the control- and safety-rod systems for graphite moderated, tube-type reactors can be divided into two categories: control materials and operating-channel liner materials. The control materials, such as boron or gadolinium, can be integral with the rod sheath, as in the boron stainless steel used for safety rods. Another approach is the enclosure of a boron-containing sintered compact, such as B{sub 4}C-graphite or B{sub 4}C-aluminium, in a metallic sheath. Rods of the latter type are adaptable for control purposes because of the increased percentages of boron that can be included. Test and fabrication experience indicate that a wide range of satisfactory rod designs is possible with any of these materials. The rod operating channels in the reactor often require liners to protect the surrounding graphite moderator from rod-insertion impact loads and wear and to help maintain channel alignment. Abrasion- and impact resistant, high-strength, low cross-section materials that will operate uncooled are required for these liners. Pyrolytic graphite, pyrolytic graphite composites, aluminium oxide and silicon carbide have been tested for such applications. Physical and irradiation damage data indicate that some of these materials are suitable for lining rod-operating channels. (author) [French] Les problemes de materiaux lies aux dispositifs de controle a barres de reglage et de securite pour les reacteurs tubulaires ralentis au graphite sont doubles et concernent les materiaux absorbants d'une part et les materiaux de garnissage des canaux d'autre part. Les materiaux absorbants tels que le bore ou le gadolinium peuvent former un tout avec le materiau de gainage comme dans le cas ou les barres de securite sont en acier inoxydable au bore. Une autre technique consiste a enfermer un melange presse et fritte contenant du bore, tel que B4C-graphite ou B4C-aluminium, dans une gaine metallique. Les barres de ce dernier type peuvent etre adaptees

  17. Spectrographic determination of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G; Morawek, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Since the apparatus for continuous determination of beryllium is not yet perfect, a discontinuous method has been developed. The air to be analysed is filtered, and the dust laden filter is dissolved in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acid. The pH and the conductivity of the solution obtained were adjusted to standard values, and it was then analysed spectro-graphically by the rotating sector method. Up to 0.01 x 10{sup 6} of Be per cm{sup 3} of solution can be detected. The precision is of the order of 10 per cent. (author) [French] Les appareils de dosage du beryllium en continu n'etant pas encore suffisamment au point, on a elabore une methode discontinue. L'air a analyser est filtre et le filtre charge de poussieres est mis en solution par une attaque sulfo-nitrique. La solution obtenue est normalisee par ajustage de son PH et de sa conductivite puis analysee spectrographiquement par la methode du disque tournant. On peut detecter jusqu'a 0,01.10{sup 6} de Be par cm{sup 3} de solution. La precision est de l'ordre de 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  18. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. M., E-mail: mrkongara@boisestate.edu; Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Padture, Nitin P. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  19. Controlled electrodeposition of Au monolayer film on ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Pang, Liuqing; Li, Man; Zhang, Yunxia; Ren, Xianpei; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2016-05-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles have been attractive for centuries for their vibrant appearance enhanced by their interaction with sunlight. Nowadays, there have been tremendous research efforts to develop them for high-tech applications including therapeutic agents, sensors, organic photovoltaics, medical applications, electronics and catalysis. However, there remains to be a challenge to fabricate a monolayer Au coating with complete coverage in controlled fashion. Here we present a facile method to deposit a uniform Au monolayer (ML) film on the [BMIM][PF6] ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition process. It demonstrates that it is feasible to prepare a solid phase coating on the liquid-based substrate. Moreover, the thickness of the monolayer coating can be controlled to a layer-by-layer accuracy.

  20. Spherical and polygonal shape of Au nanoparticles coated functionalized polymer microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Junxian; Qi, Yalong; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@dhu.edu.cn

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • PS/PPy with well-defined core/shell structures was prepared in aqueous solution. • Au NPs were coated on PS/PPy by the fixation and continuous growth process. • Mercapto-groups played a role in the number and morphology of Au shell. • PS/PPy/Au had homogeneous and dense Au coatings with different shape. - Abstract: Uniform polystyrene (PS)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite microspheres with well-defined core/shell structures are synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are successfully coated on the surface of PS/PPy microspheres by means of electrostatic interactions due to the functionalized PPy coatings supplying sufficient amino groups and the additive of mercapto acetic acid. Furthermore, the as-prepared PS/PPy/Au microspheres serving as seeds facilitate Au NPs further growth by in situ reduction in HAuCl{sub 4} solution to obtain PS/PPy/Au spheres with the core/shell/shell structure. Morphology observation demonstrates that the monodisperse PS/PPy/Au microspheres compose of uniform cores and the compact coatings containing distinct two layers. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope confirm the existence of PPy and Au on the surface of the composite spheres. This facile approach to preparing metal-coated polymer spheres supplies the potential applications in biosensors, electronics and medical diagnosis.

  1. Morphological Characteristics of Au Films Deposited on Ti: A Combined SEM-AFM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ruffino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposited Au films and coatings are, nowadays, routinely used as active or passive elements in several innovative electronic, optoelectronic, sensing, and energy devices. In these devices, the physical properties of the Au films are strongly determined by the films nanoscale structure. In addition, in these devices, often, a layer of Ti is employed to promote adhesion and, so, influencing the nanoscale structure of the deposited Au film. In this work, we present experimental analysis on the nanoscale cross-section and surface morphology of Au films deposited on Ti. In particular, we sputter-deposited thick (>100 nm thickness Au films on Ti foils and we used Scanning Electron Microscopy to analyze the films cross-sectional and surface morphology as a function of the Au film thickness and deposition angle. In addition, we analyzed the Au films surface morphology by Atomic Force Microscopy which allowed quantifying the films surface roughness versus the film thickness and deposition angle. The results establish a relation between the Au films cross-sectional and surface morphologies and surface roughness to the film thickness and deposition angle. These results allow setting a general working framework to obtain Au films on Ti with specific morphological and topographic properties for desired applications in which the Ti adhesion layer is needed for Au.

  2. Evaluation on the influence of electrocardiograph modulated milliampere on image quality and exposure dosage of volume CT heart scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sen; Du Xiangke; Li Jianyin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether the use of ECG modulated current (mA) will influence image quality and to decide whether the electrocardiograph (ECG) modulated mA will effectively reduce the exposure dosage. Methods: The cardiac pulsating phantom was set at three speed levels, i.e. high, medium, and low speed so as to simulate different heart rates. The phantom was scanned with ECG modulated mA turned on and off, and the exposure dosage of each scan sequence was documented. The images were reconstructed with reconstruction algorithm that matched the different levels of heart rate. CT values and their corresponding standard deviations at uniform areas on the images and the variation of the CT values at different locations were measured. The results from the two groups with and without ECG modulated mA were analyzed. Results: Under the same level of heart rate, the exposure dosage was remarkably reduced when the ECG modulated mA was on than when it was off. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the images from the two groups. Conclusion: When scanning the heart with volume CT (VCT), the application of ECG modulated mA can effectively reduce the exposure dosage without sacrificing the image quality. (authors)

  3. Digital and conventional radiology techniques: comparison of dosage and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranza, L.; Albornoz, C. de

    1996-01-01

    To compare the radiation dosage and costs in conventional and digital technologies. The study dealt with transverse sections. The dosage applied with conventional technology was measured in 254 patients who intertwined 402 explorations of 6 anatomic regions in 4 Radiodiagnostic Services. The dosage applied with digital technology was measured in 57 patients who underwent 95 explorations of the same anatomic region in one Radiodiagnostic Service. The costs of the 6 types of conventional and digital explorations performed were calculated for two Radiodiagnostic Service. The doses administered (mGy) using convectional/digital technology were as follows: chest PA 0.2/0.1; chest LAT 0.7/0.3; breast CC 7.0/8.4; breast LAT 7.0/7.8; breast OB 7.0/10.5; cervical spine AP 9.6/9.0; cervical spine LAT 21.9/29.6; pelvis AP 7.3/7.1; plain abdominal 6.5/2.2. The costs incurred (1992 pesetas) with the convectional/digital technologies: chest AP and LAT 1,393/2,973; portable chest 2,027/3,714; mammography 2,357/3,486; phlebography 12,718/14,023; hysterosalpingography 4,876/6,701; bone scientigraphy 1,633/2,839. Compared with conventional technology, digital imaging reduces the radiation doses received by the patients, except in the case of mammography. The costs associated with the use of digital technology are greater than those incurred with conventional technology, mainly due to the costs of amortization. the use of digital technology is more justified when: 1) it is very necessary to reduce the dosage; 2) studies of chest and abdomen predominant; 3) the volume of utilization is high; 4) staff management is flexible , and 5) the cost of purchasing the equipment is lower. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Genetic basis for dosage sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M Henry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy, the relative excess or deficiency of specific chromosome types, results in gene dosage imbalance. Plants can produce viable and fertile aneuploid individuals, while most animal aneuploids are inviable or developmentally abnormal. The swarms of aneuploid progeny produced by Arabidopsis triploids constitute an excellent model to investigate the mechanisms governing dosage sensitivity and aneuploid syndromes. Indeed, genotype alters the frequency of aneuploid types within these swarms. Recombinant inbred lines that were derived from a triploid hybrid segregated into diploid and tetraploid individuals. In these recombinant inbred lines, a single locus, which we call SENSITIVE TO DOSAGE IMBALANCE (SDI, exhibited segregation distortion in the tetraploid subpopulation only. Recent progress in quantitative genotyping now allows molecular karyotyping and genetic analysis of aneuploid populations. In this study, we investigated the causes of the ploidy-specific distortion at SDI. Allele frequency was distorted in the aneuploid swarms produced by the triploid hybrid. We developed a simple quantitative measure for aneuploidy lethality and using this measure demonstrated that distortion was greatest in the aneuploids facing the strongest viability selection. When triploids were crossed to euploids, the progeny, which lack severe aneuploids, exhibited no distortion at SDI. Genetic characterization of SDI in the aneuploid swarm identified a mechanism governing aneuploid survival, perhaps by buffering the effects of dosage imbalance. As such, SDI could increase the likelihood of retaining genomic rearrangements such as segmental duplications. Additionally, in species where triploids are fertile, aneuploid survival would facilitate gene flow between diploid and tetraploid populations via a triploid bridge and prevent polyploid speciation. Our results demonstrate that positional cloning of loci affecting traits in populations containing ploidy and

  5. Au nanoinjectors for electrotriggered gene delivery into the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of exogenous materials is an essential technique required for many fundamental biological researches and medical treatments. As our understanding of cell structure and function has been improved and diverse therapeutic agents with a subcellular site of action have been continuously developed, there is a demand to enhance the performance of delivering devices. Ideal intracellular delivery devices should convey various kinds of exogenous materials without deteriorating cell viability regardless of cell type and, furthermore, precisely control the location and the timing of delivery as well as the amount of delivered materials for advanced researches.In this chapter the development of a new intracellular delivery device, a nanoinjector made of a Au (gold) nanowire (a Au nanoinjector) is described in which delivery is triggered by external application of an electric pulse. As a model study, a gene was delivered directly into the nucleus of a neuroblastoma cell, and successful delivery without cell damage was confirmed by the expression of the delivered gene. The insertion of a Au nanoinjector directly into a cell can be generally applied to any kind of cell, and a high degree of surface modification of Au allows attachment of diverse materials such as proteins, small molecules, or nanoparticles as well as genes on Au nanoinjectors. This expands their applicability, and it is expected that they will provide important information on the effects of delivered exogenous materials and consequently contribute to the development of related therapeutic or clinical technologies.

  6. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  7. Wetting Behavior of Ternary Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) Alloys on Cu and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.; Leinenbach, C.

    2013-06-01

    Au-Ge-based alloys are potential substitutes for Pb-rich solders currently used for high-temperature applications. In the present work, the wetting behavior of two Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) ternary alloys, i.e., Au-15Ge-17Sb and Au-13.7 Ge-15.3Sn (at.%), in contact with Cu and Ni substrates has been investigated. Au-13.7Ge-15.3Sn alloy showed complete wetting on both Cu and Ni substrates. Total spreading of Au-15Ge-17Sb alloy on Cu was also observed, while the final contact angle of this alloy on Ni was about 29°. Pronounced dissolution of Cu substrates into the solder alloys investigated was detected, while the formation of Ni-Ge intermetallic compounds at the interface of both solder/Ni systems suppressed the dissolution of Ni into the solder.

  8. Photoluminescence enhancement in few-layer WS2 films via Au nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Yuk Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-composites of two-dimensional atomic layered WS2 and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs have been fabricated by sulfurization of sputtered W films followed by immersing into HAuCl4 aqueous solution. The morphology, structure and AuNPs distribution have been characterized by electron microscopy. The decorated AuNPs can be more densely formed on the edge and defective sites of triangle WS2. We have compared the optical absorption and photoluminescence of bare WS2 and Au-decorated WS2 layers. Enhancement in the photoluminescence is observed in the Au-WS2 nano-composites, attributed to localized surface plasmonic effect. This work provides the possibility to develop photonic application in two-dimensional materials.

  9. Spectroscopically forbidden infra-red emission in Au-vertical graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadasan, A. K.; Parida, Santanu; Ghosh, Subrata; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, Sandip

    2017-11-01

    Implementation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is a subject for frontier plasmonic research due to its fascinating optical properties. Herein, the present study deals with plasmonic assisted emission properties of Au NPs-vertical graphene (VG) hybrid nanostructures. The influence of effective polarizability of Au NPs on the surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence properties is investigated. In addition, a remarkable infra-red emission in the hybrid nanostructures is observed and interpreted on the basis of intra-band transitions in Au NPs. The flake-like nanoporous VG structure is invoked for the generation of additional confined photons to impart additional momentum and a gradient of confined excitation energy towards initiating the intra-band transitions of Au NPs. Integrating Au plasmonic materials in three-dimensional VG nanostructures enhances the light-matter interactions. The present study provides a new adaptable plasmonic assisted pathway for optoelectronic and sensing applications.

  10. Transverse velocity scaling in 197Au+197Au fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasik, J.; Hudan, S.; Lavaud, F.

    2002-07-01

    Invariant transverse-velocity spectra of intermediate-mass fragments were measured with the 4π multi-detector system INDRA for collisions of 197 Au on 197 Au at incident energies between 40 and 150 MeV per nucleon. Their scaling properties as a function of incident energy and atomic number Z are used to distinguish and characterize the emissions in (i) peripheral collisions at the projectile and target rapidities, and in (ii) central and (iii) peripheral collisions near mid-rapidity. The importance of dynamical effects is evident in all three cases and their origin is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt Tonjes, Marguerite; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    The study of flow can provide information on the initial state dynamics and the degree of equilibration attained in heavy-ion collisions. This contribution presents results for both elliptic and directed flow as determined from data recorded by the PHOBOS experiment in Au+Au runs at RHIC at \\sqrt{sNN} = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. The PHOBOS detector provides a unique coverage in pseudorapidity for measuring flow at RHIC. The systematic dependence of flow on pseudorapidity, transverse momentum, centrality and energy is discussed.

  12. Prevalence and trends of cellulosics in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have shown that cellulose derivatives (cellulosics) can provide various benefits when used in virtually all types of dosage forms. Nevertheless, the popularity of their use in approved drug products is rather unknown. This research reports the current prevalence and trends of use for 15 common cellulosics in prescription drug products. The cellulosics were powdered and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hypromellose (HPMC), HPMC phthalate, HPMC acetate succinate, cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate, sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), croscarmellose sodium (XCMCNa), methyl cellulose, and low substituted HPC. The number of brand drug products utilizing each cellulosics was determined using the online drug index Rxlist. A total of 607 brand products were identified having one or more of the cellulosics as an active or inactive ingredient. An array of various dosage forms was identified and revealed HPMC and MCC to be the most utilized cellulosics in all products followed by XCMCNa and HPC. Many products contained two or more cellulosics in the formulation (42% containing two, 23% containing three, and 4% containing 4-5). The largest combination occurrence was HPMC with MCC. The use of certain cellulosics within different dosage form types was found to contain specific trends. All injectables utilized only CMCNa, and the same with all ophthalmic solutions utilizing HPMC, and otic suspensions utilizing HEC. Popularity and trends regarding cellulosics use may occur based on many factors including functionality, safety, availability, stability, and ease of manufacturing.

  13. Development of Au-Ge based candidate alloys as an alternative to high-lead content solders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The changes in microstructure and microhardness associated with the addition of low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au......-Ge-In and Au-Ge-Sn combinations was determined to be the classic solid solution strengthening. The Au-Ge-Sb combination was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The aging temperature had a significant influence on the microhardness in the case of the Au-Ge-Sn candidate alloy...

  14. Application of resistivity measurements to the control of protein elutions using cellulose ion-exchangers; Application de la mesure de resistivite au controle d'une elution de proteines a partir de celluloses echangeuses d'ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplaa, A M; Brandolin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The eluate obtained by chromatography of a mixture of proteins on columns of cellulose ion-exchangers (DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose) sometimes have very low proteins concentrations. The resistivity measurement gives more information than the UV control which is often inadequate. The modifications undergone by elution buffers are recorded and the best conditions for the extraction of an enzymatic protein are determined. The tests are performed without proteins on the columns; they consist in a double control of resistivity and ph of elution buffers after they pass on the exchangers columns. (author) [French] Apres chromatographie d'un melange de proteine; sur colonnes d'echangeurs d'ions tels que DEAE-cellulose et CM-cellulose, les eluats obtenus ont quelquefois des concentrations en proteines tres faibles. Au controle en UV souvent insuffisant, on a ajoute la mesure de resistivite apportant des donnees complementaires. Des essais, realises en l'absence de proteines et consistant a effectuer un double controle de resistivite et de pH des tampons d'elution apres leur passage sur colonnes d'echangeurs, ont permis d'enregistrer les modifications subies par ces tampons et de determiner leurs meilleures conditions d'utilisation pour l'extraction d'une proteine enzymatique. (auteur)

  15. Micropellets coated with Kollicoat® Smartseal 30D for taste masking in liquid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashevskiy, Andriy; Mohylyuk, Valentyn; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Guth, Felicitas; Bodmeier, Roland

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop delivery systems for taste masking based on multiparticulates coated with Kollicoat ® Smartseal 30D formulated as liquid oral suspensions. Coating of particles containing bitter drugs with Kollicoat ® Smartseal reduced drug leaching into aqueous medium, especially when increasing pH, therefore can be used for the formulation of liquid dosage forms. Application of an intermediate layer of ion exchange resins between drug layer and coating can further decrease drug leaching into aqueous vehicle that is beneficial in terms of taste masking. Using optimized compositions of liquid vehicles such as addition of sugar alcohols and ion exchange resin, reconstitutable or ready-to-use liquid dosage forms with micropellets can be developed with bitter taste protection after redispersion lasting longer than 3 weeks, which exceeds the usual period of application.

  16. [Pharmaceutical counseling of non-conventional dosage forms concerning the health-literacy and the patient adherence in public medication dispensing -Questionnaire surveys in Hungarian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Zelko, R

    Although the non-conventional dosage forms (e.g. modified release per oral systems or transdermal patches) have more significant advantages than other conventional dosage forms, the pa- tients have to apply them correctly in their home medicine using to reach the effective and safe therapy. A guideline of relevant application instructions contribute to development of an effective pharmaceutical counseling in community pharmacies. The counseling and advices can improve the patients' knowledge concerning application rules of different new dosage forms (health- literacy) with patient adherence. Finally it will result more effective and safer therapies. The aim of our Hungarian questionnaire surveys was to explore the patients' drug application habits or application errors and improve special verbal counseling of mentioned non-conventional dosage forms in community pharmacies. Understandable patient information leaflets were developed about application rules and besides the levels of patients' reading comprehension was evaluated in case of the leaflet of medicinal patches. The results show that a properly developed text is useful for the majority of patients but they need the verbal explanation as well, moreover there is a demand for the verbal counseling in community pharmacies. The most common application errors were explored and the most effective instructions or application rules were collected for the pharmacists and patients concerning the modified release tablets or capsules and transdermal patches.

  17. Chiral magnetic effect search in p+Au, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Metastable domains of fluctuating topological charges can change the chirality of quarks and induce local parity violation in quantum chromodynamics. This can lead to observable charge separation along the direction of the strong magnetic field produced by spectator protons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). A major background source for CME measurements using the charge-dependent azimuthal correlator (Δϒ) is the intrinsic particle correlations (such as resonance decays) coupled with the azimuthal elliptical anisotropy (v2). In heavy-ion collisions, the magnetic field direction and event plane angle are correlated, thus the CME and the v2-induced background are entangled. In this report, we present two studies from STAR to shed further lights on the background issue. (1) The Δϒ should be all background in small system p+Au and d+Au collisions, because the event plane angles are dominated by geometry fluctuations uncorrelated to the magnetic field direction. However, significant Δϒ is observed, comparable to the peripheral Au+Au data, suggesting a background dominance in the latter, and likely also in the mid-central Au+Au collisions where the multiplicity and v2 scaled correlator is similar. (2) A new approach is devised to study Δϒ as a function of the particle pair invariant mass (minv) to identify the resonance backgrounds and hence to extract the possible CME signal. Signal is consistent with zero within uncertainties at high minv. Signal at low minv, extracted from a two-component model assuming smooth mass dependence, is consistent with zero within uncertainties.

  18. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...

  19. Level lifetimes of Au52+ in Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Zhu Zhiyan; Jiang Gang; Zhu Zhenghe

    2003-01-01

    Based on the extended relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock theory, the level lifetimes, level widths and wavelengths of Au 52+ have been calculated using the General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The wavelengths obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data available. The relationship between the level lifetimes and the level widths satisfies the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  20. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form drug...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  3. Graphene nanoribbons synthesized from molecular precursor polymerization on Au(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimi, Lorenzo; Ourdjini, Oualid; Della Pia, Ada; Mariani, Carlo; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy); Cavaliere, Emanuele; Gavioli, Luca [i-LAMP & Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica, 25121 Brescia (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    A spectroscopic study of 10,10-dibromo-9,9 bianthracene (DBBA) molecules deposited on the Au(110) surface is presented, by means of ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through a thermally activated procedure, these molecular precursors polymerize and eventually form graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomically controlled shape and width, very important building blocks for several technological applications. The GNRs observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) appear as short segments on top of the gold surface reconstruction, pointing out the delicate balance among surface diffusion and surface corrugation in their synthesis on the Au(110) surface.

  4. Reduced sintering of mass-selected Au clusters on SiO2 by alloying with Ti: an aberration-corrected STEM and computational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Yubiao; Schlexer, Philomena; Sebök, Béla

    2018-01-01

    Au nanoparticles represent the most remarkable example of a size effect in heterogeneous catalysis. However, a major issue hindering the use of Au nanoparticles in technological applications is their rapid sintering. We explore the potential of stabilizing Au nanoclusters on SiO2 by alloying them...... in the Au/Ti clusters, but in line with the model computational investigation, Au atoms were still present on the surface. Thus size-selected, deposited nanoalloy Au/Ti clusters appear to be promising candidates for sustainable gold-based nanocatalysis....

  5. Application of Alkaline Waterflooding to a High Acidity Crude Oil Application de l'injection d'eau alcaline au cas d'un pétrole brut à forte acidité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Waly A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to study the enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude by alkaline solutions. Different properties of South Geisum crude oil, namely acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, and temperature viscosity on recovery. South Geisum crude oil is a highly acidic crude (4. 38 mg KOH/g. It was found that the interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until it reaches a minimum, after which it increases again with a further increase in alkaline concentration. Interfacial tension between crude oil and displacement water also decreases with increasing alkaline concentration. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. Displacement floods showed that, at the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until it reaches a maximum at 4 % by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. It was found also that oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until it reaches a maximum at 15 % PV, after which increasing slug size results in decreasing oil recovery (this result has not as yet been reported in the literature. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55°C and decreasing oil viscosity. Cet article traite de la récupération, au moyen de solutions alcalines, d'un pétrole brut à forte acidité (brut de Geisum-Sud. Différentes propri

  6. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Efficiency of individual dosage of digoxin with calculated concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao L

    2014-07-01

    digoxin and creatinine clearance, our results show that although there was a significant correlation between clearance of digoxin and creatinine clearance in the group overall, correlations were not evident within the different stages of renal function.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that clearance of digoxin and the creatinine clearance rate cannot be explained by renal function alone and that the validity of the Konishi equation for individualizing the digoxin dosage in Chinese patients is limited, being applicable only in stage 3 renal disease. Further research in larger numbers of patients across all stages of renal function will be required in the future to verify the original Konishi model. Keywords: serum digoxin concentration, predicted concentration, renal insufficiency

  8. Some applications of neutron activation analysis in plant biology and agronomy; Quelques applications de l'analyse par radioactivation neutronique en biologie vegetale et en agronomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourcy, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    Plants materials are not so commonly analysed by radioactivation than biological extracts of medical importance. With help of concrete examples, applications of neutrons activation analysis to the determination of some metals (Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Zn, and K) in plant materials, are proposed. Samples are activated in a swimming-pool reactor at the thermal flux of 5.10{sup 12} n.cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} for a time varying between few minutes and several days according to the element being analysed. The induced radioactivity is measured by spectrometry, with radiochemical separation ( Cu, Co, Fe, Zn and K) or without separation in best cases (Mn,Cu, K). Described dosages are related to: manganese in a graminaceous plant, copper in vine treatments, cobalt, iron and zinc in animal feeding, potassium in a radiological experiment. (author) [French] Les produits vegetaux sont beaucoup moins souvent soumis a l'analyse par activation que les extraits biologiques d'interet medical. En s'appuyant sur des cas concrets, nous proposons des applications de l'analyse par activation neutronique au dosage de differents metaux (Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Zn, et K) dans la matiere vegetale. Les echantillons sont actives en pile piscine au flux thermique de 5.10{sup 12} n.cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} pendant des temps variant de quelques minutes a plusieurs jours selon les elements a analyser. le comptage de la radioactivite induite est effectue par spectrometrie gamma apres separation radiochimique (Cu, Co, Fe, Zn, et K) ou sans separation dans les cas favorables (Mn, Cu, K). Les dosages decrits concernent: le manganese dans une graminee, le cuivre en viticulture, le cobalt, le fer, et le zinc dans un aliment du betail, le potassium dans une experience de radioecologie. (auteur)

  9. Au-Ge based Candidate Alloys for High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure and microhard......Au-Ge based candidate alloys have been proposed as an alternative to high-lead content solders that are currently being used for high-temperature applications. The influence of the low melting point metals namely In, Sb and Sn to the Au-Ge eutectic with respect to the microstructure...... was primarily strengthened by the refined (Ge) dispersed phase. The distribution of phases played a relatively more crucial role in determining the ductility of the bulk solder alloy. In the present work it was found that among the low melting point metals, the addition of Sb to the Au-Ge eutectic would...

  10. La course au logement social

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Ce billet a été publié dans le cadre de l'opération Têtes Chercheuses, qui permet à des étudiants ou chercheurs de grandes écoles, d'universités ou de centres de recherche partenaires de promouvoir des projets innovants en les rendant accessibles, et ainsi participer au débat public.

  11. Contribution to the study and to the development of continuous infrared absorption analyzers; Contribution a l'etude et a la mise au point des analyseurs en continu par absorption infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    The continuous infra-red absorption determination of corrosive gases implies the construction of an original single-beam spectrometer. The use of a vibration-rotation line means that the apparatus function has to undergo an alternating displacement: for one position this function is centered on the line, for other position it is placed close by, but away from any absorption. A non-linear relationship is derived between the concentration of the impurity under consideration, the optical density measured at the centre of the line and the total pressure of the gas mixture. The problem is then solved using an associated specific analog computer. The system is applicable to the determination of low concentrations. The principle proposed in then adapted to an analysis using a non-resolved vibration-rotation band. (authors) [French] Le dosage en continu par absorption infrarouge des gaz corrosifs, implique la construction d'un spectrometre original en simple faisceau. L'utilisation d'une raie de vibration - rotation, conduit a effectuer un deplacement alternatif de la fonction d'appareil: pour une position, celle-ci est centree sur la raie, pour l'autre position elle est placee a proximite mais en dehors de toute absorption. On etablit une relation non lineaire entre la concentration de l'impurete consideree, la densite optique mesuree au centre de la raie et la pression totale du melange gazeux. Le probleme est alors resolu par un calculateur analogique specifique associe. Le systeme s'applique au dosage des faibles concentrations. Le principe propose est ensuite adapte a l'analyse a partir d'une bande de vibration - rotation non resolue. (auteurs)

  12. Mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of mammalian and avian dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Julien

    Full Text Available As a result of sex chromosome differentiation from ancestral autosomes, male mammalian cells only contain one X chromosome. It has long been hypothesized that X-linked gene expression levels have become doubled in males to restore the original transcriptional output, and that the resulting X overexpression in females then drove the evolution of X inactivation (XCI. However, this model has never been directly tested and patterns and mechanisms of dosage compensation across different mammals and birds generally remain little understood. Here we trace the evolution of dosage compensation using extensive transcriptome data from males and females representing all major mammalian lineages and birds. Our analyses suggest that the X has become globally upregulated in marsupials, whereas we do not detect a global upregulation of this chromosome in placental mammals. However, we find that a subset of autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X expression levels between the sexes observed for both of these lineages. In the egg-laying monotremes and birds, which have partially homologous sex chromosome systems, partial upregulation of the X (Z in birds evolved but is largely restricted to the heterogametic sex, which provides an explanation for the partially sex-biased X (Z expression and lack of global inactivation mechanisms in these lineages. Our findings suggest that dosage reductions imposed by sex chromosome differentiation events in amniotes were resolved in strikingly different ways.

  13. A Novel Disintegration Tester for Solid Dosage Forms Enabling Adjustable Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Rach, Regine; Nawroth, Thomas; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A modified in vitro disintegration test device was designed that enables the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration of solid oral dosage forms. The device represents an improved derivative of the compendial PhEur/USP disintegration test device. By the application of a computerized numerical control, a variety of physiologically relevant moving velocities and profiles can be applied. With the help of computational fluid dynamics, the hydrodynamic and mechanical forces present in the probe chamber were characterized for a variety of device moving speeds. Furthermore, a proof of concept study aimed at the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration times of immediate release tablets. The experiments demonstrated the relevance of hydrodynamics for tablet disintegration, especially in media simulating the fasted state. Disintegration times increased with decreasing moving velocity. A correlation between experimentally determined disintegration times and computational fluid dynamics predicted shear stress on tablet surface was established. In conclusion, the modified disintegration test device is a valuable tool for biorelevant in vitro disintegration testing of solid oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced catalyst activity by decorating of Au on Ag@Cu2O nanoshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Maomao; Zhao, Yue; Kou, Qiangwei; Wang, Yaxin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Jinghai; Jung, Young Mee

    2018-03-01

    We successfully synthesized Au-decorated Ag@Cu2O heterostructures via a simple galvanic replacement method. As the Au precursor concentration increased, the density of the Au nanoparticles (NPs) on the Ag@Cu2O surface increased, which changed the catalytic activity of the Ag@Cu2O-Au structure. The combination of Au, Ag, and Cu2O exhibited excellent catalytic properties, which can further effect on the catalyst activity of the Ag@Cu2O-Au structure. In addition, the proposed Ag@Cu2O-Au nanocomposite was used to transform the organic, toxic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), into its nontoxic and medicinally important amino derivative via a catalytic reduction to optimize the material performance. The proposed Au-decorated Ag@Cu2O exhibited excellent catalytic activity, and the catalytic reduction time greatly decreased (5 min). Thus, three novel properties of Ag@Cu2O-Au, i.e., charge redistribution and transfer, adsorption, and catalytic reduction of organic pollutants, were ascertained for water remediation. The proposed catalytic properties have potential applications for photocatalysis and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)- and peroxidase-like catalysis.

  15. Towards a laser fluence dependent nanostructuring of thin Au films on Si by nanosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, F.; Pugliara, A.; Carria, E.; Romano, L.; Bongiorno, C.; Fisicaro, G.; La Magna, A.; Spinella, C.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au nanoclusters are produced by nanosecond laser irradiations of thin Au film on Si. ► The shape, size, and surface density of the Au nanoclusters are tunable by laser fluence. ► The formation dynamic of the Au nanoclusters under nanosecond laser irradiation is analyzed. - Abstract: In this work, we study the nanostructuring effects of nanosecond laser irradiations on 5 nm thick Au film sputter-deposited on Si. After deposition of Au on Si substrate, nanosecond laser irradiations were performed increasing the laser fluence from 750 to 1500 mJ/cm 2 . Several analyses techniques, such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were crossed to study the morphological evolution of the Au film as a function of laser fluence. In particular, the formation of Au nanoparticles was observed. The analyses allowed a quantitative evaluation of the evolution of the nanoparticles size, surface density, and shape as a function of the laser fluence. Therefore, a control the structural properties of the Au nanoparticles is reached, for example, for applications in Si nanowires growth or plasmonics.

  16. Dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenborn, H.A.; Klose, K.J.; Dexheimer, C.; Steinijans, V.

    1989-01-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be prefered in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes. (orig.) [de

  17. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  18. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of {sup 196,198}Au production yields by {sup 197}Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah, E-mail: abkhorshidi@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 196,198}Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. {sup 197}Au nano-solution, including 20 nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E + 13 n/cm{sup 2}/s for {sup 196,198}Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30 MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF{sub 2} reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in {sup 197}Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25 cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method. - Graphical abstract: This figure describes gold nanoparticles production via cyclotron based method. The aim of investigating is to estimate activity and saturation yield of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au and {sup 197}Au(n,2n){sup 196}Au reactions using Karaj cyclotron available in Iran. The feasibility of a cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes was investigated for therapeutic applications via a new neutron activator design. - Highlights: • Nano-gold radioisotope production

  19. Biological synthesis of Au nanoparticles using liquefied mash of cassava starch and their functionalization for enhanced hydrolysis of xylan by recombinant xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sumei; Du, Liangwei; Huang, Meiying; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-05-01

    Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown the potential for a variety of applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In this study, a facile and affordable method for the synthesis of AuNPs via the liquefied mash of cassava starch has been described and the functionalized AuNPs by L-cysteine improved activity of recombinant xylanase was demonstrated. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurements were performed to characterize the AuNPs and monitor their synthesis. The presence of Au was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that Au nanocrystals were face-centered cubic. The C=O stretching vibration in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum of AuNPs suggested that the hemiacetal C-OH of sugar molecules performed the reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰. The presence of C and O in the EDX spectrum and the negative zeta potential of AuNPs suggested that the biomolecules present in liquefied cassava mash were responsible for the stabilization of AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs was easily functionalized by L-cysteine, which improved the stability of AuNPs. Moreover, cysteine-functionalized AuNPs could significantly improve recombinant xylanase efficiency and stability.

  20. Some recent results in Au+Au collisions at AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Many interesting results have been obtained for Au + Au reactions at AGS. The basic information about the reaction dynamics comes from the hadronic distribution. and this article reviews the recent progress of these distributions in details. The proton rapidity distribution shows significantly increased stopping compared to lighter systems, implying the formation of a state of high baryon density. Unlike reactions at this energy induced by lighter heavy ions, at low m t - m 0 the proton invariant spectra deviate from a single exponential shape and become fear,. while pion spectra are found to rise in this region, with the π - spectra rising faster than the π + spectra. The inverse slope parameter increases faster for particles of larger mass as the number of participants in the reaction increases, an indication of increased effect of radial expansion in central collision. Anti-proton Needs have been measured recently, and unfortunately a comparison among current results from different experiments indicates discrepancy

  1. Gamma ray dosage and mutation breeding in St. Augustinegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busey, P.

    1980-01-01

    Stolon pieces of St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] were irradiated with gamma rays in an attempt to cause mutations. A practical dosage for most genotypes was 4,500 rads. This dosage caused considerable (50%) growth retardation and a mean survival of about 40% of single-node cuttings. However, Bitterblue and another accession were entirely killed at 4,000 rads. At 4,500 rads, up to 7% recognizable mutants of accession FA-243 were obtained. This proportion resulted when irradiated cuttings were propagated clonally and observed for 1.5 years in replicated microplots. In addition to morphological variants, a chimeral anthocyanin change was noticed. From this chimera arose a stable genotype with green stolons and white stigmas, whereas the source genotype (FA-243) had red stolons and purple stigmas. Associated reduction in fertility from 56 to 0.6% suggested that the mutation arose as a small chromosome deletion. Mutation breeding is effective in improving St. Augustinegrass when easily recognizable variants are needed

  2. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2013-02-01

    Literature data pertaining to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Because of lack of conclusive data about efavirenz's permeability and its failure to comply with the "high solubility" criteria according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), the API can be classified as BCS Class II/IV. In line with the solubility characteristics, the innovator product does not meet the dissolution criteria for a "rapidly dissolving product." Furthermore, product variations containing commonly used excipients or in the manufacturing process have been reported to impact the rate and extent of efavirenz absorption. Despite its wide therapeutic index, subtherapeutic levels of efavirenz can lead to treatment failure and also facilitate the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants. For all these reasons, a biowaiver for IR solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the sole API is not scientifically justified for reformulated or multisource drug products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Maintenance and Loss of Duplicated Genes by Dosage Subfunctionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have contributed to gene-repertoire enrichment in many eukaryotic lineages. However, most duplicated genes are eventually lost and it is still unclear why some duplicated genes are evolutionary successful whereas others quickly turn to pseudogenes. Here, we show that dosage constraints are major factors opposing post-WGD gene loss in several Paramecium species that share a common ancestral WGD. We propose a model where a majority of WGD-derived duplicates preserve their ancestral function and are retained to produce enough of the proteins performing this same ancestral function. Under this model, the expression level of individual duplicated genes can evolve neutrally as long as they maintain a roughly constant summed expression, and this allows random genetic drift toward uneven contributions of the two copies to total expression. Our analysis suggests that once a high level of imbalance is reached, which can require substantial lengths of time, the copy with the lowest expression level contributes a small enough fraction of the total expression that selection no longer opposes its loss. Extension of our analysis to yeast species sharing a common ancestral WGD yields similar results, suggesting that duplicated-gene retention for dosage constraints followed by divergence in expression level and eventual deterministic gene loss might be a universal feature of post-WGD evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET: A Patient Friendly Dosage Form (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rameesa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to superdisintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper per oral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method is the direct compression method. Other special methods are Freeze Drying,Tablet Molding, Sublimation, Spray Drying, Mass extrusion, Phase transition process, etc. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test and dissolution test.

  5. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  6. Nuclear spin of 185Au and hyperfine structure of 188Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, C.; Ingelman, S.; Wannberg, G.

    1977-03-01

    The nuclear spin of 185 Au, I = 5/2, and the hyperfine separation of 188 Au, Δγ = +- 2992(30) MHz, have been measured with the atomic-beam magnetic resonance method. The spin of 185 Au indicates a deformed nuclear shape in the ground state. The small magnetic moment of 188 Au is close in value to those of the heavier I = 1 gold isotopes 190 192 194 Au, being located in a typical transition region. (Auth.)

  7. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C.

  8. Use of 14 MeV neutrons in activation analysis. Experiments carried out at the Grenoble nuclear research Centre (1963); Utilisation de neutrons de 14 MeV en analyse par activation. Experience realisee au Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Grenoble (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auboin, G; Guazzoni, P; Laverlochere, J [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The use of 14 MeV neutron irradiation makes it possible to extend the field of application of activation analysis to elements which cannot be activated in nuclear reactors (oxygen, boron, for example) or else to consider the possibility of 'portable' measurement units for routine analyses. With this aim, tests have been carried out for studying the sensitivity and interferences in the case of the dosing of oxygen in eleven different matrices using 150 and 300 kV SAMES accelerators producing 14 MeV neutrons by the reaction {sup 3}H (d, n) {sup 4}He. The sensitivity of the dosage methods for six writer elements has also been studied. The results obtained show that, for a neutron flux of 10{sup 10} n/4{pi}, the sensitivities vary from 100 {mu}g and 1 mg for oxygen in nine matrices (Be, Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Fe, Al, Sb, Si) and that it is possible to dose the six elements F, B, Y, Si, N, Al with sensitivities of between 1 an 1000 micrograms. (authors) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par activation a des elements non activables en reacteur nucleaire (oxygene, bore, par exemple) ou encore d'envisager des unites de dosage ''portables'' pour des analyses de routine. Dans ce but, des essais ont ete effectues pour etudier les sensibilites et les interferences dans le cas du dosage de l'oxygene dans onze matrices differentes, au moyen d'accelerateurs SAMES 150 et 300 kV. produisant les neutrons de 14 MeV par la reaction {sup 3}H (d, n) {sup 4}He. Des sensibilites de dosage ont egalement ete etudiees pour six autres elements. Les resultats obtenus montrent que, pour un flux de neutrons de 10{sup 10} n /4{pi}, les sensibilites varient entre 100 {mu}g et 1 mg, pour l'oxygene dans neuf matrices (Be, Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Fe, Al, Sb, Si) et qu'il est possible de doser les six elements F, B, Y, Si, N, Al avec des sensibilites se situant entre 1 et 1000 microgrammes. (auteurs)

  9. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don, E-mail: donkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT}). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm) was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10{sup −4} A/V and 3.1 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10{sup 4}. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g{sub m}) and carrier mobility (μ{sub h}).

  10. Serologic response of roosters to gradient dosage levels of a commercially available live F strain-derived Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray application is a commonly used time- and labor-efficient means to deliver live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine to laying hens in commercial production facilities. The dosage of vaccine received by spray vaccinated birds can vary due to variation in the spray plume and vaccine suspension...

  11. Theoretical prediction of thermodynamic activities of liquid Au-Sn-X (X=Bi, Sb, Zn) solder systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Oshakuade, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2017-02-15

    Molecular interaction volume model has been theoretically used to predict the thermodynamic activities of tin in Au-Sn-Bi and Au-Sn-Sb and the thermodynamic activity of zinc in Au-Sn-Zn at experimental temperatures 800 K, 873 K and 973 K, respectively. On the premise of agreement between the predicted and experimental values, we predicted the activities of the remaining two components in each of the three systems. This prediction was extended from three cross-sections to five cross-sections, and to temperature range 400–600 K, relevant for applications. Iso-activities were plotted. Results show that addition of tin reduces the tendency for chemical short range order in both Au-Sb and Au-Zn systems, while addition of gold and bismuth, respectively, reduce the tendency for chemical short range order in Sn-Sb and Au-Sn systems. Also, we found that, in the desired high-temperature region for applications, while a combination of chemical order and miscibility of components exist in both Au-Sn-Bi and Au-Sn-Zn systems, only chemical order exist in the Au-Sn-Sb system. Results, further show that increase in temperature reduces the phase separation tendency in Au-Sn-Bi system.

  12. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12 μm{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  13. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  14. Controlling the fluoride dosage in a patient with compromised salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Frederick C; Eidelman, Naomi; Carey, Clifton M

    2005-01-01

    High-concentration topical fluorides are used commonly to with compromised salivary function due to irradiation and chemotherapy. The authors describe a 50-year-old man with previously treated cancer who was using tray-applied topical fluoride gel. He complained of gastric symptoms, difficulty in swallowing, leg muscle soreness and knee joint soreness. A computed tomographic scan revealed thickening of the esophageal walls. An upper endoscopy revealed abnormal motility. The motility test indicated high-amplitude peristalsis and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, and urine testing indicated high levels of systemic fluoride. The patient's fluoride regimen was altered, and within a short period his urinary fluoride levels returned to normal and his symptoms resolved. Clinicians prescribing home-applied high-concentration fluorides need to be cognizant of the symptoms of fluoride toxicity, carefully monitor the patient's compliance with the treatment regimen, and adjust the dosage or mode of application to control the total ingested dose of fluoride.

  15. New generation LDHI with an improved environmental profile[Low dosage hydrate inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Bob; Houston, Christopher; Spratt, Tony

    2005-07-01

    A new generation of low dosage hydrate inhibitors has been developed. These inhibitors are specially designed and synthesized in the laboratory in order to achieve a high level of performance as hydrate inhibitors and to improve their environmental profiles. These new inhibitors have been extensively evaluated in the laboratory using high pressure rocking cells. They function like anti-agglomerants by preventing the formation of large hydrate crystals or agglomerates. The resulting hydrate crystals are extremely tiny and finely dispersed in the hydrocarbon stream. In addition to controlling the hydrate crystal growth, these novel molecules demonstrate the ability to extend the induction time to onset of hydrate formation. When compared to the previous generations, the improved performance as well as the favorable environmental characteristics further expand the window for LDHI applications in the fields. (Author)

  16. Single-crystal Au microflakes modulated by amino acids and their sensing and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Wu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jiyu; Kong, Qingshan; Li, Chaoxu

    2016-04-01

    Single-crystal Au microflakes with the planar area over 10(3)μm(2) (i.e. being accessible to the human eye resolution) were synthesized in an environment-friendly route by directing two-dimensional growth of Au nanocrystals into macroscopic scales with amino acids as both reducing agents and capping agents. Side groups of amino acids were found to be a determinant parameter to tune the dimension and size of Au single crystals. The successful synthesis of Au microflakes provides an unprecedented opportunity to bridge nanotechnology and macroscopic devices, and hereby to start a new scenario of exploring their unique properties and applications in optoelectronic devices and bio-sensing fields across multiple length scales. For example, Au microflakes respond to air humidity upon depositing on films of chitin nanofibrils, and sense various physiological molecules as electrode materials of biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Wine Style and Sugar Addition in liqueur d’expedition (dosage Solutions on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. Treatments were sparkling wine zero dosage (ZD; NV sparkling wine + sugar (BS; unoaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (UC; Pinot noir 2009 sparkling wine + sugar (PN; Niagara produced Brandy + sugar (B and Icewine (IW. The control treatment in the sensory analysis was an oaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (OC because the zero-dosage wine was not suitable for a difference test that compared wines with sugar to one without. Standard wine chemical parameters were analysed before disgorging and after liqueur d’expedition was added and included; pH, titratable acidity (TA g/L, alcohol (v/v %, residual sugar (RS g/L, free and total SO2 and total phenolics (A.U.. Volatile aroma compounds (VOCs analysed by Headspace Solid- Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS included two alcohols, and six ethyl esters. ZD wines had the highest foam height and highest dissolved oxygen level. Sugar affected VOC concentrations in all treatments at five weeks post-disgorging, but by 15 weeks after liqueur d’expedition addition, the wine with added sugar had similar VOC concentrations to the ZD wines. The type of wines used in the dosage solutions had more influence on VOC concentrations than sugar addition.

  18. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Nanofibrous solid dosage form of living bacteria prepared by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of electrospinning for biodrug delivery and to develop an electrospinning-based method to produce vaginal drug delivery systems. Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria were encapsulated into nanofibers of three different polymers (polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone with two different molar masses. Shelf life of the bacteria could be enhanced by the exclusion of water and by preparing a solid dosage form, which is an advantageous and patient-friendly way of administration. The formulations were stored at –20, 7 and 25°C, respectively. Viability testing showed that the nanofibers can provide long term stability for huge amounts of living bacteria if they are kept at (or below 7°C. Furthermore, all kinds of nanowebs prepared in this work dissolved instantly when they got in contact with water, thus the developed biohybrid nanowebs can provide new potential ways for curing bacterial vaginosis.

  20. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  1. Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1, rs7294 (VKORC1, rs1057910 (CYP2C9, rs2108622 (CYP4F2, and rs699664 (GGCX involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969. 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5. Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender, rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.

  2. High stability of the goldalloy fullerenes: A density functional theory investigation of M12@Au20 (M = Na, Al, Ag, Sc, Y, La, Lu, and Au) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meng; Feng Xiao-Juan; Zhao Li-Xia; Zhang Hong-Yu; Luo You-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Discovering highly stable metal fullerenes such as the celebrated C 60 is interesting in cluster science as they have potential applications as building blocks in new nanostructures. We here investigated the structural and electronic properties of the fullerenes M 12 @Au 20 (M = Na, Al, Ag, Sc, Y, La, Lu, and Au), using a first-principles investigation with the density functional theory. It is found that these compound clusters possess a similar cage structure to the icosahedral Au 32 fullerene. La 12 @Au 20 is found to be particularly stable among these clusters. The binding energy of La 12 @Au 20 is 3.43 eV per atom, 1.05 eV larger than that in Au 32 . The highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap of La 12 @Au 20 is only 0.31 eV, suggesting that it should be relatively chemically reactive. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  3. Theoretical study on the photocatalytic properties of graphene oxide with single Au atom adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Lin; Dai, Ying; Wei, Wei; Li, Mengmeng; Jin, Cui; Huang, Baibiao

    2018-03-01

    The photocatalytic properties of graphene oxide (GO) with single Au atom adsorption are studied via the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The present study addresses the origin of enhancement in photocatalytic efficiency of GO derived from single Au atom depositing. Compared with the clean one, the work function of the single Au atom adsorbed GO is lowered due to the charge transfer from Au to GO, indicating enhanced surface activity. The Au atom plays as an electron trapping center and a mediating role in charge transfer from photon excited GO to target species. The photogenerated electron-hole pairs can be separated effectively. For the GO configuration with atomic Au dispersion, there are some states introduced in the band gap, which are predominantly composed of Au 6s states. Through the in-gap state, the photo-generated electron transfer from the valence band of clean GO to the conductive band more easily. In addition, the reduction of the gap in the system is also presented in the current work, which indicates that the single Au atom adsorption improves light absorption for the GO based photocatalyst. These theoretical results are valuable for the future applications of GO materials as photocatalyst for water splitting.

  4. Formation of Au nano-patterns on various substrates using simplified nano-transfer printing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Woo; Yang, Ki-Yeon; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Heon

    2008-06-01

    For future device applications, fabrication of the metal nano-patterns on various substrates, such as Si wafer, non-planar glass lens and flexible plastic films become important. Among various nano-patterning technologies, nano-transfer print method is one of the simplest techniques to fabricate metal nano-patterns. In nano-transfer printing process, thin Au layer is deposited on flexible PDMS mold, containing surface protrusion patterns, and the Au layer is transferred from PDMS mold to various substrates due to the difference of bonding strength of Au layer to PDMS mold and to the substrate. For effective transfer of Au layer, self-assembled monolayer, which has strong bonding to Au, is deposited on the substrate as a glue layer. In this study, complicated SAM layer coating process was replaced to simple UV/ozone treatment, which can activates the surface and form the -OH radicals. Using simple UV/ozone treatments on both Au and substrate, Au nano-pattern can be successfully transferred to as large as 6 in. diameter Si wafer, without SAM coating process. High fidelity transfer of Au nano-patterns to non-planar glass lens and flexible PET film was also demonstrated.

  5. Transport characteristics in Au/pentacene/Au diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiaki; Naka, Akiyoshi; Hiroki, Masanobu; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Someya, Takao; Fujiwara, Akira

    2018-03-01

    We have used scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM) to study the structure of a pentacene thin film grown on a Au layer with and shown that it consists of randomly oriented amorphous pentacene clusters. We have also investigated the transport properties of amorphous pentacene in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diode structure and shown that the current is logarithmically proportional to the square root of the applied voltage, which indicates that transport occurs as the result of hopping between localized sites randomly distributed in space and energy.

  6. Dosage of strontium 90 in human bone ashes; Dosage du strontium 90 sans les cendres d'os humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patti, F; Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The determination of {sup 90}Sr in bones by dosage of its daughter product {sup 90}Y is a 4-step process: 1) elimination of the phosphate ions by precipitation of the Ca and Sr as oxalate in the presence of acid; 2) reduction in the calcium concentration to a suitable level by the addition of a known volume of nitric acid (a single precipitation is sufficient), the precipitation yield of the strontium nitrate is checked by the measurement of the amount of {sup 85}Sr added as tracer; 3) purification by a yttrium hydroxide precipitation; 4) extraction at equilibrium of the {sup 90}Y which is counted to give the concentration. By using 50 gm of ash it is possible to detect about 0.1 pCi of {sup 90}Sr per gram of calcium. The advantages of this technique: -) treatment of a large quantity of bone ash -) the use of a small volume of nitric acid (less than 2 ml/g of ash, and -) the various operations present no difficulty. (authors) [French] Determination du Sr dans les os par dosage de son produit de filiation {sup 90}Y. Principe du dosage: 1 - Eliminer les ions phosphates par precipitation du calcium et du strontium sous forme d'oxalate en milieu acide. 2 - Reduire la concentration en calcium a un niveau convenable par addition d'un volume determine d'acide nitrique (une seule precipitation est necessaire). Le rendement de precipitation du nitrate de strontium est controle par la mesure de {sup 85}Sr ajoute comme traceur. 3 - Purifier par une precipitation d'hydroxyde d'yttrium. 4 - Extraire a l'equilibre l'{sup 90}Y qui eat compte pour determiner le {sup 90}Sr. En traitant 50 g de cendre, il est possible de deceler de l'ordre de 0,1 pCi de {sup 90}Sr par gramme de calcium. Les 3 avantages de cette technique: 1 - traitement d'une quantite importante de cendres d'os, 2 - emploi d'un faible volume d'acide nitrique (moins de 2 ml/g de cendres), et 3 - les diverses operations ne presentent aucune difficulte.

  7. Automatic dosage of hydrogen peroxide in solar photo-Fenton plants: Development of a control strategy for efficiency enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gomez, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Moreno Ubeda, J.C. [Department of Language and Computation, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Alvarez Hervas, J.D. [Department of Language and Computation, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Department of Language and Computation, University of Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Casas Lopez, J.L.; Santos-Juanes Jorda, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Sanchez Perez, J.A., E-mail: jsanchez@ual.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissolved oxygen monitoring is used for automatic dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in photo-Fenton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI with anti-windup minimises H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption was reduced up to 50% with respect to manual addition strategies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage is achieved by PI with anti-windup under disturbances. - Abstract: The solar photo-Fenton process is widely used for the elimination of pollutants in aqueous effluent and, as such, is amply cited in the literature. In this process, hydrogen peroxide represents the highest operational cost. Up until now, manual dosing of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has led to low process performance. Consequently, there is a need to automate the hydrogen peroxide dosage for use in industrial applications. As it has been demonstrated that a relationship exists between dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and hydrogen peroxide consumption, DO can be used as a variable in optimising the hydrogen peroxide dosage. For this purpose, a model was experimentally obtained linking the dynamic behaviour of DO to hydrogen peroxide consumption. Following this, a control system was developed based on this model. This control system - a proportional and integral controller (PI) with an anti-windup mechanism - has been tested experimentally. The assays were carried out in a pilot plant under sunlight conditions and with paracetamol used as the model pollutant. In comparison with non-assisted addition methods (a sole initial or continuous addition), a decrease of 50% in hydrogen peroxide consumption was achieved when the automatic controller was used, driving an economic saving and an improvement in process efficiency.

  8. Malavefes: A computational voice-enabled malaria fuzzy informatics software for correct dosage prescription of anti-malarial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga O. Oluwagbemi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the infectious diseases consistently inherent in many Sub-Sahara African countries. Among the issues of concern are the consequences of wrong diagnosis and dosage administration of anti-malarial drugs on sick patients; these have resulted into various degrees of complications ranging from severe headaches, stomach and body discomfort, blurred vision, dizziness, hallucinations, and in extreme cases, death. Many expert systems have been developed to support different infectious disease diagnoses, but not sure of any yet, that have been specifically designed as a voice-based application to diagnose and translate malaria patients’ symptomatic data for pre-laboratory screening and correct prescription of proper dosage of the appropriate medication. We developed Malavefes, (a malaria voice-enabled computational fuzzy expert system for correct dosage prescription of anti-malarial drugs using Visual Basic.NET., and Java programming languages. Data collation for this research was conducted by survey from existing literature and interview from public health experts. The database for this malaria drug informatics system was implemented using Microsoft Access. The Root Sum Square (RSS was implemented as the inference engine of Malavefes to make inferences from rules, while Centre of Gravity (CoG was implemented as the defuzzification engine. The drug recommendation module was voice-enabled. Additional anti-malaria drug expiration validation software was developed using Java programming language. We conducted a user-evaluation of the performance and user-experience of the Malavefes software. Keywords: Informatics, Bioinformatics, Fuzzy, Anti-malaria, Voice computing, Dosage prescription

  9. TaS2 nanosheet-based room-temperature dosage meter for nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A miniature dosage meter for toxic gas is developed based on TaS2 nanosheets, which is capable of indicating the toxic dosage of trace level NO at room temperature. The TaS2 film-based chemiresistor shows an irreversible current response against the exposure of NO. The unique non-recovery characteristic makes the TaS2 film-based device an ideal indicator of total dosage of chronicle exposure.

  10. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium; Reduction des oxydes d'uranium et de plutonium par l'aluminium application au recyclage du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallay, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [French] Un procede de traitement de l'oxyde de plutonium calcine a haute temperature (1000 deg. C a 2000 deg. C), en vue de la recuperation du metal, consiste a reduire cet oxyde dissous dans un melange de fluorures d'aluminium, de sodium et de calcium, par l'aluminium vers 1180 deg. C. Une premiere partie du rapport presente les resultats des essais de reduction des oxydes d'uranium UO{sub 2} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, en accord avec les resultats du calcul thermodynamique de la reaction d'echange a l'equilibre. Une seconde partie rend compte de l'application de cette methode a l'oxyde de plutonium. L'alliage Pu-Al obtenu (60 pour cent Pu) est ensuite recycle par voie aqueuse. (auteur)

  11. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  12. High-p$_{T}$ Tomography of d+Au and Au+Au at SPS, RHIC, and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vitev, I; Vitev, Ivan; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2002-01-01

    The interplay of nuclear effects on the p_T > 2 GeV inclusive hadron spectra in d+Au and Au+Au reactions at root(s) = 17, 200, 5500 GeV is compared to leading order perturbative QCD calculations for elementary p+p (p-bar+p) collisions. The competition between nuclear shadowing, Cronin effect, and jet energy loss due to medium-induced gluon radiation is predicted to lead to a striking energy dependence of the nuclear suppression/enhancement pattern in A+A reactions. We show that future d+Au data can used to disentangle the initial and final state effects.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of mesoporous Pt-Au binary alloys with tunable compositions for enhancement of electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yusuke; Tonegawa, Akihisa; Komatsu, Masaki; Wang, Hongjing; Wang, Liang; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2012-03-21

    Mesoporous Pt-Au binary alloys were electrochemically synthesized from lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) containing corresponding metal species. Two-dimensional exagonally ordered LLC templates were prepared on conductive substrates from diluted surfactant solutions including water, a nonionic surfactant, ethanol, and metal species by drop-coating. Electrochemical synthesis using such LLC templates enabled the preparation of ordered mesoporous Pt-Au binary alloys without phase segregation. The framework composition in the mesoporous Pt-Au alloy was controlled simply by changing the compositional ratios in the precursor solution. Mesoporous Pt-Au alloys with low Au content exhibited well-ordered 2D hexagonal mesostructures, reflecting those of the original templates. With increasing Au content, however, the mesostructural order gradually decreased, thereby reducing the electrochemically active surface area. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and elemental mapping showed that both Pt and Au were atomically distributed in the frameworks. The electrochemical stability of mesoporous Pt-Au alloys toward methanol oxidation was highly improved relative to that of nonporous Pt and mesoporous Pt films, suggesting that mesoporous Pt-Au alloy films are potentially applicable as electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. Also, mesoporous Pt-Au alloy electrodes showed a highly sensitive amperometric response for glucose molecules, which will be useful in next-generation enzyme-free glucose sensors.

  14. The influence of cyclic deposition and anneal on growth of isolated and well-dispersed Au nanoisland arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin; Li, Hao, E-mail: liha@missouri.edu

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Isolated and well-dispersed Au nanoislands were prepared by cyclical deposition and anneal. • The morphology of Au nanoislands were shown to be influenced by the number of growth cycles. • SERS sensing application was shown to be viable with as-prepared Au nanoislands. - Abstract: Isolated and well-dispersed Au nanoisland arrays were prepared with sputter deposition and post-deposition anneal in a cyclic fashion. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization and associated image analysis in aspects of nanoisland size, coverage, circularity, and density were performed to investigate the influence of cyclic deposition and anneal (DAA) on the morphology of as-prepared Au nanoisland arrays. This study revealed that, given a fixed amount of Au deposition per cycle, increasing the number of DAA cycles drove Au nanoislands’ gradual growth that was interpreted with the increase of their size and coverage and decrease of their density and circularity. In addition, given a fixed amount of total Au deposition, dividing the growth process into more cycles was shown to lower the growth rate of Au nanoislands. Moreover, the as-prepared Au nanoisland arrays were demonstrated to be a viable option as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing platform whose SERS enhancement was found to be highly dependent upon the size of nanoislands.

  15. The influence of cyclic deposition and anneal on growth of isolated and well-dispersed Au nanoisland arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xin; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated and well-dispersed Au nanoislands were prepared by cyclical deposition and anneal. • The morphology of Au nanoislands were shown to be influenced by the number of growth cycles. • SERS sensing application was shown to be viable with as-prepared Au nanoislands. - Abstract: Isolated and well-dispersed Au nanoisland arrays were prepared with sputter deposition and post-deposition anneal in a cyclic fashion. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization and associated image analysis in aspects of nanoisland size, coverage, circularity, and density were performed to investigate the influence of cyclic deposition and anneal (DAA) on the morphology of as-prepared Au nanoisland arrays. This study revealed that, given a fixed amount of Au deposition per cycle, increasing the number of DAA cycles drove Au nanoislands’ gradual growth that was interpreted with the increase of their size and coverage and decrease of their density and circularity. In addition, given a fixed amount of total Au deposition, dividing the growth process into more cycles was shown to lower the growth rate of Au nanoislands. Moreover, the as-prepared Au nanoisland arrays were demonstrated to be a viable option as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing platform whose SERS enhancement was found to be highly dependent upon the size of nanoislands.

  16. Configuration dependent deformation in 183Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.; Mukherjee, G.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime measurements in 183 Au nucleus were carried in order to probe the deformation properties of the band built on the i 3/2 and h 9/2 configurations. The nucleus of 183 Au was populated using a reaction 28 Si( 159 Tb,4n) 183 Au at a beam energy of 140 MeV. Lifetime measurements were carried out using Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) method

  17. A general and high-yield galvanic displacement approach to Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells and enhanced electrocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Shaozhen; Sang, Yan

    2012-07-23

    In this work, we utilize the galvanic displacement synthesis and make it a general and efficient method for the preparation of Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells, which consist of multilayer nanoparticles. The method is generally applicable to the preparation of Au-Au, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt core-shell nanostructures with typical porous shells. Moreover, the Au-Au isomeric core-shell nanostructure is reported for the first time. The lower oxidation states of Au(I), Pd(II), and Pt(II) are supposed to contribute to the formation of porous core-shell nanostructures instead of yolk-shell nanostructures. The electrocatalytic ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of porous Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures are assessed as a typical example for the investigation of the advantages of the obtained core-shell nanostructures. As expected, the Au-Pd core-shell nanostructure indeed exhibits a significantly reduced overpotential (the peak potential is shifted in the positive direction by 44 mV and 32 mV), a much improved CO tolerance (I(f)/I(b) is 3.6 and 1.63 times higher), and an enhanced catalytic stability in comparison with Pd nanoparticles and Pt/C catalysts. Thus, porous Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures may provide many opportunities in the fields of organic catalysis, direct alcohol fuel cells, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and so forth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. An experimental study of the thermal conductivity: application of EST 205 borehole of Meuse/Haute Marne site (ANDRA); Etude experimentale de la conductivite thermique: application au forage EST 205 du site de Meuse/Haute Marne (ANDRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorand, R

    2006-10-15

    The determination of the thermal properties of clayey rocks is fundamental for predicting the behaviour a radioactive waste geological repository, and geothermal and oil reservoirs. The main objectives of this thesis work were to 1) better understand the effects of the parameters controlling the thermal conductivity, 2) study to which extent the laboratory measurements can be extrapolated to the field, and 3) find relationships between the thermal conductivity and other quantities easier to measure on the field, e.g. the P- and S- wave velocities. The study was conducted on 24 cores of marls carbonates and argillites coming from the EST205 borehole of the M/HM site (ANDRA). After a complete characterisation of the samples, their thermal conductivities were measured using a stationary method. The borehole was drilled with a special oil-based mud to avoid damaging the argillites, and many logs were available. Hence, it is ideal to study the properties of clayey rocks and compare them with field data. The results show the major effect of the microstructure (mainly the particles orientation), which causes the important anisotropy of the thermal conductivity in the marls and argillites. For all lithologies, linear relationships between the conductivity and the P- and S- wave velocities were obtained. The application of this experimental law to the sonic log helped building a synthetic log of thermal conductivity. Finally, we developed a heat probe, which allows measurements in function of temperature and saturation. We showed with this method that the thermal conductivity increases quasi-linearly with the saturation in a sandstone and a carbonate samples. (author)

  19. Global dynamics of shaft lines of turbo-machineries coupled to surrounding fluids: application to the case of fluid sheets; Dynamique globale des lignes d'arbres de turbomachines couplees aux fluides environnants: application au cas des lames fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lornage, D.

    2001-12-15

    Shaft lines of turbo-machineries have to stand increasing reliability, efficiency and safety requirements. A precise modeling of the rotating parts with all possible coupling has become necessary. In this context, this work aims to develop a global modeling of rotating wheel/shaft system inside a surrounding fluid in order to foresee its dynamical behaviour. The use and advantage of Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed (arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian - ALE) formulations is recalled first. A bibliographic synthesis of the classical techniques used in structure mechanics and of coupling techniques for rotating machines is presented. The coupling technique retained is presented. It uses fluid and structure models independently developed and validated. The structure domain is discretized by the finite-element method. The fluid domain is discretized by the finite-difference method taking into consideration the hypotheses linked with thin films. A modal base projection combined with a mesh at the fluid-structure interface allows an efficient, adaptable and evolutive coupling. Finally, the method is applied to 3 test-cases. The first two ones comprise a shaft/disc system coupled to a fluid sheet between the disc and the casing and to an hydrodynamic bearing. Both cases allow a first validation of the coupling method. The third case aims to study a structure closer to a real system made of a shaft and a wheel coupled to a fluid sheet between a flange and a casing. These three applications allow to show the trends linked with the fluid effects and the coupling between the flexible sub-parts of the structure. (J.S.)

  20. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  1. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  2. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  3. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  4. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  5. Synthesis of nir-sensitive Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L.; Chow, G.M

    2003-01-15

    Near IR (NIR) sensitive Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids were prepared by mixing HAuCl{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S in aqueous solutions. An anti-tumor drug, cis-platin, was adsorbed onto Au-Au{sub 2}S nanoparticle surface via the 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) layers. The results show that the degree of adsorption of cis-platin onto Au-Au{sub 2}S nanoparticles was controlled by the solution pH value, and the drug release was sensitive to near-infrared irradiation. The cis-platin-loaded Au-Au{sub 2}S nanocolloids can be potentially applied as NIR activated drug delivery carrier.

  6. Low starting dosage of infliximab with possible escalating dosage in psoriatic arthritis gives the same treatment results as standard dosage of adalimumab or etanercept: results from the nationwide Icelandic ICEBIO registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudbjornsson B

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bjorn Gudbjornsson,1,2 Arni Jon Geirsson,3,4 Niels Steen Krogh5 1Centre for Rheumatology Research, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 3Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 4Laeknasetrid - Medical Clinic, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 5Zitelab Aps, Copenhagen, Denmark Objective: To explore differences in response to a low dosage regimen of infliximab with an escalating dosage in comparison to a standard dosage of etanercept and adalimumab in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. Methods: Biologically naïve PsA patients who were beginning anti-TNF-α therapy were selected from the ICEBIO registry. Demographics and clinical differences were compared in four treatment groups: infliximab <4 mg/kg; infliximab >4 mg/kg; etanercept or adalimumab at baseline and on follow-up (6 and 12 months, last visit. The Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was used for comparison of the groups and the Wilcoxon test to compare the two infliximab dosage regimens. Results: One hundred and eighty-five patients (61% female were identified; 84 patients received infliximab, 66 etanercept, and 35 adalimumab. A total of 19% of the patients treated with infliximab escalated their dosage ≥4 mg/kg. No significant differences were observed at baseline in respect to visual analog scale (VAS pain, VAS fatigue, Health Assessment Questionnaire, C-reactive protein (CRP, numbers of swollen or tender joints, or Disease Activity Score (DAS 28-CRP values. A similar treatment response was observed in all four treatment groups on follow-up. Conclusion: In respect to treatment effects, a low dosage of infliximab with possible escalating dosage is acceptable for the majority of PsA patients who are in need of biological treatment. Keywords: psoriatic arthritis, outcome, biological treatment, routine care, clinical nationwide registry

  7. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir andAu-Ir-Rh nanoalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Yury; Plyusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6] х [Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals ‘mixed’ at the atomic level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5 ± 3 nm. Еnergy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In situ high-temperature synchrotron XRD (HTXRD) was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the ‘conversion chemistry’ mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 °C for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  8. Thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105: Synthesis, characterization and application in MR imaging of tumor angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Song; Gong, Mingfu; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Hua [Department of Radiology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Gao, Fabao [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zou, Liguang, E-mail: zlgxqyy@163.com [Department of Radiology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To detect tumor angiogenesis in tumor-bearing mice using thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105 on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Au nanoparticles (hybrids) were prepared by reducing Au{sup 3+} on the surface of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. Hybrids were stabilized with thiol-PEG-carboxyl via the Au–S covalent bond, and further conjugated with anti-CD105 antibodies through amide linkages. Characteristics of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles were evaluated. Using these nanoparticles, the labeling specificity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated in vitro. MRI T2*-weighted images were obtained at different time points after intravenous administration of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles in the tumor-bearing mice. After MR imaging, the breast cancer xenografts were immediately resected for immunohistochemistry staining and Prussian blue staining to measure the tumor microvessel density (MVD) and evaluate the labeling of blood microvessels by the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles in vivo. Results: The mean diameter of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was 56.6 ± 8.0 nm, as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immune activity of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was 53% of that of the anti-CD105 antibody, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specific binding of HUVECs with the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was proved by immunostaining and Prussian blue staining in vitro. For breast cancer xenografts, the combination of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles with blood microvessels was detectable by MRI after 60 min administration of the contrast agent. The T2* relative signal intensity (SI{sub R}) was positively correlated with the tumor MVD (R{sup 2} = 0.8972). Conclusion: Anti-CD105 antibody-coupled, thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized core–shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Au nanoparticles can efficiently target CD105 expressed

  9. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide; Dosage de traces de bore dans le graphite, l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursier, J [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Hure, J; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [French] Le probleme du dosage du bore dans les materiaux servant a la construction de reacteurs nucleaires se pose de la facon suivante: determiner a environ 0,1 ppm pres des quantites de bore de l'ordre de quelques dixiemes de ppm. Nous avons choisit la colorimetrie a la curcumine comme methode de dosage. Pour atteindre les teneurs indiquees, il est necessaire d'effectuer une separation prealable du bore et des materiaux de base, soit par extraction du fluoborate de tetraphenylarsonium dans le cas du dosage de bore dans l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium, soit par l'utilisation d'une resine echangeuse de cations dans le cas du graphite. (M.B.)

  10. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohin, Igor E; Kulinich, Julia I; Ramenskaya, Galina V; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Groot, D W; Barends, Dirk M; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-02-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing piroxicam in the free acid form are reviewed. Piroxicam solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA), and corresponding dissolution data are taken into consideration. The available data suggest that according to the current biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and all current guidances, piroxicam would be assigned to BCS Class II. The extent of piroxicam absorption seems not to depend on manufacturing conditions or excipients, so the risk of bioinequivalence in terms of area under the curve (AUC) is very low, but the rate of absorption (i.e., BE in terms of Cmax ) can be affected by the formulation. Current in vitro dissolution methods may not always reflect differences in terms of Cmax for BCS Class II weak acids; however, minor differences in absorption rate of piroxicam would not subject the patient to unacceptable risks: as piroxicam products may be taken before or after meals, the rate of absorption cannot be considered crucial to drug action. Therefore, a biowaiver for IR piroxicam solid oral dosage form is considered feasible, provided that (a) the test product contains only excipients, which are also present in IR solid oral drug products containing piroxicam, which have been approved in ICH or associated countries, for instance, those presented in Table 3 of this paper; (b) both the test and comparator drug products dissolve 85% in 30 min or less at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8; and (c) the test product and comparator show dissolution profile similarity in pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. When not all of these conditions can be fulfilled, BE of the products should be established in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the

  11. Split resonance modes of a AuBRC plasmonic nanosystem caused by the coupling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yuan; Kan, Caixia; Xu, Haiying; Wang, Changshun

    2016-01-01

    A plasmonic nanosystem can give rise to particular optical responses due to a coupling effect. In this work, we investigate the optical properties and field distributions of a novel ‘matrioska’ nanocavity structure composed of a Au nanorod (AuNR) within a nanobox (AuNB) via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. This nanocavity can be fabricated by a two-step wet-chemical method. The multiple SPR modes of optical spectrum for nanocavity are caused by the strong interaction between the AuNR-core and AuNB-shell when the incident light is perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of the Au box/rod nanocavity (AuBRC). The SPR modes are known as the dipole–dipole bonding resonance mode in the lower-energy region and the antibonding resonance mode in the higher-energy region. It is proposed that AuBRC can escape the orientation confinement of AuNR because the multiple modes occur and provide a potential application for the enhancement of the photoluminescence signal. Additionally, the SPR modes red-shift with increasing the offset of the AuNR-core, whereas the SPR mode dramatically blue-shifts when the conductive coupling is formed. The intense ‘hot-spot’ could be induced within a small interaction region in the conductive coupled system. The SPR line-shape of high quality would also be promoted. The SPR is highly sensitive to the medium, which is promising in the sensing and detecting devices. (paper)

  12. The Electronic Properties and L3 XANES of Au and Nano-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiu, Y.M.; Zhang, P.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic properties of Au crystal and nano Au have been investigated by theory and experiment. Molecularly capped nano-Au was synthesized using the two-phase method. Au nano-particles have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). They retain the fcc crystal structure. Their sizes have been determined to be in a range from 5.5 nm to 1.7 nm. The L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) of nano-Au and Au foil have been recorded using synchrotron radiation, and examined by theoretical calculation based on the first principles. Both theory and experiment show that the nano-Au particles have essentially all the Au L3 XANES features of bulk Au in the near edge region with less pronounced resonance peaks. It is also shown that nano Au exhibits lower 4f binding energy than bulk Au in good agreement with quantum confined Au systems reported previously.

  13. Development and validation of a dissolution test with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis for rupatadine in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Dalmora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A dissolution test for in vitro evaluation of tablet dosage forms containing 10 mg of rupatadine was developed and validated by RP-LC. A discriminatory dissolution method was established using apparatus paddle at a stirring rate of 50 rpm with 900 mL of deaerated 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. The proposed method was validated yielding acceptable results for the parameters evaluated, and was applied for the quality control analysis of rupatadine tablets, and to evaluate the formulation during an accelerated stability study. Moreover, quantitative analyses were also performed, to compare the applicability of the RP-LC and the LC-MS/MS methods.

  14. Au-Pt-Au nanoraspberry structures used for mercury ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang-Hao; Huang, Shuai; Wen, Xiaoyan; Li, Min; Lu, Haifei

    2017-12-01

    Detection of Hg2+ with high sensitivity is of great significance in the biochemical sensing field. Quantitative of Hg2+ was realized based on the influence of Hg2+ on the UV-vis absorption performance of Au-Pt-Au core-shell nanoraspberry (APA)-rhodamine-6G (R6G) structure. First, APA sol was added into R6G indicator solution and the UV-vis absorption signal intensity of R6G was evidently promoted. The signal intensity monotonously increased as more APA sol was added. However, when HgCl2 solution was introduced, the signal intensity declined. A linear relationship between Hg2+ concentration and signal intensity at 527 nm was revealed, based on which quantitative determination of Hg2+ could be realized. Hg2+ detection sensitivity was measured to be 0.031 a.u./M with a limit of detection of 10-7 M and the response time was 20 s. A high Hg2+ detection selectivity over Cu2+, Na+, Li+, and K+ was demonstrated. Due to its simplicity and high sensitivity, the proposed method could find an extensive application prospect in the Hg2+ detection field.

  15. Dosage-dependent role of Rac1 in podocyte injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoyang; Lee, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Activation of small GTPase Rac1 in podocytes is associated with rodent models of kidney injury and familial nephrotic syndrome. Induced Rac1 activation in podocytes in transgenic mice results in rapid transient proteinuria and foot process effacement, but not glomerular sclerosis. Thus it remains an open question whether abnormal activation of Rac1 in podocytes is sufficient to cause permanent podocyte damage. Using a number of transgenic zebrafish models, we showed that moderate elevation of Rac1 activity in podocytes did not impair the glomerular filtration barrier but aggravated metronidazole-induced podocyte injury, while inhibition of Rac1 activity ameliorated metronidazole-induced podocyte injury. Furthermore, a further increase in Rac1 activity in podocytes was sufficient to cause proteinuria and foot process effacement, which resulted in edema and lethality in juvenile zebrafish. We also found that activation of Rac1 in podocytes significantly downregulated the expression of nephrin and podocin, suggesting an adverse effect of Rac1 on slit diaphragm protein expression. Taken together, our data have demonstrated a causal link between excessive Rac1 activity and podocyte injury in a dosage-dependent manner, and transgenic zebrafish of variable Rac1 activities in podocytes may serve as useful animal models for the study of Rac1-related podocytopathy. PMID:26792065

  16. A step toward development of printable dosage forms for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate printable dosage forms for a poorly soluble drug (piroxicam; PRX) and to gain understanding of critical parameters to be considered during development of such dosage forms. Liquid formulations of PRX were printed on edible paper using piezoelectric inkjet...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable...

  18. Estimated Effect of Epoetin Dosage on Survival among Elderly Hemodialysis Patients in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Thamer, Mae; Cotter, Dennis; Kaufman, James; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The common finding that low achieved hemoglobin in observational studies and high target hemoglobin in randomized trials each were associated with increased mortality and high epoetin dosage has suggested the possibility that high epoetin dosage might explain the increased mortality risk.

  19. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  20. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...

  1. Study of Au+Au relativistic collisions with the Fopi-Phase I detector; Etude des collisions relativistes Au+Au avec le detecteur Fopi-Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupieux, P

    1995-01-01

    Au+Au relativistic collisions, in a 100-1000 MeV energy domain per nucleon, are described. Experiments have been carried out with the SIS accelerator at GSI/Darmstadt. Data are analysed with the FOPI-phase I detector. These data are compared with IQMD model (Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics) Predictions. (S.G). 80 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  3. The shaping and functional consequences of the dosage effect landscape in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Mehmet K; Shah, Parantu K; Wang, Xujun; Minvielle, Stéphane; Magrangeas, Florence; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Munshi, Nikhil C; Li, Cheng

    2013-10-02

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant proliferation of plasma B cells. Based on recurrent aneuploidy such as copy number alterations (CNAs), myeloma is divided into two subtypes with different CNA patterns and patient survival outcomes. How aneuploidy events arise, and whether they contribute to cancer cell evolution are actively studied. The large amount of transcriptomic changes resultant of CNAs (dosage effect) pose big challenges for identifying functional consequences of CNAs in myeloma in terms of specific driver genes and pathways. In this study, we hypothesize that gene-wise dosage effect varies as a result from complex regulatory networks that translate the impact of CNAs to gene expression, and studying this variation can provide insights into functional effects of CNAs. We propose gene-wise dosage effect score and genome-wide karyotype plot as tools to measure and visualize concordant copy number and expression changes across cancer samples. We find that dosage effect in myeloma is widespread yet variable, and it is correlated with gene expression level and CNA frequencies in different chromosomes. Our analysis suggests that despite the enrichment of differentially expressed genes between hyperdiploid MM and non-hyperdiploid MM in the trisomy chromosomes, the chromosomal proportion of dosage sensitive genes is higher in the non-trisomy chromosomes. Dosage-sensitive genes are enriched by genes with protein translation and localization functions, and dosage resistant genes are enriched by apoptosis genes. These results point to future studies on differential dosage sensitivity and resistance of pro- and anti-proliferation pathways and their variation across patients as therapeutic targets and prognosis markers. Our findings support the hypothesis that recurrent CNAs in myeloma are selected by their functional consequences. The novel dosage effect score defined in this work will facilitate integration of copy number and expression data for identifying driver

  4. Estimating the Optimal Dosage of Sodium Valproate in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Lotfi Noghabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a clinical syndrome in which seizures have a tendency to recur. Sodium valproate is the most effective drug in the treatment of all types of generalized seizures. Finding the optimal dosage (the lowest effective dose of sodium valproate is a real challenge to all neurologists. In this study, a new approach based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS was presented for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE (Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy patients. Methods: 40 patients with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy, who were referred to the neurology department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between the years 2006-2011, were included in this study. The function Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS constructs a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS whose membership function parameters are tuned (adjusted using either a back-propagation algorithm alone, or in combination with the least squares type of method (hybrid algorithm. In this study, we used hybrid method for adjusting the parameters. Methods: The R-square of the proposed system was %598 and the Pearson correlation coefficient was significant (P 0.05. Although the accuracy of the model was not high, it wasgood enough to be applied for treating the IGE patients with sodium valproate. Discussion: This paper presented a new application of ANFIS for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE patients. Fuzzy set theory plays an important role in dealing with uncertainty when making decisions in medical applications. Collectively, it seems that ANFIS has a high capacity to be applied in medical sciences, especially neurology.

  5. Quantitative analysis of strontium 90 in the radioactive wastes by means of thenoyltrifluoroacetone; Dosage du strontium 90 dans les effluents radioactifs par le thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testemale, G; Leredde, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    A simple method of analysing the quantity of {sup 90}Sr has been perfected. It consists in a double extraction of it by means of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tributylphosphate in tetrachloride of carbon followed by eliminating yttrium 90 by means of thenoyltrifluoroacetone in the benzene. Numberings on aliquot parts of wastes make the determination of that element possible. The yield is about 97 per cent. (authors) [French] Une technique simple du dosage du {sup 90}Sr a ete mise au point. Elle consiste en une double extraction par le thenoyltrifluoroacetone et le tributylphosphate dans le tetrachlorure de carbone, suivie de l'elimination de l'yttrium 90 par le thenoyltrifluoroacetone dans le benzene, Des comptages sur des parties aliquotes d'effluents permettent la dermination de cet element. Rendement environ 97 pour cent. (auteurs)

  6. Determination of natural uranium in urine ({sup 233}U); Dosage de l'uranium dans l'urine ({sup 233}U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of uranium in urine is described. The residue obtained by mineralization is dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid. Uranium is separated by fixation on a permutit 50 column, elution with 0,2 M oxalic acid and electrodeposition on nickel. Uranium is then measured by {alpha} counting. It is thus possible to detect less than 1 pico-curie of uranium in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage de l'uranium dans l'urine. Apres mineralisation, le residu est dissous dans l'acide chlorhydrique dilue. L'uranium est separe par fixation, sur une colonne de permutite 50, elution au moyen d'acide oxalique 0,2 M et depot electrolytique sur nickel. La mesure faite par comptage {alpha} permet de detecter moins de 1 picocurie d'uranium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  7. Developing an aqueous approach for synthesizing Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars with plasmonic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingshan; Yu, Junjie; Xiong, Yalin; Lin, Zhuoqing; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticles show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which make it attractive in optical, sensing, and biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a general and facile strategy towards aqueous synthesis of Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars by reducing HAuCl4 with ethanolamine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). According to electron microscopic observation and spectral monitoring, we found that the layered epitaxial growth mode (i.e., Frank-van der Merwe mechanism) contributes to the enlargement of the core, while, the random attachment of Au nanoclusters onto the cores accounts for the formation of the branches. Both of them are indispensable for the formation of the nanostars. The LSPR properties of the Au nanoparticles have been well investigated with morphology control via precursor amount and growth temperature. The Au nanostars showed improved surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) performance for rhodamine 6G due to their sharp edges and tips, which were therefore confirmed as good SERS substrate to detect trace amount of molecules.

  8. Theoretical prediction of the noble gas complexes HeAuF and NeAuF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ab initio calculations were carried out to investigate the structures and the stability of the noble gas complexes HeAuF and NeAuF through MP2 and CCSD(T) methods.The HeAuF was predicted to have a linear structure with weak He-Au covalent bonding,the distance of which is closer to the covalent limit in comparison with the corresponding van der Waals limit.The dissociation energy with respect to He + AuF was found to be 24 and 26 kJ·mol-1 at the CCSD(T)/basis set B and B’ levels,respectively.However,similar calculations for NeAuF indicate that NeAuF is not a stable species.

  9. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  10. Determination of Carvedilol Enantiomers in Pharmaceutical Dosages by SBSE-HPLC Based on Diastereomer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraji, Maryam; Talebpour, Zahra; Adib, Nuoshin; Karimi, Shima; Haghighi, Farideh; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive, selective and simple method for the simultaneous determination of carvedilol enantiomers in aqueous solution has been developed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. This method is based on the reaction of carvedilol enantiomers with (-)-menthyl chloroformate (MCF) after extraction by the SBSE method to produce diastereomeric derivatives. The separation was achieved by use of a C18 analytical column and the influence of mobile phase composition on the enantioseparation of carvedilol was studied. The applicability of two sorptive phases, poly(methyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) (PA-EG) and polydimethylsiloxane, were tested for extraction of carvedilol enantiomers from aqueous samples. The obtained results showed excellent linear dynamic ranges and precisions for each of them. The least limit of detection for (S)- and (R)-carvedilol obtained 8 and 11 µg L(-1), respectively, using the PA-EG sorptive phase. Inter- and intra-mean recoveries were also satisfactory, ranging from 98 to 103%, with coefficient of variation in the range of 1-5% at three fortified levels using a PA-EG coated stir bar. The proposed SBSE (PA-EG)-MCF derivatization-HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to enantioselective analysis of carvedilol in water and pharmaceutical dosages, confirming the application of this method. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules

  12. Gd doped Au nanoclusters: Molecular magnets with novel properties

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2014-01-01

    The structural, magnetic, and optical properties of subnanometer Au N and AuN-1Gd1 gas phase clusters (N = 2 to 8) are systematically investigated in the framework of (time-dependent) density functional theory, using the B3LYP hybrid exchange correlation functional. The size dependent evolution of the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, the magnetism, and the absorption spectra are studied. The simultaneous appearance of large magnetic moments, significant band gaps, and plasmon resonances in the visible spectral region leads to novel multi-functional nanomaterials for applications in drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, and photo-responsive agents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical modeling of drug release from lipid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2011-10-10

    Lipid dosage forms provide an interesting potential for controlled drug delivery. In contrast to frequently used poly(ester) based devices for parenteral administration, they do not lead to acidification upon degradation and potential drug inactivation, especially in the case of protein drugs and other acid-labile active agents. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug release from this type of advanced drug delivery systems. Empirical and semi-empirical models are described as well as mechanistic theories, considering diffusional mass transport, potentially limited drug solubility and the leaching of other, water-soluble excipients into the surrounding bulk fluid. Various practical examples are given, including lipid microparticles, beads and implants, which can successfully be used to control the release of an incorporated drug during periods ranging from a few hours up to several years. The great benefit of mechanistic mathematical theories is the possibility to quantitatively predict the effects of different formulation parameters and device dimensions on the resulting drug release kinetics. Thus, in silico simulations can significantly speed up product optimization. This is particularly useful if long release periods (e.g., several months) are targeted, since experimental trial-and-error studies are highly time-consuming in these cases. In the future it would be highly desirable to combine mechanistic theories with the quantitative description of the drug fate in vivo, ideally including the pharmacodynamic efficacy of the treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carboxymethyl starch mucoadhesive microspheres as gastroretentive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Marc; Gosselin, Patrick; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2015-12-30

    Carboxymethyl starch microspheres (CMS-MS) were produced from carboxymethyl starch powder (CMS-P) with a degree of substitution (DS) from 0.1 to 1.5 in order to investigate the influence of DS on physicochemical, drug release and mucoadhesion properties as well as interactions with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) epithelial barrier models. Placebo and furosemide loaded CMS-MS were obtained by emulsion-crosslinking with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). DS had an impact on increasing equilibrium water uptake and modulating drug release properties of the CMS-MS according to the surrounding pH. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of NCI-N87 gastric cell monolayers was not influenced in presence of CMS-MS, whereas that of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers decreased with increasing DS but recovered initial values at about 15h post-treatment. CMS-MS with increasing DS also enhanced furosemide permeability across both NCI-N87 and Caco-2 monolayers at pH gradients from 3.0 to 7.4. Mucoadhesion of CMS-MS on gastric mucosa (acidic condition) increased with the DS up to 55% for a DS of 1.0 but decreased on neutral intestinal mucosa to less than 10% with DS of 0.1. The drug release, permeability enhancement and mucoadhesive properties of the CMS-MS suggest CMS-MS with DS between 0.6 and 1.0 as suitable excipient for gastroretentive oral delivery dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First-principles study of SF_6 decomposed gas adsorbed on Au-decorated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yu, Lei; Gui, Yingang; Hu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We theoretically investigated the decomposed gaseous components of sulfur hexafluoride (SF_6), namely, H_2S, SO_2, SOF_2, and SO_2F_2, adsorbed on pristine and Au-embedded graphene based on DFT-D, in which the van der Waals effect is considered. • H_2S, SO_2, SOF_2, and SO_2F_2 are chemisorption on Au-doped graphene, appreciably stronger than physisorption on pristine graphene in which the van der Waals dominates. • Only H_2S exhibits n-type doping to Au-graphene, whereas the rest gases exhibit p-type doping. The n-type and p-type sensing behaviors that Au-doped graphene displays to different gases play a crucial role in selective sensing application. • Magnetic moments fluctuate substantially in the original Au-graphene when H_2S and SO_2 are adsorbed. While the adsorption effects of SOF_2 and SO_2F_2 generate magnetism quenching. The different changes of magnetic moments in every adsorption system provide another approach to selective detection. • The charge transfer mechanism is deeply discussed in this paper. - Abstract: We theoretically investigated the decomposed gaseous components of sulfur hexafluoride (SF_6), namely, H_2S, SO_2, SOF_2, and SO_2F_2, adsorbed on pristine and Au-embedded graphene based on the revised Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof calculation, which empirically includes a dispersion correction (DFT-D) for van der Waals interaction with standard generalized gradient approximation. Pristine graphene exhibits weak adsorption and absence of charge transfer, which indicates barely satisfactory sensing for decomposed components. The Au atom introduces magnetism to the pristine graphene after metal-embedded decoration as well as enhances conductivity. All four molecules induce certain hybridization between the molecules and Au-graphene, which results in chemical interactions. SOF_2 and SO_2F_2 exhibit a strong chemisorption interaction with Au-graphene, while H_2S and SO_2 exhibit quasi-molecular binding

  16. The Balance of N, P, and Manure Fertilizer Dosage on Growth and Yield of Peanuts in Alfisols Dryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peanuts cultivation in Alfisols dryland limited by low levels of soil fertility. An agricultural intensification that could be done is application of organic and inorganic fertilizer. This research aimed to study the balance of N, P, and manure fertilizer dosage on growth and yield of peanuts in alfisols dryland. The research was done in April 2014 - September 2014 in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar. This research was compiled using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD factorial with three factors, there are dose of urea, SP-36 and cow manure fertilizer. The results showed that the dose combinations of urea, SP-36, and cow manure fertilizer have no interaction affected all of variable plant. The application of 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 fertilizer increased the number of pods and weight of pods, while the weight of 1000 seeds was improved by application of 150 kg ha-1 urea fertilizer.

  17. Facile preparation of surfactant-free Au NPs/RGO/Ni foam for degradation of 4-nitrophenol and detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Guo, X. L.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, L.; Chen, Z. T.; Chen, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2018-06-01

    The application of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) often requires surface modification with chemical surfactants, which dramatically reduce the surface activity and increase the chemical contamination and cost of Au NPs. In this research, we have developed a novel Au NPs/reduced graphene oxide/Ni foam hybrid (Au NPs/RGO/NiF) by in situ reduction through ascorbic acid and replacement reaction. This method is green, facile and efficient. The Au NPs are free of chemical surfactants and are homogeneously distributed on the surface of the RGO/NiF. The as-prepared Au NPs/RGO/NiF hybrid is uniform, stable and exhibits not only a high reduction efficiency for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with a catalytic kinetic constant of up to 0.46 min‑1 (0.15 cm3 catalysis) but also a sensitive and selective detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of ∼1.60 μM.

  18. Drop-on-Demand System for Manufacturing of Melt-based Solid Oral Dosage: Effect of Critical Process Parameters on Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2016-04-01

    The features of a drop-on-demand-based system developed for the manufacture of melt-based pharmaceuticals have been previously reported. In this paper, a supervisory control system, which is designed to ensure reproducible production of high quality of melt-based solid oral dosages, is presented. This control system enables the production of individual dosage forms with the desired critical quality attributes: amount of active ingredient and drug morphology by monitoring and controlling critical process parameters, such as drop size and product and process temperatures. The effects of these process parameters on the final product quality are investigated, and the properties of the produced dosage forms characterized using various techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and dissolution testing. A crystallization temperature control strategy, including controlled temperature cycles, is presented to tailor the crystallization behavior of drug deposits and to achieve consistent drug morphology. This control strategy can be used to achieve the desired bioavailability of the drug by mitigating variations in the dissolution profiles. The supervisor control strategy enables the application of the drop-on-demand system to the production of individualized dosage required for personalized drug regimens.

  19. Dosage sensitivity shapes the evolution of copy-number varied regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schuster-Böckler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dosage sensitivity is an important evolutionary force which impacts on gene dispensability and duplicability. The newly available data on human copy-number variation (CNV allow an analysis of the most recent and ongoing evolution. Provided that heterozygous gene deletions and duplications actually change gene dosage, we expect to observe negative selection against CNVs encompassing dosage sensitive genes. In this study, we make use of several sources of population genetic data to identify selection on structural variations of dosage sensitive genes. We show that CNVs can directly affect expression levels of contained genes. We find that genes encoding members of protein complexes exhibit limited expression variation and overlap significantly with a manually derived set of dosage sensitive genes. We show that complexes and other dosage sensitive genes are underrepresented in CNV regions, with a particular bias against frequent variations and duplications. These results suggest that dosage sensitivity is a significant force of negative selection on regions of copy-number variation.

  20. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Murat, Altynbek

    2014-02-13

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs is due to the Cl atoms adsorbed on the CNTs. We test this hypothesis and show that adsorbed Cl atoms only lead to a p-type character for very specific concentrations and arrangements of the Cl atoms, which furthermore are not the lowest energy configurations. We therefore investigate alternative mechanisms and conclude that the p-type character is due to the adsorption of AuCl4 molecules. The unraveling of the exact nature of the p-doping adsorbates is a key step for further development of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs in water sensor applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Manipulating the optical properties of dual implanted Au and Zn nanoparticles in sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epie, E. N.; Scott, D.; Chu, W. K.

    2017-11-01

    We have synthesized and manipulated the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) by using a combination of low-energy high-fluence dual implantation and thermal annealing. We demonstrated that by implanting Zn before Au, the resulting absorption peak is enormously blue-shifted by 120 nm with respect to that of Au-only implanted samples. This magnitude of optical shift is not characteristic of unalloyed Au and to the best of our knowledge cannot be attributed to NP size change alone. On the other hand, the absorption peak for samples implanted with Au followed by Zn is blue-shifted about 20 nm. Additionally, by carefully annealing all implanted samples, both NP size distribution and corresponding optical properties can be further modified in a controlled manner. We attribute these behaviours to nanoalloy formation. This work provides a direct method for synthesizing and manipulating both the plasmonic and structural properties of metallic alloy NP in various transparent dielectrics for diverse applications.

  2. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-02

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles.

  4. Pavor nocturnus: a complication of single daily tricyclic or neuroleptic dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemenbaum, A

    1976-05-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that a single bedtime dosage schedule of tricyclic or neuroleptic medication produces increased frequency of night terrors by administering a questionnaire to 30 medical patients who were not receiving such medications and 100 psychiatric patients on either multiple- or single-dosage schedules. Psychiatric patients on multiple-dosage schedules reported no more frightening dreams than the medical patients, whereas almost three-fourths of those receiving single bedtime doses had frightening dreams, a significant difference from the medical sample. This preliminary report is presented to call attention to the possible undesirable effects of a single dose schedule.

  5. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...... of the African security regime, the level of which remains mediocre at best....

  6. Influence of dosage form on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Chandrasekar; Kim, Stephen J; Edelhauser, Henry F; Shah, Jaymin C; Kompella, Uday B

    2009-10-01

    To prepare a suspension form of diclofenac and compare the influence of the injected form (suspension versus solution) on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in Dutch belted pigmented rabbits. Diclofenac acid was prepared and characterized in a suspension formulation. Rabbit eyes were injected with either diclofenac sodium solution (0.3 mg) or diclofenac acid suspension (10 mg) prepared in 0.1 mL balanced salt solution. Rabbits were killed at regular time intervals, the eyes enucleated, and drug content quantified in the vitreous humor and retina-choroid tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic models were developed for both the dosage forms, and simulations were performed for different doses. Diclofenac acid with an approximate 5-mum particle size exhibited 3.5-fold lower solubility in vitreous humor, when compared with its sodium salt. The estimated settling velocity of the suspension in the vitreous humor was 3 cm/h. After diclofenac sodium salt solution injection, drug levels declined rapidly with no drug levels detectable after 24 hours in the vitreous humor and 4 hours in the RC. Throughout the assessed time course, drug levels were higher in the vitreous. However, sustained, high drug levels were observed in both the vitreous humor and the retina-choroid even on day 21 after diclofenac acid suspension injection, with retina-choroid drug levels being higher beginning at 0.25 hour. The elimination half-life of diclofenac suspension was 24 and 18 days in vitreous and retina-choroid, respectively, compared to 2.9 and 0.9 hours observed with diclofenac sodium. The pharmacokinetic models developed indicated a slow-release distribution or depot compartment for the diclofenac acid suspension in the posterior segment. Simulations indicated the inability of a 10-mg dose of diclofenac sodium solution to sustain drug levels in the vitreous beyond 11 days. By choosing a less soluble form of a drug such as diclofenac acid, vitreous

  7. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  9. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  10. A further insight into the biosorption mechanism of Au(III by infrared spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhongyu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of microbes with metal ions form an important basis for our study of biotechnological applications. Despite the recent progress in studying some properties of Au(III adsorption and reduction by Bacillus megatherium D01 biomass, there is still a need for additional data on the molecular mechanisms of biosorbents responsible for their interactions with Au(III to have a further insight and to make a better exposition. Results The biosorption mechanism of Au(III onto the resting cell of Bacillus megatherium D01 biomass on a molecular level has been further studied here. The infrared (IR spectroscopy on D01 biomass and that binding Au(III demonstrates that the molecular recognition of and binding to Au(III appear to occur mostly with oxygenous- and nitrogenous-active groups of polysaccharides and proteins in cell wall biopolymers, such as hydroxyl of saccharides, carboxylate anion of amino-acid residues (side-chains of polypeptide backbone, peptide bond (amide I and amide II bands, etc.; and that the active groups must serve as nucleation sites for Au(0 nuclei growth. A further investigation on the interactions of each of the soluble hydrolysates of D01, Bacillus licheniformis R08, Lactobacillus sp. strain A09 and waste Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomasses with Au(III by IR spectrometry clearly reveals an essential biomacromolecule-characteristic that seems the binding of Au(III to the oxygen of the peptide bond has caused a significant, molecular conformation-rearrangement in polypeptide backbones from β-pleated sheet to α-helices and/or β-turns of protein secondary structure; and that this changing appears to be accompanied by the occurrence, in the peptide bond, of much unbound -C=O and H-N- groups, being freed from the inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding of the β-pleated sheet and carried on the helical forms, as well as by the alternation in side chain steric positions of protein primary structure. This might

  11. Application of paper chromatography to the determination of some elements in minerals and rocks; Application de la chromatographie sur papier a la determination de certains elements dans les mineraux et les roches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrinier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-11-01

    This publication describes our work in applying paper chromatography to the fields of mineralogy and geology. We have studied the separation and determination of the following elements: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V and Mo. The development of separation methods for these various elements has led us to solve many interference problems. These methods make it possible to separate and measure mineral components. They also enable us to search for trace elements in ores, rocks soils and carbonaceous materials. Finally let us point out that this technique may equally be used for analysis in very radioactive environment. (author) [French] Dans cette etude, nous etendons le champ d'application de la chromatographie sur papier aux domaines de la mineralogie et de la geologie. Nous avons etudie la separation et la determination des elements suivants: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V et Mo. La mise au point des methodes de separation concernant ces differents elements nous a amenes a resoudre de nombreux problemes d'interference. Ces methodes permettent la separation et le dosage des constituants des mineraux, ainsi que la recherche d'elements en traces dans les minerais, les roches, les sols et les materiaux carbonnes. Signalons pour terminer que cette technique peut egalement trouver son utilisation dans le domaine de l'analyse en milieu tres radio-actif. (auteur)

  12. The Use of Direct Tritium Assay Techniques in Studies with Tritiated Thymidine; Application des Methodes de Dosage Direct du Tritium aux Etudes avec la Thymidine Tritiee; 041f 0440 0438 043c 0435 043d 0435 0414 ; Aplicacion de Tecnicas de Medicion Directa del Tritio a Estudios con Timidina Tritiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Steel, G. [Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, Clifton Avenue, Belmont, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    Results are described of investigations into the catabolism of tritiated thymidine in the rat, during the period of its initial localization in tissues, and into the retention of tritium-labelled cells in intestine and bone marrow up to 16 d after labelling. During the first hour after the injection of tritiated thymidine, whilst the concentration of nonvolatile tritium in most tissues rose to a saturation level, the concentration in liver fell rapidly from an initially high level. Using a device which enabled a sample of tissue water to be extracted from a cold tissue specimen, measurements were made of the specific activity of tritiated water from various organs. By one hour after injection, the tritium concentration was almost constant throughout the body water, but during the period of establishment of this equilibrium, considerable gradients of tissue water specific activity could be detected. In liver, the gradient indicated a flow of tritiated water from the liver into the blood; in spleen, testis and muscle the flow was from the blood into the tissue. Measurements of tritium retention in intestine and bone marrow after giving tritiated thymidine, indicated that in both tissues there was an initial plateau and that the subsequent decay had two prominent exponentials. In bone marrow the observation of a plateau conflicts with other published work; the plateau is not observed in animals which have received protracted irradiation. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit les resultats de recherches sur le catabolisme de la thymidine tritiee dans le rat, au cours de la periode de fixation initiale dans les tissus, et sur la retention de cellules marquees au tritium par l'intestin et la moelle osseuse dans un delai allant jusqu'a 16 jours apres le marquage. Pendant la premiere heure suivant l'injection de thymidine tritiee, alors que la concentration du tritium non volatil dans la plupart des tissus atteignait rapidement un degre de saturation, la concentration dans le

  13. Preparation of hexavalent plutonium and its determination in the presence of tetravalent plutonium; Preparation de plutonium hexavalent et dosage en presence de plutonium tetravalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Corpel, J [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    In order to study the eventual reduction of plutonium from the VI-valent state to the IV-valent state, in sulphuric medium, under the influence of its own {alpha} radiation or of the {gamma}-rays from a cobalt-60 source, we have developed a method for preparing pure hexavalent plutonium and two methods for determining solutions containing tetravalent and hexavalent plutonium simultaneously. Hexavalent plutonium was prepared by anodic oxidation at a platinum electrode. Study of the oxidation yield as a function of various factors has made it possible to define experimental conditions giving complete oxidation. For concentrations in total plutonium greater than 1.5 x 10{sup -3} M, determination of the two valencies IV and VI was carried out by spectrophotometry at two wavelengths. For lower concentrations, the determination was done by counting, after separation of the tetravalent plutonium in the form of fluoride in the presence of a carrier. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'eventuelle reduction du plutonium de l'etat de valence VI a l'etat de valence IV, en milieu sulfurique sous l'influence de son propre rayonnement {alpha} ou des rayons {gamma} d'une source de cobalt-60, nous avons mis au point une methode de preparation de plutonium hexavalent pur et deux methodes de dosage des solutions contenant simultanement du plutonium tetravalent et du plutonium hexavalent. Nous avons prepare le plutonium hexavalent par oxydation anodique au contact d'une electrode de platine. L'etude de rendement de l'oxydation en fonction des divers facteurs nous a permis de definir des conditions experimentales donnant une oxydation complete. Pour des concentrations en plutonium total superieures a 1,5.10{sup -3} M, le dosage des deux valences IV et VI a ete realise par spectrophotometrie a deux longueurs d'onde. Pour des concentrations inferieures, le dosage a ete effectue par comptage apres separation du plutonium tetravalent sous la forme du fluorure en presence d'un entraineur

  14. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys Au x Cu 1-x and Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in Au x Cu 1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in Au x Cu 1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for Au x Cu 1-x clusters of 10 5 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data

  15. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  16. Evaluation of formulas using the serum creatinine level to calculate the optimal dosage of carboplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Warmerdam, L J; Rodenhuis, S; ten Bokkel Huinink, W W; Maes, R A; Beijnen, J H

    1996-01-01

    Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent frequently used in the treatment of various malignancies. An individual dosing strategy has been recommended to yield the most optimal exposure, expressed as the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). The formula developed by Calvert et al. (dose = target-AUC x [GFR + 25]) can be used to achieve this. However, due to the inconvenient [51Cr]-ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid ([51Cr]-EDTA)-based measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), its application in the clinic has thus far been limited. Chatelut and co-workers have recently proposed a formula to estimate carboplatin clearance using the serum creatinine concentration. We retrospectively tested the Chatelut equation and the Calvert formula using either the creatinine clearance based on 24-h urine collection or the creatinine clearance based on the formula of Cockcroft and Gault. The latter equations were shown to predict the carboplatin clearance reasonably well, although systematic overprediction and underprediction occurred. However, the formula proposed by Chatelut and co-workers had no significant bias and was precise. It is proposed that this formula be used to calculate the optimal carboplatin dosage after prospective validation has been performed.

  17. Dietary vitamin E dosage and source affects meat quality parameters in light weight lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Leonel N; Beltrán, José A; Alonso, Verónica; Bello, José M; den Hartog, Leo A; Hendriks, Wouter H; Martín-Tereso, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation is a commonly used approach to delay lipid oxidation and colour deterioration in lamb and beef meat marketed under modified atmosphere packaging. However, these applications lack a precise calibration of dose for the desired effect and, in addition, limited information is available regarding the use of natural vitamin E for this purpose. Three hundred and sixty Rasa Aragonesa lambs were fed diets supplemented with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg -1 compound feed), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg -1 compound feed) and a basal diet without vitamin E supplementation for 14 days before slaughter at 25.8 ± 1.67 kg body weight. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on average daily weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Display time had larger effects on lipid oxidation, colour stability, myoglobin forms and meat discolouration parameters compared to vitamin E supplementation. However, vitamin E source and dosage significantly extended meat shelf-life as indicated by lipid oxidation, redness, hue angle, metmyoglobin formation, deoxymyoglobin formation, A 580-630 and I SO2 . The quantification of these effects demonstrated that the biological activity value of 1.36 used to distinguish both vitamin E sources is not appropriate for meat quality enhancing properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Approaches for Establishing Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Andre; Abend, Andreas M; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Cohen, Michael J; Diaz, Dorys A; Mao, Y; Zhang, Limin; Webster, Gregory K; Lin, Yiqing; Hahn, David A; Coutant, Carrie A; Grady, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript represents the perspective of the Dissolution Analytical Working Group of the IQ Consortium. The intent of this manuscript is to highlight the challenges of, and to provide a recommendation on, the development of clinically relevant dissolution specifications (CRS) for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms. A roadmap toward the development of CRS for IR products containing active ingredients with a non-narrow therapeutic window is discussed, within the context of mechanistic dissolution understanding, supported by in-human pharmacokinetic (PK) data. Two case studies present potential outcomes of following the CRS roadmap and setting dissolution specifications. These cases reveal some benefits and challenges of pursuing CRS with additional PK data, in light of current regulatory positions, including that of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who generally favor this approach, but with the understanding that both industry and regulatory agency perspectives are still evolving in this relatively new field. The CRS roadmap discussed in this manuscript also describes a way to develop clinically relevant dissolution specifications based primarily on dissolution data for batches used in pivotal clinical studies, acknowledging that not all IR product development efforts need to be supported by additional PK studies, albeit with the associated risk of potentially unnecessarily tight manufacturing controls. Recommendations are provided on what stages during the life cycle investment into in vivo studies may be valuable. Finally, the opportunities for CRS within the context of post-approval changes, Modeling and Simulation (M&S), and the application of biowaivers, are briefly discussed.

  19. Comparative efficiencies of photothermal destruction of malignant cells using antibody-coated silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Fong-Yu; Chen, Chen-Tai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng, E-mail: csyeh@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-21

    Three Au-based nanomaterials (silica-Au nanoshells, hollow Au/Ag nanospheres and Au nanorods) were evaluated for their comparative photothermal efficiencies at killing three types of malignant cells (A549 lung cancer cells, HeLa cervix cancer cells and TCC bladder cancer cells) using a CW NIR laser. Photodestructive efficiency was evaluated as a function of the number of nanoparticles required to destroy the cancer cells under 808 nm laser wavelength at fixed laser power. Of the three nanomaterials, silica/Au nanoshells needed the minimum number of particles to produce effective photodestruction, whereas Au nanorods needed the largest number of particles. Together with the calculated photothermal conversion efficiency, the photothermal efficiency rankings are silica-Au nanoshells > hollow Au/Ag nanospheres > Au nanorods. Additionally, we found that HeLa cells seem to present better heat tolerance than the other two cancer cell lines.

  20. Interplanetary shock phenomena beyond 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to spatial dependences exhibited by spacecraft measurements obtained between 1 and 30 AU, together with temporal variations occurring between solar activity cycle maxima and minima. At 1-3 AU radial distances, shocks develop in association with the corotating solar wind streams characterizing solar minimum and accelerate solar wind evolution with distance while heating the solar wind and generating waves and turbulence. At solar maximum, shocks are observed more frequently at 1 AU but still in association with transient solar events; acceleration leading to energetic storm particles is observed both within and beyond 1 AU. The superimposed effect of large numbers of intense shocks may be responsible for the solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. 77 references

  1. Amélioration de la nutrition au Cambodge au moyen de l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Amélioration de la nutrition au Cambodge au moyen de l'aquaculture et des jardins potagers domestiques (FCRSAI). Si l'on produit au Cambodge suffisamment de riz pour nourrir la population, la sous-alimentation maternelle et infantile y demeure quand même élevée en raison de la faible diversification des cultures et du ...

  2. Tissue- and stage-dependent dosage compensation on the Neo-X chromosome in drosophila pseudoobscura

    KAUST Repository

    Nozawa, Masafumi; Fukuda, Nana; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation (DC) is widely accepted in various organisms. This concept is mostly supported by comparisons of gene expression between chromosomes and between sexes. However, genes on the X chromosome and autosomes are mostly

  3. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ANADA 200-318 for [[Page 81807

  4. Meta-analysis : High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, ER; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Dalal, D; Riemersma, RA; Appel, LJ; Guallar, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Experimental models and observational studies suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, several trials of high-dosage vitamin E supplementation showed non-statistically significant increases in total mortality. Purpose: To perform a

  5. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D I R K W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To clarify the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and

  6. Clinical criteria for medical staff exposure and reference dosage within the Galician health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Comesana, J.

    2003-01-01

    The generalised use of ionising radiation tests is making these tests become the prime cause of exposure to artificial radiation, receiving one sixth of the dosage through background radiation. (Author)

  7. Administered activity of Tc-99m MDP for bone scintigraphy, standard or individual dosage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergren, E.; Gretarsdottir, J.; Jacobsson, L.

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aim: Adult patients are generally, irrespective of size, given the same amount of activity for a certain type of nuclear medicine examination, a standard dosage. Identical image quality is essential when comparing different patient studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate different dosage methods for Tc-99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and to investigate whether individual dosage will decrease the variations in image quality between different patients. Material and Methods: 100 consecutive adult patients (aged between 40 and 89 years) undergoing whole body bone scintigraphy were studied. Eight patients were excluded from the study because of abnormal high uptake in the areas of interest. The patient weight and height were registered. The activity in the syringes was measured before and after the injection of about 600 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Scanning was performed, with a dual head gamma camera (Maxxus or Millennium VG, General Electric) equipped with a high-resolution collimator, at approximately 4 hours (mean 3.8 h) post-injection. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn over the lumbar spine (posterior view), the right femur (anterior view) and also soft tissue background regions for each area. The total counts, maximum counts/pixel and number of pixels in the ROIs were registered. The maximum number of counts/pixel (background-subtracted), SPINEmax and FEMURmax were chosen as the image quality parameters. For each patient, SPINEmax and FEMURmax where recalculated to the number that would have been obtained with standard dosage (exactly 600 MBq), and dosage proportional to body weight, body surface area and body height. All values were corrected to a scanning time 3.8 h after injection. Results: Both with a standard activity dosage and a dosage proportional to body height, SPINEmax decreases with increasing body weight. Dosage proportional to body weight gives increasing values of SPINEmax with increasing body weight. Dosage proportional to body surface area

  8. Exploration d’un système interfacique et de ses dynamiques : application au tourisme de réunions et de congrès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofle S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme de réunions et de congrès fait se rassembler en un lieu nodal, durant au moins deux jours, des personnes issues d’horizons géographiques variés mais aux intérêts communs. Le système interfacique congressuel se structure autour de la réunion, interface immatérielle, qui prend place dans le palais des congrès, interface matérielle, et met en contact différents acteurs : congressistes, organisateurs, prestataires de services, collectivités territoriales. Ce système ouvert, localisé, s’articule autour de trois grands types d’interfaces, intra-réticulaires, inter-réseaux et réseaux-territoires dans le cadre de stratégies économiques, de destination et de développement territorial. Quatre grands effets sont induits : la diffusion et l’appropriation d’une information neuve, l’accélération de l’innovation et de l’expérimentation, la création d‘une expérience communautaire, le développement de la valeur.

  9. Stability and enzyme inhibition activities of au nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of clove as a reducing and stabilizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Khan, I.; Naz, S.S.; Islam, N.U.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in one pot using aqueous extract of clove buds (CB) to reduce HAuCl/sub 4/ and stabilize gold in its atomic form at room temperature. To determine the potential of gold nanoparticles with clove buds (AuCB) for in vivo applications, the stability of the nanoparticles was explored as a function of temperature, pH and salt concentration. The suspensions were found to be stable for salt concentrations up to 1 mol/L, temperatures of up to 100 degree C and a pH range of 2-13. Our results indicate that CB exhibited comparable activities to standards of urease and carbonic anhydrase, but its conjugation to Au knocks out the enzyme inhibition activity by about two times. In case of xanthine oxidase activity, CB and its gold Au bio-conjugates (AuCB) are found to be absolutely inactive. (author)

  10. Tuning the nonlinear optical absorption in Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposites with gold nanoparticle concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeesh, M. M.; Shakhi, P. K.; Varier, Geetha K.; Nandakumar, P.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films and its dependence on gold nanoparticle concentration. Au/BaTiO3 nanocomposite films with different molar ratio of Au/Ba are prepared by sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV Visible absorption spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. An open aperture Z-scan technique is employed to study the third order nonlinear optical properties of Au/BaTiO3 thin films. An Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm wavelength having a pulse width of 5 ns is used for the measurements. The two-photon absorption coefficient of the films increases linearly with gold nanoparticle concentration and significant enhancement of nonlinear optical absorption is observed. This ability to fine tune the nonlinear optical coefficients of Au/BaTiO3 films would be handy in optical device applications.

  11. Proton channeling in Au at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, J.E.; Vargas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author)

  12. Methotrexate Dosage Reduction Upon Adalimumab Initiation: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Outcomes from the Randomized Noninferiority MUSICA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Evangelisto, Amy M; Nishio, Midori J; Goss, Sandra L; Liu, Shufang; Kalabic, Jasmina; Kupper, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    To examine the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) outcomes of reducing methotrexate (MTX) dosage upon initiating adalimumab (ADA) in MTX-inadequate responders with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MUSICA (NCT01185288) was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-arm study of 309 patients with RA receiving MTX ≥ 15 mg/week for ≥ 12 weeks before screening. Patients were randomized to high dosage (20 mg/week) or low dosage (7.5 mg/week) MTX; all patients received 40 mg open-label ADA every other week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was Week 24 mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) to test for noninferiority of low-dosage MTX using a 15% margin. US images were scored using a 10-joint semiquantitative system incorporating OMERACT definitions for pathology, assessing synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and bony erosions. Rapid improvement in clinical indices was observed in both groups after addition of ADA. The difference in mean DAS28-CRP (0.37, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) comparing low-dosage (4.12, 95% CI 3.88-4.34) versus high-dosage MTX (3.75, 95% CI 3.52-3.97) was statistically significant and non-inferiority was not met. Statistically significant differences were not detected for most clinical, functional, and US outcomes. Pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were similar. In MUSICA, Week 24 mean DAS28-CRP, the primary endpoint, did not meet non-inferiority for the low-dosage MTX group. Although the differences between the 2 MTX dosage groups were small, our study findings did not support routine MTX reduction in MTX inadequate responders initiating ADA.

  13. Feedback Control of Sex Determination by Dosage Compensation Revealed through Caenorhabditis Elegans Sdc-3 Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, L.; Plenefisch, J. D.; Klein, R. D.; Meyer, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, sex determination and dosage compensation are coordinately controlled through a group of genes that respond to the primary sex determination signal. Here we describe a new gene, sdc-3, that also controls these processes. In contrast to previously described genes, the sex determination and dosage compensation activities of sdc-3 are separately mutable, indicating that they function independently. Paradoxically, the sdc-3 null phenotype fails to reveal the role of sdc...

  14. Miniaturized approach for excipient selection during the development of oral solid dosage form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Müllertz, Anette; Cornett, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The present study introduces a miniaturized high-throughput platform to understand the influence of excipients on the performance of oral solid dosage forms during early drug development. Wet massing of binary mixtures of the model drug (sodium naproxen) and representative excipients was followed...... for excipient selection and for early-stage performance testing of active pharmaceutical ingredient intended for oral solid dosage form. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:900-908, 2014....

  15. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  16. Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Chamorro, Marinoli Rivas; Moreira, Natalia Molina; del Rosario Cuadros Negri, María Luisa; Olivera, Jose

    2013-05-30

    Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviaciónin Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in

  17. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  18. A facile approach for reducing the working voltage of Au/TiO2/Au nanostructured memristors by enhancing the local electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Bafrani, Hamidreza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Bagheri Shouraki, Saeed; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2018-01-01

    Memristor devices have attracted tremendous interest due to different applications ranging from nonvolatile data storage to neuromorphic computing units. Exploring the role of surface roughness of the bottom electrode (BE)/active layer interface provides useful guidelines for the optimization of the memristor switching performance. This study focuses on the effect of surface roughness of the BE electrode on the switching characteristics of Au/TiO2/Au three-layer memristor devices. An optimized wet-etching treatment condition was found to modify the surface roughness of the Au BE where the measurement results indicate that the roughness of the Au BE is affected by both duration time and solution concentrations of the wet-etching process. Then we fabricated arrays of TiO2-based nanostructured memristors sandwiched between two sets of cross-bar Au electrode lines (junction area 900 μm2). The results revealed a reduction in the working voltages in current-voltage characteristic of the device performance when increasing the surface roughness at the Au(BE)/TiO2 active layer interface. The set voltage of the device (Vset) significantly decreased from 2.26-1.93 V when we increased the interface roughness from 4.2-13.1 nm. The present work provides information for better understanding the switching mechanism of titanium-dioxide-based devices, and it can be inferred that enhancing the roughness of the Au BE/TiO2 active layer interface leads to a localized non-uniform electric field distribution that plays a vital role in reducing the energy consumption of the device.

  19. Phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn and Au-Fe) alloys at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Kayali, Fawaz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The spin glass of: (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn, Au-Fe) alloys has been extensively studied. The availability of published and assured experimental data on the susceptibility x(T) of this alloys has enabled the design and application of phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of these interesting alloys. The use of and advanced (S.P.S.S) computer software has resulted revealing some important features of the spin glass in these alloys, the most important of which is that the spin glass state do not represent as phase change

  20. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  1. Evidence of final-state suppression of high-p{_ T} hadrons in Au + Au collisions using d + Au measurements at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons with pT 2 GeV/c). In contrast, the d + Au nuclear modification factor exhibits no suppression of the high-pT yields. These measurements suggest a large energy loss of the high-pT particles in the highly interacting medium created in the central Au + Au collisions. The lack of suppression in d + Au collisions suggests that it is unlikely that initial state effects can explain the suppression in the central Au + Au collisions. PACS: 25.75.-q

  2. Dosage uniformity problems which occur due to technological errors in extemporaneously prepared suppositories in hospitals and pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Éva; Lasher, Jason Richard; Tarry, Thomas Dean; Myers, Andrea; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György; Baki, Gabriella; Alexander, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of suppositories in Hungary, especially in clinical pharmacy practice, is usually provided by extemporaneous preparations. Due to the known advantages of rectal drug administration, its benefits are frequently utilized in pediatrics. However, errors during the extemporaneous manufacturing process can lead to non-homogenous drug distribution within the dosage units. To determine the root cause of these errors and provide corrective actions, we studied suppository samples prepared with exactly known errors using both cerimetric titration and HPLC technique. Our results show that the most frequent technological error occurs when the pharmacist fails to use the correct displacement factor in the calculations which could lead to a 4.6% increase/decrease in the assay in individual dosage units. The second most important source of error can occur when the molding excess is calculated solely for the suppository base. This can further dilute the final suppository drug concentration causing the assay to be as low as 80%. As a conclusion we emphasize that the application of predetermined displacement factors in calculations for the formulation of suppositories is highly important, which enables the pharmacist to produce a final product containing exactly the determined dose of an active substance despite the different densities of the components. PMID:25161378

  3. Alternative Manufacturing Concepts for Solid Oral Dosage Forms From Drug Nanosuspensions Using Fluid Dispensing and Forced Drying Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoeffer, Bastian; Kwade, Arno; Juhnke, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies for solid oral dosage forms with a continuous adjustability of the manufactured dose strength are of interest for applications in personalized medicine. This study explored the feasibility of using microvalve technology for the manufacturing of different solid oral dosage form concepts. Hard gelatin capsules filled with excipients, placebo tablets, and polymer films, placed in hard gelatin capsules after drying, were considered as substrates. For each concept, a basic understanding of relevant formulation parameters and their impact on dissolution behavior has been established. Suitable matrix formers, present either on the substrate or directly in the drug nanosuspension, proved to be essential to prevent nanoparticle agglomeration of the drug nanoparticles and to ensure a fast dissolution behavior. Furthermore, convection and radiation drying methods were investigated for the fast drying of drug nanosuspensions dispensed onto polymer films, which were then placed in hard gelatin capsules. Changes in morphology and in drug and matrix former distribution were observed for increasing drying intensity. However, even fast drying times below 1 min could be realized, while maintaining the nanoparticulate drug structure and a good dissolution behavior. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Unrine; S Hunyadi; O Tsyusko; W Rao; A Shoults-Wilson; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    Because Au nanoparticles (NPs) are resistant to oxidative dissolution and are easily detected, they have been used as stable probes for the behavior of nanomaterials within biological systems. Previous studies provide somewhat limited evidence for bioavailability of Au NPs in food webs, because the spatial distribution within tissues and the speciation of Au was not determined. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence, including orthogonal microspectroscopic techniques, as well as evidence from biological responses, that Au NPs are bioavailable from soil to a model detritivore (Eisenia fetida). We also present limited evidence that Au NPs may cause adverse effects on earthworm reproduction. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate that Au NPs can be taken up by detritivores from soil and distributed among tissues. We found that primary particle size (20 or 55 nm) did not consistently influence accumulated concentrations on a mass concentration basis; however, on a particle number basis the 20 nm particles were more bioavailable. Differences in bioavailability between the treatments may have been explained by aggregation behavior in pore water. The results suggest that nanoparticles present in soil from activities such as biosolids application have the potential to enter terrestrial food webs.

  5. Monolayer-Enriched Production of Au-Decorated WS2 Nanosheets via Defect Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lafargue, Paul [Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg; Higgins, Thomas M. [Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg; Forcherio, Gregory T. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory; Benamara, Mourad [University of Arkansas; McEvoy, Niall [Trinity College Dublin; Roper, D. Keith [University of Arkansas; Coleman, Jonathan N. [Trinity College Dublin; Vaynzof, Yana [Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg; Backes, Claudia [Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg

    2018-04-06

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) represent a diverse, emerging source of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with broad application in optoelectronics and energy. Chemical functionalization has evolved into a powerful tool to tailor properties of these 2D TMDs; however, functionalization strategies have been largely limited to the metallic 1T-polytype. The work herein illustrates that 2H-semiconducting liquid-exfoliated tungsten disulfide (WS2) undergoes a spontaneous redox reaction with gold (III) chloride (AuCl3). Au nanoparticles (NPs) predominantly nucleate at nanosheet edges with tuneable NP size and density. AuCl3 is preferentially reduced on multi-layer WS2 and resulting large Au aggregates are easily separated from the colloidal dispersion by simple centrifugation. This process may be exploited to enrich the dispersions in laterally large, monolayer nanosheets. It is proposed that thiol groups at edges and defects sides reduce the AuCl3 to Au0 and are in turn oxidized to disulfides. Optical emission, i.e. photoluminescence, of the monolayers remained pristine, while the electrocatalytic activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction is significantly improved. Taken together, these improvements in functionalization, fabrication, and catalytic activity represent an important advance in the study of these emerging 2D nanostructures.

  6. Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures for enhanced performance in both photoelectric and photocatalytic solar conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinrong; Sun, Hang; Shang, Yinxing; Tang, Yanan; She, Ping; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Kongliang; Lu, Guolong; Liang, Song; Yin, Shengyan; Liu, Zhenning

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy conversion is an important field gaining increasing interest. Herein, bio-inspired Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared via a facial one-pot hydrothermal approach. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs can self-assemble into 3D-structure to form photoelectrode for photoelectric conversion. The obtained photoelectrode demonstrates a swift and stable photocurrent of 3.5 μA/cm2, which is 4.2 and 1.6 times higher than those of the photocurrents generated by the counterparts of commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, respectively. Moreover, compared to the commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs also exhibit superior photocatalytic activity, delivering a H2 evolution rate of 4.92 mmol/g h. The performance improvement observed for the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs is likely contributed by two synergistic factors, i.e. the incorporation of AuNPs and the unique hollow structure, which benefit the activity by simultaneously enhancing light utilization, charge separation and reaction site accessibility. The rational design and fabrication of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs hold great promise for future application in efficient solar energy conversion.

  7. One-step synthesis of PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles on graphene with superior methanol electrooxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuzhen; Gu Yonge; Lin Shaoxiong; Wei Jinping; Wang Zaihua [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du Yongling; Ye Weichun [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > PtPdAu nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via chemical reduction method. > The prepared PtPdAu nanoparticles were ternary alloy with fcc structure. > The catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity and stability for MOR in alkaline. - Abstract: Well-dispersed PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via a simple one-step chemical reduction method in ethylene glycol (EG) and water system, in which EG served as both reductive and dispersing agent. The electrocatalytic activity of PtPdAu/G was tested by methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The catalyst was further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated that the as-synthesized PtPdAu nanoparticles with alloy structures were successfully dispersed on the graphene sheets. Electrocatalytic properties of the catalyst for MOR in alkaline have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and Tafel curves. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of PtPdAu/G were superior to PtPd/G, PtAu/G and Pt/G. In addition, the anodic peak current on PtPdAu/G catalyst was proportional to the concentration of methanol in the range of 0.05-1.00 M. This study implies that the prepared catalyst have great potential applications in fuel cells.

  8. Multifunctional Fe3O4/Au core/satellite nanocubes: an efficient chemical synthesis, characterization and functionalization of streptavidin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed; RamuluTorati, Sri; Kim, CheolGi

    2017-02-14

    A novel and efficient chemical approach for the synthesis of Fe 3 O 4 /Au core/satellite nanocubes is reported. In a one-pot reaction, metallic Au nanodots were successfully deposited on the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanocube surface for the fabrication of a core/satellite structure (Fe 3 O 4 /Au) by the reduction of HAuCl 4 using ammonia. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping revealed that small Au nanodots of about 2 nm average size decorated the surface of Fe 3 O 4 nanocubes. X-ray diffraction data was used to confirm the formation of both the phases of a cubic inverse spinel structure for Fe 3 O 4 and a bcc structure for Au in the core/satellite structure of Fe 3 O 4 /Au nanocubes. The magnetic properties of the seed Fe 3 O 4 nanocubes and Fe 3 O 4 /Au core/satellite nanocubes were measured by using a superconducting quantum interference device at 300 K. For biological application purposes, the as-synthesized Fe 3 O 4 /Au core/satellite nanocubes were functionalized by cysteamine followed by successful immobilization of streptavidin protein as confirmed through the fluorescence confocal microscopy images.

  9. Long-term antibacterial characteristics and cytocompatibility of titania nanotubes loaded with Au nanoparticles without photocatalytic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guomin [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Feng, Hongqing, E-mail: fenghongqing@binn.cas.cn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), Beijing 100083 (China); Jin, Weihong; Gao, Ang; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Wu, Hao [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Zhou [Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT shows long-term antibacterial effects without photocatalytical effects. • An ROS-free antibacterial process is confirmed. • Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT shows good compatibility with osteoblasts and does not induce ROS production. - Abstract: Au nanoparticles (NPs) can endow titania nanotubes (Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT) with light-independent antibacterial properties which bode well for in vivo application because of the dark environment inside tissues. In this work, the long-term antibacterial bactericidal properties and cytocompatibility of Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT without photocatalytic effects are studied in details. The materials exhibit antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus according to antibacterial tests carried out for a total time of 21 days, which are normally long enough for early stage tissue healing after surgery. In addition, adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT reveal cytocompatibility comparable to that of TiO{sub 2}-NT. No reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected from either the bacteria or MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT surface. The absence of ROS, long-term antibacterial properties, and cytocompatibility make Au@TiO{sub 2}-NT promising biomaterials in orthopedic devices and implants.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of Au decorated colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Nemat; Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA). • A very fine metallic Au particles or coating are decorated on the surface of tungsten oxide nanoparticles. • UV–Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at ∼530 nm which is due to SPR effect of gold. • After exposing to hydrogen gas, Au/WO_3 colloidal nanoparticles show excellent gasochromic coloring. - Abstract: In this study, colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of tungsten target using the first harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in deionized water. After ablation, a 0.33 g/lit HAuCl_4 aqueous solution was added into as-prepared colloidal nanoparticles. In this process, Au"3"+ ions were reduced to decorate gold metallic state (Au"0) onto colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles surface. The morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by AFM, XRD, TEM and XPS techniques. UV–Vis analysis reveals a distinct absorption peak at ∼530 nm. This peak can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au and confirms formation of gold state. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Au ions’ reduction happens after adding HAuCl_4 solution into as-prepared colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope shows that an Au shell has been decorated onto colloidal WO_3 nanoparticles. Noble metal decorated tungsten oxide nanostructure could be an excellent candidate for photocatalysis, gas sensing and gasochromic applications. Finally, the gasochromic behavior of the synthesized samples was investigated by H_2 and O_2 gases bubbling into the produced colloidal Au/WO_3 nanoparticles. Synthesized colloidal nanoparticles show excellent coloration contrast (∼80%) through NIR spectra.

  11. Investigation on enhancing effects of Au nanoparticles on solar steam generation in graphene oxide nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yang; Mei, Tao; Wang, Gang; Guo, Ankang; Dai, Guangchao; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Jianying; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xianbao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanocomposites of graphene oxide (GO) and gold (Au) were explored to generate solar vapor under nature sunlight, and the water vaporization efficiency of GO-Au nanofluids at a temperature far below the boiling point could be up to 59.2%. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide/gold nanofluids were used to generate solar vapor under nature sunlight. • Water vaporization efficiency of GO-Au nanofluids could be up to 59.2%. • GO can be reduced to graphene by sunlight irradiation without reductants. - Abstract: Solar vapor generation enabled by nanoparticles is a green, efficient and direct approach to utilize solar energy. In this work, nanocomposites of graphene oxide (GO) and gold (Au) nanoparticles were prepared to generate solar steam under sunlight irradiation. The changes on steam pressure, mass loss and temperature of water were used to study the solar photothermal properties of GO-Au nanocomposites in water, which demonstrated that the synergistic interaction between GO nanosheets and Au nanoparticles played an active role in the photothermal effect of the nanocomposites. Trace of Au nanoparticles (15.6 wt‰) in the GO nanofluids could significantly improve the efficiency of solar vapor generation. More interestingly, the morphology and color of GO-Au nanofluids varied with irradiation times under sunlight, and our results suggested that GO sheets were reduced to graphene sheets. This process of photothermal deoxygenation of GO provides an available solution for preparing graphene sheets under ambient conditions without any reductions, and the solar steam generation method can enable potential applications like sterilization of waste, seawater desalination, and disinfection.

  12. A grain boundary phase transition in Si–Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shuailei; Meshinchi Asl, Kaveh; Tansarawiput, Chookiat; Cantwell, Patrick R.; Qi, Minghao; Harmer, Martin P.; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    A grain boundary transition from a bilayer to an intrinsic (nominally clean) boundary is observed in Si–Au. An atomically abrupt transition between the two complexions (grain boundary stabilized phases) implies the occurrence of a first-order interfacial phase transition associated with a discontinuity in the interfacial excess. This observation supports a grain-boundary complexion theory with broad applications. This transition is atypical in that the monolayer complexion is absent. A model is proposed to explain the bilayer stabilization and the origin of this complexion transition.

  13. 100-MeV proton beam intensity measurement by Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Oh, Joo-Hee [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Seock, E-mail: lee@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The proton beam intensity of a 100-MeV proton linac at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was measured by an Au activation analysis using {sup 197}Au(p, pn){sup 196}Au and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au reactions to determine the accuracy and precision of beam intensity measurement using Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of Au, Al foils and Pb plates. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in Au foils were obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The FLUKA code was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of protons onto the front surface of Au foils located at three different depth points of the target and also to investigate the condition of incident beam on the target. A good agreement was found between the beam intensity measurements using the activation analysis method at three different depth points of the target. An excellent agreement was also observed between the beam intensity measurements using the Au activation analysis method and the dosimetry method using Gafchromic film.

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy in the development of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Eetu; Sandler, Niklas

    2007-02-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has rapidly grown partly due to demands of process analytical applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Furthermore, newest regulatory guidelines have advanced the increase of the use of NIR technologies. The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of measurements makes NIR a powerful tool in characterization of pharmaceutical solids. These benefits among others often make NIR advantageous over traditional analytical methods. However, in addition to NIR, a wide variety of other tools are naturally also available for analysis in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, and those can often be more suitable for a given application. The versatility and rapidness of NIR will ensure its contribution to increased process understanding, better process control and improved quality of drug products. This review concentrates on the use of NIR spectroscopy from a process research perspective and highlights recent applications in the field.

  15. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshid M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the AuHAuCl4-Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst.

  16. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2016-01-01

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r_A_u_-_C_N_T exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r_A_u_-_C_N_T was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T = 250 nm) was ∼10"4 S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO_2/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10"−"4 A/V and 3.1 × 10"4 cm"2/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10"4 S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10"4. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g_m) and carrier mobility (μ_h).

  17. Models for the Behavior of Offshore Structure Foundations. Part Two: Applications to Structural Design and Quality Assurance Processes Modèles pour le comportement des fondations d'ouvrages types marins. Deuxième partie : applications au calcul d'ouvrage et processus d'assurance qualité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meimon Y.

    2006-11-01

    structure. Prospects opened up by the research are discussed. La conception des fondations de grands ouvrages est une tâche complexe qui requiert à la fois l'expérience de l'expert et l'utilisation de modèles numériques adéquats pour assurer la sécurité et optimiser les coûts de dimensionnement. En fait, prévoir le comportement d'une fondation nécessite de bien évaluer les effets combinés de la technique de mise en place, de la variabilité spatiale des propriétés mécaniques, de l'incertitude sur les chargements et des techniques de modélisation du comportement mécanique des géomatériaux. Ceci est particulièrement vrai pour les plates-formes marines, qu'elles soient destinées à l'exploration ou à la production du pétrole, dans la mesure où les chargements non-monotones dus à l'environnement marin, souvent très sévère, peuvent avoir des effets très néfastes sur le comportement de ces structures. On présente, en deux parties, la synthèse d'une dizaine d'années d'activités de recherche, menées par une équipe de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, en collaboration avec plusieurs équipes universitaires et des centres techniques et industriels, pour la mise au point de méthodologies et d'outils adaptés au calcul du comportement des fondations d'ouvrages types marins durant toute la durée de vie de la plate-forme. Cet article concerne la deuxième partie qui est dévolue à l'application des modèles développés au calcul d'ouvrage par la méthode des éléments finis et à l'exposé d'un processus de validation des modèles, étape d'une démarche d'assurance qualité. Méthodes pour le calcul des fondations marines : Le système de programmes FONDOF utilisant la méthode des éléments finis a été développé. Il comprend (fig. 1. 1 des interfaces interactives de mise en données et de dépouillement des résultats ainsi que des modules de calcul, opérationnels comme FONGEO pour les calculs bi et tridimensionnels ou FONDAX pour le

  18. Toward hybrid Au nanorods @ M (Au, Ag, Pd and Pt) core-shell heterostructures for ultrasensitive SERS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Lei, Yanhua; Pan, Zhengyin; Shibayama, Tamaki; Cai, Lintao

    2017-06-01

    Being able to precisely control the morphologies of noble metallic nanostructures is of essential significance for promoting the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Herein, we demonstrate an overgrowth strategy for synthesizing Au @ M (M = Au, Ag, Pd, Pt) core-shell heterogeneous nanocrystals with an orientated structural evolution and highly improved properties by using Au nanorods as seeds. With the same reaction condition system applied, we obtain four well-designed heterostructures with diverse shapes, including Au concave nanocuboids (Au CNs), Au @ Ag crystalizing face central cube nanopeanuts, Au @ Pd porous nanocuboids and Au @ Pt nanotrepangs. Subsequently, the exact overgrowth mechanism of the above heterostructural building blocks is further analysed via the systematic optimiziation of a series of fabrications. Remarkably, the well-defined Au CNs and Au @ Ag nanopeanuts both exhibit highly promoted SERS activity. We expect to be able to supply a facile strategy for the fabrication of multimetallic heterogeneous nanostructures, exploring the high SERS effect and catalytic activities.

  19. INDRA at GSI; INDRA au GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougault, R.; Bocage, F.; Durand, D.; Lopez, O.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); Collaboration INDRA: IPN-Orsay, DAPNIA-Saclay, SUBATECH-Nantes, IPN- Lyon, GANIL-Caen

    1997-12-31

    In connection to the decision of installing the INDRA detector by the SIS synchrocyclotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) the report presents the tasks taken into account by the LPC-Caen. These refer to the detector displacement and (mechanical) installation at GSI, the tests before beam (i.e. electronics acquisition software, detectors, etc.) as well as the data acquisition and processing. The physical pro-arguments mention the possibility of disposing of heavy ion beams in a range from 50 MeV to several GeV/nucleon so extending the study of multifragmentation done at GANIL between 30 and 90 MeV/nucleon. More specific, the scientific program of INDRA at GSI inserts studies between those done at around Fermi energy, were the reaction mechanisms are of type of deep inelastic scattering/incomplete fusion, and the studies in the relativistic energy domain where the individual properties of nucleons and transparency of nuclear matter implies mechanisms of the participant-spectator type (fire-ball creation). Also mentioned as fields of extensive studies are: the multifragmentation and its fundamental relation with the nuclear matter equation of state, the role of reaction dynamics in the appearance of collective effects of the radial flow type and its relations with the nuclear compressibility and phase transitions and the thermodynamics of nuclear matter. It appeared that the heavy systems Xe + Sn and Au + Au are the best compromise for the different topics to be approached. The bombarding energies extend from 50 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The report ends with the table giving for six heavy systems (Xe + Sn, Au + Au, C + Au, Ar + Au and P + Au) the required bombarding energies 15 refs.

  20. Au Kenya, des oiseaux nuisent à une culture adaptée au climat ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 août 2013 ... Selon Evans Kituyi, spécialiste de programme principal au Centre de ... principal au Gadam Sorghum Production and Marketing Project. Si les graines occupent une place de premier plan dans l'alimentation des oiseaux, ...