WorldWideScience

Sample records for application au cas

  1. Détection d'intrusions comportementale par diversification de COTS : application au cas des serveurs web

    OpenAIRE

    Majorczyk, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    version non-définitive de la thèse, présentée lors de la soutenance. L'informatique et en particulier l'Internet jouent un rôle grandissant dans notre société. Un grand nombre d'applications critiques d'un point de vue de leur sécurité sont déployées dans divers domaines comme le domaine militaire, la santé, le commerce électronique, etc. La sécurité des systèmes informatiques devient alors une problématique essentielle tant pour les individus que pour les entreprises ou les états. Il est ...

  2. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  3. 48 CFR 9903.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-materials, and labor-hour contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (7) Contracts...) shall be subject to CAS. A CAS-covered contract may be subject to full, modified or other types of CAS coverage. The rules for determining the applicable type of CAS coverage are in 9903.201-2. (b)...

  4. Perspectives d'introduction d'un marketing des services au sein des banques publiques Algériennes : Cas de la B.A.D.R.

    OpenAIRE

    Lachachi-taleb, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Le premier chapitre présente les fondements théoriques relatifs au marketing des services ainsi qu'au concept de servuction et enfin au marketing mix des services dans le deuxiéme chapitre.Le troisiéme chapitre est consacré au marketing bancaire et au plan marketing dans le chapitre suivant, une étude de cas au sein de la B.A.D.R.Banque.

  5. Application of Alkaline Waterflooding to a High Acidity Crude Oil Application de l'injection d'eau alcaline au cas d'un pétrole brut à forte acidité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Waly A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to study the enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude by alkaline solutions. Different properties of South Geisum crude oil, namely acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, and temperature viscosity on recovery. South Geisum crude oil is a highly acidic crude (4. 38 mg KOH/g. It was found that the interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until it reaches a minimum, after which it increases again with a further increase in alkaline concentration. Interfacial tension between crude oil and displacement water also decreases with increasing alkaline concentration. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. Displacement floods showed that, at the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until it reaches a maximum at 4 % by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. It was found also that oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until it reaches a maximum at 15 % PV, after which increasing slug size results in decreasing oil recovery (this result has not as yet been reported in the literature. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55°C and decreasing oil viscosity. Cet article traite de la récupération, au moyen de solutions alcalines, d'un pétrole brut à forte acidité (brut de Geisum-Sud. Différentes propri

  6. Global dynamics of shaft lines of turbo-machineries coupled to surrounding fluids: application to the case of fluid sheets; Dynamique globale des lignes d'arbres de turbomachines couplees aux fluides environnants: application au cas des lames fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lornage, D.

    2001-12-15

    Shaft lines of turbo-machineries have to stand increasing reliability, efficiency and safety requirements. A precise modeling of the rotating parts with all possible coupling has become necessary. In this context, this work aims to develop a global modeling of rotating wheel/shaft system inside a surrounding fluid in order to foresee its dynamical behaviour. The use and advantage of Eulerian, Lagrangian and mixed (arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian - ALE) formulations is recalled first. A bibliographic synthesis of the classical techniques used in structure mechanics and of coupling techniques for rotating machines is presented. The coupling technique retained is presented. It uses fluid and structure models independently developed and validated. The structure domain is discretized by the finite-element method. The fluid domain is discretized by the finite-difference method taking into consideration the hypotheses linked with thin films. A modal base projection combined with a mesh at the fluid-structure interface allows an efficient, adaptable and evolutive coupling. Finally, the method is applied to 3 test-cases. The first two ones comprise a shaft/disc system coupled to a fluid sheet between the disc and the casing and to an hydrodynamic bearing. Both cases allow a first validation of the coupling method. The third case aims to study a structure closer to a real system made of a shaft and a wheel coupled to a fluid sheet between a flange and a casing. These three applications allow to show the trends linked with the fluid effects and the coupling between the flexible sub-parts of the structure. (J.S.)

  7. Applications of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis based on homologous recombination has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying development, normal physiology, and disease. A recent breakthrough in genome engineering technology based on the class of RNA-guided endonucleases, such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9, is further revolutionizing biology and medical studies. The simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has enabled its widespread applications in generating germline animal models, somatic genome engineering, and functional genomic screening and in treating genetic and infectious diseases. This technology will likely be used in all fields of biomedicine, ranging from basic research to human gene therapy.

  8. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: Interference Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Plagens

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries.

  9. CAS leads development of application system for spaceship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The spacecraft Shenzhou-VII blasted off on 25 September,carrying three astronauts to attempt China's first-ever spacewalk.It is the seventh space mission successfully launched by this country.As usual,its space application system,one of the seven major systems for this space engineering project,is developed under the leadership of CAS.

  10. CRISPR-Cas: Development and applications for mammalian genome editing

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Fei Ann

    2014-01-01

    The ability to introduce targeted modifications into genomes and engineer model organisms holds enormous promise for biomedical and technological applications, and has driven the development of tools such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). To facilitate genome engineering in mammalian cells, we have engineered the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 programmable nuclease systems from Streptococcus p...

  11. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Technology to HBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigao Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 240 million people around the world are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV. Nucleos(tide analogs and interferon are the only two families of drugs to treat HBV currently. However, none of these anti-virals directly target the stable nuclear covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA, which acts as a transcription template for viral mRNA and pre-genomic RNA synthesis and secures virus persistence. Thus, the fact that only a small number of patients treated achieve sustained viral response (SVR or cure, highlights the need for new therapies against HBV. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system can specifically target the conserved regions of the HBV genome. This results in robust viral suppression and provides a promising tool for eradicating the virus. In this review, we discuss the function and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a novel therapy for HBV.

  12. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9: a smaller Cas9 for all-in-one adeno-associated virus delivery and paired nickase applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedland, Ari E.; Baral, Reshica; Singhal, Pankhuri; Loveluck, Katherine; Shen, Shen; Sanchez, Minerva; Marco, Eugenio; Gotta, Gregory M.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Kornepati, Anand V. R.; Sousa, Alexander; Collins, McKensie A.; Jayaram, Hari; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background CRISPR-Cas systems have been broadly embraced as effective tools for genome engineering applications, with most studies to date utilizing the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. Here we characterize and manipulate the smaller, 1053 amino acid nuclease Staphylococcus aureus Cas9. Results We find that the S. aureus Cas9 recognizes an NNGRRT protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and cleaves target DNA at high efficiency with a variety of guide RNA (gRNA) spacer lengths. When directed against geno...

  13. La tuberculose cutanée: observation de six cas confirmés au CHU Souro SANOU (CHUSS) de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Yaméogo, Téné; Diallo, Boukary; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Traoré, Adama

    2013-01-01

    La localisation cutanée de la maladie tuberculeuse demeure une forme rare et représente seulement 2,1% des localisations. L'objet de cette étude est de rapporter le profil épidémiologique, anatomoclinique et évolutif des cas de tuberculose ganglio-cutanée diagnostiqués dans un CHU au Burkina Faso. La fréquence de la tuberculose cutanée est très faible au CHUSS. Six cas ont été diagnostiqués entre 2004 et 2010, soit une fréquence de un cas par an. La durée d’évolution des cas allait de deux jusqu’à dix ans avant leur diagnostic. Les lésions observées étaient: trois scrofulodermes, trois gommes, une tuberculose testiculaire associée à un mal de Pott, un cas de polyadénopathies et des cicatrices atropho-rétractiles dans la plupart des cas. Sur le plan anatomopathologique, des granulomes tuberculoïdes ont été mis en évidence dans tous les cas avec une forte réaction tuberculinique à l'IDR. Sous antituberculeux pendant six mois, l’évolution a été bonne dans tous les cas mais au prix de séquelles cutanées cicatricielles inesthétiques. Son ampleur reste peut-être encore méconnue. Le renforcement du plateau technique du CHU et une bonne collaboration interdisciplinaire contribuerait à un meilleur diagnostic et prise en charge de cette affection. PMID:24648863

  14. L’addiction au pluriel : le cas des pratiquants de bodybuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Vallet

    2016-01-01

    Cet article s’interroge sur les addictions dans le bodybuilding. A partir de données qualitatives recueillies auprès de 30 bodybuilders masculins et d’une analyse de 27 magazines spécialisés, nous mettons en évidence que les pratiquants les plus engagés ont de fortes probabilités d’expérimenter trois types d’addictions : addictions liées au surentraînement, addictions liées au mode de vie consommatoire, addictions liées au mode de vie identitaire. Ces addictions se construisant dans le temps ...

  15. [Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyun, Xing; Qiang, Yang; Jun, Ren

    2016-03-01

    CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: I, II and III, of which type II has relatively simple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important animals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  16. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  17. Exploitations agricoles climate-intelligentes? Etudes de cas au Burkina Faso et en Colombie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Comment satisfaire la sécurité alimentaire tout en s'adaptant au changement climatique et en l'atténuant ? Quelles sont les principales menaces pesant sur les agricultures du Sud ? Comment les agriculteurs du Sud répondent-ils à ces menaces ? Quelles sont les propositions de la recherche agronomique

  18. CAS Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and MedAustron jointly organised a course on Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria between 26 May and 5 June 2015. The course was held at the Eventhotel Pyramide on the outskirts of Vienna, and was attended by 76 participants from 29 countries, coming from as far away as Canada, China, Lithuania, Thailand, Ukraine and Russia.       The intensive programme comprised 37 lectures. The emphasis was on using charged particle beams for cancer therapy and the programme began by covering the way in which particles interact with biological material, how this translates into the dose needed for treatment and how this dose is best delivered. The different accelerator options for providing the particles needed were then presented in some detail. The production of radioisotopes and how these are used for diagnostics and therapy was also covered, together with a look at novel acceleration techniques that may play a role i...

  19. 76 FR 79545 - Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... request for comment (76 FR 40817) for the purpose of revising the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS... Acquisition Regulations Council on August 30, 2010 (at 75 FR 53129). By revising the CAS applicability... Council (Councils) published a final rule in the Federal Register on August 30, 2010 (75 FR...

  20. L’addiction au pluriel : le cas des pratiquants de bodybuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Vallet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’interroge sur les addictions dans le bodybuilding. A partir de données qualitatives recueillies auprès de 30 bodybuilders masculins et d’une analyse de 27 magazines spécialisés, nous mettons en évidence que les pratiquants les plus engagés ont de fortes probabilités d’expérimenter trois types d’addictions : addictions liées au surentraînement, addictions liées au mode de vie consommatoire, addictions liées au mode de vie identitaire. Ces addictions se construisant dans le temps dans le cadre d’un processus, nous interprétons celles-ci à partir du concept sociologique de « carrière », ce qui nous permet de construire une pyramide de l’engagement et des addictions dans le bodybuilding, reliée notamment à la problématique du genre.

  1. L’articulation ABC-CRM au service d’une gestion du couple coût-valeur:le cas d’une entreprise de micronutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Zouhair Djerbi

    2009-01-01

    (VF)Cet article décrit l’expérimentation visant à concilier consommation de ressources, à l’aide de la démarche ABC/M (Activity-based costing/management ou comptabilité et gestion par activités) et valeur client, au travers du CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Nous verrons, au travers d’un cas, que l’articulation entre ces deux approches permet de progresser dans la gestion simultanée des coûts et de la valeur. Le changement de stratégie intervenu dans l’entreprise au cours de l’expérim...

  2. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine (takaout au Maroc: à propos de 24 cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Derkaoui

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La paraphénylène-diamine (PPD est une amine aromatique dérivée de l’aniline, utilisée depuis 1863 par les femmes dans un but cosmétique comme teinture capillaire noire ou adjuvant de henné dans plusieurs pays d’Afrique et de Moyen Orient. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, paracliniques et évolutives de nos patients et de les comparer avec les données de la littérature. Il s’agissait d’une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas admis en réanimation (2003-2010. Les critères d’inclusion étaient d’ordre clinique, paraclinique, thérapeutique et évolutif. Durant la période de l’étude 24 patients ont été inclus provenant de la région de Fés-Boulmane. L’intoxication à la (PPD représentait 26% de l’ensemble des intoxications admises au cours de la même période. L âge moyen était de 23,6 plus or minus 11 ,6 ans. Il existait une prédominance féminine avec un sex-ratio de 4,7. L’intoxication était volontaire dans 82,6 %, accidentelle dans 8,6 %, et criminelle dans 4,3%. Le syndrome de rhabdomyolyse caractéristique de cette intoxication était retrouvé chez 60% de nos patients, l’atteinte respiratoire chez 56,5%, l’atteinte cardiaque était présente dans 30% des cas et 17,4% des patients avaient présentés une insuffisance rénale. La prise en charge thérapeutique se basait sur l’apport volémique massif, alcalinisation des urines ainsi que l’administration de corticoïdes et de diurétiques. Le recours à une trachéotomie de sauvetage était nécessaire chez 7 patients. Trois de nos patients avaient bénéficié d’une épuration extra rénale. L’évolution était fatale chez 47,8% des cas. La PPD représente ainsi la principale cause de mortalité toxique dans notre contexte. L’intoxication à la PPD, représente la première cause de rhabdomyolyse toxique dans notre contexte. Elle est responsable d’une mortalité très élevée. Ce qui

  3. [The application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Ma, Ning; Hui, Yang; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease) genome editing technology has become more and more popular in gene editing because of its simple design and easy operation. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, researchers can perform site-directed genome modification at the base level. Moreover, it has been widely used in genome editing in multiple species and related cancer research. In this review, we summarize the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cancer research based on the latest research progresses as well as our understanding of cancer research and genome editing techniques.

  4. L'impact d'un Système Public d'Information sur l'intégration et l'efficacité des marchés : une application du modèle "Parity Bounds" au cas du maïs au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kpenavoun Chogou, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the impact of Public Market Information Systems on market integration and efficiency: an application of the Parity Bounds Model in maize markets in Benin. During the 1990s, agricultural market reforms prevailed within the economic liberalization undertaken in many sub-Saharan countries. In these countries, government intervention in the commodity markets through marketing boards or parastatal organizations was abandoned in favor of new market reforms. Public Market Information Systems (PMIS thus emerged as part of these reforms. Even though great positive impacts were expected from these reforms, little empirical work has been carried out to evaluate their effects. This article investigates how PMIS has affected the market performance of maize, a major staple food crop in Benin. We use a modified version of the Parity Bounds Model (PBM. This method allows the estimation of the rates of spatial market efficiency or integration, but also the estimation of the rates of market arbitrage, autarky, profitable opportunities and the violation of market arbitrage conditions. Results showed that Benin's agricultural sector suffered from a lack of quality training in how to follow the government-supported market information system implemented in the early 1990s. Subsequently, PMIS did not significantly improve the degree of market integration, although the reforms did induce new marketing opportunities. Results also showed that the impact of PMIS is limited by other market imperfections, such as entry barriers for non-residents or for persons not in local informal trade organizations, and the non-transparent enforcement of formal regulations. This study therefore recommends the implementation of more efficiency-raising policies in order to encourage competition and to allow PMIS to fulfill the expectations of farmers and consumers. Improving food producers and traders' access to reliable information will allow them to better exploit the market

  5. Applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Matthias; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, and in particular those based on CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein) systems, are accelerating the pace of biological research and enabling targeted genetic interrogation in almost any organism and cell type. These tools have opened the door to the development of new model systems for studying the complexity of the nervous system, including animal models and stem cell-derived in vitro models. Precise and efficient gene editing using CRISPR-Cas systems has the potential to advance both basic and translational neuroscience research.

  6. La rupture intra péritonéale d’un kyste hydatique au cours de la grossesse: à propos d’un cas rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachad, Myriam; Fdili, Fatim Zahra; Slimani, Ouafae; Chaara, Hikmat; Bouguern, Hakima; Melhouf, Moulay Adbelillah

    2012-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique est une parasitose qui sévit à l’état endémique au Maroc. Cependant sa rupture au cours de la grossesse reste rare. Nous rapportons le cas d’une patiente de 23 ans, admise aux urgences en état de choc avec bouffissure du visage sur aménorrhée de 8 semaines, chez laquelle le diagnostic d’hydatidose à la fois hépatique et pelvienne, avec éventuelle rupture de l’un des kystes hépatiques a été posé par la radiologie. Après mesures de réanimation, le traitement chirurgical a été instauré, avec bonne évolution. Nous essayons à partir de ce cas et à travers une revue de littérature, de préciser les difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques rencontrées dans la prise en charge des kystes hydatiques, surtout compliquées, au cours de la grossesse. PMID:22368744

  7. Application Progress of CRISPR/Cas9 System for Gene Editing in Tumor Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao LIU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available TCRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 gene editing system is a new type of gene editing technology developed based on the immune mechanism of archaea resisting the invasion of exogenous nucleic acid. Compared with traditional gene editing system, CRISPR/Cas9 system is more efficient, easier operating, and less cytotoxic. Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology has been applied to many aspects of cancer research, including research on cancer genes, constructing animal tumor models, screening tumor resistance-associated and phenotypic-related genes and cancer gene therapy. In this review, the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tumor research were introduced.

  8. La gestion des gestionnaires de projets: Le cas de l'industrie aerospatiale au Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Marie-Claude

    organizations of that sector, alongside regular manufacturing operations, seems to contribute to their performance. In fact, most of these organizations currently are industry leaders worldwide. The data that form the basis of this research were obtained through 65 semi-structured interviews with representatives of project management, HRM and upper management in eight organizations in the aerospace industry in Quebec. First, the collected data was treated case by case using the qualitative data analysis software application Atlas.ti. Subsequently, the description and interpretation of the data were developed in a transversal way to achieve a sector-wide portrait of the HRM of PMs. The results reveal that PMs, like other human resources, do present particular HRM challenges and are actually managed as such in the organizations. PMs benefit both from traditional HRM practices (collective HRM) and from the relationship established and maintained with their immediate manager (individualized HRM). A network of actors is also involved in the HRM of PMs. Among these, the immediate manager of PMs stands out as the key HRM actor. In addition to applying HRM policies and practices to PMs, the manager of PMs, in his position of proximity with PMs, is destined to play different roles such as coach, motivator and talent agent. This hybrid HRM of PMs provides a sense of well-being among PMs and allows organizations to retain these creators of value, it secures faithful customers (repeat business) as a consequence of the success of projects managed by those PMs, and contributes to build a pool for their future managerial elite. Keywords: project management, human resource management, project manager, proximity management, high technology, aerospace industry, Quebec.

  9. CRISPR-Cas9 for medical genetic screens: applications and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui-Ying; Ji, Li-Juan; Gao, Ai-Mei; Liu, Ping; He, Jing-Dong; Lu, Xiao-Jie

    2016-02-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) systems have emerged as versatile and convenient (epi)genome editing tools and have become an important player in medical genetic research. CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants such as catalytically inactivated Cas9 (dead Cas9, dCas9) and scaffold-incorporating single guide sgRNA (scRNA) have been applied in various genomic screen studies. CRISPR screens enable high-throughput interrogation of gene functions in health and diseases. Compared with conventional RNAi screens, CRISPR screens incur less off-target effects and are more versatile in that they can be used in multiple formats such as knockout, knockdown and activation screens, and can target coding and non-coding regions throughout the genome. This powerful screen platform holds the potential of revolutionising functional genomic studies in the near future. Herein, we introduce the mechanisms of (epi)genome editing mediated by CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants, introduce the procedures and applications of CRISPR screen in functional genomics, compare it with conventional screen tools and at last discuss current challenges and opportunities and propose future directions.

  10. Apport des approches inspirees de la neuropsychologie au diagnostic d?autisme chez l?adulte: une etude de cas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, L; Baratta, A.; Henry, J; Di Santi, C.

    2010-01-01

    Resume Nous allons illustrer a partir d?un cas clinique les procedures diagnostiques des troubles du spectre autistique chez l?adulte, inspirees des theories neurocognitives actuelles. Nous relatons le cas d?un homme de 29 ans recu en consultation psychiatrique. Le diagnostic initialement retenu etait celui de personnalite evitante, compliquee de phobie sociale et d?un trouble depressif intercurrent. Malgre la diminution des symptomes anxieux et depressifs apres l?instauration d?un...

  11. Transcriptional regulation with CRISPR-Cas9: principles, advances, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didovyk, Andriy; Borek, Bartłomiej; Tsimring, Lev; Hasty, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 has recently emerged as a promising system for multiplexed genome editing as well as epigenome and transcriptome perturbation. Due to its specificity, ease of use and highly modular programmable nature, it has been widely adopted for a variety of applications such as genome editing, transcriptional inhibition and activation, genetic screening, DNA localization imaging, and many more. In this review, we will discuss non-editing applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for transcriptome perturbation, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology. PMID:27344519

  12. Principle and Application Progress of CRISPR-Cas9%CRISPR-Cas9的原理及其应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳儒; 郭美华; 柳爱华; 宝福凯

    2016-01-01

    CR ISPR-Cas9技术是近年来发展迅速的一项基因定点修饰技术.该技术基于规律性短重复回文序列簇(clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat,CRISPR)和Cas9核酸酶(CRISPR associated system9, Cas9)构成的CR ISPR-Cas9系统而形成.CR ISPR-Cas9系统是广泛存在于细菌和古生菌中的一种免疫机制.因为该机制可通过特异结合并剪切DNA 片段的方式,有效帮助菌体抵御包括噬菌体和质粒在内的一系列外源性DNA侵染.故而近年来受到很多研究人员的关注,并被大量用于基因的定点修饰.目前该技术已经成功应用于多种生物基因修饰与治疗.多项研究结果表明该技术较其他同类技术具有明显的高效性、准确性,对基因工程有着极大的促进作用和广泛的应用前景.对该技术原理及应用进展进行综述.%Recently,a fast developing new technology for gene modification named as CRISPR-Cas9 which based on CRISPR-Cas9 system composed of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat(CRISPR) and Cas9 nuclease(CRISPR associated system 9,Cas9)has been developed. CRISPR-Cas9 system is a kind of immune mechanism widely found in bacteria and archaea. This mechanism can help bacteria and archaea against exogenous DNA by the approach of specifically breaking DNA. Later,this mechanism was found to be useful for gene modification and gene deletion. At present,this technology has been applied to gene modification and therapy. Many studies have shown that the technology,compared with other genetic technology,has higher efficiency and accuracy,and it has promoted genetic engineering progress. Summarized here is the principle and application advance of CRISPR-Cas9.

  13. Mise en œuvre de deux méthodes interférométriques pour la caractérisation mécanique des films minces par l'essai de gonflement. Applications au cas du silicium monocristallin

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnotte, E.; Delobelle, P.; Bornier, L.; Trolard, B.; Tribillon, G.

    1995-01-01

    Deux méthodes optiques sont présentées, interférométrie holographique en temps réel et méthode par projection de franges, appliquées à la caractérisation mécanique des films minces. Ces deux méthodes sont couplées à l'interférométrie par mesure de phase, ce qui permet d'accéder au champ des déplacements en tous points de la membrane. Les solutions retenues sont discutées en termes de précision et de sensibilité. Nous proposons l'application de ces méthodes à l'essai de gonflement de membrane,...

  14. Particularités de la cardiomyopathie du péripartum en Afrique: le cas du Togo sur une étude prospective de 41 cas au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, Machihude; Afassinou, Yaovi; Baragou, Soodougoua; Akue, Edem Goeh; Péssinaba, Souleymane; Atta, Borgatia; Ehlan, Koffi; Alate, Amouzou; Damorou, Findibe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La cardiomyopathie du péripartum (CMPP) est une défaillance cardiaque dont l’étiologie demeure encore méconnue. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude prospective descriptive réalisée dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Sylvanus olympio de Lomé du 1er janvier 2010 au 30 avril 2012. Elle a concerné 41 patientes ayant présenté une insuffisance cardiaque entre le 8eme mois de la grossesse et les 5 premiers mois du post-partum. Résultats L’âge moyen des patientes était de 31,47 ans (extrêmes 21 et 44ans). L'incidence de la CMPP était de 1/362 grossesses. La parité moyenne était de 3,07 (extrêmes 1 et 6). Les symptômes étaient apparus dans le post-partum dans 90,24% des cas. Un retard important de diagnostic était observé. L'insuffisance cardiaque globale était le mode de décompensation dans 65,85%. Les signes électrocardiographiques étaient essentiellement la tachycardie sinusale (97,56%) et l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche (97,56%). L’échographie cardiaque a montré dans tous les cas une cardiomyopathie dilatée. Quatre cas de thrombus intraventriculaire gauche étaient notés. La FEVG était sévèrement altérée. L'HTAP était importante dans 56,09%. Conclusion La cardiomyopathie du péripartum est une complication cardiaque grave de la grossesse de cause inconnue, fréquente dans la population africaine. PMID:25309645

  15. [The application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology in viral infection diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijuan, Yin; Siqi, Hu; Fei, Guo

    2015-05-01

    The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. The specific targeted genome is recognized and cut by gRNA-directed CRISPR/Cas9 complex, specifically by the endonuclease Cas9. The targeted gene locus could be repaired either by homology-directed repair or nonhomologous end joining, thus achieving a desired editing outcome. Viruses infect cells through specific receptors, and then the viral genome is transcribed, replicated and translated to complete its life cycle. As a result, some DNA virus and retrovirus genomes are integrated into the cellular genome. Gene therapy is a new trend to treat viral infected diseases. Given its designable sequence-specific editing of the targeted genome, CRISPR/Cas9 has tremendous potential in treating persistent and latent viral infections. In this review, we summarize the mechanism and progresses of CRISPR/Cas9, and also highlight its therapeutic application in infectious diseases.

  16. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to the study and treatment of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellagatti, Andrea; Dolatshad, Hamid; Valletta, Simona; Boultwood, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas is a microbial adaptive immune system that uses RNA-guided nucleases to cleave foreign genetic elements. The CRISPR/Cas9 method has been engineered from the type II prokaryotic CRISPR system and uses a single-guide RNA to target the Cas9 nuclease to a specific genomic sequence. Cas9 induces double-stranded DNA breaks which are repaired either by imperfect non-homologous end joining to generate insertions or deletions (indels) or, if a repair template is provided, by homology-directed repair. Due to its specificity, simplicity and versatility, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently emerged as a powerful tool for genome engineering in various species. This technology can be used to investigate the function of a gene of interest or to correct gene mutations in cells via genome editing, paving the way for future gene therapy approaches. Improvements to the efficiency of CRISPR repair, in particular to increase the rate of gene correction and to reduce undesired off-target effects, and the development of more effective delivery methods will be required for its broad therapeutic application.

  17. Application of the genome editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Li, Min; Su, Bing

    2016-07-18

    In the past three years, RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome editing in many model and non-model animals. However, its application in nonhuman primates is still at the early stage, though in view of the similarities in anatomy, physiology, behavior and genetics, closely related nonhuman primates serve as optimal models for human biology and disease studies. In this review, we summarize the current proceedings of gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in nonhuman primates.

  18. Application of the genome editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUO, Xin; LI, Min; SU, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In the past three years, RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome editing in many model and non-model animals. However, its application in nonhuman primates is still at the early stage, though in view of the similarities in anatomy, physiology, behavior and genetics, closely related nonhuman primates serve as optimal models for human biology and disease studies. In this review, we summarize the current proceedings of gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in nonhuman primates. PMID:27469252

  19. Genome engineering in ophthalmology: Application of CRISPR/Cas to the treatment of eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sandy S C; McCaughey, Tristan; Swann, Olivia; Pébay, Alice; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-07-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has enabled an accurate and efficient means to edit the human genome. Rapid advances in this technology could results in imminent clinical application, and with favourable anatomical and immunological profiles, ophthalmic disease will be at the forefront of such work. There have been a number of breakthroughs improving the specificity and efficacy of CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing. Similarly, better methods to identify off-target cleavage sites have also been developed. With the impending clinical utility of CRISPR/Cas technology, complex ethical issues related to the regulation and management of the precise applications of human gene editing must be considered. This review discusses the current progress and recent breakthroughs in CRISPR/Cas-based gene engineering, and outlines some of the technical issues that must be addressed before gene correction, be it in vivo or in vitro, is integrated into ophthalmic care. We outline a clinical pipeline for CRISPR-based treatments of inherited eye diseases and provide an overview of the important ethical implications of gene editing and how these may influence the future of this technology. PMID:27181583

  20. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 for Gene Editing in Hereditary Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Moon, Jangsup; Kim, Manho

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating hereditary movement disorders, including hereditary ataxia, dystonia, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Genome editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome using modified nucleases. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has been used as an essential tool in biotechnology. Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme that was originally associated with the adaptive immune system of Streptococcus pyogenes and is now being utilized as a genome editing tool to induce double strand breaks in DNA. CRISPR/Cas9 has advantages in terms of clinical applicability over other genome editing technologies such as zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases because of easy in vivo delivery. Here, we review and discuss the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 to preclinical studies or gene therapy in hereditary movement disorders. PMID:27667185

  1. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of CHO cell factories: Application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Lewis, Nathan E; Faustrup Kildegaard, Helene

    2015-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used production host for therapeutic proteins. With the recent emergence of CHO genome sequences, CHO cell line engineering has taken on a new aspect through targeted genome editing. The bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system enables rapid, easy and efficient engineering of mammalian genomes. It has a wide range of applications from modification of individual genes to genome-wide screening or regulation of genes. Facile genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 empowers researchers in the CHO community to elucidate the mechanistic basis behind high level production of proteins and product quality attributes of interest. In this review, we describe the basis of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and its application for development of next generation CHO cell factories while highlighting both future perspectives and challenges. As one of the main drivers for the CHO systems biology era, genome engineering with CRISPR/Cas9 will pave the way for rational design of CHO cell factories.

  2. Genome engineering in ophthalmology: Application of CRISPR/Cas to the treatment of eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sandy S C; McCaughey, Tristan; Swann, Olivia; Pébay, Alice; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-07-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system has enabled an accurate and efficient means to edit the human genome. Rapid advances in this technology could results in imminent clinical application, and with favourable anatomical and immunological profiles, ophthalmic disease will be at the forefront of such work. There have been a number of breakthroughs improving the specificity and efficacy of CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing. Similarly, better methods to identify off-target cleavage sites have also been developed. With the impending clinical utility of CRISPR/Cas technology, complex ethical issues related to the regulation and management of the precise applications of human gene editing must be considered. This review discusses the current progress and recent breakthroughs in CRISPR/Cas-based gene engineering, and outlines some of the technical issues that must be addressed before gene correction, be it in vivo or in vitro, is integrated into ophthalmic care. We outline a clinical pipeline for CRISPR-based treatments of inherited eye diseases and provide an overview of the important ethical implications of gene editing and how these may influence the future of this technology.

  3. Ordered Au Nanodisk and Nanohole Arrays: Fabrication and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays on substrates and have studied the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the arrays. Through these investigations, we demonstrate that the angle- dependent behavior of the LSPR in the Au nanodisk arrays enables real-time observation of exciton-plasmon couplings. In addition, we show that the NSL-fabricated Au nanohole arrays can be applied as templates for patterning micro-/nanoparticles under capillary force. The unique structural and plasmonic characteristics of the Au nanodisk and nano- hole arrays, as well as the low-cost and high-throughput NSL-based nanofabrication technique, render these arrays excellent platforms for numerous engineering applications. © 2010 by ASME.

  4. Les frameworks au coeur des applications web

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Arielle; Daehne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, Internet est vraiment entré dans les mœurs : tant dans les entreprises qu’au sein de chaque foyer. En effet, Internet permet de communiquer à travers le monde en quelques secondes, de vendre toute sorte de produits en déployant des solutions e-commerce facilement et bien d’autres choses. Internet est donc un véritable vecteur de communication, de commerce et à présent, avec le Web 2.0, un vrai berceau d’informations (tant des informations personnelles que des informati...

  5. The CRISPR/Cas genome-editing tool: application in improvement of crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURENDER eKHATODIA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR associated Cas9/sgRNA system is a novel fledgling targeted genome-editing technique from bacterial immune system, which is a cheap, easy and most rapidly adopted genome editing tool transforming to revolutionary paradigm. Cas9 protein is an RNA guided endonuclease utilized for creating targeted double stranded breaks with only a short RNA sequence to confer recognition of the target in animals and plants. Development of genetically edited (GE crops similar to those developed by conventional or mutation breeding using this potential technique makes it a promising and extremely versatile tool for providing sustainable productive agriculture for better feeding of rapidly growing population in changing climate. The emerging areas of research for the genome editing in plants are like, interrogating gene function, rewiring the regulatory signaling networks, sgRNA library for high-throughput loss-of-function screening. In this review, we will discuss the broad applicability of the Cas9 nuclease mediated targeted plant genome editing for development of designer crops. The regulatory uncertainty and social acceptance of plant breeding by Cas9 genome editing have also been discussed. The non-GM designer genetically edited plants could prospect climate resilient and sustainable energy agriculture in coming future for maximizing the yield by combating abiotic and biotic stresses with this new innovative plant breeding technique.

  6. L’importance des filières locales : le cas de l’huile de palme au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Stéphane

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans une filière, les pays grands exportateurs attirent bien souvent l’attention des développeurs. Cela peut s’expliquer dans le sens où ces pays sont souvent extrêmement dépendants de cette filière, et il convient donc de les aider à se protéger des aléas du marché international. Cependant, dans de nombreux pays, le développement de certaines cultures pérennes tropicales est endogène et ces cultures ont, dans ce cas, toujours eu localement une importance considérable. Même si ces pays n’exportent que peu ou pas, la satisfaction des besoins alimentaires de leurs habitants et, plus généralement, l’économie de ces pays peuvent s’avérer également très dépendantes de cette filière, même si le marché mondial et ses aléas ont dans ce cas moins d’importance. Il en est ainsi de l’huile de palme au Bénin. Si le temps où ce produit occupait la place de première exportation semble bien révolu (le coton dominant largement actuellement, la filière n’en a pas pour autant perdu trop d’importance au regard du nombre de personnes à qui elle fournit un revenu : cultivateurs, transformatrices, commerçants, etc. En termes de consommation, elle représente toujours la moitié des apports lipidiques d’après les experts, soit de 6 à 9 kg/habitant/an. Après avoir présenté la filière huile de palme au Bénin, en insistant sur le secteur de la transformation, nous nous poserons la question de son évolution en nous interrogeant sur la pertinence des programmes de développement menés actuellement, peut-être trop calqués sur ceux des pays exportateurs et pas forcément suffisants pour faire face aux réalités locales du secteur.

  7. Advances and perspectives in the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Gui; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Xiang, Hui; Wang, Wen

    2016-07-18

    Insects compose more than half of all living organisms on earth, playing essential roles in global ecosystems and forming complex relationships with humans. Insect research has significant biological and practical importance. However, the application of genetic manipulation technology has long been restricted to several model insects only, such as gene knockout in Drosophila, which has severely restrained the development of insect biology research. Recently, with the increase in the release of insect genome data and the introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for efficient genetic modification, it has been possible to conduct meaningful functional studies in a broad array of insect species. Here, we summarize the advances in CRISPR/Cas9 in different insect species, discuss methods for its promotion, and consider its application in future insect studies. This review provides detailed information about the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect research and presents possible ways to improve its use in functional studies and insect pest control. PMID:27469253

  8. Development and potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang; Shen, Jacson K; Li, Zhihong; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-04-01

    Sarcomas include some of the most aggressive tumors and typically respond poorly to chemotherapy. In recent years, specific gene fusion/mutations and gene over-expression/activation have been shown to drive sarcoma pathogenesis and development. These emerging genomic alterations may provide targets for novel therapeutic strategies and have the potential to transform sarcoma patient care. The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein-9 nuclease) is a convenient and versatile platform for site-specific genome editing and epigenome targeted modulation. Given that sarcoma is believed to develop as a result of genetic alterations in mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technologies hold extensive application potentials in sarcoma models and therapies. We review the development and mechanisms of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in genome editing and introduce its application in sarcoma research and potential therapy in clinic. Additionally, we propose future directions and discuss the challenges faced with these applications, providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area.

  9. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    of the notch as well as plastic deformations superior to 100%. After a fractography study allowing to identify the nature of the sites which lead to the cleavage initiation, the numerical study shows, particularly, the effect of the adiabatic heating and the taking into account of the growth of cavities around a second population of particles (carbides) on the ductile fissure. The application of the proposed methodology allows to describe the resilience data until middle energies of about 70 J. Beyond, an appearing weak dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature has to be introduced. On the other hand, the evolving of the toughness can be described until middle values of 170 MPa/m without introducing dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature. (O.M.)

  10. BIODIVERSITÉ, ENVIRONNEMENTS ET ÉVOLUTION AU PALÉOZOÏQUE : LE CAS DES VERTÉBRÉS DU CAMBRIEN AU DÉVONIEN (-542 à -359 Ma)

    OpenAIRE

    Blieck, Alain

    2009-01-01

    En accès libre : http://iris.univ-lille1.fr/handle/1908/2915 International audience Les vertébrés du Paléozoïque inférieur et moyen sont des organismes aquatiques. Leurs plus anciens représentants connus aujourd'hui sont des formes « céphalisées » non ossifiées (des craniotes) du Cambrien inférieur de Chine. Les plus anciennes formes ossifiées (des euvertébrés) datent de l'Ordovicien. C'est après la « lacune de Talimaa » que les vertébrés effectuent une première radiation adaptative au ...

  11. La structuration des stratégies au sein de champs en voie d’institutionnalisation : Le cas des banques islamiques au Liban

    OpenAIRE

    Chaar, Abdel-Maoula

    2011-01-01

    Quel lien existe-t-il entre la formation des stratégies et le contexte institutionnel au sein duquel les stratèges opèrent? Pour tenter de répondre à cette question, ce travail doctoral met en œuvre un design de recherche interprétativiste qui permet d'explorer les caractéristiques de la finance islamique avant d'analyser la façon dont les banques islamiques libanaises élaborent et mettent en œuvre leurs stratégies. L'étude révèle que les possibles institutionnels du champ naissant de la fina...

  12. Diversity of CRISPR-Cas-Mediated Mechanisms of Adaptive Immunity in Prokaryotes and Their Application in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitskaya, E E; Musharova, O S; Severinov, K V

    2016-07-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems of adaptive immunity in prokaryotes consist of CRISPR arrays (clusters of short repeated genomic DNA fragments separated by unique spacer sequences) and cas (CRISPR-associated) genes that provide cells with resistance against bacteriophages and plasmids containing protospacers, i.e. sequences complementary to CRISPR array spacers. CRISPR-Cas systems are responsible for two different cellular phenomena: CRISPR adaptation and CRISPR interference. CRISPR adaptation is cell genome modification by integration of new spacers that represents a unique case of Lamarckian inheritance. CRISPR interference involves specific recognition of protospacers in foreign DNA followed by introduction of breaks into this DNA and its destruction. According to the mechanisms of action, CRISPR-Cas systems have been subdivided into two classes, five types, and numerous subtypes. The development of techniques based on CRISPR interference mediated by the Type II system Cas9 protein has revolutionized the field of genome editing because it allows selective, efficient, and relatively simple introduction of directed breaks into target DNA loci. However, practical applications of CRISPR-Cas systems are not limited only to genome editing. In this review, we focus on the variety of CRISPR interference and CRISPR adaptation mechanisms and their prospective use in biotechnology. PMID:27449612

  13. Bright, NIR-emitting Au23 from Au25: characterization and applications including biolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Pal, Samir Kumar; Kumar, R C Arun; Paul, Soumya; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai Vyomakesannair; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2009-10-01

    A novel interfacial route has been developed for the synthesis of a bright-red-emitting new subnanocluster, Au(23), by the core etching of a widely explored and more stable cluster, Au(25)SG(18) (in which SG is glutathione thiolate). A slight modification of this procedure results in the formation of two other known subnanoclusters, Au(22) and Au(33). Whereas Au(22) and Au(23) are water soluble and brightly fluorescent with quantum yields of 2.5 and 1.3 %, respectively, Au(33) is organic soluble and less fluorescent, with a quantum yield of 0.1 %. Au(23) exhibits quenching of fluorescence selectively in the presence of Cu(2+) ions and it can therefore be used as a metal-ion sensor. Aqueous- to organic-phase transfer of Au(23) has been carried out with fluorescence enhancement. Solvent dependency on the fluorescence of Au(23) before and after phase transfer has been studied extensively and the quantum yield of the cluster varies with the solvent used. The temperature response of Au(23) emission has been demonstrated. The inherent fluorescence of Au(23) was used for imaging human hepatoma cells by employing the avidin-biotin interaction. PMID:19711391

  14. Hémophagocytose et coagulation intravasculaire disséminée au cours de la leishmaniose viscérale de l'adulte: trois nouveaux cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Imène; Azzabi, Samira; Chérif, Eya; Kéchaou, Ines; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kooli, Chékib; Aoun, Karim; Khalfallah, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Les atteintes cliniques et biologiques communes au syndrome d'activation macrophagique (SAM) et à la leishmaniose viscérale (LV) rendent le diagnostic étiologique du SAM très difficile. Cette association est rare et grave. Nous rapportons trois nouvelles observations de SAM secondaire à une LV, compliquées de coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (CIVD). Il s'agissait de trois hommes, âgés respectivement de 31, 20 et 60 ans. Le tableau était fait de fièvre et de splénomégalie associés à une pancytopénie et une CIVD. Le diagnostic de LV était fait par le myélogramme, les sérologies et la polymerase chain reaction. Chez l'un de nos patients, une deuxième sérologie était nécessaire. Tous nos patients étaient traités par Glucantime® avec une bonne évolution. Un cas de pancréatite aigue était noté. En en zones d'endémie, devant un SAM compliqué de CIVD, une LV doit être recherchée, en répétant si nécessaire certaines explorations initialement négatives. Le pronostic dépend de la rapidité du traitement spécifique. PMID:26848343

  15. Gouvernance et acteurs privés : le cas de la lutte contre les discriminations au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Cantrelle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Notre travail consiste à mettre à l’épreuve du terrain le concept de gouvernance, entendu comme une forme d’intervention des entreprises dans l’action publique. A travers la problématique des discriminations (fondées sur l’origine ethnique dans le monde du travail, nous montrerons comment une question sociale a été saisie par des acteurs privés auteurs de différentes initiatives telles que la production de rapports dédiés à ce sujet (Bébéar 2004, Sabeg et Méhaignerie 2004...1 et à travers la récente signature de la « Charte de la diversité» par une quarantaine d’entreprises françaises en octobre 2004. Ces différentes initiatives (production de rapport, d’une charte, etc. révèlent la tentation des acteurs privés à ériger un problème public, à influer sur les relations étatiques, à légitimer et à supporter leurs propres explications du réel, des différentes causalités ainsi que des solutions qui s’y rapportent. L’appropriation de cette question des discriminations par les acteurs privés témoigne de leur participation croissante dans les décisions politiques. Elle illustre donc un mode de gestion qui  se codifie au regard de normes négociées, et caractérise en partie les outils et procédés de la gouvernance. Ainsi, à partir du postulat selon lequel la gouvernance est un mode de gestion qui se codifie au regard de normes négociées, nous avons mené une étude sur la « Charte de la diversité »  dans les entreprises rendue publique en octobre 2004. Ce travail permet également de questionner la participation et le rôle des entreprises dans le développement de politiques qui ont trait à la justice sociale et à l’équité. Plus que de « développement durable », on évoque le terme de « responsabilité sociale des entreprises » pour signifier les devoirs qui « s’imposent » à ces organisations économiques.The objective of our paper consists in testing on the

  16. Photochemical preparation and application research of Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Shou-an; SUN; Jia-lin

    2005-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles protected by organic small molecular compounds or macromolecule have attracted considerable attention and their preparation is one of hotspots in the nano-chemical material field due to their ongoing and potential applications in optics, electronics, catalysts and biosensors. In recent years there are many liquid phase chemistry methods to prepare monodispersed gold particles. Among them, the photochemical method is quite attractive because of its some important advantages for size-controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Therefore, in this paper the recert progress of the photochemical preparing Au nanoparticle materials was briefly introduced and mainly emphasized authors' own works of this area.

  17. Application Progress of CRISPR/Cas9 System for Gene Editing in Tumor Research

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chao; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2015-01-01

    TCRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) gene editing system is a new type of gene editing technology developed based on the immune mechanism of archaea resisting the invasion of exogenous nucleic acid. Compared with traditional gene editing system, CRISPR/Cas9 system is more efficient, easier operating, and less cytotoxic. Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology has been applied to many aspects of cancer research, including r...

  18. Nouveaux modes de coordination des acteurs dans le développement local: cas des zones rurales au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Hounmenou

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Les politiques de développement en cours dans plusieurs pays du sud, notamment dans ceux de l’Afrique sub-saharienne ont amorcé un nouveau tournant à partir de la fin des années 1980. A la faveur de l’instauration du climat de démocratie dans plusieurs de ces pays à partir de cette période, nombre d’entre eux ont procédé à de profondes réformes, donnant à la société civile et aux populations à la base, un droit de regard plus important dans la conduite des affaires les concernant. L’une des manifestations les plus importantes de ces réformes se traduit par la mise en œuvre de la décentralisation. Ce processus vise entre autres, la prise en compte des réalités locales et la responsabilisation des communautés à la base dans la gestion de leur développement. Il s’agit en d’autres termes, de favoriser le renforcement des capacités des populations locales, en vue de leur permettre de prendre en charge de façon durable, la gestion de leurs propres affaires dans le cadre de la gouvernance participative. Amorcé en janvier 1993, avec les états généraux de l’administration territoriale, le processus de la décentralisation au Bénin n’a connu sa phase de concrétisation qu’avec les élections et l’installation des élus locaux en début 2003. En prélude à l’avènement de la décentralisation, plusieurs localités béninoises font l’objet, depuis le milieu des années 1990, d’expériences d’appui au développement des communautés locales. C’est le cas notamment, des villages des départements de l’Atlantique et des Collines. A travers ces expériences, se mettent en place, divers dispositifs de gouvernance locale au sein des systèmes locaux d’action publique relatifs aux localités rurales. Il s’agit notamment, des comités villageois de suivi ou de gestion, des dispositifs de comités villageois de développement dans le département de l’Atlantique, et du dispositif des projets de

  19. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术在农业动物中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸宇云; 杨强; 任军

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR(Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas(CRISPR associated proteins)是在细菌和古细菌中发现的一种用来抵御病毒或质粒入侵的获得性免疫系统.目前已发现的CRISPR/Cas系统包括Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ型,其中Ⅱ型系统的组成较简单,由其改造成的CRISPR/Cas9技术已成为一种高效的基因组编辑工具.自2013年CRISPR/Cas9技术成功用于哺乳动物基因组定点编辑以来,应用该技术进行基因组编辑的报道呈现出爆发式的增长.农业动物不仅是重要的经济动物,也是人类疾病和生物医药研究的重要模式动物.本文综述了CRISPR/Cas9技术在农业动物中的研究和应用进展,简述了该技术的脱靶效应及减少脱靶的主要方法,并展望了该技术的应用前景.%CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, of which type Ⅱ has relatively sim-ple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important ani-mals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the ap-plications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  20. Thermal stability of Mo/Au bilayers for TES applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo/Au bilayers are among the most suitable materials to be used as transition-edge sensors (TES) in cryogenic microcalorimeters and bolometers, developed, among other fields, for space missions. For this purpose the thermal stability of TES at temperatures below 150 °C is a critical issue. We report on the dependence of functional properties (superconducting critical temperature, residual resistance and α) as well as on microstructure, chemical composition and interface quality for optimized high quality Mo/Au bilayers on annealing temperature and time. Data show that the functional properties of the bilayers remain stable at T C at T ≥ 200 °C are mainly due to an increase in the average Au grain size and to Au migration along the Mo grain boundaries at the Au/Mo interface. A way to stabilize the functional properties of the Mo/Au bilayers against temperature enhancements is proposed. (paper)

  1. CRISPR/Cas9系统在基因表达调控中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 System for Gene Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泽辉; 贾存灵; 张智英

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9系统是2012年发展起来由RNA导向的基因组编辑技术.相比ZFN和TALENs技术,CRISPR/Cas9系统具有类似的打靶效率,且更易于操作.通过将核酸酶Cas9蛋白D10A和H840A位点突变,可以获得失去切割活性的dCas9蛋白.借助导向RNA将dCas9与DNA特定位点结合的作用,可以实现抑制或激活基因转录,从而达到对特定基因表达进行调控的目的.本文主要从作用原理、影响因素等方面综述了CRISPR/Cas9系统在基因调控中的应用,以期为相关研究提供参考.

  2. Applications of Engineered DNA-Binding Molecules Such as TAL Proteins and the CRISPR/Cas System in Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitsugu Fujita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered DNA-binding molecules such as transcription activator-like effector (TAL or TALE proteins and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas (CRISPR/Cas system have been used extensively for genome editing in cells of various types and species. The sequence-specific DNA-binding activities of these engineered DNA-binding molecules can also be utilized for other purposes, such as transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression, chromatin modification, visualization of genomic regions, and isolation of chromatin in a locus-specific manner. In this review, we describe applications of these engineered DNA-binding molecules for biological purposes other than genome editing.

  3. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted mutagenesis, gene replacement and stacking of genes in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mutagenesis continues to play an essential role for understanding plant gene function and, in some instances, provides an opportunity for plant improvement. The development of gene editing technologies such as TALENs and zinc fingers has revolutionised the targeted mutation specificity that can now be achieved. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is the most recent addition to gene editing technologies and arguably the simplest requiring only two components; a small guide RNA molecule (sgRNA) and Cas9 endonuclease protein which complex to recognise and cleave a specific 20 bp target site present in a genome. Target specificity is determined by complementary base pairing between the sgRNA and target site sequence enabling highly specific, targeted mutation to be readily engineered. Upon target site cleavage, error-prone endogenous repair mechanisms produce small insertion/deletions at the target site usually resulting in loss of gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has been rapidly adopted in plants and successfully undertaken in numerous species including major crop species. Its applications are not restricted to mutagenesis and target site cleavage can be exploited to promote sequence insertion or replacement by recombination. The multiple applications of this technology in plants are described. PMID:27146973

  4. The big bang of genome editing technology: development and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in disease animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Xu, Tian-Rui; Chen, Ce-Shi

    2016-07-18

    Targeted genome editing technology has been widely used in biomedical studies. The CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has become a versatile genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is useful for studying gene function through efficient knock-out, knock-in or chromatin modification of the targeted gene loci in various cell types and organisms. It can be applied in a number of fields, such as genetic breeding, disease treatment and gene functional investigation. In this review, we introduce the most recent developments and applications, the challenges, and future directions of Cas9 in generating disease animal model. Derived from the CRISPR adaptive immune system of bacteria, the development trend of Cas9 will inevitably fuel the vital applications from basic research to biotechnology and bio-medicine. PMID:27469250

  5. The big bang of genome editing technology: development and application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in disease animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAO, Ming; XU, Tian-Rui; CHEN, Ce-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Targeted genome editing technology has been widely used in biomedical studies. The CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has become a versatile genome editing tool. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is useful for studying gene function through efficient knock-out, knock-in or chromatin modification of the targeted gene loci in various cell types and organisms. It can be applied in a number of fields, such as genetic breeding, disease treatment and gene functional investigation. In this review, we introduce the most recent developments and applications, the challenges, and future directions of Cas9 in generating disease animal model. Derived from the CRISPR adaptive immune system of bacteria, the development trend of Cas9 will inevitably fuel the vital applications from basic research to biotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:27469250

  6. Intermédialité et vulgarisation des savoirs historiques à l’ère de la post-radiophonie : le cas de « Au cœur de l’histoire » (Europe 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Equoy Hutin, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude interroge les dynamiques de passage d’un média – la radio – à un autre – le web – et les modalités de mise en scène des savoirs historiques dans le cadre d’une approche sémio-pragmatique de la communication mass-médiatique. Comment fait-on de « l’histoire pour tous » à l’heure de la webradiophonie ? A travers une étude de cas consacrée à l’émission « Au cœur de l’Histoire » présentée par Franck Ferrand et diffusée sur la station Europe 1, nous montrons que le contexte d’intermédia...

  7. [Application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for constructing animal models of human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhanhui; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a new targeted nuclease for genome editing, which can directly introduce modifications at the targeted genomic locus. The system utilizes a short single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct the endonuclease Cas9 in the genome. Upon targeting, Cas9 can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As such DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR), therefore facilitates introduction of random or specific mutations, repair of endogenous mutations, or insertion of DNA elements. The system has been successfully used to generate gene targeted cell lines including those of human, animals and plants. This article reviews recent advances made in this rapidly evolving technique for the generation of animal models for human diseases.

  8. [Application of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for constructing animal models of human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhanhui; Sun, Xiaofang

    2016-08-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a new targeted nuclease for genome editing, which can directly introduce modifications at the targeted genomic locus. The system utilizes a short single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct the endonuclease Cas9 in the genome. Upon targeting, Cas9 can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As such DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR), therefore facilitates introduction of random or specific mutations, repair of endogenous mutations, or insertion of DNA elements. The system has been successfully used to generate gene targeted cell lines including those of human, animals and plants. This article reviews recent advances made in this rapidly evolving technique for the generation of animal models for human diseases. PMID:27455021

  9. Application Progress of CRISPR/Cas9 System for Gene Editing in Tumor Research%CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑系统在肿瘤研究中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 李志伟; 张艳桥

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9(Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9)基因编辑系统是基于古细菌抵御外源核酸入侵的免疫机制为基础开发出来的一种新型的基因编辑技术。相对于传统的基因编辑系统,该系统具有更加高效、操作简单、细胞毒性小等特点。目前,CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑技术已经在肿瘤研究的诸多方面中得到应用,包括肿瘤相关基因的功能研究、构建动物肿瘤模型、筛选肿瘤细胞表型及耐药相关基因以及肿瘤的基因治疗等诸多方面。本文就其在肿瘤研究中的应用进展进行综述。%TCRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) gene editing system is a new type of gene editing technology developed based on the immune mechanism of ar-chaea resisting the invasion of exogenous nucleic acid. Compared with traditional gene editing system, CRISPR/Cas9 system is more effcient, easier operating, and less cytotoxic. Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology has been applied to many aspects of cancer research, including research on cancer genes, constructing animal tumor models, screening tumor resistance-associated and phenotypic-related genes and cancer gene therapy. In this review, the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in tumor research were introduced.

  10. The CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene editing and its potential application in pain research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linlin; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a research hotspot in genome editing and regulation. Currently, it is used in genomic silencing and knock-in experiments as well as transcriptional activation and repression. This versatile system consists of two components: a guide RNA (gRNA) and a Cas9 nuclease. Recognition of a genomic DNA target is mediated through base pairing with a 20-base gRNA. The latter further recruits the Cas9 endonuclease protein to the target site and creates double-stranded breaks in the target DNA. Compared with traditional genome editing directed by DNA-binding protein domains, this short RNA-directed Cas9 endonuclease system is simple and easily programmable. Although this system may have off-target effects and in vivo delivery and immune challenges, researchers have employed this system in vivo to establish disease models, study specific gene functions under certain disease conditions, and correct genomic information for disease treatment. In regards to pain research, the CRISPR/Cas9 system may act as a novel tool in gene correction therapy for pain-associated hereditary diseases and may be a new approach for RNA-guided transcriptional activation or repression of pain-related genes. In addition, this system is also applied to loss-of-function mutations in pain-related genes and knockin of reporter genes or loxP tags at pain-related genomic loci. The CRISPR/Cas9 system will likely be carried out widely in both bench work and clinical settings in the pain field. PMID:27500183

  11. [Application progress of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in the treatment of HIV-1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yinglun; Li, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    The goal of gene therapy is to introduce foreign genes into human target cells in a certain way to correct or compensate diseases caused by defective or abnormal genes. Therefore, gene therapy has great practical significance in studying the treatment of persistent or latent HIV-1 infection. At present, the existing methods of gene therapy have some major defects such as limited target site recognition and high frequency of off-targets. The latest research showed that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) /CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) system from bacteria and archaea has been successfully reformed to a targeted genome editing tool. Thus, how to achieve the goal of treating HIV-1 infection by modifying targeted HIV-1 virus genome effectively using the CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a current research focus. Here we review the latest achievements worldwide and briefly introduce applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, including CCR5 gene editing, removal of HIV-1 virus and activation of HIV-1 virus, in order to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  12. Various applications of TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination to modify the Drosophila genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongsheng Yu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modifying the genomes of many organisms is becoming as easy as manipulating DNA in test tubes, which is made possible by two recently developed techniques based on either the customizable DNA binding protein, TALEN, or the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Here, we describe a series of efficient applications derived from these two technologies, in combination with various homologous donor DNA plasmids, to manipulate the Drosophila genome: (1 to precisely generate genomic deletions; (2 to make genomic replacement of a DNA fragment at single nucleotide resolution; and (3 to generate precise insertions to tag target proteins for tracing their endogenous expressions. For more convenient genomic manipulations, we established an easy-to-screen platform by knocking in a white marker through homologous recombination. Further, we provided a strategy to remove the unwanted duplications generated during the “ends-in” recombination process. Our results also indicate that TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 had comparable efficiency in mediating genomic modifications through HDR (homology-directed repair; either TALEN or the CRISPR/Cas9 system could efficiently mediate in vivo replacement of DNA fragments of up to 5 kb in Drosophila, providing an ideal genetic tool for functional annotations of the Drosophila genome.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9的应用及脱靶效应研究进展%Progress of application and off-target effects of CRISPR/Cas9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑武; 谷峰

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system mediates genome editing and is revolutionizing genetic researches. Scientists are able to manipulate the gene of interest from any organism with CRISPR/Cas9. Compared with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like ef-fector nucleases (TALENs) technologies, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology provides an easy and efficient approach to manipulate the genome. In this system, sgRNA (Single guide RNA), a short RNA matching the targeted DNA frag-ment, guides the CRISPR/Cas9 to interrogate the genome. Because sgRNA can tolerate certain mismatches to the DNA targets and thereby promote undesired off-target mutagenesis, the key limit of this technology is off-target ef-fects. To eliminate the off-target effects, different strategies have been adopted. In this review, we summarize the application of CRISPR/Cas9 and different strategies for addressing off-target effects.%CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑技术在生命科学领域掀起了一场全新的技术革命,该技术可以对基因组特定位点进行靶向编辑,包括缺失、插入、修复等。CRISPR/Cas9比锌指核酸酶(ZFNs)和转录激活因子样效应物核酸酶(TALENs)技术更易于操作,而且更高效。CRISPR/Cas9系统中的向导RNA(Single guide RNA, sgRNA)是一段与目标DNA片段匹配的RNA序列,指导Cas9蛋白对基因组进行识别。研究发现,设计的sgRNA会与非靶点DNA 序列错配,引入非预期的基因突变,即脱靶效应(Off-target effects)。脱靶效应严重制约了 CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑技术的广泛应用。为了避免脱靶效应,研究者对影响脱靶效应的因素进行了系统研究并提出了许多降低脱靶效应的方法。文章总结了 CRISPR/Cas9系统的应用及脱靶效应研究进展,以期为相关领域的工作提供参考。

  14. Potential Applications of CRISPR-Cas9 to Treatment of Human Dis-eases%CRISPR-Cas9技术在人类疾病治疗中的潜在应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志聪; 刘宇辰; 黄卫人

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9的发明为生物学领域带来一场新的技术革命。 CRISPR-Cas系统是一种存在于多种细菌和古菌内针对外源遗传物质侵袭的获得性免疫系统,由规律性重复短回文序列簇及其相关蛋白组成。近年该系统被发展成一种由CRISPR相关RNA介导的Cas9核酸内切酶靶向基因编辑技术,在科研、医学及生物技术等多个领域上被广泛应用。 CRISPR-Cas9技术多功能及可编程特点,令其在动物模型制备、物种改良等方面取得重要应用。同时在遗传性疾病、恶性肿瘤、感染性疾病等许多疾病的研究、治疗及预防上均显示出巨大应用潜力。%A new revolution has been sparked in biological field due to the invention of CRISPR-Cas9 technology. CRISPR-Cas system, which is comprised of clustered regularly-inter-spaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and associated proteins (Cas), confers adaptive im-munity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. During recent years, this sys-tem has been developed to a CRISPR-associated RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 targeted genome editing tool. It has been widely applied in many fields such as basic biology, biotechnology and medicine. With the versatile functions and programmability, CRISPR-Cas9 has been greatly used for animal model generation, species improvement and so on. Also it shows great application poten-tial in the study, treatment, and prevention of many human diseases ( including genetic diseases, cancers, infectious diseases, etc) .

  15. CRISPR-Cas9基因编辑技术在病毒感染疾病治疗中的应用%The application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology in viral infection diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷利眷; 胡斯奇; 郭斐

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic re-peats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. The specific targeted genome is recognized and cut by gRNA-directed CRISPR/Cas9 complex, specifically by the endonuclease Cas9. The targeted gene locus could be repaired either by homology-directed repair or nonhomologous end joining, thus achieving a desired editing outcome. Viruses infect cells through specific receptors, and then the viral genome is transcribed, replicated and translated to complete its life cycle. As a result, some DNA virus and re-trovirus genomes are integrated into the cellular genome. Gene therapy is a new trend to treat viral infected diseases. Given its designable sequence-specific editing of the targeted genome, CRISPR/Cas9 has tremendous potential in treating persistent and latent viral infections. In this review, we summarize the mechanism and progresses of CRISPR/Cas9, and also highlight its therapeutic application in infectious diseases.%CRISPR-Cas9基因编辑技术是基于细菌或古细菌CRISPR介导的获得性免疫系统衍生而来,由一段RNA通过碱基互补配对识别 DNA,指导 Cas9 核酸酶切割识别的双链 DNA,诱发同源重组或非同源末端链接,进而实现在目的DNA上进行编辑.病毒通过特异的受体侵染细胞,其基因组在细胞内发生复制、转录、翻译等过程完成其生活周期,某些DNA病毒或逆转录病毒基因组会整合到宿主基因组中.基因治疗是病毒感染疾病治疗的新趋势.因此,基因编辑技术在持续感染的病毒或潜伏感染病毒疾病治疗中具有重大的潜在意义.文章主要从CRISPR-Cas9作用机制以及在病毒感染疾病治疗中的应用等方面进行了综述.

  16. Melæna massif révélant un syndrome de Peutz-Jeghers vu au CHU-JRA Madagascar: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, Andrianimaro Florelia; Andriantsoa, Rasoanaivo Mamy; Andriambelo, Rajaonera Tovohery; Nicole, Rakotoarison Ratsaraharimanana Cathérine; Enintsoa, Raveloson Nasolotsiry

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de Peutz-Jeghers (SPJ) est caractérisé par l'association d'une polypose digestive hamartomateuse et d'une lentiginose cutanéo-muqueuse. Les malades sont exposés à des complications mécaniques et hémorragiques. Il s'agit d'un syndrome de prédisposition au cancer. Notre étude a pour objectif de rappeler les diagnostiques d'un syndrome de Peutz-Jeghers, de connaitre les complications ainsi que les progrès thérapeutiques dans la prise en charge. Nous avons rapporté le cas d'un homme de 32 ans présentant un melaena massif. Il a été hospitalisé en service de réanimation chirurgicale pour état de choc hypovolémique difficile à contrôler. Il a nécessité une intervention chirurgicale pour arrêter l'hémorragie. Nous avons trouvé un polype hamartomateux dans le grêle qui a causé le saignement. Le diagnostic d'un Syndrome de Peutz-Jeghers a été posé devant la notion de lentiginose labiale pendant l'enfance. Lors de l'exploration clinique et paraclinique, il ne présente pas encore de cancer. A Madagascar, cette pathologie est encore mal connue. Dans la littérature, le syndrome de Peutz-Jeghers peut être révélé cliniquement ou au stade de complication comme l'hémorragie, l'invagination ou l'occlusion intestinale. Dans notre cas, la maladie est compliquée d'une hémorragie digestive avec état de choc hypovolémique. La polypectomie endoscopique par entéroscopie à double ballonnet permet de diminuer le recours à la chirurgie grêlique d'urgence. Le syndrome de Peutz-Jeghers est une affection rare. Mais il est important aux cliniciens de le connaitre et de penser à sa possibilité en cas d'hémorragie digestive. PMID:27217901

  17. Mise en pratique du schéma 2BSvs dans le groupe industriel Sofiprotéol : étude de cas sur toute la filière (de l’agriculteur au pétrolier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizouarn Kristell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pour réduire sensiblement les émissions de CO liées aux transports routiers, l’Union européenne mise sur le développement des biocarburants, en respectant des conditions de durabilité. Afin de répondre à cette obligation et d’être en mesure de démontrer la conformité du biodiesel à ces critères, depuis l’agriculteur jusqu’au distributeur pétrolier, la filière des oléagineux a engagé la rédaction d’un schéma de vérification volontaire : 2BSvs, pour Biomasse Biocarburant Schéma volontaire sur la durabilité. Reconnu par la Commission Européenne le 19 juillet 2011, le schéma 2BSvs couvre l’ensemble de la chaîne de production des biocarburants, du producteur de biomasse à l’entrée dans un entrepôt sous douanes. À travers une étude de cas sur toute la filière, de l’agriculteur au pétrolier, cet article présente les implications pour les acteurs de la filière oléagineuse, les changements intervenus depuis avril 2013, et les défis futurs à relever.

  18. Atrophie cérébrale diffuse au cours d'un syndrome de Goldenhar: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asani, Yogolelo; Mulenga, Cilundika; Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Mbuyi-Musansayi; Muenze, Kalenga; Borasisi, Chenge; Speeg-Schatz

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas d'un syndrome de Goldenhar non décris dans la littérature chez un nourrisson de 3 mois, de sexe féminin présentant une atrophie cérébrale diffuse. Cette observation permet de décrire cette malformation rare et d'attirer l'attention de l'opinion scientifique à mettre en marche des études poussées afin de comprendre la survenue de cette pathologie. PMID:25767659

  19. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering of CHO cell factories: application and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Lewis, Nathan E.;

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most widely used production host for therapeutic proteins.With the recent emergence of CHO genome sequences, CHO cell line engineering has takenon a new aspect through targeted genome editing. The bacterial clustered regularly interspacedshort palindromic...... highlighting both future perspectivesand challenges. As one of the main drivers for the CHO systems biology era, genome engineeringwith CRISPR/Cas9 will pave the way for rational design of CHO cell factories....

  20. Gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles au Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest : le cas de la vallée du Sitatunga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricette Dovonou-Vinagbè

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Le Bénin, pays de l’Afrique de l’Ouest est confronté à la destruction des terres humides particulièrement dans la partie sud du pays. Les terres humides riches biodiversité sont importantes tant pour les humains que pour milieu naturel. La menace la plus importante est la pression du anthropique. Même si ce territoire est reconnu par la Convention Ramsar, la destruction continue. En 1995 le gouvernement a décidé de créer une aire de gestion communautaire pour ces territoires. L’objectif de  cette recherche est de comprendre les grands défis liés à la mise en œuvre de la gestion communautaire des milieux humides à travers une étude de cas, en l’occurrence celui de la vallée du Sitatunga. Pour atteindre cet objectif, un séjour de 3 mois a été effectué sur le site. Des entrevues semi-dirigées ont été alors réalisées. Les résultats montrent que la vallée du Sitatunga est considérée comme inutile voire nuisible par les populations riveraines rencontrées dans le cadre de l’étude, qui sont davantage préoccupées à se sortir de leur état de pauvreté. Les traditions et valeurs autrefois attribuées à la conservation des milieux humides ont quasiment disparues et l’individualisme est grandissant. Il importe de tenir compte de tous ces facteurs pour espérer véritablement préserver ces milieux. D’un autre côté, parlant de gestion de l’environnement et plus particulièrement de gestion des milieux humides à l’échelle béninoise, le constat n’est pas reluisant. En effet, l’État étant donné son état de sous-développement et donc de manque de ressources, à du mal à coordonner ces activités. Il est de même pour les ONG. La situation est accentuée par l’état des relations entre ONG et structures de l’État qui se considèrent davantage comme des adversaires que comme des partenaires ce qui affecte l’efficacité des activités menées. Pour que la gestion communautaire devienne une

  1. Enzymatic deposition of Au nanoparticles on the designed electrode surface and its application in glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfang; Liu, Ruixiao; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin

    2011-02-01

    This paper reported the enzymatic deposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the designed 3-mercapto-propionic acid/glucose oxidase/chitosan (MPA/GOD/Chit) modified glassy carbon electrode and its application in glucose detection. Chit served as GOD immobilization matrix and interacted with MPA through electrostatic attraction. AuNPs, without nano-seeds presented on the electrode surface, was produced through the glucose oxidase catalyzed oxidation of glucose. The mechanism of production of AuNPs was confirmed to be that enzymatic reaction products H(2)O(2) in the solution reduce gold complex to AuNPs. The characterizations of the electrode modified after each assembly step was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed the average particle size of the AuNPs is 40nm with a narrow particle size distribution. The content of AuNPs on the electrode surfaces was measured by differential pulse stripping voltammetry. The electrochemical signals on voltammogram showed a linear increase with the glucose concentration in the range of 0.010-0.12mM with a detection limit of 4μM. This provided a method to the determination of glucose. PMID:21115279

  2. Research Techniques Made Simple: The Application of CRISPR-Cas9 and Genome Editing in Investigative Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Joan Ramon; Johnson, Jodi L.; Chien, Wade W.

    2016-01-01

    Designer nucleases have gained widespread attention for their ability to precisely modify genomic DNA in a programmable manner. These genome-editing nucleases make double-stranded breaks at specified loci, and desired changes can be made to modify, ablate, or excise target genes. This technology has been used widely to develop human disease models in laboratory animals and to study gene functions by silencing, activating, or modifying them. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a bacterially derived programmable nuclease termed clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has revolutionized the field because of its versatility and wide applicability. In this article, we discuss various modalities used to achieve genome editing with an emphasis on CRISPR-Cas9. We discuss genome-editing strategies to either repair or ablate target genes, with emphasis on their applications for investigating dermatological diseases. Additionally, we highlight preclinical studies showing the potential of genome editing as a therapy for congenital blistering diseases and as an antimicrobial agent, and we discuss limitations and future directions of this technology. PMID:27542298

  3. MacSyFinder: a program to mine genomes for molecular systems with an application to CRISPR-Cas systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S Abby

    Full Text Available Biologists often wish to use their knowledge on a few experimental models of a given molecular system to identify homologs in genomic data. We developed a generic tool for this purpose.Macromolecular System Finder (MacSyFinder provides a flexible framework to model the properties of molecular systems (cellular machinery or pathway including their components, evolutionary associations with other systems and genetic architecture. Modelled features also include functional analogs, and the multiple uses of a same component by different systems. Models are used to search for molecular systems in complete genomes or in unstructured data like metagenomes. The components of the systems are searched by sequence similarity using Hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles. The assignment of hits to a given system is decided based on compliance with the content and organization of the system model. A graphical interface, MacSyView, facilitates the analysis of the results by showing overviews of component content and genomic context. To exemplify the use of MacSyFinder we built models to detect and class CRISPR-Cas systems following a previously established classification. We show that MacSyFinder allows to easily define an accurate "Cas-finder" using publicly available protein profiles.MacSyFinder is a standalone application implemented in Python. It requires Python 2.7, Hmmer and makeblastdb (version 2.2.28 or higher. It is freely available with its source code under a GPLv3 license at https://github.com/gem-pasteur/macsyfinder. It is compatible with all platforms supporting Python and Hmmer/makeblastdb. The "Cas-finder" (models and HMM profiles is distributed as a compressed tarball archive as Supporting Information.

  4. The Application Research of CRISPR/Cas9%CRISPR/Cas9技术的应用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒磊磊; 甲芝莲; 吴勇浒; 索伦; 贾丽玲

    2016-01-01

    旨在探索CRISPR/Cas9技术的新应用,本研究通过在小鼠遗传操作(Genetic manipulation)中使用该技术,创建了一种在活体组织内研究基因功能的方法.通过胚胎电转、免疫组化和PCR分析等手段,结果发现,针对DCX基因进行编辑,再现了DCX下调导致神经元迁移障碍的表型,说明该技术能够用于小鼠遗传操作中下调基因表达;其次,该技术还成功应用于Pcdhα基因簇的编辑并研究了基因簇恒定区的功能;最后,通过基因型鉴定发现,胚胎电转中使用CRISPR/Cas9会导致目的基因的敲除、反转和重复事件的发生.综上所述,在小鼠胚胎电转中使用CRISPR/Cas9技术,能够成功编辑目的基因,从而实现活体组织内研究基因的在体功能.

  5. L’orientation au travail des générations : le cas de la génération X au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fleury

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article examine l’évolution de l’orientation au travail des membres de la génération X au Québec, génération dont les difficultés d’insertion professionnelle et les valeurs de jeunesse ont suscité de multiples interrogations au cours des années 1980 et au début des années 1990. S’appuyant sur des données d’enquête récoltées entre 1981 et 2006, il examine plus spécifiquement l’évolution de la valeur accordée au travail et de la signification du travail au sein de cette génération et en regard des autres générations. Il montre que, contrairement aux thèses défendues par plusieurs sociologues de la jeunesse au cours des années 1980 et 1990, l’orientation au travail des membres de la génération X se distingue assez peu de celle des autres générations. Il conclut que les difficultés économiques rencontrées de manière toute particulière par les membres de la génération X au moment de leur insertion professionnelle n’ont pas modifié, de manière durable et typique, leur orientation au travail.This paper examines the evolution of work orientation of members of the X generation in Quebec whose difficulties of employability and youth values sparked multiple questions in the 1980s and early 1990s. Based on survey data collected between 1981 and 2006, it specifically examines the evolution of the importance given to work and the meaning of work in this generation when compared with other generations. It shows that unlike numerous theses defended by some youth sociologists in the 1980s and 1990s, work orientation of the members of the X generation differs little from other generations. It concludes that the specific economic difficulties experienced by members of X generation have not changed their work orientation in a typical and sustainable way.Este artículo examina la evolución de la orientación laboral de los miembros de la generación X en Quebec cuyos problemas de inserción laboral y

  6. Application of Cryopreserved Fibroblast Culture with Au Nanoparticles to Treat Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Nataliia; Yukhta, Mariia; Pavlovich, Olena; Goltsev, Anatoliy

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to investigate a possibility of using the cryopreserved human culture of fibroblasts (CrHFC) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to treat experimental burns in rats.The third-degree burns were modeled in white male rats. All the animals with burns were divided into three experimental groups: control group with no wound treatment; group 1 was composed of animals with CrHFC application; and group 2 consisted of those with CrHFC and AuNPs (6 μg/ml) application to a burn surface the next day after the injury. The CrHFC was applied to the methylcellulose gel in a dose of 5 × 10(4) of viable cells per 1 cm(2) of the burn. The animals were removed from the experiment on day 21 after the treatment.The CrHFC use alone and with AuNPs to the surface of burns stimulated the wound healing compared with the control. The effect of using CrHFC was less pronounced compared to the CrHFC application with AuNPs. It was reflected in a slower recovery of burns and moderate lymphocytic infiltration of granulation tissue. Immunofluorescent analysis emphasized that the use of CrHFC with AuNPs accelerated the skin synthetic processes and was helpful in recovering type I and III collagen content on day 21 after therapy.The results were likely related primarily to the unique structure and antimicrobial properties of AuNPs. Our experimental study of the effect of CrHFC with AuNPs application on regenerative processes in burns gives some pre-conditions to the following advanced bio- and nanotechnology developments. PMID:26762263

  7. Au croisement des mondialisations. Le cas du chanteur Sami Yusuf At the Crossroads of Globalisation : the Singer Sami Yusuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid El Asri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis une dizaine d’années, apparaissent dans le paysage culturel des Musul­mans d’Europe des artistes qui affirment leur foi tout en délivrant un message d’émancipation. Leur art s’articule sur des référents relevant de sphères a priori éloignées. Nous découvrons ainsi des chanteurs dont l’approche artistique est métissée par les interpénétrations des perceptions. Ces “nouvelles stars” s’exportent, au-delà des frontières européennes, au gré du succès qu’ils rem­portent auprès du public. Ainsi, le monde musulman suit-il le parcours de tel ou tel chanteur musulman d’Europe. Le profil de Sami Yusuf est à cet égard para­digmatique. Résidant à Londres, il s’est fait connaître par un style musical qui tente de concilier la tradition du Nasheed, l’éthique langagière et l’esthétique occidentale. Cette relation entre des expressions artistiques locales qui se globalisent nous amène à déconstruire les mécanismes mis en œuvre tant au niveau technique qu’au niveau de l’imaginaire du fan.During the last decennium Muslim artists have emerged in Europe who without renouncing their religion makes for more freedom. Singers, for instance, availing themselves of instruments of dubious orthodoxy, have contributed to the cultural globalization now afoot. These stars are applauded beyond the frontiers of the Old World and their careers are followed eagerly in the Muslim world – Sami Yusuf being typical. Living in London he has combined traditional Nasheed songs with the aesthetic and committed accents of western culture. An analytical understanding of this phenomenon is here proposed.

  8. Enjeux identitaires au sein d’une situation de conseil pédagogique : une étude de cas à l’école primaire  

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Roux, Thérèse

    2010-01-01

    La contribution se centre sur un entretien de conseil qui fait suite à une observation de classe primaire. L’entretien concerne un Professeur d’Ecole néo-titulaire (T1) et une conseillère pédagogique (CP), débutante dans la fonction. Les résultats mettent en relief de nombreuses tensions entre registres de pensée et d’action ; ils montrent dans quelle mesure, au cours de l’interaction, chaque protagoniste (T1/CP) essaie de les dépasser. Ainsi, la situation de conseil pédagogique étudiée const...

  9. Nommer le conflit. Le cas de l’Alsace pendant son annexion de fait au Troisième Reich, 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Ségolène Verneret

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des comportements et opinions de la population en Alsace entre 1940 et 1945 fait appel à la nécessité de nommer une conflictualité parfois floue, ambivalente et qui évolue au cours de la période. Il convient de s’interroger sur l’adaptation des outils de définition des comportements développés en France et en Allemagne pour la situation alsacienne pendant l’annexion de fait de son territoire.   Alsace 1940-1945, oppositions au nazisme, comportements collectifsDie Erforschung des Verhaltens und der Meinung der Bevölkerung im Elsass zwischen 1940-1945 bringt die Notwendigkeit mit sich, eine zuweilen undurchsichtige, zweideutige Konfliktträchtigkeit zu benennen, die sich im Zeitraum der Annektierung zudem entwickelte. Die methodischen Werkzeuge zur Definition kollektiven Verhaltens, die in Frankreich und Deutschland für diesen elsässischen Fall entwickelt wurden, müssen hierbei angepasst werden.

  10. Core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles as cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaixiu; Chen, Dong; Lv, Pengmei; Kong, Xiaoying; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structures usually display enhanced catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created between the core and shell regions. In this study, we demonstrate the application of bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a thin Pd shell as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells, which represent a promising technology for wastewater treatment, while directly generating electrical energy. In specific, in comparison with the hollow structured Pt nanoparticles, a benchmark for the electrocatalysis, the bimetallic core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles are found to have superior activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction in a neutral condition due to the strong electronic interaction and lattice strain effect between the Au core and the Pd shell domains. The maximum power density generated in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell running on wastewater with core-shell Au-Pd as cathode catalysts is ca. 16.0 W m−3 and remains stable over 150 days, clearly illustrating the potential of core-shell nanostructures in the applications of microbial fuel cells. PMID:27734945

  11. Core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles as cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaixiu; Chen, Dong; Lv, Pengmei; Kong, Xiaoying; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structures usually display enhanced catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created between the core and shell regions. In this study, we demonstrate the application of bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a thin Pd shell as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells, which represent a promising technology for wastewater treatment, while directly generating electrical energy. In specific, in comparison with the hollow structured Pt nanoparticles, a benchmark for the electrocatalysis, the bimetallic core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles are found to have superior activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction in a neutral condition due to the strong electronic interaction and lattice strain effect between the Au core and the Pd shell domains. The maximum power density generated in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell running on wastewater with core-shell Au-Pd as cathode catalysts is ca. 16.0 W m‑3 and remains stable over 150 days, clearly illustrating the potential of core-shell nanostructures in the applications of microbial fuel cells.

  12. Produire de la capacité de gestion de crise internationale: le cas de l'OTAN au cours des années 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wasinski, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Cette analyse soulève la question de savoir comment l’OTAN parvient à créer sa capacité de gestion de crise. Plus précisément, elle s’intéresse, dans une optique sociologique constructiviste à ceux qui, en parlant au nom de l’OTAN, parviennent à fonder et diffuser la représentation de l’organisation en tant qu’entité capable de résoudre des crises internationales (comme en Afghanistan de nos jours). Le questionnement ne porte donc pas sur la mise en place d’une capacité matérielle de gestion ...

  13. Une reine entre ombres et lumières ou le pouvoir au féminin : le cas d’Isabelle Bourbon, reine d’Espagne, première femme de Philippe IV (1603-1644

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Sicard

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Le rôle de la Reine et sa relation au pouvoir sont strictement réglementés, mais son influence politique est paradoxalement difficile à apprécier car elle s’exerce à l’ombre de ce qui est permis. Isabelle de Bourbon, née Princesse de France, épouse en 1615 le Prince héritier Philippe d’Espagne et fait partie de ces Reines de l’ombre, peu étudiées. Elevée dans une certaine liberté, le contraste avec la cour d’Espagne et la surveillance de l’omniprésent Favori, le Comte-Duc d’Olivares, lui pèsent d’autant plus. Quel éclairage le cas de la Reine Isabelle permet-il d’apporter à la relation entre genre et pouvoir au Siècle d’Or ? Trois points seront abordés : les tensions et dominations qui se jouent autour du Roi Philippe IV, le poids de la famille, au sens large, indissociable des relations entretenues entre genre et pouvoir. Enfin, nous nous intéresserons à l’activité politique de la Reine Isabelle.The role of French queens and their relation to power were strictly regulated, but their political influence is difficult to assess given the shadows within which they worked. In 1615, Isabelle of Bourbon, born Princess of France, married Philip of Spain and became one of these seldom-studied Queens of the shadows. What illumination does Queen Isabelle’s case bring to the gender-power relationship during the Golden Age? Three points are addressed in the article: the tensions and power dynamics around Philip IV; the weight of the family, in a broad sense, which necessarily affected relations between gender and power. Finally, we will focus on the political activity of Queen Isabelle; her example constitutes a concrete example of women’s power in the Golden Age.

  14. Les particularités de la relation de service au sein des administrations communales. Le cas des départements « population » et « état civil »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Lacourt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’une recherche effectuée dans le cadre de la réalisation d’un mémoire de licence en gestion des ressources humaines. Titre exact du Mémoire : « Gestion du personnel de guichet et relation de service dans les administrations communales. Le cas de six communes bruxelloises. » Inspirée par les ouvrages « L’État au guichet » de J.M. Weller et « La vie au guichet » de V. Dubois, nous avons étudié les départements « population » et « état civil » de six communes bruxelloises sous l’angle de la relation de service. Afin de réaliser ce travail, nous nous sommes entretenus avec des agents et des chefs de service de ces administrations communales (Ixelles, Bruxelles, Evere, Koekelberg, Uccle, Saint Josse. Au total, 28 entretiens ont été réalisés. Notre ambition étant de mettre en lumière les particularités du travail d’agents communaux « en contact direct avec le public ».Insistant davantage sur les aspects théoriques de notre mémoire, cet article vise à mettre en évidence les principaux aspects de la sociologie des relations de service appliquée aux services publics. Plus précisément, il s’agit ici de définir les particularités de ce travail d’accueil, d’insister sur la complexité de celui-ci, sur les compétences qu’il requiert et sur le déroulement des rencontres entre agents et usagers.

  15. Survival and Evolution of CRISPR–Cas System in Prokaryotes and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad Abu Bakr; Hao, Haihong; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar; Iqbal, Zahid; Ahmed, Saeed; Sattar, Adeel; Iqbal, Mujahid; Li, Jun; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes have developed numerous innate immune mechanisms in order to fend off bacteriophage or plasmid attack. One of these immune systems is clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). CRISPR-associated proteins play a key role in survival of prokaryotes against invaders, as these systems cleave DNA of foreign genetic elements. Beyond providing immunity, these systems have significant impact in altering the bacterial physiology in term of its virulence and pathogenicity, as well as evolution. Also, due to their diverse nature of functionality, cas9 endoribonuclease can be easily reprogrammed with the help of guide RNAs, showing unprecedented potential and significance for gene editing in treating genetic diseases. Here, we also discuss the use of NgAgo–gDNA system in genome editing of human cells. PMID:27725818

  16. Application of 198Au grains for carcinoma of oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of the treatment using gold grain implants over the past 9 years and to evaluate the usefulness of this treatment method. From January 1985 through April 1993, a total of 45 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx were treated with 198Au grain (gold grain) at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School. The initial activity of the grains supplied weekly by the Japan Radioisotope Association was usually 5 mCi (185 MBq), and single implants were usual. In case of combined external irradiation, telecobalt γ-rays or 4 MV X-rays were used for treatment before implant. The local control rate for patients with T1 stages was 80% (20/25) and with T2 stages, 59% (10/17). The local control rate was 71% (10/14) for gold grain alone and 72% (13/18) for external irradiation combined with gold grain implants (combined therapy). In combined therapy, the median of the interval between external irradiation and gold grain implants was 21 days. The treatment interval or patients with recurrent diseases was 22 days, 22, 27, 39 and 46, respectively. The progression rate showed a tendency to increase in the patients with longer interval (more than 21 days), and with partial regression after external irradiation and gold grain implantation is an important factor in combined therapy. Therefore, we emphasize that the time interval should be shorter than 3 weeks. (orig.)

  17. Application of radioisotopes Au -198 to radiometrical field investigation of spraying machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W.; Kocorowska, E. [Technical Univeristy, Poznan (Poland). Radio and Photo-Chemistry Department

    1997-10-01

    The poster shows application of radioisotope {sup 198}Au to radiometrical field testing of spraying machine. In the research was tested the Polish suspensioned tractor OZS400 type spraying machine. The machine worked in two different variants: without and with the beam stabilisation (oscillatory stabilisation)

  18. Application of radioisotopes Au -198 to radiometrical field investigation of spraying machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poster shows application of radioisotope 198Au to radiometrical field testing of spraying machine. In the research was tested the Polish suspensioned tractor OZS400 type spraying machine. The machine worked in two different variants: without and with the beam stabilisation (oscillatory stabilisation)

  19. In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Scott, David A.; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Kriz, Andrea J.; Zetsche, Bernd; Shalem, Ophir; Wu, Xuebing; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene; Sharp, Phillip A.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a versatile genome-editing platform. However, the size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for basic research and therapeutic applications that employ the highly versatile adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery vehicle. Here, we characterize six smaller Cas9 orthologs and show that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can edit the genome with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9, while being >1...

  20. Étude des décisions chronogénétiques des enseignants dans l'enseignement de la physique au collège ; une étude de cas au Liban

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine, Zeynab

    2009-01-01

    Ce travail empirique porte sur l'étude des décisions chronogénétiques des enseignants au collège. Le contexte d'observation est celui d'un enseignant de physique intervenant dans deux classes de cinquième simultanément. Nous inférons la prise d'une décision à partir des observables de la situation. Nous considérons qu'une décision est formée de trois composantes : les raisons de la décision, les indicateurs d'une prise de décision et le résultat de cette décision. La procédure suivie a été de...

  1. Au coated Ni nanowires with tuneable dimensions for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pondman, K.M.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Celikkol, F.B.; Pathan, A.A.; Kishore, U.D.; Haken, ten B.; Elshof, ten J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Due to their shape anisotropy, high aspect ratio magnetic nanoparticles offer many advantages in biomedical applications. For biocompatibility, it is essential to have full control over the dimensions and surface chemistry of the particles. The aim of this study was to synthesize biocompatible nanow

  2. Une approche de la conservation in situ par l’étude d’un système semencier informel : cas du cocotier au Vanuatu (Pacifique Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labouisse Jean-Pierre

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available L’amélioration génétique du cocotier (Cocos nucifera L. a été, jusqu’à présent, centrée sur l’augmentation de la productivité, exprimée en coprah par hectare, et accessoirement sur la recherche de résistance aux maladies. La voie de l’hybridation s’est révélée particulièrement efficace pour améliorer le rendement en coprah ainsi que la précocité de mise à fruit par le croisement d’écotypes Nains et Grands [1]. Cependant, d’autres caractéristiques comme la qualité gustative, l’aptitude à la transformation de la noix et l’utilisation des autres composantes de l’arbre ont été peu étudiées et n’ont pas fait l’objet de programmes d’amélioration élaborés comme pour le rendement en coprah. Or, les villageois des zones tropicales utilisent quotidiennement les différentes parties du cocotier pour, entre autres, la confection d’objets domestiques et artisanaux, de matériaux pour l’habitat ou pour la pharmacopée. Aussi observe-t-on, dans nombre de pays, une préférence marquée des communautés rurales pour les écotypes Grands locaux présentant un haut niveau de variabilité intrapopulation et fournissant une grande variété de produits sur une longue période avec un minimum de travail et d’intrants [2]. La volatilité et le faible niveau actuel des prix du coprah et de l’huile de coco sur le marché mondial renforcent l’idée d’une nécessaire diversification des produits du cocotier, notamment pour nombre de pays insulaires du Pacifique où le coprah constitue encore une part importante des ressources d’exportation et une des principales sources de revenus monétaires des populations rurales. Ces pays souffrent, en outre, d’un manque structurel de compétitivité dû à l’éloignement des grands centres de consommation internationaux, à la dispersion de la production de coprah dans les archipels et au coût relativement élevé du travail [3].

  3. Au coated Ni nanowires with tuneable dimensions for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pondman, K.M.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Celikkol, F.B.; Pathan, A A; Kishore, U.D.; Haken, ten, Bennie; Elshof, ten, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Due to their shape anisotropy, high aspect ratio magnetic nanoparticles offer many advantages in biomedical applications. For biocompatibility, it is essential to have full control over the dimensions and surface chemistry of the particles. The aim of this study was to synthesize biocompatible nanowires with tuneable dimensions. This was achieved by electrodeposition of Ni in polycarbonate membranes. To ensure biocompatibility, a continuous gold coating was deposited onto the Ni wires by a ne...

  4. Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

    2014-12-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9.

  5. The Development of CRISPR/Cas9 Technique and Its Applications in Genome Editing%CRISPR/Cas9技术的发展及在基因组编辑中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯丽; 李瑞; 胡桐桐; 徐永杰

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9是由细菌和古细菌等微生物中特有的获得性免疫系统发展起来的基因组编辑技术,可以被一段短的RNA引导到复杂基因组中的特定位置,从而对靶标识别切割。该技术可以很容易对几乎所有生物体中的内源基因组DNA序列及其表达产物进行有选择地被编辑或调控,已成为一种热门的基因组编辑工具,正积极推动着从基础生物学到生物技术和医学等方面的发展。介绍CRISPR/Cas9的研究历史、结构和功能以及、精确识别的分子基础,并就其在基因组编辑中的应用进行了较为详尽的综述,以期为从事该领域的科研人员提供参考。%CRISPR/Cas9 is one of novel genome editing technologies developed from the unique prokaryotic acquired immune system in bacteria and archaea,and it can be guided to specific locations within complex genomes by a short RNA,and thus cleavage of the target can be recognized. Using this technology,DNA sequences within the endogenous genome and their expressed products are now easily edited or regulated in virtually any organism of choice. The technology has become the most popular genome editing tool,promoting the development of basic biology,biotechnology and medicine. This paper introduced the research progress on CRISPR/Cas9 from the aspects of development history,structure and function,and the mechanism of precise recognition,also reviewed the application of this new technology in genome editing in detailed,aiming at providing a reference for related researchers.

  6. Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging: application in a DNA hybridization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M. G.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-03-01

    The detection of the DNA hybridization mechanism using monodispersed gold nanoparticles as labels is an interesting alternative to increase the sensitivity of the SPR imaging technique. DNA-modified Au nanoparticles (DNA-Au NPs) containing single-stranded (ss) portions of DNA were prepared by monitoring their monolayer formation by UV-vis spectroscopy. The hybridization process between specific thio-oligonucleotides immobilized on the DNA-Au NPs and the corresponding complementary strands is reported and compared with the traditional hybridization process on properly self-assembled thin gold films deposited on glass substrates. A remarkable signal amplification is observed, following the incorporation of colloidal Au into a SPR biosensing experiment, resulting in an increased SPR response to DNA-DNA interactions. In particular Fusarium thiolated DNA (5'HS poly(T)15ATC CCT CAA AAA CTG CCG CT-3) and trichothecenes complementary DNA (5'-AGC GGC AGT TTT TGA GGG AT-3') sequences have been explored due to their possible application to agro-industry for the control of food quality.

  7. CAS announces new academicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Twenty-nine prominent Chinese scientists have been elected as CAS Members and five of their colleagues from US, France and Russia as CAS Foreign Members in 2007. The announcement was made by CAS Vice President LI Jinghai at a press conference held on 27 December, 2007 in Beijing. CAS President LU Yongxiang was present at the meeting.

  8. The CAS Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Sue

    2004-01-01

    The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) Computer Algebra System (CAS)Pilot study (2001-2005) is monitoring the use of CAS in senior secondary mathematics. This article explores the author's experiences in the CAS classroom and delineates changes in teaching style, as a result of the introduction of CAS into the senior mathematics…

  9. Comportement des terrains au-dessus des exploitations partielles Diagnostic de stabilité et organisation de la surveillance des exploitations partielles abandonnées Cas des carrières de la région Nord-Pas-de-Calais

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Les exploitations souterraines dites partielles ont pour particularité de laisser subsister des vides en profondeur après exploitation. Nous nous intéressons ici au cas des exploitations partielles développées en terrains sédimentaires, dans des gisements peu pentes. Les principales méthodes d'exploitation partielle dans ce type de gisement sont les méthodes par chambres et piliers abandonnés (figure 1) et les méthodes par îlots où alternent bandes fermes et bandes dépilées. Ces méthodes pose...

  10. Smash and DASH with Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, Vijay; Shendure, Jay

    2016-01-01

    DeRisi and colleagues present a creative application for Cas9 in vitro, using it to deplete unwanted sequence from DNA libraries. It seems plausible that the in vitro use of CRISPR/Cas9 has unrealized potential to revolutionize the practice of molecular biology well beyond genome editing.

  11. Repurposing CRISPR/Cas9 for in situ functional assays

    OpenAIRE

    Malina, Abba; Mills, John R.; Cencic, Regina; YAN, YIFEI; Fraser, James; Schippers, Laura M.; Paquet, Marilène; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Malina et al. readapted the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system for targeted gene disruption positive selection assays. They generated “all-in-one” lentiviral and retroviral delivery vectors heterologously expressing both a codon-optimized Cas9 and its synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) and linked Cas9 expression to GFP fluorescence for in vivo applications. These results establish Cas9 genome editing as a powerful and practical approach for positive in situ genetic screens.

  12. Depletion of Abundant Sequences by Hybridization (DASH): using Cas9 to remove unwanted high-abundance species in sequencing libraries and molecular counting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W; Crawford, E D; O'Donovan, B D; Wilson, M R; Chow, E D; Retallack, H; DeRisi, J L

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has generated a need for a broadly applicable method to remove unwanted high-abundance species prior to sequencing. We introduce DASH (Depletion of Abundant Sequences by Hybridization). Sequencing libraries are 'DASHed' with recombinant Cas9 protein complexed with a library of guide RNAs targeting unwanted species for cleavage, thus preventing them from consuming sequencing space. We demonstrate a more than 99 % reduction of mitochondrial rRNA in HeLa cells, and enrichment of pathogen sequences in patient samples. We also demonstrate an application of DASH in cancer. This simple method can be adapted for any sample type and increases sequencing yield without additional cost. PMID:26944702

  13. The molecular mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 system and its application in gene therapy of human diseases%CRISPR/Cas9系统的分子机制及其在人类疾病基因治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    璩良; 李华善; 姜运涵; 董春升

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas 系统是广泛存在于细菌和古生菌中的适应性免疫系统,用来抵抗外来病毒或质粒的入侵。近几年,由Ⅱ型CRISPR/Cas适应性免疫系统改造而来的CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术蓬勃发展,被广泛地应用于生命科学研究的各个领域,并取得了革命性的变化。文章主要综述了 CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术的起源与发展及在生命科学各研究领域的应用,重点介绍了该系统在人类疾病基因治疗方面的最新应用及脱靶效应,以期为相关领域的科研人员提供参考。%CRISPR/Cas system is an adaptive immune system that confers resistance to exogenous virus or plasmid in bacteria and archaea. In recent years, the booming CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology modified from typeⅡCRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system has been widely applied to various research fields of life science and led to revolu-tionary changes. In this review, we summarize the origin and development of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology as well as its applications in life science research. We focus on the latest application of this system in gene therapy of human diseases and the associated side/off-target effects, which may provide references for researchers in related areas.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9系统的分子机制及其在人类疾病基因治疗中的应用%The molecular mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 system and its application in gene therapy of human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    璩良; 李华善; 姜运涵; 董春升

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas 系统是广泛存在于细菌和古生菌中的适应性免疫系统,用来抵抗外来病毒或质粒的入侵。近几年,由Ⅱ型CRISPR/Cas适应性免疫系统改造而来的CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术蓬勃发展,被广泛地应用于生命科学研究的各个领域,并取得了革命性的变化。文章主要综述了 CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术的起源与发展及在生命科学各研究领域的应用,重点介绍了该系统在人类疾病基因治疗方面的最新应用及脱靶效应,以期为相关领域的科研人员提供参考。%CRISPR/Cas system is an adaptive immune system that confers resistance to exogenous virus or plasmid in bacteria and archaea. In recent years, the booming CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology modified from typeⅡCRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system has been widely applied to various research fields of life science and led to revolu-tionary changes. In this review, we summarize the origin and development of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology as well as its applications in life science research. We focus on the latest application of this system in gene therapy of human diseases and the associated side/off-target effects, which may provide references for researchers in related areas.

  15. Effets du statut d’emploi sur la santé et la sécurité au travail : le cas des auxiliaires familiales et sociales et des infirmières de soins à domicile au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Ledoux

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Les données de cette recherche corroborent les principaux résultats de nombreuses études sur les liens entre la précarité d’emploi et les risques accrus à la santé et à la sécurité du travail (SST. Constituée de quatre études de cas de services de soutien à domicile (SAD de Centres locaux de services communautaires (CLSC, cette recherche montre comment l’organisation du travail peut soutenir les stratégies protectrices auxquelles ont recours les auxiliaires sociales et familiales (AFS et les infirmières de services de SAD ou leur nuire. Il s’avère que les pratiques organisationnelles positives auraient les mêmes effets sur les salariées régulières que sur celles qui ont un statut précaire, cependant ces dernières bénéficient rarement de ce soutien. Quant aux dysfonctionnements organisationnels, les personnels précaires disposent de moins de marges de manœuvre pour les pallier. Ils sont donc doublement à risque au regard de leur santé et de leur sécurité au travail.The data from this study corroborate the main results of many studies on the relationships between job precariousness and increased occupational health and safety (OHS risks. This project consists of four studies of cases of local community service centre (CLSC homecare services (HS and shows how work organization can have a positive or negative effect on the protective strategies used by HS homecare workers and nurses. Positive organizational practices would have the same effects on regular employees as on those with a precarious status; however, the latter rarely benefit from this support. As for organizational dysfunction, precarious employees have less margin of maneuver to compensate for it. They therefore face a two-fold greater occupational health and safety risk.

  16. Shape and size controlled synthesis of Au nanorods: H{sub 2}S gas-sensing characterizations and antibacterial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanh, Le Thi [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Hoa, Tran Thai, E-mail: trthaihoa@yahoo.com [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Cuong, Nguyen Duc [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism, Hue University, 22 Lam Hoang, Hue City (Viet Nam); Khieu, Dinh Quang [College of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue City (Viet Nam); Quang, Duong Tuan [College of Education, Hue University, 34 Le Loi, Hue City (Viet Nam); Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Van Hieu, Nguyen, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated a facile method to prepare colloid Au nanorods. • The size and shape of Au nanorods can be controlled via seed-mediated growth method. • The H{sub 2}S gas-sensing properties have been investigated. • The antibacterial application has been conducted. - Abstract: Controlling their size and shape is one of the important issues in the fundamental study and application of colloidal metal nanoparticles. In the current study, different sizes and shapes of Au nanorods were fabricated using a seed-mediated growth method. Material characterization by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the obtained products were made of single-crystal Au nanorods with an average diameter and length of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively. The Au nanorod-based sensor exhibited significantly high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to low concentrations (2.5–10 ppm) of H{sub 2}S at temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 400 °C. Additionally, they exhibited antibacterial effect at low concentration. These results suggested that the fabricated Au nanorods have excellent potential for practical application in air pollution monitoring and biomedicine.

  17. The Development of CRISPR/Cas9 System and Its Application in Crop Genome Editing%CRISPR/Cas9基因组定向编辑技术的发展与在作物遗传育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景润春; 卢洪

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the steps of development of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system and its applications in various plant genomes were highlighted. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology originates from the prokaryotic adaptive immune systems that confer resistance to foreign genetic elements such as plasmids and phages. The natural CRISPR/Cas systems show extensive structural and functional diversity. Based on the Cas protein contents and amino acid sequences, the natural CRISPR/Cas systems have been classified into three major classes, Type I, TypeⅡ and Type III. The TypeⅡCRISPR/Cas system is the engineered one for targeted genome editing purpose in most of cases so far, as it needs optimization of the Cas expression and design of the sgRNA only. In 2013, the first applications of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in plants were published. Since then, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used in various plant species for targeted genome editing. Like ZFNs and TALENs, CRISPR/Cas9 system uses engineered nuclease to generate double-strand breaks (DSBs) on the targeted DNA site, and subsequently to stimulate cellular DNA repair mechanisms by exploiting either NHEJ pathway or HDR pathway to generate small insertions/deletions/genome modifications. CRISPR/Cas9 technology allows researchers to perform targeted mutagenesis on target genes of different crops, precisely and easily changing the sequences and functions of particular genes at exact chromosomal locations in different plant genomes. Compared with ZFNs and TALENs technologies, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system is based on RNA-guided engineered nucleases, and is easier to manipulate. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9 is capable of introducing DSBs at multiple sites. The potential of multiplexing provides practical advantages over ZFNs and TALENs technologies, to edit multiple target genes in the same pathway simultaneously. Due to the practical advantages of CRISPR/Cas9 over the other genome editing technologies, it

  18. Development and application of knowledge-based subject group integration platforms:A case study of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics,CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; LIU; Jian; FU; Huijun; ZHENG; Hao; CHEN; Zhiping; YANG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:According to the different requirements of research group users,we established the knowledge-based subject group integration platforms of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics,the Chinese Academy of Sciences(abbreviated as SIC CAS hereinafter),which were designed and constructed to better meet the needs of CAS research groups for their development,collaboration and communication.Design/methodology/approach:We first identified the requirements of users via preliminary investigation,and then chose CASI1 P,iLibrary and XKE technology,respectively as the building tools compatible with the major demands of users.These steps helped us complete the layout design of SIC CAS integration platforms,as well as its knowledge organization and integration.Findings:According to the need of users,we applied three types of platform construction technologies to five SIC integration platforms,and formulated standard norms for the further construction process,which could provide useful reference for a sustainable development for the extensive construction in CAS institutes.Research limitations:In order to make the SIC integration platforms more intelligent and have more functions,we need to enlarge the scale of the Platforms and upgrade the building tools for the platform construction.Practical implications:The nature of SIC sub-project integration platforms is to construct a content-sensitive environment which can embed knowledge services and knowledge applications seamlessly into scientific activities,so the Platform is expected to be a useful tool to help researchers better understand the recent development of the research field and form collaborations with their peers.Originality/value:SIC integration platforms are the only pilot construction that used 3different platform technologies in the first batch of knowledge-based subject group integration platforms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The construction is user-centered throughout the whole process,namely,from the technology

  19. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso Résumé Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres des PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les principaux déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux ressources forestières. Mots clés : Produits forestiers non ligneux, dépendance économique, modélisation économétrique, Burkina Faso.   Economic dependence on non-timber forest products: case of households living near the Forests of Boulon and Koflande, in the south-western of Burkina Faso Abstract This study aims at assessing the household economic dependence on non-timber forest products (NTFPs in Boulon and Koflande Forest area and the main determinants of that dependence. The data have been collected with a sample of 583

  20. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Topkar, Ved V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P W; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2015-07-23

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome-editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-seq analysis. In addition, we identify and characterize another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also find that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities.

  1. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Topkar, Ved; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P.W.; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J.; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing1, 2, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)3–6. As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-Seq analysis7. In addition, we identified and characterized another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also found that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities. PMID:26098369

  2. Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd as a top electrode in capacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical conductivity dependence of thin metallic films of Au and Pd over the different perovskites was investigated. It is found from electrical properties that crystallographic growth orientation of Au and Pd thin layers attained from X-ray diffraction results indicate the slop of current (I)-voltage (V) plots. Besides, surface morphology and topography was considered using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy, respectively. Obtained results showed the Stranski-Krastanov growth of the Pd and Au. Indeed, diminishing of the root-mean-square roughness of Pd/BiMnO3/SrTiO3 following by Au deposition should be concerned due to growth of Au onto the crack-like parts of the substrate. These crack-like parts appeared due to parasitic phases of the Bi-Mn-O system mainly Mn3O4 (l 0 l) and Mn3O4 (0 0 4 l). The different response in the electrical properties of heterostructures suggests that electrical conductance of the Au and Pd thin metallic films have the crystallographic orientation dependence. Furthermore, polycrystallinity of the thin metallic films are desired in electrode applications due to increase the conductivity of the metallic layers.

  3. Au-SN Flip-Chip Solder Bump for Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Won; Koo, Ja-Myeong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2007-01-01

    As an alternative to the time-consuming solder pre-forms and pastes currently used, a co-electroplating method of eutectic Au-Sn alloy was used in this study. Using a co-electroplating process, it was possible to plate the Au-Sn solder directly onto a wafer at or near the eutectic composition from a single solution. Two distinct phases, Au5Sn and AuSn, were deposited at a composition of 30at.%Sn. The Au-Sn flip-chip joints were formed at 300 and 400 degrees without using any flux. In the case where the samples were reflowed at 300 degrees, only an (Au,Ni)3Sn2 IMC layer formed at the interface between the Au-Sn solder and Ni UBM. On the other hand, two IMC layers, (Au,Ni)3Sn2 and (Au,Ni)3Sn, were found at the interfaces of the samples reflowed at 400 degrees. As the reflow time increased, the thickness of the (Au,Ni)3Sn2 and (Au,Ni)3Sn IMC layers formed at the interface increased and the eutectic lamellae in the bulk solder coarsened.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术及其在动物基因组定点修饰中的应用%CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique and its application in site-directed genome modification of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金伟; 徐绮嫔; 姚婧; 余树民; 曹随忠

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas system, which uses CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to guide Cas nuclease to silence invading nucleic acids, is self-defense system against exogenous virus or plasmid in bacteria and archaea. Through molecular modification, the typeⅡCRISPR/Cas system has become a highly efficient site-directed genome editing technique, which is simpler than zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) and easier to be designed and applied. In this review, we summarize the evolutionary history of CRISPR/Cas9 system, the working principle and modification process of type Ⅱ CRISPR/Cas and its application in animal genome modifica-tion. We also analyze the existing problems and improvement program of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as well as its ap-plication prospect combined with successful cases, which may provide innovative perspectives on improving animal traits and establishing animal models of human diseases.%CRISPR/Cas系统是细菌和古生菌中抵抗外源病毒或质粒入侵的获得性免疫系统,利用 CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs)引导Cas核酸酶沉默入侵的核酸。通过分子生物学改造使Ⅱ型CRISPR/Cas系统成为一种高效的基因组定点修饰技术,并且比锌指核酸酶(Zinc-finger nucleases, ZFNs)和 TALE 核酸酶(Transcription activator like effector nucleases, TALENs)结构更简单,更容易设计和应用。文章主要介绍了CRISPR/Cas9系统成为高效基因组定点修饰技术的发展历程、Ⅱ型CRISPR/Cas的工作原理和改造过程以及在动物基因组定点修饰的应用,剖析了该技术存在的问题和现有改进方案,并与成功案例相结合展望了 CRISPR/Cas9系统的应用前景,以期为动物性状改良和人类疾病动物模型的创立提供新思路。

  5. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium

    OpenAIRE

    Pyne, Michael E.; Mark R. Bruder; Murray Moo-Young; Chung, Duane A; C. Perry Chou

    2016-01-01

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 resu...

  6. CRISPR/Cas9 and Its Application in Research and Development of Drugs%CRISPR/Cas9技术及其在药物研发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇天赐; 胡又佳

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas是新近在细菌及古细菌中发现的一种可以降解外源核酸的获得性免疫调节系统,它由成簇规律间隔的短回文重复序列(Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats,CRISPR)和蛋白质Cas组成,其中Ⅱ型CRISPR/Cas9系统成分最简单,包括:crRNA(CRISPR RNA)、tracrRNA(trans-activating crRNA)、Cas9(CRISPR-associated protein),tracrRNA通过RNaseⅢ功能促进crRNA的成熟,由crRNA通过碱基配对识别并向导Cas9结合靶标DNA,最后Cas9蛋白通过自身内切核酸酶的活性剪切DNA,达到定点编辑DNA的作用.该技术已被广泛应用于多项科研领域,仿效CRISPR/Cas9作用机理,人工构建融合了tracrRNA和crRNA序列的一种特殊小向导RNA(small guide RNA,sgRNA)与Cas9的复合体,即能实现定点编辑基因的效果,且操作简捷、高效.文章综述了CRISPR/Cas9技术在药物研发中的应用,如细胞株改造、基因修复、动物模型构建、药物靶点筛选、遗传疾病治疗等.

  7. La représentation à travers la presse de la gestion gouvernementale des catastrophes dites "naturelles" au Chiapas. (Axe III, Symposium 14) : Un cas concret, l'ouragan Stan (octobre 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Le 1er octobre 2005 au sud-est de Cozumel Quintana Roo, se forme la perturbation qui est à l'origine de l'ouragan Stan. Après trois jours d'intenses précipitations dues à cette dépression tropicale (et le passage des deux précédents cyclones, Rita et Norma), la crue des fleuves provoque un véritable cataclysme dans cinq régions du sud et sud-est du Mexique (Chiapas, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Hidalgo et Puebla), ainsi qu'au Guatemala et au Salvador. Le courant des fleuves emporte les maisons construit...

  8. CRISPR/Cas9 System and Its Application in Genome Editing of Bombyx mori%CRISPR/Cas9系统及其在家蚕基因组编辑中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洪英; 孙波; 吴洪丽; 胡兴明; 郝瑜; 叶建美

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9系统源于细菌获得性免疫系统,是一项可对多个物种的基因组进行高效率编辑的技术,已被广泛用于RNA靶向的基因组定向编辑.本文简要介绍了CRISPR/Cas9系统的基本作用原理和技术改进的进展,重点介绍了CRISPR/Cas9系统在家蚕功能基因研究和定向遗传改造研究中的应用及成果,并展望了该项技术在家蚕基因组编辑中应用的前景和主要的发展方向.

  9. Applications of Crispr/Cas9 in Gene Disruption of CHO Cells%Crispr/Cas9技术在CHO细胞中基因敲除的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 王佳贤; 李朝东; 朱建伟

    2015-01-01

    Crispr/Cas9技术是近年发展起来的基因编辑技术,已经在人、动物、植物等各类细胞中得到广泛应用.本文基于文献和本实验室研究成果,介绍了Crispr/Cas9技术在CHO细胞中运用的基本操作方法,以及与重组蛋白表达相关的基因敲除实例,对可能遇到的问题做出了技术解释.笔者认为可利用Crispr/Cas9技术对CHO细胞进行改造以创造出新的工程细胞株,为生物药物开发及生产服务.

  10. Kinetically controlled synthesis of Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters and catalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongdong; Wang, Jin; Liu, Chao; Li, Zhimin; Li, Gao

    2016-05-01

    We here explore a kinetically controlled synthetic protocol for preparing solvent-solvable Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters which are isolated from polydispersed gold nanoclusters by solvent extraction and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The as-obtained Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters are determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, in conjunction with UV-vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). However, Au99(SPh)42, instead of Au102(SPh)44, is yielded when the polydispersed gold nanoclusters are etched in the presence of excess thiophenol under thermal conditions (e.g., 80 °C). Interestingly, the Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters also can convert to Au99(SPh)42 with equivalent thiophenol ligands, evidenced by the analyses of UV-vis and MALDI mass spectrometry. Finally, the TiO2-supported Au102(SPh)44 nanocluster catalyst is investigated in the selective oxidation of sulfides into sulfoxides by the PhIO oxidant and gives rise to high catalytic activity (e.g., 80-99% conversion of R-S-R' sulfides with 96-99% selectivity for R-S(&z.dbd;O)-R' sulfoxides). The Au102(SPh)44/TiO2 catalyst also shows excellent recyclability in the sulfoxidation process.We here explore a kinetically controlled synthetic protocol for preparing solvent-solvable Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters which are isolated from polydispersed gold nanoclusters by solvent extraction and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The as-obtained Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters are determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, in conjunction with UV-vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). However, Au99(SPh)42, instead of Au102(SPh)44, is yielded when the polydispersed gold nanoclusters are etched in the presence of excess thiophenol under thermal conditions (e.g., 80 °C). Interestingly, the Au102(SPh)44 nanoclusters also can convert to Au99(SPh)42 with equivalent

  11. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg2+ and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag2S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.Graphical Abstract

  12. Synthesis of biocompatible AuAgS/Ag{sub 2}S nanoclusters and their applications in photocatalysis and mercury detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Shenna; Zhang, Lingyang; Huang, Haowen, E-mail: hhwn09@163.com; Liu, Fengping [Hunan University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Function Molecule, Ministry of Education, Hunan Provincial University Key Laboratory of QSAR/QSPR, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Liu, Xuanyong, E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, a facile approach for preparation of AuAgS/Ag{sub 2}S nanoclusters was developed. The unique AuAgS/Ag{sub 2}S nanoclusters capped with biomolecules exhibit interesting excellent optical and catalytic properties. The fluorescent AuAgS/Ag{sub 2}S nanoclusters show tunable luminescence depending on the nanocluster size. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that the AuAgS/Ag{sub 2}S nanoclusters showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. Therefore, the nanoclusters can be used not only as a probe for labeling cells but also for their photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of organic dye. Moreover, a highly selective and sensitive assay for detection of mercury including Hg{sup 2+} and undissociated mercury complexes was developed based on the quenching fluorescent AuAgS/Ag{sub 2}S nanoclusters, which provides a promising approach for determining various forms of Hg in the mercury-based compounds in environment. These unique nanoclusters may have potential applications in biological labeling, sensing mercury, and photodegradation of various organic pollutants in waste water.Graphical Abstract.

  13. Spectral Matrix Filtering Applied to Vsp Processing Application du filtrage matriciel au traitement des profils sismiques verticaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glangeaud F.

    2006-11-01

    données et de séparer ces signaux. Nous montrons que les signaux peuvent être automatiquement séparés sans connaissance a priori sur leurs vitesses apparentes, en fonction du produit scalaire (calculé dans le domaine fréquentiel et de l'amplitude relative des signaux. Nous montrons des exemples d'application sur des données de sismique de puits. Le filtrage matriciel est effectué dans le domaine fréquentiel en utilisant la matrice spectrale construite à l'aide des intercorrélations des différents enregistrements constituant les données à traiter. Les méthodes d'estimation de la matrice spectrale sont des méthodes de moyenne : moyenne en fréquence (méthode du périodogramme lissé et/ou moyenne en distance (lissage réalisé le long des diagonales de la matrice spectrale. Le lissage en fréquence est obtenu par l'intermédiaire d'une fonction de pondération (par exemple fenêtre de Hanning élevée à une puissance donnée appliquée à chaque corrélation. Les moyennes sont utilisées pour décorréler les signaux et de ce fait favoriser la séparation. Une fois correctement estimée, la matrice spectrale est diagonalisée sur toutes les fréquences du spectre moyenné, et décomposée selon ses vecteurs propres qui sont orthogonaux entre eux et normalisés. Chaque vecteur propre a une valeur propre associée qui représente la répartition d'énergie en fonction de la fréquence du modèle lié au vecteur propre. Le filtrage est réalisé par projection des données sur les différents vecteurs propres issus de la matrice spectrale. Il est à noter cependant que la séparation des différents signaux (projection sur vecteur propre n'est réalisée en terme d'indicatrice sismique que si les événements sismiques sont naturellement orthogonaux et alignés sur les vecteurs propres. Glangeaud et al (1989 ont étudié l'influence des amplitudes relatives et du produit scalaire de deux ondes. Si la vitesse apparente d'une onde est connue, cette derni

  14. [CAS General Standards 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  15. Electrical performance of Ti-ZnO-Au thin film composite structure for device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka; Singh, Jitendra; Das, Surajit; Desai, J. V.; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Thin film layers of Au/Ti approximately 2200 Å thick and ZnO approximately 2.24 µm thick were sputtered sequentially onto silicon dioxide coated Si-wafer. Conventional wisdom confirms the adhesion of gold over zinc oxide (ZnO) by an intermediate layer of titanium for better adhesion. But, in Au/Ti/ZnO/Au/Ti structure, it was observed that with the passing of time the gold diffused into ZnO thin film at room temperature, making a very low resistance between the two gold layers eventually making a conductive path in ZnO. Therefore, electrical connectivity was found between the metal layers. A detailed experimental analysis has been carried out in support of the observed Au diffusion. In the present work, reliability of Ti/Au metallisation and anomalous electrical behavior due to gold diffusion has been studied.

  16. CRISPR/Cas9技术及其在转基因动物中的应用%CRISPR/Cas9 System and Its Applications in Transgenic Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳鑫; 冯炜; 王志钢; 王彦凤

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9技术是一种新型的基因组定点编辑技术,具有设计简单、特异性强、效率高及可以在目标位点产生多种类型的编辑结果等特点,适用于在多种细胞中进行大规模的基因编辑.综述了CRISPR/Cas9技术的研究背景、基本原理和研究进展,从靶基因敲除(knock-out)、外源基因整合(knock-in)和目标基因转录沉默(knock-down)等方面总结了CRISPR/Cas9在转基因动物中的应用概况,并对现有的三种基因组定点编辑技术进行了比较.CRISPR/Cas9技术在转基因动物中具有明显的应用优势和良好前景.

  17. Transport de particules massives dans un fluide turbulent: Application a l'erosion due au sable sur les parois d'une turbine hydraulique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Stephen

    Le transport de particules massives par un champ turbulent est un vaste domaine de la mécanique des fluides. Il possède de nombreuses applications comme par exemple le transport de sable dans une turbine hydraulique. En raison de la dureté des grains de quartz et des grandes vitesses de collision avec les parois métalliques, un phénomène d'érosion intensif se produit. Les dommages résultants peuvent diminuer le rendement de la turbine au cours des quelques mois suivant la mise en opération. L'objectif de cette thèse est de mettre au point un outil permettant de prédire ces zones d'érosion. Ce projet de recherche en contexte industriel a été réalisé en collaboration avec la compagnie General Electric Hydro du Canada. Dans un régime hautement turbulent, il est possible d'obtenir une expression suffisamment générale en utilisant une formulation partiellement empirique: l'équation de Basset- Boussinesq-Oseen modifiée. Ce choix de modèle tient compte du niveau de précision recherché et de la méthode numérique employée afin de résoudre la phase fluide. Il permet aussi d'éliminer plusieurs ambiguïtés fréquemment rencontrées dans la littérature et implementées dans certains codes commerciaux courants. La formulation mathématique du problème est effectuée dans un espace mixte Euler-Lagrange. Les paramètres dynamiques sont relies au type de particules et à l'intensité de la turbulence. Le code numérique résultant est le plus performant développé à ce jour (août 1998). Les trajectoires de plusieurs centaines de milliers de particules peuvent être simulées et visualisées de manière interactive sur une station de travail (SGI R4K, R8K et R10K). L'utilisateur du logiciel est libre de se déplacer dans l'espace à l'aide d'un environnement similaire a un ``simulateur de vol''. Il peut ainsi analyser les détails du processus d'érosion de même que l'écoulement du fluide dans la turbine. Les zones d'érosion obtenues à l

  18. CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Frank; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-11-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes-termed spacers-into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection. The ability of the minimal CRISPR-Cas9 system to target DNA sequences using programmable RNAs has opened new avenues in genome editing in a broad range of cells and organisms with high potential in therapeutical applications. While numerous scientific studies have shed light on the biochemical processes behind CRISPR-Cas systems, several aspects of the immunity steps, however, still lack sufficient understanding. This review summarizes major discoveries in the CRISPR-Cas field, discusses the role of CRISPR-Cas in prokaryotic immunity and other physiological properties, and describes applications of the system as a DNA editing technology and antimicrobial agent.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  19. Efficient Mitochondrial Genome Editing by CRISPR/Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areum Jo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for nuclear DNA editing to generate mutations or correct specific disease alleles. Despite its flexible application, it has not been determined if CRISPR/Cas9, originally identified as a bacterial defense system against virus, can be targeted to mitochondria for mtDNA editing. Here, we show that regular FLAG-Cas9 can localize to mitochondria to edit mitochondrial DNA with sgRNAs targeting specific loci of the mitochondrial genome. Expression of FLAG-Cas9 together with gRNA targeting Cox1 and Cox3 leads to cleavage of the specific mtDNA loci. In addition, we observed disruption of mitochondrial protein homeostasis following mtDNA truncation or cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9. To overcome nonspecific distribution of FLAG-Cas9, we also created a mitochondria-targeted Cas9 (mitoCas9. This new version of Cas9 localizes only to mitochondria; together with expression of gRNA targeting mtDNA, there is specific cleavage of mtDNA. MitoCas9-induced reduction of mtDNA and its transcription leads to mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and cell growth inhibition. This mitoCas9 could be applied to edit mtDNA together with gRNA expression vectors without affecting genomic DNA. In this brief study, we demonstrate that mtDNA editing is possible using CRISPR/Cas9. Moreover, our development of mitoCas9 with specific localization to the mitochondria should facilitate its application for mitochondrial genome editing.

  20. Organisation des unités de transformation artisanale en zone de savanes : cas de la transformation du sorgho en bière locale bili-bili à Moundou au Tchad

    OpenAIRE

    Djanan, Djitog; Mbayhoudel, Kourmarou; Nandoum, Maoura

    2003-01-01

    International audience Le diagnostic sur les unités artisanales de transformation des produits agricoles réalisé entre 1998-1999 dans quelques villes du Prasac (Bangui, Bossangoa, en Centrafrique, Garoua, Maroua et Ngaoundéré au Cameroun, Moundou, Pala et Sarh au Tchad) a montré que plus de 20 000 personnes, essentiellement des femmes, sont impliquées dans ces activités. Il s'avère que plus de 50% de ces unités transforment les céréales, principalement le sorgho, en bière locale appelée da...

  1. Application of Turkevich Method for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis to Fabrication of SiO2@Au and TiO2@Au Core-Shell Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dobrowolska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Turkevich synthesis method of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs was adopted for direct fabrication of SiO2@Au and TiO2@Au core-shell nanostructures. In this method, chloroauric acid was reduced with trisodium citrate in the presence of amine-functionalized silica or titania submicroparticles. Core-shells obtained in this way were compared to structures fabricated by mixing of Turkevich AuNPs with amine-functionalized silica or titania submicroparticles. It was found that by modification of reaction conditions of the first method, such as temperature and concentration of reagents, control over gold coverage on silicon dioxide particles has been achieved. Described method under certain conditions allows fabrication of semicontinuous gold films on the surface of silicon dioxide particles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing use of Turkevich method to direct fabrication of TiO2@Au core-shell nanostructures.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9系统在培育抗病毒植物新种质中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in breeding of new antiviral plant germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道微; 张超凡; 董芳; 黄艳岚; 张亚; 周虹

    2016-01-01

    随着 CRISPR/Cas9系统在基因组编辑技术上的开发和完善,CRISPR/Cas9系统在应用于动物病毒感染性疾病防治并取得相当成效的同时,也逐步被应用到对植物病毒基因组进行高效靶向修饰的研究中。CRISPR/Cas9系统对基因组靶向修饰作用不仅实现了对植物 DNA 病毒基因组序列的编辑,还展示了其有效作用于植物 RNA 病毒基因组的潜力,同时 CRISPR/Cas9系统还能在基因转录和转录后调控水平发挥作用,说明该系统具有通过多种途径调控植物病毒复制的潜能。相对其他植物病毒病防治策略,该系统对病毒基因组的编辑更精准、对基因表达的调控更稳定,对病毒病的抗性也更为广谱。本文将 CRISPR/Cas9系统与其他植物病毒病防治策略进行了比较,概述了该系统在培育植物抗病毒病新种质中的优势,分析了其具体应用在该领域中面临的主要问题,讨论了该系统在培育抗病毒植物新种质应用中的发展趋势。%With the development and improvement of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genomic editing technology, the system has been applied to the prevention and control of animal viral infectious diseases, which has made considera-ble achievements. It has also been applied to the study of highly efficient gene targeting editing in plant virus ge-nomes. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene modification has not only achieved the genome editing of plant DNA virus, but also showed the genome editing potential of plant RNA virus. In addition, the CRISPR/Cas9 system functions at the gene transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, indicating that the system could regulate the rep-lication of plant viruses through different ways. Compared with other plant viral disease control strategies, this system is more accurate in genome editing, more stable in gene expression regulation, and has broader spectrum of resistance to virus disease. In this review, we

  3. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology for inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication%利用CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑技术抑制HBV复制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涛; 朱小娟; 崔仑标; 樊欢; 陈银; 郭喜玲; 赵康辰; 史智扬; 朱凤才

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the practicability of using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tech-nology for inhibition of hepatitis B virus ( HBV) replication. Methods Two sgRNA targeting sites were de-signed for the S region of HBV genome. The CRISPR/Cas9 expression plasmids specific for HBV were con-structed and then transfected into a cell line expressing HBV genome(HepG2-N10). The cytotoxicity of cells transfected with different expression plasmids were detected by MTT assay. The levels of hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ) were determined by using chemiluminescent immunoassay ( CLIA ) . The expression of HBV at mRNA level was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR) . The qPCR was performed for the detection of extracellular and intracellular HBV DNA. The next-generation sequencing ( NGS) Illumina MiSeq Platform was used to analyze HBV genome editing. Results No significant cytotoxic effects were de-tected in HepG2-N10 cells transfected with different expression plasmids. Compared with the cells carrying pCas-Guide-GFP-Scramble, the levels of HBsAg in the supernatants of transfected cell culture harboring pCas-Guide-GFP-G1 and pCas-Guide-GFP-G2 were decreased by 24. 2% (P0. 05), respectively. The levels of HBsAg in cells transfected with pCas-Guide-GFP-G1 and pCas-Guide-GFP-G2 were respectively decreased by 16. 4% (P>0. 05) and 32. 1% (P>0. 05) as compared with that of pCas-Guide-GFP-Scramble transfected group. The expression of HBV at mRNA level was inhibited as indica-ted by the results of qRT-PCR. Moreover, the levels of extracellular HBV DNA were respectively suppressed by 23% (P>0. 05) and 35% (P0. 05) and 18% (P>0. 05). Different types of insertion/deletion mutation were de-tected in HBV genome by high-throughput sequencing. Conclusion HBV-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system could inhibit the expression of HBV gene and the replication of virus. Therefore, the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology might be used as a potential tool for the treatment of persistent HBV

  4. Conference of CAS History Commission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Commission of CAS History held its third conference on Oct. 31 in Beijing. CAS Vice-President Yang Bailing and Vice-Secretary of the CPC Leading Group at CAS Guo Chuanjie addressed the meeting, which was chaired by Guo Huadong, CAS vice secretary -general.

  5. Facile Synthesis of Quasi-One-Dimensional Au/PtAu Heterojunction Nanotubes and Their Application as Catalysts in an Oxygen-Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Huan; Huang, Zhao; Lu, Zhicheng; Foda, Mohamed F; Li, Tingting; Han, Heyou

    2015-05-11

    An intermediate-template-directed method has been developed for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional Au/PtAu heterojunction nanotubes by the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Au on Te/Pt core-shell nanostructures in aqueous solution. The synthesized porous Au/PtAu bimetallic nanotubes (PABNTs) consist of porous tubular framework and attached Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The reaction intermediates played an important role in the preparation, which fabricated the framework and provided a localized reducing agent for the reduction of the Au and Pt precursors. The Pt7 Au PABNTs showed higher electrocatalytic activity and durability in the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO4 than porous Pt nanotubes (PtNTs) and commercially available Pt/C. The mass activity of PABNTs was 218 % that of commercial Pt/C after an accelerated durability test. This study demonstrates the potential of PABNTs as highly efficient electrocatalysts. In addition, this method provides a facile strategy for the synthesis of desirable hetero-nanostructures with controlled size and shape by utilizing an intermediate template. PMID:25833689

  6. Analyse des facteurs histo-pronostiques du cancer du rectum non métastatique dans une série ouest Algérienne de 58 cas au CHU-Tlemcen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesli, Smain Nabil; Regagba, Derbali; Tidjane, Anisse; Benkalfat, Mokhtar; Abi-Ayad, Chakib

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre travail est d'analyser les facteurs histo-pronostiques des cancers du rectum non métastatique opérés au service de chirurgie «A» de Tlemcen à ouest Algérien durant une période de six ans. Méthodes Etude rétrospective de 58 patients qui avait un adénocarcinome rectal. Le critère de jugement était la survie. Les paramètres étudiés, le sexe, l’âge, stade tumoral, et les récidives tumorales. Résultats L’âge moyen était de 58 ans. Avec 52% d'hommes contre 48% femmes avec sex-ratio (1,08). Le siège tumoral était: moyen rectum avec 41,37%, 34,48% au bas rectum et dans 24,13% au haut rectum. La classification TNM avec 17,65% au stade I, 18,61% au stade II, 53, 44% au stade III et 7,84% au stade IV. La survie médiane globale était de 40 mois ±2,937 mois. La survie en fonction du stade tumoral, le stade III et IV avait un faible taux de survie (19%) a 3 ans contre le stade I, II avait un taux de survie de (75%) (P = 0,000) (IC 95%). Les patients avec récidives tumorales avaient un taux de survie faible à 3 ans par rapport à ceux n'ayant pas eu de récidive (30,85% Vs 64,30% P = 0,043). Conclusion Dans cette série, l’étude uni varié des différents facteurs pronostiques conditionnant la survie n'a permis de retenir que trois facteurs influençant la survie, à savoir la taille tumorale, le stade, et les récidives tumorales. En analyse multi variée en utilisant le modèle Cox un seul facteur été retenu la récidive tumorale. PMID:27583069

  7. Cu2O and Au/Cu2O Particles: Surface Properties and Applications in Glucose Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ho Won; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigated the surface and facet-dependent catalytic properties of metal oxide particles as well as noble metal/metal oxide heterogeneous structures, with cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and Au/Cu2O being selected as model systems. As an example of application, we explored the potential of these materials in developing electrocatalytic devices. Cu2O particles were synthesized in various shapes, then used for testing their morphology-dependent electrochemical properties applied to the d...

  8. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin;

    2015-01-01

    . To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087......) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9....... Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes....

  9. Lead Telluride Doped with Au as a Very Promising Material for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelija M. Nikolic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PbTe single crystals doped with monovalent Au or Cu were grown using the Bridgman method. Far infrared reflectivity spectra were measured at room temperature for all samples and plasma minima were registered. These experimental spectra were numerically analyzed and optical parameters were calculated. All the samples of PbTe doped with Au or Cu were of the “n” type. The properties of these compositions were analyzed and compared with PbTe containing other dopants. The samples of PbTe doped with only 3.3 at% Au were the best among the PbTe + Au samples having the lowest plasma frequency and the highest mobility of free carriers-electrons, while PbTe doped with Cu was the opposite. Samples with the lowest Cu concentration of 0.23 at% Cu had the best properties. Thermal diffusivity and electronic transport properties of the same PbTe doped samples were also investigated using a photoacoustic (PA method with the transmission detection configuration. The results obtained with the far infrared and photoacoustic characterization of PbTe doped samples were compared and discussed. Both methods confirmed that when PbTe was doped with 3.3 at% Au, thermoelectric and electrical properties of this doped semiconductor were both significantly improved, so Au as a dopant in PbTe could be used as a new high quality thermoelectric material.

  10. Recent Advances in Genome Editing Using CRISPR/Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yuduan; Li, Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xie, Kabin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 ...

  11. Application of CRISPR/Cas9 High-throughput Screening Technology for Identifying New Target in Tumor Therapy%CRISPR/Cas9高通量筛选技术与肿瘤治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海玲; 王旭俊; 李旦

    2016-01-01

    成簇规律间隔短回文重复(CRISPR),是细菌或古菌在与噬菌体长期生存进化获得的一种免疫系统.根据Cas蛋白(CRISPR-associated protein)的不同,CRISPR系统可分为3种.其中Ⅱ型CRISPR/Cas9已被改造成为一种有效的基因编辑工具,并运用于多种物种基因的改造.作为1种基因编辑的手段,CRISPR/Cas9技术通过诱导DNA双链断裂损伤,进一步干扰基因的表达.与传统的基因编辑技术相比,CRISPR/Cas9技术显示出效率高、成本低和易操作等特点.与此同时,二代测序技术的发展促进全基因组的解析.CRISPR技术结合高通量二代测序手段的使用,在肿瘤的治疗领域中已发挥出了独特的优势.本文就近年来CRISPR/Cas9高通量筛选技术的发展,及其在肿瘤治疗过程中的应用进行综述.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术的研究进展及其应用%The Advance and Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Genome Editing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲强; 罗嘉; 沈林園; 李强; 张谊; 张顺华; 朱砺

    2015-01-01

    随着测序技术的不断进步,获得了越来越多物种的全基因组序列.面对这些海量的基因组数据,基因定点编辑技术是高效捕获目标基因、迅速获得基因功能和应用信息的重要研究手段.CRISPR/Cas9是目前最有效的一种基因定点编辑技术.CRISPR/Cas9系统(clusteredregularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated)是广泛存在于细菌及古生菌中的,由细菌体长期进化而形成,能够降解入侵病毒或噬菌体DNA的适应性免疫系统.因此,对CRISPR/Cas9系统的发展、应用,以其在相关研究中的应用前景进行阐述显得尤为必要.

  13. La lutte contre les aléas climatiques au Burkina Faso. Acquis et défis de l’agro-écologie : le cas de la Région Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Billaz, René

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La Région Nord du Burkina Faso a donné lieu à de nombreux travaux, dont j’ai tenté de rendre compte dans un texte récent : « Lutte contre l’aridité climatique au Burkina Faso ; quarante ans de recherche et d’appui au développement ; bilan et perspectives ». En cette année 2012 où la communauté internationale focalise sa réflexion sur l’eau, il me semble utile de revenir de façon plus détaillée et plus quantitative sur le défi que représente la lutte contre les aléas climatiques, ...

  14. CRISPR/Cas9技术在儿童期发病的单基因遗传疾病治疗中的应用与前景%The application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the treatment of childhood-onset monogenetic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖枭; 石宇; 张鹏辉

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 ( clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) , a kind of acquired immune system peculiar to bacteria,has been improved as a new genetic engineering tool.It is known as the scissor of the god because of its huge advantage of simple design, convenient operation, low cost and high efficiency.CRISPR/Cas9 technology has already been widely promoted and applied in gene function research, animal modeling, gene therapy, and other fields.This paper highlights the origin, development and mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, and summarizes the latest application in gene therapy for human diseases, especially for the childhood-onset monogenetic diseases, so as to provide a reference for its wider research.%成簇规律间隔短回文重复系统相关核酶9(CRISPR/Cas9),是细菌特有的一种获得性免疫系统,近年被改造成新型基因编辑技术。由于其设计简单、操作方便、费用低廉、效率高等特点,已成为靶向基因组编辑工具中的佼佼者,被称为“上帝的剪刀”。 CRISPR-Cas9技术已在基因功能研究、动物模型建立、基因治疗等领域得到广泛应用。本文介绍了CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术的起源、发展、作用机制,疾病基因治疗,特别是在儿童期发病的单基因遗传疾病的最新治疗与进展,以期为相关领域的科研人员提供参考。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:243-245)

  15. Diversity of CRISPR-Cas immune systems and molecular machines

    OpenAIRE

    Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adaptive immunity hinges on CRISPR-Cas systems that provide DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated targeting of exogenous nucleic acids. A plethora of CRISPR molecular machines occur broadly in prokaryotic genomes, with a diversity of Cas nucleases that can be repurposed for various applications.

  16. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Gymama; Stevens, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed on the surface of Al/Au/ZnO anode in various electrolyte environments were examined by electrochemical methods. The presence of phosphate buffer and physiological saline (NaCl) buffer allows for the formation of aluminum hyrdroxide and zinc phosphite composite films on the surface of the Al/Au/ZnO anode that prevent further corrosion of the anode. The highly protective films formed on the Al/Au/ZnO anode during energy harvesting in a physiological saline environment resulted in 98.5% corrosion protective efficiency, thereby demonstrating that the formation of aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films are effective in the prevention of anode corrosion during energy harvesting. A cell assembly consisting of the Al/Au/ZnO anode and platinum cathode resulted in an open circuit voltage of 1.03 V. A maximum power density of 955.3 mW/ cm² in physiological saline buffer at a cell voltage and current density of 345 mV and 2.89 mA/ cm², respectively. PMID:26580661

  17. Synthesis of Ag-Au bimetallic film at liquid-liquid interface and its application in vapor sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasricha, Renu, E-mail: pasrichar@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [Material Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, Shweta [Material Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Sastry, M. [Tata Chemical Innovation Center, Anmol Pride, Baner Road, Pune-45 (India); Singh, Nahar; Gupta, Prabhat [Material Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    We demonstrate a novel process for preparing densely packed film of silver nanoparticles at the liquid-liquid interface followed by a transmetallation reaction with gold ion to yield a film of bimetallic nanoparticles. Films of assembled silver as well as Ag-Au bimetallic were characterized by UV-vis-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. I-V measurement shows linear behavior for both the films with ca. five orders of magnitude drop in resistance for the Ag-Au bimetallic film. Temperature dependent I-V measurement revealed a semiconductor to metal transition after transmetallation reaction. The films where checked for their potential application in chemical vapor sensing to ammonia vapors.

  18. Production of radio-gold {sup 199}Au for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu-khandaker@um.edu.my; Kassim, Hasan Abu, E-mail: hasanak@um.edu.my [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu, E-mail: haba@riken.jp [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 199}Au reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. Only a partial agreement is obtained with the existing literature data. Theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library shows large discrepancy with the measured ones. Physical thick target yield for the {sup 199}Au radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections, and found a general agreement with the directly measured yield available in the literature. This study reveals that a low deuteron energy (<15 MeV) cyclotron and an enriched {sup 198}Pt (100%) target could be used to obtain {sup 199}Au in no carrier added form.

  19. An application of Au thin-film emissivity barrier on Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhibin [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechincial University, Xi' an 710072 (China)], E-mail: huangzhibin83@163.com; Zhu Dongmei; Lou Fa; Zhou Wancheng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechincial University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2008-12-30

    1000 nm-thick Au film was sputter-deposited on two groups of nickel alloy substrates, in which one group (Group A) was oxidated at 800 deg. C for 20 h to form a oxide film before coating gold while another group (Group B) was unoxidated. The gold thin-film is applied to serve as a low emissivity coating to reflect thermal radiation. The gold-coated samples were heated in air at 600 deg. C for 150 h to explore the effect of high-temperature environment on the emissivity of coated Au film. After heat-treatment, the average thermal emissivity at the wavelength of 3-14 {mu}m of Group B greatly increased from 0.18 to 0.82 while that of Group A only increased a little. The diffusion between Au and other nickel alloy elements at 600 deg. C also had been discussed in this paper.

  20. Characterization of self-assembled electrodes based on Au-Pt nanoparticles for PEMFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, E. [Politecnica Univ. de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico). Energia y Sustentabilidad; Sebastian, P.J. [Politecnica Univ. de Chiapas, Chiapas (Mexico). Energia y Sustentabilidad; Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Gamboa, S.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Pal, U. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Gonzalez, I. [Autonoma Metropolitana Univ. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by depositing Au, Pt and AuPt nanoparticles on Nafion 115 membrane for use in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) was used to measure the nanoparticle catalyst activity. After deposition of the nanoparticles on the membrane, the surface was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The membrane proton conduction process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with the 4 probe technique. The MEAs fabricated with Nafion/Metal membranes were evaluated in a PEMFC under standard conditions. Colloidal solutions were used to prepare self-assembled electrodes with nanoparticles deposited on Nafion membrane. The particles deposited on Nafion showed good stability and had homogeneous distribution along the membrane surface. The impedance results revealed an increase in the membrane proton resistance of the self-assembled electrodes compared to unmodified Nafion. The Au-Pt nanoparticles were obtained by chemical reduction. The nanoparticle size in the three systems was about 2 nm. The self-assembled electrodes performed well in standard conditions. The optimum colloidal concentration and immersion time must be determined in order to obtain good catalytic activity and high membrane conductance. The self-assembled Nafion/AuPt had the best open circuit potential (887 mV). The Au and Pt self-assemblies showed a similar performance in terms of maximum power and maximum current density. The performance of the Nafion/Au self-assembly was influenced more by ohmic losses, particularly in the membrane. The maximum power generation was obtained at 0.35 V. The mass transport losses increased after this value, thereby affecting the efficiency of the PEMFC. 2 figs.

  1. Frabrication of Au Nanoparticles in Various Shapes and Their Application in Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-yang XUE; Hui-juan WANG; Yong-feng LIANG; Rong CHEN; Jun LIU

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic metallic Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique optical properties, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)spectroscopy. In this paper, star-shaped and sphere gold NPs were prepared by seed-mediated growth and Frence methods respectively. The reaction process and the effect of reagent in seed-mediated growth of gold nanostar particles were systematically described. After fabricating NPs the authors test their Raman enhancement using Crystal Violet (CV) molecules apart. The experimental results indicated that star-shaped Au NPs had stronger Raman enhancement spectrum than that of sphere Au NPs.

  2. Recent Progress in CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Huiqian; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Ju, Xing-Da

    2016-02-20

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, a simple and efficient tool for genome editing, has experienced rapid progress in its technology and applicability in the past two years. Here, we review the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and the ways that have been adopted to expand our capacity for precise genome manipulation. First, we introduce the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9, including its biochemical and structural implications. Second, we highlight the latest improvements in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, especially Cas9 protein modifications for customization. Third, we review its current applications, in which the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to edit the genome, epigenome, or RNA of various organisms. Although CRISPR/Cas9 allows convenient genome editing accompanied by many benefits, we should not ignore the significant ethical and biosafety concerns that it raises. Finally, we discuss the prospective applications and challenges of several promising techniques adapted from CRISPR/Cas9. PMID:26924689

  3. Recent Progress in CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Huiqian; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Ju, Xing-Da

    2016-02-20

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, a simple and efficient tool for genome editing, has experienced rapid progress in its technology and applicability in the past two years. Here, we review the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and the ways that have been adopted to expand our capacity for precise genome manipulation. First, we introduce the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9, including its biochemical and structural implications. Second, we highlight the latest improvements in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, especially Cas9 protein modifications for customization. Third, we review its current applications, in which the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to edit the genome, epigenome, or RNA of various organisms. Although CRISPR/Cas9 allows convenient genome editing accompanied by many benefits, we should not ignore the significant ethical and biosafety concerns that it raises. Finally, we discuss the prospective applications and challenges of several promising techniques adapted from CRISPR/Cas9.

  4. A simplified and efficient germline-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system for Drosophila genomic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sebo, Zachary L; Lee, Han B.; Peng, Ying; Guo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently emerged as an efficient and simple tool for site-specific engineering of eukaryotic genomes. To improve its applications in Drosophila genome engineering, we simplified the standard two-component CRISPR/Cas9 system by generating a stable transgenic fly line expressing the Cas9 endonuclease in the germline (Vasa-Cas9 line). By injecting vectors expressing engineered target-...

  5. Recent Advances in Genome Editing Using CRISPR/Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuduan eDing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discuss their implications for plant research. To date, targeted gene knockout using the Cas9/gRNA system has been established in many plant species, and the targeting efficiency and capacity of Cas9 has been improved by optimizing its expression and that of its gRNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system can also be used for sequence-specific mutagenesis/integration and transcriptional control of target genes. We also discuss off-target effects and the constraint that the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM puts on CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering. To address these problems, a number of bioinformatic tools are available to help design specific gRNAs, and new Cas9 variants and orthologs with high fidelity and alternative PAM specificities have been engineered. Owing to these recent efforts, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming a revolutionary and flexible tool for genome engineering. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant research would enable the investigation of plant biology at an unprecedented depth and create innovative applications in precise crop breeding.

  6. Application of Au/TiO2–WO3 material in visible light photoreductive ozone sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various ratios of TiO2–WO3 and Au/TiO2–WO3 composites were prepared as ozone-sensing materials. These materials were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction, UV–visible reflective spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A 460-nm blue LED light source was used for the detection of gaseous ozone, and the sensing properties of various ratios of TiO2–WO3 were measured. Among the various weight ratios of TiO2–WO3, the sensor response of the TiO2–WO3 (3:1) was the highest obtained response (23.8) to 2.5 ppm ozone. By adding 0.1 wt.% Au to the TiO2–WO3 (3:1), the sensor response was improved to 64.0. The ozone-sensing properties are attributed to the mechanism of adsorption, photoreduction, desorption, and the surface reaction processes of ozone. - Highlights: • Visible light LED as photo-reductive light source • Application of Au/TiO2–WO3 material for gaseous ozone sensor • High sensor response of 64.0 to 2.5 ppm ozone

  7. CRISPR/Cas9系统在疾病模型和基因治疗中的应用%The Application of CRISPR/Cas9 System in Disease Models and Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳坤; 郑志泉; 蔡少丽

    2015-01-01

    基因编辑技术的出现成功地改变了实验材料的基因序列,这为研究疾病的分子机理提供了极大的便利.然而,传统的基因编辑技术由于缺乏精确定位、随机性插入引起位置效应等原因而制约了其发展.随着规律成簇间隔短回文重复CRISPR(clustered regulatoryinterspaced short palindromic repeat)/CRISPR相关核酸酶Cas(CRISPR-associated nuclease)系统的出现,简便高效的基因编辑技术在疾病模型的构建,损伤基因的修复和功能性基因的研究中已得到广泛应用,产生了十分重要的影响.本文就CRISPR/Cas9系统的结构特点、作用机理以及近两年来在疾病模型构建和基因治疗中的应用进行综述,以便读者了解相关领域的研究进展.

  8. Pilomatricome: étude de 22 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Fatima Zahra; Hali, Fouzia; Chiheb, Soumiya

    2016-01-01

    Le pilomatricome est une tumeur cutanée fréquente et bénigne du follicule pileux chez l'enfant. C'est une tumeur annexielle souvent méconnue et confondue avec d'autres lésions cutanées. Les localisations habituelles sont la tête et le cou. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter une série de 22 cas comportant des formes inhabituelles colligées au service de dermatologie sur une période allant de Janvier 2006 jusqu'au Mai 2015. L’étude a concerné 16 femmes et 6 hommes. La moyenne d’âge était de 23,3 ans (4-80 ans). La localisation cervico faciale a été observée dans 12 cas, 2 patients avaient des localisations multiples, un garçon de 4ans avait une localisation au niveau fronto-temporal et une fillette de 14 ans avait une localisation au niveau du visage et de l'avant-bras, et un patient de 48 ans avait une localisation sous unguéale. L'aspect clinique était typique dans tous les cas avec des nodules sous cutanés de consistance pierreuse. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une exérèse des nodules sous anesthésie locale. L’étude histologique était en faveur d'un épithélioma momifié de Malherbe d'exérèse complète sans signes de malignité. Aucun patient n'a présenté de rechute. L'originalité de notre étude réside dans la présence de localisations exceptionnelles au niveau latéro-vertébral, des membres et sous-unguéale, l’âge de survenue inhabituel à 80 ans et la présence de localisations multiples signalées chez 2 enfants. PMID:27516819

  9. Asteroid named after CAS scientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An asteroid has been named after CAS astronomy historian XI Zezong with the approval of the International Minor Planet Nomenclature Committee (IMPNC), announced China's National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) on 17 August.

  10. CRISPR-Cas: Revolutionising genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Samantha Anne; Pepper, Michael Sean

    2016-09-01

    The ability to permanently alter or repair the human genome has been the subject of a number of science fiction films, but with the recent advent of several customisable sequence-specific endonuclease technologies, genome engineering looks set to become a clinical reality in the near future. This article discusses recent advancements in the technology called 'clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated genes' (CRISPR-Cas), the potential of CRISPR-Cas to revolutionise molecular medicine, and the ethical and regulatory hurdles facing its application. PMID:27601107

  11. CRISPR-Cas: Revolutionising genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Samantha Anne; Pepper, Michael Sean

    2016-08-01

    The ability to permanently alter or repair the human genome has been the subject of a number of science fiction films, but with the recent advent of several customisable sequence-specific endonuclease technologies, genome engineering looks set to become a clinical reality in the near future. This article discusses recent advancements in the technology called 'clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated genes' (CRISPR-Cas), the potential of CRISPR-Cas to revolutionise molecular medicine, and the ethical and regulatory hurdles facing its application.

  12. Le paysage politique pour territorialiser l’action publique et les projets de développement : le cas de l’éolien au Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Devanne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Les activités industrielles et les grandes infrastructures sont depuis longtemps considérées comme contribuant au développement des territoires. Or, ce postulat apparaît ébranlé par des conflits récurrents. Cet article s’intéresse à ceux observés au Québec (Canada, dans les régions de la Gaspésie et du Bas-Saint-Laurent, autour de projets de parcs éoliens. D’abord, la mise en place de la filière énergétique est décrite en quatre phases. Nous essaierons ainsi de démontrer que c’est grâce au travail conflictuel de groupes locaux que des démarches nouvelles ont été proposées par divers acteurs publics. Nous y soulignerons les changements perceptibles par rapport aux pratiques plus classiques en paysage pour, ensuite, discuter de zones de questionnement qui persistent touchant le savoir des experts et les pratiques de gouvernance. Pour conclure, nous soulignons en quoi les travaux misant sur les dimensions politiques du paysage peuvent être croisés à ceux en développement régional et territorial pour, notamment, éclairer les relations entre les sociétés contemporaines et les activités productives.Industries and large infrastructures have been seen as a source of development for decades. This idea is although put into test by opponents of such projects. This paper is looking at conflicts raising around wind farms’ projects in eastern Canada. First, we will describe the settlement of this renewable energy in the province of Quebec, trough four phases. By doing so, we try to demonstrate that the conflicts gave rise to new planning practices supported by public authorities. We shall underline changes noticeable in regard of more classic practices in landscape domain. We will then discuss the questions that still remain concerning experts knowledge and governance practices. To conclude, we will underline how research investing political dimensions of landscape combined to regional studies could offer an

  13. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Barkal, Amira A.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Gifford, David K.; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding.

  14. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Barkal, Amira A.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Gifford, David K.; Sherwood, Richard I.; Hashimoto, Tatsunori Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding.

  15. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira A Barkal

    Full Text Available Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding.

  16. L'insertion professionnelle des diplômés de l'enseignement supérieur au Mali : cas de la politique d'aide à l'entrepreneuriat

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko, Ousmane,

    2012-01-01

    Le constat est que de plus en plus, le nombre d'étudiants entrant dans l'enseignement supérieur croît d'année en année et par la suite fait croître le nombre de diplômés de l'enseignement supérieur. Cependant, le rythme d'insertion professionnelle de ces diplômés demeure timide. Ce qui du coup accroît d'année en année le taux de chômage des diplômés du supérieur. Selon les enquêtes nationales, en 2004, le taux de chômage des diplômés du supérieur était d'environ 19% et dépasse celui au niveau...

  17. Peut-on déterminer la prévalence d'une maladie en fonction de la fréquence de son nom sur le web ? Le cas du cancer au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    Blin, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Nous nous sommes interrogé sur la possible corrélation entre l'ordre d'occurrence des noms de maladies dans un corpus de textes, et l'ordre de prévalence des maladies dans la population parlant la langue de ces textes et à la date de leur publication. A titre expérimental, nous avons comparé l'ordre du nombre d'occurrences des noms de cancer dans un corpus en japonais extrait du web et les données épidémiologiques au Japon. La correspondance est très grossière, limitant ainsi l'intérêt des do...

  18. Préservation d’une identité hors du territoire régional : le cas des Maisons de Cantabrie en Espagne et dans le monde au XXème siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Simon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSi l’on ne tient compte que du seul XXème siècle, nous savons que pour des raisons politiques, – comme la Guerre Civile et la Dictature de Franco – ou économiques – principalement au début du siècle et dans les années 1960 – des Espagnols se sont éloignés de leur terre natale pour aller vivre dans d’autres régions et d’autres pays. Catalans, Basques, Galiciens, Andalous, Asturiens ou Cantabres, ils ont souvent ressenti le besoin de se retrouver selon leurs origines géographiques d...

  19. Effets du statut d’emploi sur la santé et la sécurité au travail : le cas des auxiliaires familiales et sociales et des infirmières de soins à domicile au Québec

    OpenAIRE

    Élise Ledoux; Madeleine Bourdouxhe; Esther Cloutier; Hélène David; Catherine Teiger; Isabelle Gagnon; François Ouellet

    2013-01-01

    Les données de cette recherche corroborent les principaux résultats de nombreuses études sur les liens entre la précarité d’emploi et les risques accrus à la santé et à la sécurité du travail (SST). Constituée de quatre études de cas de services de soutien à domicile (SAD) de Centres locaux de services communautaires (CLSC), cette recherche montre comment l’organisation du travail peut soutenir les stratégies protectrices auxquelles ont recours les auxiliaires sociales et familiales (AFS) et ...

  20. Guide RNAs: A Glimpse at the Sequences that Drive CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Alexandra E; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity in bacteria and archaea. Although there are two main classes of CRISPR-Cas systems defined by gene content, interfering RNA biogenesis, and effector proteins, Type II systems have recently been exploited on a broad scale to develop next-generation genetic engineering and genome-editing tools. Conveniently, Type II systems are streamlined and rely on a single protein, Cas9, and a guide RNA molecule, comprised of a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-acting CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA), to achieve effective and programmable nucleic acid targeting and cleavage. Currently, most commercially available Cas9-based genome-editing tools use the CRISPR-Cas system from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpyCas9), although many orthogonal Type II systems are available for diverse and multiplexable genome engineering applications. Here, we discuss the biological significance of Type II CRISPR-Cas elements, including the tracrRNA, crRNA, Cas9, and protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM), and look at the native function of these elements to understand how they can be engineered, enhanced, and optimized for genome editing applications. Additionally, we discuss the basis for orthogonal Cas9 and guide RNA systems that would allow researchers to concurrently use multiple Cas9-based systems for different purposes. Understanding the native function of endogenous Type II CRISPR-Cas systems can lead to new Cas9 tool development to expand the genetic manipulation toolbox. PMID:27371605

  1. Characterization of self-assembled electrodes based on Au-Pt nanoparticles for PEMFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, E. [Univ. Politecnica de Chiapas (Mexico). Energia y Sustentabilidad; Sebastian, P.J.; Gamboa, S.A.; Joseph, S. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centrode Investigacion en Energia; Pal, U. [Univ. Autonoma de Puebla, Pue (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Gonzalez, I. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    This paper described the synthesis and characterization of gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and Au-Pt nanoparticles impregnated on a Nafion membrane in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The aim of the study was to fabricate the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) by depositing the nanoparticles on the membrane using an immersion technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to study the deposition process. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the membrane proton conduction process. An elemental mapping analysis was performed in order to study the location of the Au and Pt in the self-assemblies. Results of the study showed that the particles deposited on the Nafion had good stability and a homogenous distribution along the membrane surface. The particles showed a direct relation in size and location with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic distribution phases of the membrane. The main membrane resistance was located between the membrane and the electrolyte. The self-assembled electrodes demonstrated a good performance at standard conditions. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Application of the concrete aging model to the case of cracked materials and to the coupling with the mechanical properties; Application du modele de degradation du beton au cas des milieux fissures et au couplage avec la mecanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Adenot, F.; Tognazzi, C. [CEA/Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tognazzi, C. [Toulouse Univ., 31 (France). LMDC; Danese, S. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Poyet, S. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cachan, 94 (France)

    1998-07-01

    Predicting the long-term behavior of concrete used in radioactive waste disposal requires the knowledge of the effects of constantly renewed water on its chemistry and its coupling with the mechanical properties. In contact with water, concrete undergoes chemical degradation. This degradation influences the mechanical performance of the material as well as cracks could interfere with the chemical degradation. This paper shows how these problems can be treated using the Ca{sup ++} concentration in pore solution as the state variable that conducts the evolution of chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Some comparisons with experimental results are shown. Finally, the problem of the numerical simulation of accelerated tests of cracked samples is discussed. (authors)

  3. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Behavior of Au nanoparticles-hybridized Pb (II) metal-organic framework and its application in selective sensing hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongmin; Li, Xiaojian; Yan, Tao; Li, Yan; Liu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on Au nanoparticles-hybridized Pb (II)-β-cyclodextrin (Pb-β-CD) metal-organic framework for detecting hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed. Pb-β-CD shows excellent ECL behavior and unexpected reducing ability towards Au ions. Au nanoparticles could massively form on the surface of Pb-β-CD (Au@Pb-β-CD) without use of any additional reducing agent. In the presence of coreactant K2S2O8, the ECL emission of Pb-β-CD was enhanced by the formation of Au nanoparticles. Cr(VI) can collisionally quench the ECL behavior of Au@Pb-β-CD/S2O8(2-) system and the detection mechanism was investigated. This ECL sensor is found to have a linear response in the range of 0.01-100 μM and a low detection limit of 3.43 nM (S/N = 3) under the optimal conditions. These results suggest that metal-organic framework Au@Pb-β-CD has great potential in extending the application in the ECL field as an efficient luminophore. PMID:26902375

  4. Optimization of genome editing through CRISPR-Cas9 engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Adikaram, Poorni; Pandey, Mritunjay; Genis, Allison; Simonds, William F

    2016-04-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) has rapidly become the most promising genome editing tool with great potential to revolutionize medicine. Through guidance of a 20 nucleotide RNA (gRNA), CRISPR-Cas9 finds and cuts target protospacer DNA precisely 3 base pairs upstream of a PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif). The broken DNA ends are repaired by either NHEJ (Non-Homologous End Joining) resulting in small indels, or by HDR (Homology Directed Repair) for precise gene or nucleotide replacement. Theoretically, CRISPR-Cas9 could be used to modify any genomic sequences, thereby providing a simple, easy, and cost effective means of genome wide gene editing. However, the off-target activity of CRISPR-Cas9 that cuts DNA sites with imperfect matches with gRNA have been of significant concern because clinical applications require 100% accuracy. Additionally, CRISPR-Cas9 has unpredictable efficiency among different DNA target sites and the PAM requirements greatly restrict its genome editing frequency. A large number of efforts have been made to address these impeding issues, but much more is needed to fully realize the medical potential of CRISPR-Cas9. In this article, we summarize the existing problems and current advances of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and provide perspectives for the ultimate perfection of Cas9-mediated genome editing.

  5. Study of the nucleation and growth of antibiotic labeled Au NPs and blue luminescent Au8 quantum clusters for Hg2+ ion sensing, cellular imaging and antibacterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Singh, Dheeraj K.; Sadhu, Subha; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report a detailed experimental study supported by DFT calculations to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of cefradine (CFD - an antibiotic) labeled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by employing CFD as both a mild reducing and capping agent. The analysis of the effect of growth conditions reveals that a higher concentration of HAuCl4 results in the formation of an increasing fraction of anisotropic structures, higher temperature leads to the formation of quasi-spherical particles instead of anisotropic ones, and larger pH leads to the formation of much smaller particles. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that when the pH of the reaction medium increases from 4 to 6, the reduction potential of CFD increases which leads to the synthesis of nanoparticles (in a pH 4 reaction) to quantum clusters (in a pH 6 reaction). The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results of supernatant of the pH 6 reaction indicate the formation of [Au8(CFD)2S6] QCs which show fluorescence at ca. 432 nm with a Stokes shift of ca. 95 nm. The blue luminescence from Au8 QCs was applied for sensing of Hg2+ ions on the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism and offers good selectivity and a high sensitivity with a limit of detection ca. 2 nM which is lower than the detection requirement of 10 nM by the U.S. EPA and 30 nM by WHO for drinking water. We have also applied the sensing probe to detect Hg2+ ions in bacterial samples. Further, we have investigated the antibacterial property of as-synthesized Au NPs using MIC, growth curve and cell survival assay. The results show that Au NPs could reduce the cell survival very efficiently rather than the cell growth in comparison to the antibiotic itself. The scanning electron microscopy study shows the degradation and blebbing of the bacterial cell wall upon exposure with Au NPs which was further supported by fluorescence microscopy results. These Au NPs did not show reactive oxygen species generation. We believe

  6. Les cultures transgéniques permettent-elles de réduire l’usage des produits phytosanitaires ? Considérations à partir du cas du soja tolérant au glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Sylvie

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’interroge sur l’impact des cultures transgéniques sur l’emploi des pesticides, objet de nombreux débats. Sont examinés les résultats de plusieurs études portant sur le bilan des premières années d’utilisation à grande échelle des OGM aux États-Unis, plus particulièrement du soja tolérant au glyphosate. Les travaux analysés présentent des résultats variables, surtout pour les années récentes, selon les méthodes choisies et le type d’extrapolations faites. Divers facteurs expliquant l’accroissement de l’emploi global du glyphosate sont passés en revue. Mais l’estimation des quantités d’herbicides utilisées qui dépendent de nombreux facteurs n’est pas un indicateur valide de l’impact des cultures transgéniques sur l’environnement.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 in Genome Editing and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; La Russa, Marie; Qi, Lei S

    2016-06-01

    The Cas9 protein (CRISPR-associated protein 9), derived from type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) bacterial immune systems, is emerging as a powerful tool for engineering the genome in diverse organisms. As an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9 can be easily programmed to target new sites by altering its guide RNA sequence, and its development as a tool has made sequence-specific gene editing several magnitudes easier. The nuclease-deactivated form of Cas9 further provides a versatile RNA-guided DNA-targeting platform for regulating and imaging the genome, as well as for rewriting the epigenetic status, all in a sequence-specific manner. With all of these advances, we have just begun to explore the possible applications of Cas9 in biomedical research and therapeutics. In this review, we describe the current models of Cas9 function and the structural and biochemical studies that support it. We focus on the applications of Cas9 for genome editing, regulation, and imaging, discuss other possible applications and some technical considerations, and highlight the many advantages that CRISPR/Cas9 technology offers.

  8. Optical properties of random alloys: application to CuAu and NiPt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Kamal Krishna; Mookerjee, Abhijit [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700098 (India)

    2005-07-20

    In an earlier paper we presented a formulation for the calculation of the configuration-averaged optical conductivity in random alloys. Our formulation is based on the augmented-space theorem introduced by one of us (Mookerjee 1973 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 6 1340). In this communication we shall combine the augmented space methodology with the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital technique (TB-LMTO) to study the optical conductivities of two alloys, CuAu and NiPt.

  9. Synthesis and SERS application of SiO2@Au nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Apurve; Maurer, Thomas; Lorenzo, Irene Izquierdo; Santos, Andre Ribeiro; Beal, Jérémie; Goffard, Julie; Gérard, Davy; Vial, Alexandre; Plain, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report a chemical route for synthesizing SiO2@Au core-shell nanoparticles. The process includes four steps: i) preparation of the silica cores, ii) grafting gold nanoparticles over SiO2 cores, iii) priming of the silica-coated gold nanoparticles with 2 and 10 nm gold colloids and finally iv) formation of complete shell. The optical extinction spectra were experimentally measured and compared to numerical calculations in order to confirm the dimensions deduced from SEM image...

  10. Development of an intein-mediated split-Cas9 system for gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, D.J.J.; Kuehner, K.; Kuehn, R.; Werfel, S.; Engelhardt, S.; WURST, W; Ortiz, O.

    2015-01-01

    Using CRISPR/Cas9, it is possible to target virtually any gene in any organism. A major limitation to its application in gene therapy is the size of Cas9 (>4 kb), impeding its efficient delivery via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). Therefore, we developed a split–Cas9 system, bypassing the packaging limit using split-inteins. Each Cas9 half was fused to the corresponding split-intein moiety and, only upon co-expression, the intein-mediated trans-splicing occurs and the full Cas9 pro...

  11. Etude de la mesure des emittances transverses d'un faisceau par la methode des gradients. Application au cas d'une focalisation par solenoide

    CERN Document Server

    M'Garrech, S

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of the ALTO project (Linear Accelerator near the Orsay Tandem), IPNO will recover the LAL station NEPAL, which will be used as the ALTO injecting system. To calculate the beam optics through the linear accelerator, it is necessary to determine the electron beam emittance at the exit of the buncher station. There are several methods to determine this emittance: direct methods, like the Pepper Pot technique, and indirect ones, like the three distances method and the three gradients one. The latter requires a variable optic element (quadrupole, solenoid...). In the case of the use of a solenoid, the horizontal and vertical motions are coupled, which implies an additional difficulty for the analysis of the measurements. The main goal of this report is to identify and to solve these mathematical difficulties, so as to determine at last the initial emittance. The treated example comes from a paper by R.Chehab et al [12], the code used is BETA, and resolution is done using the last square method...

  12. Réforme de la gestion publique d’une logique de moyens à une logique de performance : application au cas de l’Algérie

    OpenAIRE

    KISSI, Fadia

    2015-01-01

    Il y a plus de 25 ans, l’augmentation de la contrainte budgétaire, les transformations de l’environnement économique et, surtout, l’obligation de contrôler les dépenses publiques ont conduit plus des deux tiers des pays de L’OCDE (organisation de coopération et de développement économique) à réformer la gestion publique et le fonctionnement des administrations. Ce mouvement de réforme a des appellations diverses « la nouvelle gestion publique », « la nouvelle gouvernance financière »...

  13. Fusion of catalytically inactive Cas9 to FokI nuclease improves the specificity of genome modification

    OpenAIRE

    Guilinger, John P.; Thompson, David B.; Liu, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing by Cas9, which cleaves double-stranded DNA at a sequence programmed by a short single-guide RNA (sgRNA), can result in off-target DNA modification that may be detrimental in some applications. To improve DNA cleavage specificity, we generated fusions of catalytically inactive Cas9 and FokI nuclease (fCas9). DNA cleavage by fCas9 requires association of two fCas9 monomers that simultaneously bind target sites ~15 or 25 base pairs apart. In human cells, fCas9 modified target DNA ...

  14. Identification des propriétés d'élasticité et d'amortissement d'une fibre isolée anisotrope par ultrasons laser : ouverture au cas des fibres naturelles

    OpenAIRE

    Khelfa, Haithem

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of elastic and damping properties of micrometric fibers that are used for the reinforcementof composite materials. Homogeneous and circular artificial fibers were studied experimentaly by the application of the laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, which was coupled to modal identification based on the simulation of the vibration modes using finite element modeling. In the case of plant fibers, the application of the LU method requires prior knowledge of the 3D ge...

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer WS2 nano- sheets on Au foils toward direct application in hydrogen evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshuo Zhang[1; Jianping Shi[1; Gaofeng Han[3; Minjie Li[2; Qingqing Ji[2; Donglin Ma[2; Yu Zhang[1,2; Cong Li[1,2; Xingyou Lang[3; Yanfeng Zhang[1,2; Zhongfan Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2), a typical member of the semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide family has drawn considerable interest because of its unique properties. Intriguingly the edge of WS2 exhibits an ideal hydrogen binding energy which makes WS2 a potential alternative to Pt-based electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Here, we demonstrate for the first time the successful synthesis of uniform monolayer WS2 nanosheets on centimeter- scale Au foils using a facile, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method. The edge lengths of the universally observed triangular WS2 nanosheets are tunable from -100 to N1,000 nm. The WS2 nanosheets on Au foils featuring abundant edges were then discovered to be efficient catalysts for the HER, exhibiting a rather high exchange current density of -30.20 μA/cm2 and a small onset potential of Nl10 mV. The effects of coverage and domain size (which correlate closely with the active edge density of WS2) on the electrocatalytic activity were investigated. This work not only provides a novel route toward the batch-production of monolayer WS2 via the introduction of metal foil substrates but also opens up its direct application for facile HER.

  16. Le comte qui était comtesse : un cas de gynandrie au tribunal de Vienne (1890 The Count who was a Countess: a Case of Gynandry in the Court of Vienna (1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pognant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Il s’agit d’une des premières expertises auprès des tribunaux de la Cour impériale conduite par Krafft-Ebing alors qu’il venait d’être nommé professeur de psychiatrie à Vienne. Il eut à mener cette expertise dans une affaire de mœurs à propos d’une jeune comtesse hongroise qui, selon lui, souffrait de gynandrie, ce qui l’aurait conduite à convoler en noces illégitimes avec une jeune fille en escroquant au passage son « beau-père ». Il sera notamment intéressant de voir comment Krafft-Ebing a orienté son expertise pour la faire coïncider avec la théorie qu’il avait élaborée à propos des psychopathies sexuelles (et notamment les degrés de l’homosexualité et comment il obtint l’acquittement de la jeune femme qui, d’ailleurs, passa le reste de sa vie dans la peau (et le pantalon d’un homme en se faisant appeler M. le Comte…This article is about one of the first expert testimonies presented to the tribunals of the imperial Court, conducted by Krafft-Ebing when he had just been named professor of psychiatry at Vienna. He was called in on a case involving a young Hungarian countess – in his view, suffering from gynandrism – charged with illegitimate marriage to a young woman and knowingly misrepresenting herself to her “father-in-law” in the process.  Of particular interest is the way Krafft-Ebing oriented his testimony, aligning it with the theory he had previously elaborated regarding sexual psychopathies (notably degrees of homosexuality. Of interest, too, is his role in the acquittal of the countess, who spent the rest of her life as a man (in body and dress, identifying himself as Monsieur le Comte…

  17. Efficient Mitochondrial Genome Editing by CRISPR/Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Areum Jo; Sangwoo Ham; Gum Hwa Lee; Yun-Il Lee; SangSeong Kim; Yun-Song Lee; Joo-Ho Shin; Yunjong Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has been widely used for nuclear DNA editing to generate mutations or correct specific disease alleles. Despite its flexible application, it has not been determined if CRISPR/Cas9, originally identified as a bacterial defense system against virus, can be targeted to mitochondria for mtDNA editing. Here, we show that regular FLAG-Cas9 can localize to mitochondria to edit mitochondrial DNA with sgRNAs targeting s...

  18. Rationally engineered Cas9 nucleases with improved specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Slaymaker, Ian M.; Gao, Linyi; Zetsche, Bernd; Scott, David A.; Yan, Winston X.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 is a versatile genome editing tool with a broad range of applications from therapeutics to functional annotation of genes. Cas9 creates double-strand breaks (DSBs) at targeted genomic loci complementary to a short RNA guide. However, Cas9 can cleave off-target sites that are not fully complementary to the guide, which poses a major challenge for genome editing. Here, we use structure-guided protein engineering to improve the specificity of Streptococcus pyogen...

  19. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Topkar, Ved; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P.W.; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J.; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing1, 2, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)3–6. As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commo...

  20. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Topkar, Ved; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P.W.; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J.; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing 1, 2 , the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) 3–6 . As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the c...

  1. Rationally engineered Cas9 nucleases with improved specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Slaymaker, Ian; Gao, Linyi; Zetsche, Bernd; Scott, David Arthur; Yan, Winston Xia; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 is a versatile genome-editing tool with a broad range of applications from therapeutics to functional annotation of genes. Cas9 creates double-strand breaks (DSBs) at targeted genomic loci complementary to a short RNA guide. However, Cas9 can cleave off-target sites that are not fully complementary to the guide, which poses a major challenge for genome editing. Here, we use structure-guided protein engineering to improve the specificity of Streptococcus pyogen...

  2. Les difficultés méthodologiques posées par l’étude des massacres au cours des guerres napoléoniennes : le cas de l’insurrection calabraise de 1806-1807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cadet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L'occupation du royaume de Naples par les Français, à l'hiver 1806, cristallise les tensions que connaît alors la société de l'Italie du sud, marquée par le poids d'un système archaïque freinant tous progrès économiques et sociaux. La défaite subie par le général Reynier face aux Anglais à Maida, en juillet 1806, provoque une insurrection générale des provinces méridionales du royaume, notamment la Calabre. Ce soulèvement s'accompagne d'une impitoyable guerre civile entre Calabrais, les partisans du roi Ferdinand IV de Bourbon s'opposant à ceux du nouveau souverain, Joseph Bonaparte. Cette lutte fratricide se traduit par des explosions paroxystiques de violence et de fréquents massacres, mais les modalités de cette violence extrême ne se laissent guère appréhender, il est ardu d'en cerner les contours. Plusieurs difficultés compliquent en effet l'étude de ce phénomène. Incarnant par essence la rupture avec la norme, le temps du massacre ne laisse guère de place à l'observation détaillée et aux relations minutieuses. Outre le caractère lacunaire des sources, le chercheur se heurte au refus des acteurs de la violence de s'étendre sur les actes qu'ils ont vu ou commis. De fait, les XVIIIe et XIXe siècles coincident avec une évolution radicale des sensibilités, qui incite une part croissante de l'opinion à rejeter des pratiques de violence jusque là admises. La minceur ou l'opacité des sources conduisent ainsi à privilégier une approche comparatiste en cherchant dans des événements de même nature des éléments permettant de mieux cerner les spécificités des massacres calabrais, mais cette méthode fait courir le risque de sombrer dans la téléologie.Enfin, dans une société marquée par la résurgence des enjeux mémoriels et le tendance au compassionnel, l'historien du fait violent se heurte parfois à l'incrédulité, voire à l'hostilité de ses contemporains. En montrant combien la

  3. Novel electrochemical redox-active species: one-step synthesis of polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd and its application for multiplexed immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyuan; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical redox-active species play crucial role in electrochemically multiplexed immunoassays. A one-pot method for synthesizing four kinds of new electrochemical redox-active species was reported using HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 as dual oxidating agents and aniline derivatives as monomers. The synthesized polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd composites, namely poly(N-methyl-o-benzenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd and poly(3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine)-Au/Pd, exhibited electrochemical redox activity at -0.65 V, -0.3 V, 0.12 V, and 0.5 V, respectively. Meanwhile, these composites showed high H2O2 electrocatalytic activity because of the presence of Au/Pd. The as-prepared composites were used as electrochemical immunoprobes in simultaneous detection of four tumor biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA724), and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)). This immunoassay shed light on potential applications in simultaneous gastric cancer (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, CA724) and liver cancer diagnosis (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, AFP). The present strategy to the synthesize redox species could be easily extended to other polymers such as polypyrrole derivatives and polythiophene derivatives. This would be of great significance in the electrochemical detection of more analytes.

  4. Crystallographic investigation of Au nanoparticles embedded in a SrTiO{sub 3} thin film for plasmonics applications by means of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincini, Davide, E-mail: davide.pincini@mail.polimi.it [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 71, avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mazzoli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bernhardt, Hendrik; Katzer, Christian; Schmidl, Frank [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Uschmann, Ingo [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Detlefs, Carsten [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 71, avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-03-14

    Self-organized monocrystalline Au nanoparticles with potential applications in plasmonics are grown in a SrTiO{sub 3} matrix by a novel two-step deposition process. The crystalline preferred orientation of these Au nanoparticles is investigated by synchrotron hard x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles preferentially align with the (111) direction along the substrate normal (001), whereas two in-plane orientations are found with [110]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au} and [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au}. Additionally, a smaller diffraction signal from nanoparticles with the (001) direction parallel to the substrate normal (001) is observed; once again, two in-plane orientations are found, with [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[100]{sub Au} and [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au}. The populations of the two in-plane orientations are found to depend on the thickness of the gold film deposited in the first step of the growth.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing: progress, implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wen, Yan; Guo, Xiong

    2014-09-15

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system provides a robust and multiplexable genome editing tool, enabling researchers to precisely manipulate specific genomic elements, and facilitating the elucidation of target gene function in biology and diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 comprises of a nonspecific Cas9 nuclease and a set of programmable sequence-specific CRISPR RNA (crRNA), which can guide Cas9 to cleave DNA and generate double-strand breaks at target sites. Subsequent cellular DNA repair process leads to desired insertions, deletions or substitutions at target sites. The specificity of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage requires target sequences matching crRNA and a protospacer adjacent motif locating at downstream of target sequences. Here, we review the molecular mechanism, applications and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and clinical therapeutic potential of CRISPR/Cas9 in future.

  6. A simplified and efficient germline-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system for Drosophila genomic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebo, Zachary L; Lee, Han B; Peng, Ying; Guo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently emerged as an efficient and simple tool for site-specific engineering of eukaryotic genomes. To improve its applications in Drosophila genome engineering, we simplified the standard two-component CRISPR/Cas9 system by generating a stable transgenic fly line expressing the Cas9 endonuclease in the germline (Vasa-Cas9 line). By injecting vectors expressing engineered target-specific guide RNAs into Vasa-Cas9 fly embryos, mutations were generated from site-specific DNA cleavages and efficiently transmitted into progenies. Because Cas9 endonuclease is the universal component of the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, site-specific genomic engineering based on this improved platform can be achieved with lower complexity and toxicity, greater consistency, and excellent versatility.

  7. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems. PMID:26857072

  8. De la théorie au modèle : les hélices comme sculptures calculées, le cas des Fonderies de l’Atlantique à Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Kerouanton

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La découverte, l’étude et la sauvegarde partielle des bâtiments des anciennes « Fonderies de l’Atlantique » à Nantes en 2001-2002 ont permis également de révéler puis de conserver une extraordinaire collection d’objets de fonderie au sable correspondant à la fabrication des hélices et des pales d’hélice pour les plus gros navires commerciaux et militaires. La technologie de fonderie d’alliage de cuivre pour les hélices avait été adoptée en 1937 dans l’entreprise. L’ensemble des modèles en bois de pales d’hélice est d’abord apparu comme une accumulation de sculptures monumentales particulièrement épurées. L’étude technologique plus fine montre cependant que cette « beauté » réelle ne correspond nullement à la volonté d’un artiste mais relève uniquement des calculs liés pour chaque production à un projet de navire. Et c’est seulement le calcul qui permet d’expliquer les réalisations d’hélices monoblocs par troussage, sans modèle aucun ; il ne reste alors de traces que les outils du troussage. Il s’agit bien dès lors d’un patrimoine scientifique - la transposition matérielle d’un calcul mathématique - tout autant que d’un patrimoine technique et industriel. C’est cette particularité qui fait la grande originalité de l’ensemble conservé par la communauté urbaine, en attendant, nous l’espérons, une valorisation future.In 2001 and 2002, the study and partial preservation of the buildings of the former Fonderies de l’Atlantic in Nantes also allowed for the preservation of a remarkable collection of objects related to the sand foundry casting carried out by this firm, specialised in propellers for major commercial and military vessels. The firm began to employ copper alloys in its foundry techniques from 1937. The collection of wooden models prepared for the casting of propellers appears, at first sight, as a remarkable accumulation of rather abstract monumental

  9. ÉTUDE DU TRAITEMENT DES SILOXANES PAR ADSORPTION SUR MATÉRIAUX POREUX : APPLICATION AU TRAITEMENT DES BIOGAZ

    OpenAIRE

    Ricaurte Ortega, Deyanira

    2009-01-01

    Étude du traitement des siloxanes par adsorption sur matériaux poreux : application au traitement des biogaz Les biogaz sont des mélanges à forte teneur en méthane utilisés dans la production de chaleur ou d'électricité. Ils contiennent des quantités plus ou moins importantes de siloxanes qui sont interdits pour de nombreuses utilisations du biogaz. La possibilité d'élimination des siloxanes par adsorption est étudiée. Une étude en réacteurs statiques permet d'évaluer les capacités d'adsorpti...

  10. Review of the application of isotopic studies to the genesis of Cu-Au mineralisation at Olympic Dam and Au mineralisation at Porgera, the Tennant Creek district and Yilgarn Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the application of radiogenic isotopes to the study of four Cu-U and Au deposits or deposit types in the Australasian region: Olympic Dam, Porgera, the Proterozoic Au deposits of the Tennant Creek district and the Archaean gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton. In each case it has been possible to date the mineralisation and to correlate ore formation with a specific igneous event or stage in crystal evolution. In three cases it was also possible to use radiogenic isotopes to trace the source of the metal(s) or to constrain the fluid pathway. The results of K-Ar , 39Ar/40Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals associated with gold deposits, SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon, and conventional Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic tracing of the ore fluids are reported to illustrate the power of radiogenic isotopes in ore-genesis studies

  11. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  12. Business Value de l'approche CRM : le cas des hôtels 5 étoiles au Liban : résumé substantiel en français en page 300

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhoul, Imad,

    2011-01-01

    Business Value of the CRM Approach – the Case of 5 Stars Hotels in Lebanon Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an organizational-wide ongoing process. It provides a systemic approach to aligning business processes, technologies, and the customer. The application of the CRM approach in the hospitality sector accompanies the guest cycle in all its stages. It is an ongoing process defined by two main activities: the analysis and the action which are repeated as long as the relationship exi...

  13. Targeted genomic rearrangements using CRISPR/Cas technology

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Peter S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements are frequently observed in cancer cells but have been difficult to generate in a highly specific manner for functional analysis. Here we report the application of CRISPR/Cas technology to successfully generate several types of chromosomal rearrangements implicated as driver events in lung cancer, including the CD74-ROS1 translocation event and the EML4-ALK and KIF5B-RET inversion events. Our results demonstrate that Cas9-induced DNA breaks promote efficient rearrangemen...

  14. Target specificity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xuebing; Kriz, Andrea J.; Sharp, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system, naturally a defense mechanism in prokaryotes, has been repurposed as an RNA-guided DNA targeting platform. It has been widely used for genome editing and transcriptome modulation, and has shown great promise in correcting mutations in human genetic diseases. Off-target effects are a critical issue for all of these applications. Here we review the current status on the target specificity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

  15. Recent CAS Achievements in Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress scored by CAS researchers along with the smooth development of the knowledge innovation program piloted at CAS. The follow-ings are just recent examples of CAS research achievements in life sciences.

  16. Les dynamiques territoriales associées au soja et les changements fonctionnels en Amazonie. Le cas de la région de Santarém, Pará, Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La croissance progressive de la demande internationale de produits céréaliers et légumineux pour le fourrage animal et l´alimentation humaine a entraîné une expansion continue des terres cultivées au Brésil. L´intérêt des multinationales du secteur agroalimentaire (qui ont réalisé de grands investissements dans le pays et les facilités données par le gouvernement pour inciter et développer les activités agro-exportatrices, ont également favorisé l’expansion de ces cultures agricoles. La progression a gagné les régions de cerrado et plus récemment de l´Amazonie, provoquant de profondes transformations dans l´organisation du territoire en donnant de nouvelles fonctions aux différents lieux. Santarém, une ville historique de l´Amazonie brésilienne, qui a une localisation privilégié á la confluence des fleuves Tapajós et Amazones, et à l’extrémité Nord de la route BR-163, est sur le devant de la scène de toutes ces mutations récentes. C’est un centre urbain qui dirige un processus de changement régional défini par la reconversion et la spécialisation productive dans le milieu rural.The progressive increase in the international demand for cereals and leguminous plants for human and animal consumption has motivated a continuous expansion in the cultivated land in Brazil. This expansion is encouraged by the interest of multinationals of the agro-alimental sector that have made large investments in the country, and by the aid provided by the government to promote and reassert the agro-exporters activities. This progression has gone as far as the cerrado latitudes and, most recently, in the Amazonia, where it has generated profound transformations in the organization of the area and given new roles to different places. Santarém, a historical city in the Amazon which utilizes its privileged location where the Tapajós and Amazonas Rivers confluence, as well as the northern vertex of the BR-163 highway, is the

  17. Contribution to the study of transition odd-odd nuclei. Case of {sup 184} Au and influence of residual interaction; Contribution a l`etude des noyaux impairs-impairs de transition. Cas de {sup 184}Au et influence de l`interaction residuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, F.

    1994-06-01

    The main topic of this work is the study of the low-spin and high-spin states of the transitional odd-odd nucleus {sup 184}Au. This nucleus has been studied from the {beta}{sup +}/CE decay of {sup 184}Hg produced by the {sup 148}Sm({sup 40}Ar,4n) reaction. The reaction products were then transported by a helium jet system. This nucleus has also been studied from the {sup 165}Ho({sup 24}Mg,5n) and {sup 170}Yb({sup 19}F,5n) reactions at the ``Chateau de Cristal`` setup at Orsay. The level schemes of both high and low spin states have been established from {gamma}-{gamma}-t coincidence relationships. Experimental results have been interpreted in the frame of the ``rotor plus two quasi-particles`` model. This calculations have shown that this model, which has his strongest justification in well deformed nuclei regions, reproduces correctly the experimental results for the transitional nucleus {sup 184}Au. The influence of the neutron-proton residual interaction has been studied comparing the different results obtained in the ``rotor+2qp`` calculations with and without taking into account the residual interaction. (author). 60 refs., 54 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Applications de la tranformee en ondelettes au traitement de l'information optique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Sylvain

    La these presente l'apport d'un outil mathematique recemment decouvert, la transformee en ondelettes, au traitement de l'information optique. Les ondelettes continues sont d'abords introduites et leur realisation optique est presentee. Ensuite, une ondelette repondant aux equations de Maxwell est developpee. Cette derniere permet de tisser des liens entre la transformee en ondelettes et le principe de Huygens utilise pour etudier la diffraction scalaire. La possibilite d'utiliser cette ondelette pour generer des faisceaux non diffractants est egalement discutee. Dans un deuxieme temps, les ondelettes discretes sont utilisees dans le but d'extraire des informations pertinentes dans une banque d'images infrarouges. Ces images representent les vues de vehicules prises a tous les cinq degres. La transformee en ondelettes genere une analyse multiresolution permettant d'extraire des contours moins bruites. Cette information est alors traitee par de nouveaux algorithmes de reconnaissance de forme dans un espace qui caracterise de facon invariante les objets 3-D.

  19. A highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au-patterned polydimethylsiloxane membrane for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a highly sensitive pressure sensor using a Au film patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The strain-induced change in the film resistance was utilized to perform the quantitative measurement of absolute pressure. The highest sensitivity obtained for a 200 µm thick PDMS film sensor was 0.23/KPa with a range of 50 mm Hg, which is the best result reported so far, over that range, for any pressure sensor on a flexible membrane. The noise-limited pressure resolution was found to be 0.9 Pa (0.007 mm Hg), and a response time of ∼200 ms, are the best reported results for these sensors. The ultrahigh sensitivity is attributed to the strain-induced formation of microcracks, the effect of which on the resistance change was found to be highly reversible within a certain pressure range. A physical model correlating the sensitivity with the sensor parameters and crack geometry has been proposed. (paper)

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs nanowires and their sustainability for optoelectronic applications. Comparing Au- and self-assisted growth methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Steffen

    2011-09-28

    In this work the synthesis of GaAs nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is investigated. A comparison between Au- and self-assisted VLS growth is at the centre of this thesis. While the Au-assisted method is established as a versatile tool for nanowire growth, the recently developed self-assisted variation results from the exchange of Au by Ga droplets and thus eliminates any possibility of Au incorporation. By both methods, we achieve nanowires with epitaxial alignment to the Si(111) substrates. Caused by differences during nanowire nucleation, a parasitic planar layer grows between the nanowires by the Au-assisted method, but can be avoided by the self-assisted method. Au-assisted nanowires grow predominantly in the metastable wurtzite crystal structure, while their self-assisted counterparts have the zincblende structure. All GaAs nanowires are fully relaxed and the strain arising from the lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si of 4.1 % is accommodated by misfit dislocations at the interface. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires are generally found to have vertical and non-polar side facets, while tilted and polar nanofacets were described for Au-assisted GaAs nanowires. We employ VLS nucleation theory to understand the effect of the droplet material on the lateral facets. Optoelectronic applications require long minority carrier lifetimes at room temperature. We fabricate GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires and analyse them by transient photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results are 2.5 ns for the self-assisted nanowires as well as 9 ps for the Au-assisted nanowires. By temperature-dependent PL measurements we find a characteristic activation energy of 77 meV that is present only in the Au-assisted nanowires. We conclude that most likely Au is incorporated from the droplets into the GaAs nanowires and acts as a deep, non-radiative recombination centre.

  1. A Fabrication Route for Arrays of Ultra-low-Noise MoAu Transition Edge Sensors on Thin Silicon Nitride for Space Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Glowacka, D. M.; Crane, M.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a process route to fabricate arrays of Ultra-low-Noise MoAu Transition Edge Sensors (TESs). The low thermal conductance required for space applications is achieved using 200 nm-thick Silicon Nitride (SiNx ) patterned to form long-thin legs with widths of 2.1 {\\mu}m. Using bilayers formed on SiNx islands from films with 40 nm-thick Mo and Au thicknesses in the range 30 to 280 nm deposited by dc-sputtering in ultra-high vacuum we can obtain tunable transition temperatures in the ran...

  2. Trichobezoar gastrique - à propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Ibn Majdoub Hassani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le trichobezoar gastrique est une affection rare (un peu plus d’une dizaine de cas dans la littérature, qui affecte essentiellement des jeunes filles perturbées par des désordres psychologiques. Les auteurs rapportent deux cas de jeunes filles, hospitalisées pour volumineuse masse épigastrique. La fibroscopie gastrique a posé le diagnostic de trichobezoar. Une exérèse chirurgicale a été réalisée à travers une gastrotomie, sans complications. Un suivi psychiatrique des deux patientes a été recommandé. Le trichobezoar gastrique désigne l’accumulation inhabituelle de cheveux au niveau de l’estomac. Son diagnostic est facile en présence d’un contexte de trichophagie évocateur. La fibroscopie œsogastroduodénale est l’examen de référence permettant la visualisation du trichobezoar dont le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical.

  3. PhytoCRISP-Ex: a web-based and stand-alone application to find specific target sequences for CRISPR/CAS editing

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Achal; Murik, Omer; Bowler, Chris; Tirichine, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background With the emerging interest in phytoplankton research, the need to establish genetic tools for the functional characterization of genes is indispensable. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is now well recognized as an efficient and accurate reverse genetic tool for genome editing. Several computational tools have been published allowing researchers to find candidate target sequences for the engineering of the CRISPR vectors, while searching possible off-targets for the predicted candidates. The...

  4. Research Facility Development at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Dongsheng; Miao Yougui; Zhang Hongsong

    2005-01-01

    @@ This article gives an introductory account on the development of research facilities at the CAS over the past six years since the initiation of the Knowledge Innovation Program in 1998 and during the period of the national 10th Five-year Plan in particular. In addition, it expounds the key points for the future work at the CAS in this regard.

  5. Application of {sup 198}Au grains for carcinoma of oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizutani, K. [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Koseki, Y. [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Inoue, To. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Furukawa, S. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University, Faculty of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Kubo, K. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University, Faculty of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Fachihata, H. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Osaka University, Faculty of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Masaki, N. [Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology, Center for Adult Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ikeda, H. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Dept. of Dentistry, Kobe Municipal Chuo Hospital, Kobe (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of the treatment using gold grain implants over the past 9 years and to evaluate the usefulness of this treatment method. From January 1985 through April 1993, a total of 45 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and the oropharynx were treated with {sup 198}Au grain (gold grain) at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School. The initial activity of the grains supplied weekly by the Japan Radioisotope Association was usually 5 mCi (185 MBq), and single implants were usual. In case of combined external irradiation, telecobalt {gamma}-rays or 4 MV X-rays were used for treatment before implant. The local control rate for patients with T1 stages was 80% (20/25) and with T2 stages, 59% (10/17). The local control rate was 71% (10/14) for gold grain alone and 72% (13/18) for external irradiation combined with gold grain implants (combined therapy). In combined therapy, the median of the interval between external irradiation and gold grain implants was 21 days. The treatment interval or patients with recurrent diseases was 22 days, 22, 27, 39 and 46, respectively. The progression rate showed a tendency to increase in the patients with longer interval (more than 21 days), and with partial regression after external irradiation and gold grain implantation is an important factor in combined therapy. Therefore, we emphasize that the time interval should be shorter than 3 weeks. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Untersuchung sind die Analyse der Behandlungsergebnisse der letzten neun Jahre bei Verwendung von Gold-Seed-Implantaten und die Bestimmung der Wertigkeit dieser Methode. Von Januar 1985 bis April 1993 wurden insgesamt 45 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Mundhoehle und des Oropharynx mit {sup 198}Au-Seeds im Department of Radiology der Osaka University medical School behandelt. Die Ausgangsaktivitaet der Seeds war ueblicherweise 5 mCi (185 MBq), sie wurden woechentlich von der

  6. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout and knock-in mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Eun; Lim, Jong-Min; Koh, Hyun Gi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Shin, Won-Sub; Lee, Bongsoo; Hwangbo, Kwon; Kim, Jungeun; Ye, Sung Hyeok; Yun, Jae-Young; Seo, Hogyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Chang, Yong Keun; Jeong, Byeong-ryool

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga Chlamydomonas. We solved this problem by delivering Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) comprising the Cas9 protein and sgRNAs to avoid cytotoxicity and off-targeting associated with vector-driven expression of Cas9. We obtained CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations at three loci including MAA7, CpSRP43 and ChlM, and targeted mutagenic efficiency was improved up to 100 fold compared to the first report of transgenic Cas9-induced mutagenesis. Interestingly, we found that unrelated vectors used for the selection purpose were predominantly integrated at the Cas9 cut site, indicative of NHEJ-mediated knock-in events. As expected with Cas9 RNPs, no off-targeting was found in one of the mutagenic screens. In conclusion, we improved the knockout efficiency by using Cas9 RNPs, which opens great opportunities not only for biological research but also industrial applications in Chlamydomonas and other microalgae. Findings of the NHEJ-mediated knock-in events will allow applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in microalgae, including “safe harboring” techniques shown in other organisms. PMID:27291619

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout and knock-in mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Eun; Lim, Jong-Min; Koh, Hyun Gi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Shin, Won-Sub; Lee, Bongsoo; Hwangbo, Kwon; Kim, Jungeun; Ye, Sung Hyeok; Yun, Jae-Young; Seo, Hogyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Chang, Yong Keun; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga Chlamydomonas. We solved this problem by delivering Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) comprising the Cas9 protein and sgRNAs to avoid cytotoxicity and off-targeting associated with vector-driven expression of Cas9. We obtained CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations at three loci including MAA7, CpSRP43 and ChlM, and targeted mutagenic efficiency was improved up to 100 fold compared to the first report of transgenic Cas9-induced mutagenesis. Interestingly, we found that unrelated vectors used for the selection purpose were predominantly integrated at the Cas9 cut site, indicative of NHEJ-mediated knock-in events. As expected with Cas9 RNPs, no off-targeting was found in one of the mutagenic screens. In conclusion, we improved the knockout efficiency by using Cas9 RNPs, which opens great opportunities not only for biological research but also industrial applications in Chlamydomonas and other microalgae. Findings of the NHEJ-mediated knock-in events will allow applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in microalgae, including "safe harboring" techniques shown in other organisms. PMID:27291619

  8. DNA-templated synthesis of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticle/graphene nanocomposites and their application in glucose biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Min; Lu, Li-min; Bai, Ling; Qiu, Xin-Lan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) is demonstrated to functionalize graphene (GR) and to further guide the growth of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles (PtAuNPs) on GR with high densities and dispersion. The obtained nanocomposites (PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and electrochemical techniques. Then, an enzyme nanoassembly was prepared by self-assembling glucose oxidase (GOD) on PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR ...

  9. Optical and electrochemical evaluation of colloidal Au nanoparticle-ITO hybrid optically transparent electrodes and their application to attenuated total reflectance spectroelectrochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, John N.; Aguilar, Zoraida; Kaval, Necati; Andria, Sara E.; Shtoyko, Tanya; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-12-15

    Colloidal Au nanoparticle monolayers covalently deposited on conductive layers of indium tin oxide (ITO) were fabricated and evaluated as optically transparent electrodes (OTEs) for spectroelectrochemical applications. Specifically, the electrodes were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry; comparisons are made with other types of hybrid ITO optically transparent electrodes. The optical modulation of surface-bound colloidal Au in response to potential cycling over a wide potential window (0.6 to -1.0 V) was acquired in an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroelectrochemical cell. Finally, uptake of a model analyte, tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride, into a Nafion charge selective film spin coated onto the colloidal Au-ITO hybrid electrode was examined using ATR absorbance spectroelectrochemistry. Dependence of uptake on film thickness is addressed, and non-optimized detection limits of 10 nM are reported.

  10. Pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux: à propos de 18 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicham, Souhi; Hanane, El Ouazzani; Hicham, Janah; Ismaïl, Rhorfi; Ahmed, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Le pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux est une complication rare mais grave de la tuberculose pulmonaire évolutive. Nous rapportons une série de 18 cas de pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux colligés au service de Pneumo-Phtisiologie de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2009. Il s'agit de 15 hommes et 3 femmes d’âge moyen de 35 ans ±7 ans. 4 patients étaient diabétiques. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez 9 cas. Le pyo-pneumothorax était du coté droit dans 13 cas. La radiographie thoracique avait montré des lésions cavitaires chez 15 patients et des lésions étendues et bilatérales chez 8 cas. La recherche de BK dans le liquide de tubage gastrique était positive chez 16 cas. Un drainage thoracique associé à un traitement antituberculeux selon le régime 2SRHZ/7RH et une kinésithérapie respiratoire ont été instaurés chez tous les cas. La durée moyenne de drainage pleural était de 4 semaines. Chez 3 cas on avait noté la persistance de la suppuration pleurale ayant nécessité une toilette pleurale sous thoracoscopie avec pleurectomie et exérèse pulmonaire limitée emportant la lésion parenchymateuse tuberculeuse et la persistance d'une volumineuse poche pleurale avec trouble ventilatoire restrictif ayant nécessité une décortication pleurale chirurgicale chez deux cas. L’évolution était favorable avec pachypleurite séquellaire minime chez le reste des cas. Le pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux est une forme grave, qui est souvent en rapport avec une tuberculose cavitaire active. L’évolution est généralement trainante malgré le traitement antituberculeux et le drainage thoracique, d'où la nécessité d'un diagnostic et un traitement précoce de toute forme de tuberculose. PMID:27583090

  11. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-04-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.

  12. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Addison V.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Taylor, David W.; Staahl, Brett T.; Bardales, Jorge A.; Kornfeld, Jack E.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. Although the lobes do not interact on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications. PMID:25713377

  13. Core-shell Au/Ag nanoparticles embedded in silicate sol-gel network for sensor application towards hydrogen peroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shanmugam Manivannan; Ramasamy Ramaraj

    2009-09-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of core-shell Au100-Ag ( = 15, 27, 46, and 60) bimetallic nanoparticles embedded in methyl functionalized silicate MTMOS network towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric techniques. Core-shell Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by absorption spectra and HRTEM. The MTMOS silicate sol-gel embedded Au73Ag27 core-shell nanoparticles modified electrode showed better synergistic electrocatalytic effect towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide when compared to monometal MTMOS-Aunps and MTMOS-Agnps modified electrodes. These modified electrodes were studied without immobilizing any enzyme in the MTMOS sol-gel matrix. The present study highlights the influence of molar composition of Ag nanoparticles in the Au/Ag bimetallic composition towards the electrocatalytic reduction and sensing of hydrogen peroxide in comparison to monometal Au and Ag nanoparticles.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro biocompatibility study of Au/TMC/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as a promising, nontoxic system for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Shirazi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties and applications of iron oxide and Au nanoparticles have motivated researchers to synthesize and optimize a combined nanocomposite containing both. By using various polymers such as chitosan, some of the problems of classic core–shell structures (such as reduced saturation magnetization and thick coating have been overcome. In the present study, chitosan and one of its well-known derivatives, N-trimethylchitosan (TMC, were applied to construct three-layer nanocomposites in an Au/polymer/Fe3O4 system. It was demonstrated that replacement of chitosan with TMC reasonably improved the properties of the final nanocomposites including their size, magnetic behavior and thermal stability. Moreover, the results of the MTT assay showed no significant cytotoxicity effect when the Au/TMC/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were applied in vitro. These TMC-containing magnetic nanoparticles are well-coated by Au nanoparticles and have good biocompatibility and can thus play the role of a platform or a label in various fields of application, especially the biomedical sciences and biosensors.

  15. Fusion d'images: application au contr\\^ole de la distribution des biopsies prostatiques

    CERN Document Server

    Mozer, Pierre; Chevreau, G; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the application of a 3D ultrasound data fusion technique to the 3D reconstruction of prostate biopies in a reference volume. The method is introduced and its evaluation on a series of data coming from 15 patients is described.

  16. Broadening Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 Targeting Range by Modifying PAM Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Topkar, Ved V.; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are primarily guided by RNA-DNA interactions but also require Cas9-mediated recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). While potentially advantageous for specificity, extended PAM sequences limit the targeting range of Cas9 orthologues for genome editing. One possible strategy to relieve this restriction is to relax specificities for certain positions within the PAM. Here we used molecular evolution to modify the NNGRRT PAM specificity of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9). One variant we identified, referred to as KKH SaCas9, shows robust genome editing activities at endogenous human target sites with NNNRRT PAMs. Importantly, using GUIDE-seq, we show that both wild-type and KKH SaCas9 induce comparable numbers of off-target effects in human cells. KKH SaCas9 increased the targeting range of SaCas9 by nearly two- to four-fold. Our molecular evolution strategy does not require structural information and therefore should be applicable to a wide range of Cas9 orthologues. PMID:26524662

  17. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  18. Interface controlled growth of nanostructures in discontinuous Ag and Au thin films fabricated by ion beam sputter deposition for plasmonic applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Brahma; M Ghanashyam Krishna

    2012-08-01

    The growth of discontinuous thin films of Ag and Au by low energy ion beam sputter deposition is reported. The study focuses on the role of the film–substrate in determining the shape and size of nanostructures achieved in such films. Ag films were deposited using Ar ion energy of 150 eV while the Au films were deposited with Ar ion energies of 250–450 eV. Three types of interfaces were investigated in this study. The first set of film–substrate interfaces consisted of Ag and Au films grown on borosilicate glass and carbon coated Cu grids used as substrates. The second set of films was metallic bilayers in which one of the metals (Ag or Au) was grown on a continuous film of the other metal (Au or Ag). The third set of interfaces comprised of discontinuous Ag and Au films deposited on different dielectrics such as SiO2, TiO2 and ZrO2. In each case, a rich variety of nanostructures including self organized arrays of nanoparticles, nanoclusters and nanoneedles have been achieved. The role of the film–substrate interface is discussed within the framework of existing theories of thin film nucleation and growth. Interfacial nanostructuring of thin films is demonstrated to be a viable technique to realize a variety of nanostructures. The use of interfacial nanostructuring for plasmonic applications is demonstrated. It is shown that the surface Plasmon resonance of the metal nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range of wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm by controlling the film–substrate interface.

  19. Détection et suivi visuels robustes d'objets complexes : applications au rendezvous spatial autonome

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we address the issue of fully localizing a known object through computer vision, using a monocular camera, what is a central problem in robotics. A particular attention is here paid on space robotics applications, with the aims of providing a unified visual localization system for autonomous navigation purposes for space rendezvous and proximity operations. Two main challenges of the problem are tackled: initially detecting the targeted object and then tracking it frame-by-fra...

  20. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin; Weber, Tilmann; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-18

    Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of pharmacologically active and industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Unfortunately, many of them are still recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which is a bottleneck for systematic metabolic engineering. To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9 were repaired through the error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, resulting in a library of deletions with variable sizes around the targeted sequence. If templates for HDR were provided at the same time, precise deletions of the targeted gene were observed with near 100% frequency. Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes.

  1. Targeted and genome-wide sequencing reveal single nucleotide variations impacting specificity of Cas9 in human stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Luhan; Grishin, Dennis; Wang, Gang; Aach, John; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Chari, Raj; Homsy, Jason; Cai, Xuyu; ZHAO, YUE; Fan, Jian-Bing; Seidman, Christine; Seidman, Jonathan; Pu, William; Church, George

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 has demonstrated a high-efficiency in site-specific gene targeting. However, potential off-target effects of the Cas9 nuclease represent a major safety concern for any therapeutic application. Here, we knock out the Tafazzin gene by CRISPR/Cas9 in human-induced pluripotent stem cells with 54% efficiency. We combine whole-genome sequencing and deep-targeted sequencing to characterise the off-target effects of Cas9 editing. Whole-genome sequencing of Cas9-modified hiPSC clones detec...

  2. Structure and specificity of the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 during DNA interrogation, target binding and cleavage

    OpenAIRE

    Josephs, Eric A.; Kocak, D. Dewran; Fitzgibbon, Christopher J.; McMenemy, Joshua; Gersbach, Charles A; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 cuts DNA at variable target sites designated by a Cas9-bound RNA molecule. Cas9's ability to be directed by single ‘guide RNA’ molecules to target nearly any sequence has been recently exploited for a number of emerging biological and medical applications. Therefore, understanding the nature of Cas9's off-target activity is of paramount importance for its practical use. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we directly resolve individual Cas9 and nuclease-in...

  3. Cfd Engine Applications At Fiat Research Centre Applications de la modélisation 3D au FIAT Research Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbona M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The CFD (computer fluid dynamic simulation of the complete engine cycle of the 2400 cm3 JTD 10 V engine for the Alfa Romeo 156 is presented. The intake stroke analysis has followed a procedure usually applied at CRF for gasoline engines. Spray and combustion analysis at the selected operating condition of 3500 tr/min and 13 bar BMEP (brake mean effective pressure has given results in fair agreement with the experimental data, but revealed the need of more accurate models for the initial phase of combustion. Finally, the simulation of the exhaust phase has required great care in the set-up of the initial field and boundary conditions. Flow field characteristics are discussed at two crank angles, corresponding to peak values of the exhaust mass flow rate. Cet article présente la simulation 3D du cycle complet du moteur 2400 cm3 JTD 10 V de l'Alfa Romeo 156. L'analyse de la phase d'admission a suivi une procédure habituellement utilisée pour les moteurs à essence. L'analyse du spray et de la combustion au régime choisi de 3500 tr/min et 13 bar de PMI se compare raisonnablement aux essais, mais indique qu'une meilleure description de la phase initiale de la combustion est nécessaire. La simulation de la phase d'échappement a requis une grande attention quant à la spécification du champ initial et des conditions aux limites. On étudie ici les caractéristiques de l'écoulement à deux instants de cycles correspondant à des maxima de débits à l'échappement.

  4. CAS Mathematician Receives Shaw Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ WU Wentsun (WU Wenjun), a CAS Member from the Academy of Mathematics and System Sciences, has been honored with the 2006 Shaw Prize in Mathematical Sciences for his contributions to the new interdisciplinary field of mathematics and mechanization.

  5. 原核CRISPR-Cas系统的结构功能及应用%Function and Organization of CRISPR-Cas Systems and Application in Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯红; 董阁; 雍彬; 李维

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas系统是新近在原核生物中发现的一种抵御外来DNA入侵的免疫机制,由一个成簇规则间隔的短回文重复序列(CRISPR)和附属的蛋白质(Cas)组成,广泛分布于真细菌和古菌中.CRISPR由重复序列及其间隔序列组成,间隔序列来自于过去的入侵DNA,并插入到细菌的CRISPR排列中.一旦出现新的入侵,CRISPR转录,其RNA经过加工后与Cas蛋白质组成一个核蛋白复合体,该复合体通过RNA与入侵DNA序列之间的互补配对,结合目标序列,最后Cas蛋白质将入侵DNA降解.此外,基于CRISPR系统中的Cas9蛋白,发展了一种新的基因组编辑技术,在不同的细胞中均能获得高效的基因定点打靶,展现出巨大的潜力.

  6. Fluorescent Properties of Au Nanoclusters and Their Biological Applications%金团簇的荧光性质及其生物应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任娟; 代雯乐; 付欣; 苏梦; 蔡晶晶; 马占芳

    2011-01-01

    金纳米团簇作为一类新型纳米材料具有独特的光学特性。当金纳米团簇颗粒的尺寸小到与电子的费米波长(〈1nm)相当时,由于量子尺寸效应,金颗粒会受激发射出荧光。作为一种新型荧光材料,金纳米团簇具有发光颜色随团簇尺寸可调、荧光不易猝灭等许多优势。本文主要综述了金纳米团簇的荧光性质及其在生物标记、生物成像以及生物检测等方面的应用。%Au nanoclusters have emerged as a class of materials with unique optical properties.When the size of Au nanocluster decrease to comparable to the Fermi wavelength(1nm) of an electron,it exhibits fluorescent characteristics while they are excited,which resulted from its quantum effect.As a novel fluorescent material,Au nanoclusters show size-dependent emission,a slower photobleaching rate and very good stability.The fluorescent properties of Au nanoclusters and their applications in the fields of biological labeling,biological imaging,and biodetection were mainly reviewed.

  7. Une chaîne de traitement de l'information géographique au service de l'application de la loi Littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick GUILLOPÉ

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available L’application de la loi Littoral nécessitait une approche nouvelle de la part de l’État et la mise en œuvre d’outils nouveaux pour une gestion à long terme. L’apport de traitements automatiques de l’information géographique a été ainsi testé au CETE Normandie-Centre sur trois des grands principes posés par cette loi.

  8. An enhanced photocatalytic response of nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles for eco-friendly water applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Brundo, Maria V.; Bergum, Kristin; Zimbone, Massimo; Sanz, Ruy; Buccheri, Maria A.; Simone, Francesca; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Svensson, Bengt G.; Grimaldi, Maria G.; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    We propose a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system in order to obtain an enhanced photocatalytic response. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles (~8 nm mean diameter) with a thin layer of TiO2 (~4 nm thick). The novel idea of embedding Au nanoparticles with titanium dioxide takes advantage of the presence of metal nanoparticles, in terms of electron trapping, without losing any of the TiO2 exposed surface, so as to favor the photocatalytic performance of titanium dioxide. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The remarkable photocatalytic performance together with the stability of the nano-system was demonstrated by degradation of the methylene blue dye in water. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on the reproductive cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis in an aquatic environment. The originally synthesized material was also compared to conventional TiO2 with Au nanoparticles on top. The latter system showed a dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the liquid environment, due to their instability in the aqueous solution that clearly represents an environmental contamination issue. Thus, the results show that nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles has great potential in eco-friendly water/wastewater purification.

  9. DNA-templated synthesis of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticle/graphene nanocomposites and their application in glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Min; Lu, Li-Min; Bai, Ling; Qiu, Xin-Lan

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) is demonstrated to functionalize graphene (GR) and to further guide the growth of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles (PtAuNPs) on GR with high densities and dispersion. The obtained nanocomposites (PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and electrochemical techniques. Then, an enzyme nanoassembly was prepared by self-assembling glucose oxidase (GOD) on PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR nanocomposites (GOD/PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR). The nanocomposites provided a suitable microenvironment for GOD to retain its biological activity. The direct and reversible electron transfer process between the active site of GOD and the modified electrode was realized without any extra electron mediator. Thus, the prepared GOD/PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR electrode was proposed as a biosensor for the quantification of glucose. The effects of pH, applied potential, and temperature on the performance of the biosensor were discussed in detail and were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a linearity with glucose concentration in the range of 1.0 to 1,800 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM (S/N = 3). The results demonstrate that the developed approach provides a promising strategy to improve the sensitivity and enzyme activity of electrochemical biosensors.

  10. Application of EIS with Au-Hg microelectrode in determining electron transfer mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, X. [College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, DE 19958 (United States); Dexter, S.C. [College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, DE 19958 (United States)]. E-mail: dexter@udel.edu; Luther, G.W. [College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, DE 19958 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of microelectrodes with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for distinguishing between one- and two-electron transfer electrochemical reactions occurring within marine microbial biofilms. In our study, both gold and gold-mercury amalgam microelectrodes with tip diameters of 100 {mu}m were used. EIS measurements were performed at the half-wave potentials of the chemicals of interest in 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solutions containing 100 {mu}M each of FeCl{sub 3}, [Fe(Cat){sub 2}]{sup -}, [Fe(Cat){sub 3}]{sup 3-}, [Fe(4NCat){sub 3}]{sup 3-}, MnCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2} and mixed solutions with two of those chemicals in NaCl solution or seawater. The results showed that there was a linear relationship between the impedance Z {sub re}, Z {sub im} and angular frequency {omega} {sup -1/2} obtained at phase angle of 45{sup o} for both one- and two-electron transfer reactions. One-electron transfer reactions could then be distinguished from two-electron transfer reactions by the slopes.

  11. Photoelectrochemical studies of DNA-tagged biomolecules on Au and Au/Ni/Au multilayer nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of nanowires (NWs for labeling, sensing, and sorting is the basis of detecting biomolecules attached on NWs by optical and magnetic properties. In spite of many advantages, the use of biomolecules-attached NWs sensing by photoelectrochemical (PEC study is almost non-existent. In this article, the PEC study of dye-attached single-stranded DNA on Au NWs and Au-Ni-Au multilayer NWs prepared by pulse electrodeposition are investigated. Owing to quantum-quenching effect, the multilayer Au NWs exhibit low optical absorbance when compared with Au NWs. The tagged Au NWs show good fluorescence (emission at 570 nm, indicating significant improvement in the reflectivity. Optimum results obtained for tagged Au NWs attached on functionalized carbon electrodes and its PEC behavior is also presented. A twofold enhancement in photocurrent is observed with an average dark current of 10 μA for Au NWs coated on functionalized sensing electrode. The importance of these PEC and optical studies provides an inexpensive and facile processing platform for Au NWs that may be suitable for biolabeling applications.

  12. Application de la methode des sous-groupes au calcul Monte-Carlo multigroupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas

    This thesis is dedicated to the development of a Monte Carlo neutron transport solver based on the subgroup (or multiband) method. In this formalism, cross sections for resonant isotopes are represented in the form of probability tables on the whole energy spectrum. This study is intended in order to test and validate this approach in lattice physics and criticality-safety applications. The probability table method seems promising since it introduces an alternative computational way between the legacy continuous-energy representation and the multigroup method. In the first case, the amount of data invoked in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations can be very important and tend to slow down the overall computational time. In addition, this model preserves the quality of the physical laws present in the ENDF format. Due to its cheap computational cost, the multigroup Monte Carlo way is usually at the basis of production codes in criticality-safety studies. However, the use of a multigroup representation of the cross sections implies a preliminary calculation to take into account self-shielding effects for resonant isotopes. This is generally performed by deterministic lattice codes relying on the collision probability method. Using cross-section probability tables on the whole energy range permits to directly take into account self-shielding effects and can be employed in both lattice physics and criticality-safety calculations. Several aspects have been thoroughly studied: (1) The consistent computation of probability tables with a energy grid comprising only 295 or 361 groups. The CALENDF moment approach conducted to probability tables suitable for a Monte Carlo code. (2) The combination of the probability table sampling for the energy variable with the delta-tracking rejection technique for the space variable, and its impact on the overall efficiency of the proposed Monte Carlo algorithm. (3) The derivation of a model for taking into account anisotropic

  13. Tuberculose orbitaire: à propos d'un cas

    OpenAIRE

    Khrifi, Zineb; Abdellaoui, Meriem; Alaoui, Abdellah; Benatiya, Idriss Andaloussi; Tahri, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose sévit à l’état endémique au Maroc, l'atteinte orbitaire est rare et peut se faire par voie hématogène ou par contigüité à partir d'un foyer de voisinage. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 42 ans qui présente une exophtalmie droite dont l'enquête étiologique révèle une tuberculose orbitaire.

  14. RNA-guided Transcriptional Regulation in Plants via dCas9 Chimeric Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Baazim, Hatoon

    2014-05-01

    Developing targeted genome regulation approaches holds much promise for accelerating trait discovery and development in agricultural biotechnology. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs)/CRISPR associated (Cas) system provides bacteria and archaea with an adaptive molecular immunity mechanism against invading nucleic acids through phages and conjugative plasmids. The type II CRISPR/Cas system has been adapted for genome editing purposes across a variety of cell types and organisms. Recently, the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) protein combined with guide RNAs (gRNAs) were used as a DNA-targeting platform to modulate the expression patterns in bacterial, yeast and human cells. Here, we employed this DNA-targeting system for targeted transcriptional regulation in planta by developing chimeric dCas9-based activators and repressors. For example, we fused to the C-terminus of dCas9 with the activation domains of EDLL and TAL effectors, respectively, to generate transcriptional activators, and the SRDX repression domain to generate transcriptional repressor. Our data demonstrate that the dCas9:EDLL and dCas9:TAD activators, guided by gRNAs complementary to promoter elements, induce strong transcriptional activation on episomal targets in plant cells. Moreover, our data suggest that the dCas9:SRDX repressor and the dCas9:EDLL and dCas9:TAD activators are capable of markedly repressing or activating, respectively, the transcription of an endogenous genomic target. Our data indicate that the CRISPR/dCas9:TFs DNA targeting system can be used in plants as a functional genomic tool and for biotechnological applications.

  15. Prediction and Validation of Native and Engineered Cas9 Guide Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Alexandra E; Henriksen, Emily D; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Cas9-based technologies rely on native elements of Type II CRISPR-Cas bacterial immune systems, including the trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA), CRISPR RNA (crRNA), Cas9 protein, and protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). The tracrRNA and crRNA form an RNA duplex that guides the Cas9 endonuclease to complementary nucleic acid sequences. Mechanistically, Cas9 initiates interactions by binding to the target PAM sequence and interrogating the target DNA in a 3'-to-5' manner. Complementarity between the guide RNA and the target DNA is key. In natural systems, precise cleavage occurs when the target DNA sequence contains a PAM flanking a sequence homologous to the crRNA spacer sequence. Currently, the majority of commercial Cas9-based genome-editing tools are derived from the Type II CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus pyogenes However, a diverse set of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems exist in nature that are potentially valuable for genome engineering applications. Exploitation of these systems requires prediction and validation of both native and engineered dual and single guide RNAs to drive Cas9 functionality. Here, we discuss how to identify the elements of these immune systems to develop next-generation Cas9-based genome-editing tools. We first discuss how to predict tracrRNA sequences and suggest a method for designing single guide RNAs containing only critical structural modules. We then outline how to predict the PAM sequence, which is crucial for determining potential targets for Cas9. Finally, validation of the system elements through transcriptome analysis and interference assays is essential for developing next-generation Cas9-based genome-editing tools. PMID:27371591

  16. Conception d'antennes spirales large bande à alimentation coplanaire pour des applications radar sur dirigeable

    OpenAIRE

    Louertani, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Un dirigeable haute altitude (HAA: High Altitude Airship) évoluant à plus de 20 km au-dessus du sol est envisagé en tant que plate-forme d'accueil pour un réseau d'antennes spirales pour des applications radar. L'antenne spirale d'Archimède est un excellent élément rayonnant pour des applications nécessitant une large bande de fréquences ainsi qu'une polarisation circulaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l'alimentation se fait au centre de l'antenne spirale. Cependant, certains environnements inte...

  17. Efficient fdCas9 Synthetic Endonuclease with Improved Specificity for Precise Genome Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2015-07-30

    The Cas9 endonuclease is used for genome editing applications in diverse eukaryotic species. A high frequency of off-target activity has been reported in many cell types, limiting its applications to genome engineering, especially in genomic medicine. Here, we generated a synthetic chimeric protein between the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease and the catalytically inactive Cas9 protein (fdCas9). A pair of guide RNAs (gRNAs) that bind to sense and antisense strands with a defined spacer sequence range can be used to form a catalytically active dimeric fdCas9 protein and generate double-strand breaks (DSBs) within the spacer sequence. Our data demonstrate an improved catalytic activity of the fdCas9 endonuclease, with a spacer range of 15–39 nucleotides, on surrogate reporters and genomic targets. Furthermore, we observed no detectable fdCas9 activity at known Cas9 off-target sites. Taken together, our data suggest that the fdCas9 endonuclease variant is a superior platform for genome editing applications in eukaryotic systems including mammalian cells.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Ti, Ni, and Au Electrodes on Characteristics of TiO2 Nanofibers for Humidity Sensor Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S.Batool; Z.Imran; M.Israr Qadir; M.Usman; H.Jamil; M.A.Rafiq; M.M.Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of metal (Ti,Ni,and Au) electrodes on humidity sensing properties of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers was investigated in this work.The devices were fabricated by evaporating metal contacts on SiO2 layer thermally grown on silicon substrate.The separation between the electrodes was 90 μm for all sensors.The sensors were tested from 40% to 90% relative humidity (RH) by AC electrical characterization at room temperature.When sensors are switched between 40% and 90% RH,the corresponding response and recovery time are 3 s and 5 s for Ti-electrode sensor,4 s and 7 s for Ni-electrode sensor,and 7 s and 13 s for Au-electrode sensor.The hysteresis was 3%,5% and 15% for Ti-,Ni-,and Au-electrode sensor,respectively.The sensitivity of Ti,Ni,and Au-electrode sensors are 7.53 MΩ/%RH,5.29 MΩ/%RH and 4.01 MΩ/%RH respectively at 100 Hz.Therefore Ti-electrode sensor is found to have linear response,fast response and recovery time and higher sensitivity as compared with those of Ni-and Au-electrode sensors.Comparison of humidity sensing properties of sensors with different electrode material may propose a compelling route for designing and optimizing humidity sensors.

  19. CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Using Cas9 Nucleases and Paired Nickases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiml, Simon; Fauser, Friedrich; Puchta, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system has recently become the most important tool for genome engineering due to its simple architecture that allows for rapidly changing the target sequence and its applicability to organisms throughout all kingdoms of life. The need for an easy-to-use and reliable nuclease is especially high in plant research, as precise genome modifications are almost impossible to achieve by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the regeneration of plants from protoplast cultures is very labor intensive. Here, we describe the application of the Cas9 nuclease to Arabidopsis thaliana for the induction of heritable targeted mutations, which may also be used for other plant species. To cover the concern for off-target activity, we also describe the generation of stable mutants using paired Cas9 nickases. PMID:27557689

  20. High-fidelity CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide off-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Pattanayak, Vikram; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J Keith

    2016-01-28

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations. Existing strategies for reducing genome-wide off-target effects of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) are imperfect, possessing only partial or unproven efficacies and other limitations that constrain their use. Here we describe SpCas9-HF1, a high-fidelity variant harbouring alterations designed to reduce non-specific DNA contacts. SpCas9-HF1 retains on-target activities comparable to wild-type SpCas9 with >85% of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) tested in human cells. Notably, with sgRNAs targeted to standard non-repetitive sequences, SpCas9-HF1 rendered all or nearly all off-target events undetectable by genome-wide break capture and targeted sequencing methods. Even for atypical, repetitive target sites, the vast majority of off-target mutations induced by wild-type SpCas9 were not detected with SpCas9-HF1. With its exceptional precision, SpCas9-HF1 provides an alternative to wild-type SpCas9 for research and therapeutic applications. More broadly, our results suggest a general strategy for optimizing genome-wide specificities of other CRISPR-RNA-guided nucleases.

  1. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  2. Une méthode pour estimer l’interception du rayonnement par un couvert bas : application au colza avant montaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoroy Pascal

    2002-01-01

    introduire dans l’équation 2 un paramètre représentant le taux de couverture du sol. Si l’estimation par mesure directe de epsiloni et donc l’estimation de k sont assez simples, au moins dans le principe pour un couvert développé en hauteur (colza après montaison [3], une telle mesure devient beaucoup plus complexe dans le cas d’un couvert discontinu et bas. Dans ce milieu hétérogène (et souvent dans des conditions hivernales sévères, une distribution représentative des capteurs de rayonnement est difficile, les risques de perturbation de la mesure (salissure des capteurs, déréglages sont élevés. Plusieurs études ont déjà traité de epsiloni et k dans le cas du colza [3-7]. Elles sont fondées sur des mesures d’interception du rayonnement et concernent des couverts fermés, après montaison. Une autre approche consiste à effectuer un calcul précis de PARi avec des modèles détaillés utilisant une description complète des paramètres (géométriques et radiatifs du feuillage, et du rayonnement incident [8]. Mais les données nécessaires sont alors nombreuses, complexes à obtenir et donc généralement non disponibles en expérimentation. Pour répondre aux besoins de calcul de l’interception du rayonnement dans les phases d’installation du colza, cet article présente une méthode permettant de calculer epsiloni en tenant compte des principales caractéristiques de la morphologie du couvert et du régime radiatif auquel ce dernier est soumis. Les données nécessaires sont limitées : l’indice foliaire, les taux de couverture du sol (deux définitions, la latitude du lieu considéré, la date et le rayonnement incident quotidien. Ce calcul permet une estimation du coefficient moyen d’extinction k (équation 2. On verra que k peut être corrélé à l’IF, la période de l’année et la latitude du lieu, ce qui permet de proposer une estimation simple de k et donc un calcul simplifié de epsiloni, adapté au cas des faibles IF

  3. Application of Cl2/BCl3/Ar Plasma Treatment in the Improvement of Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Gryglewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant improvement of Ti/Al/Mo/Au ohmic contacts deposited on previously Cl2/BCl3/Ar plasma treated surface was observed. The standard deviation of contact resistance was crucially reduced due to the incorporation of Cl2/BCl3/Ar plasma treatment. The Cl2:BCl3:Ar gas mixture was used in order to thin the top of AlGaN layer prior to deposition of Ti/Al/Mo/Au ohmic contacts. The surface morphology of AlGaN was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. TLM measurements revealed a consequential decrease of contact resistivity.

  4. Application of Cl2/BCl3/Ar Plasma Treatment in the Improvement of Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Gryglewicz; Wojciech Macherzynski; Andrzej Stafiniak; Bogdan Paszkiewicz; Regina Paszkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Significant improvement of Ti/Al/Mo/Au ohmic contacts deposited on previously Cl2/BCl3/Ar plasma treated surface was observed. The standard deviation of contact resistance was crucially reduced due to the incorporation of Cl2/BCl3/Ar plasma treatment. The Cl2:BCl3:Ar gas mixture was used in order to thin the top of AlGaN layer prior to deposition of Ti/Al/Mo/Au ohmic contacts. The surface morphology of AlGaN was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. TLM ...

  5. Intrathecal application of 198Au colloid in acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in chilhood. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 children suffering from acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, resp., were injected intrathecally with 198Au colloid for metaphylaxis. The children had been cured of 8 relapses of miningosis and received irregularly intrathecal injections of methotrexate for cerebral maintenance therapy. The median cerebral period of remission was 52 weeks. 1 child suffering from ALL had been free from meningosis relapses for 128 weeks. Continuous cytostatic therapy is necessary for methaphylaxis. However, despite of the good results presented, 198Au colloid can not be recommended for long-term therapy because radiation injuries are to be expected. (author)

  6. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  7. CAS Scientist Receives Trieste Science Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RAO Zihe, director of the CAS Institute of Biophysics and CAS Member, has been awarded the 2006Trieste Science Prize for "his worldclass contributions to structural biology and his studies of viruses responsible for human diseases."

  8. Expanding the Biologist's Toolkit with CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-05-21

    Few discoveries transform a discipline overnight, but biologists today can manipulate cells in ways never possible before, thanks to a peculiar form of prokaryotic adaptive immunity mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). From elegant studies that deciphered how these immune systems function in bacteria, researchers quickly uncovered the technological potential of Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA cleaving enzyme, for genome engineering. Here we highlight the recent explosion in visionary applications of CRISPR-Cas9 that promises to usher in a new era of biological understanding and control.

  9. Harnessing CRISPR-Cas systems for bacterial genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    Manipulation of genomic sequences facilitates the identification and characterization of key genetic determinants in the investigation of biological processes. Genome editing via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high-throughput functional genomics. CRISPR-Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Although bacterial genome editing is a relatively unexplored and underrepresented application of CRISPR-Cas systems, recent studies provide valuable insights for the widespread future implementation of this technology. This review summarizes recent progress in bacterial genome editing and identifies fundamental genetic and phenotypic outcomes of CRISPR targeting in bacteria, in the context of tool development, genome homeostasis, and DNA repair.

  10. CRISPR-Cas9: A Revolutionary Tool for Cancer Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Torres-Ruiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cancer-modelling field is now experiencing a conversion with the recent emergence of the RNA-programmable CRISPR-Cas9 system, a flexible methodology to produce essentially any desired modification in the genome. Cancer is a multistep process that involves many genetic mutations and other genome rearrangements. Despite their importance, it is difficult to recapitulate the degree of genetic complexity found in patient tumors. The CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing has been proven as a robust technology that makes it possible to generate cellular and animal models that recapitulate those cooperative alterations rapidly and at low cost. In this review, we will discuss the innovative applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate new models, providing a new way to interrogate the development and progression of cancers.

  11. Genome engineering using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Le; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is an adaptive immune system that exists in a variety of microbes. It could be engineered to function in eukaryotic cells as a fast, low-cost, efficient, and scalable tool for manipulating genomic sequences. In this chapter, detailed protocols are described for harnessing the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes to enable RNA-guided genome engineering applications in mammalian cells. We present all relevant methods including the initial site selection, molecular cloning, delivery of guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 into mammalian cells, verification of target cleavage, and assays for detecting genomic modification including indels and homologous recombination. These tools provide researchers with new instruments that accelerate both forward and reverse genetics efforts.

  12. CAS to Address Water Eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ At a meeting on April 5, the CAS authorities gave the green light to a proposal to carry out studies on the development and control of eutrophication on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The five-year project,to cost 20 million yuan (about USS 2.4 million), will involve scientists from various CAS institutes, including the Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Wuhan Institute of Hydrobiology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Botany, Institute of Chemistry, Institute of Geodesy & Geophysics, and Institute of Microbiology.

  13. CAS Academic Divisions in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1.Election of New Members In 2001, 56 scientists were elected new CAS members, including l0 in the Division of Mathematics & Physics, 10 in the Division of Chemistry, 12 in the Division of Biology, nine in the Division of Earth Sciences and 15 in the Division of Engineering Sciences.The average age of the new members is 60.4, and the youngest one is 38 years old. They are now working in nine provinces or municipalities, or governmental departments under the State Council, including 23 outstanding experts working for the CAS.

  14. Fast and facile preparation of CTAB based gels and their applications in Au and Ag nanoparticles synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant, E-mail: rkupadhyay85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, 201314 Uttar Pradesh (India); Soin, Navneet, E-mail: n.soin@bolton.ac.uk [Knowledge Centre for Materials Chemistry (KCMC), Institute for Materials Research and Innovation (IMRI), University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Saha, Susmita, E-mail: ssaha@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Sinha Roy, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.roy@snu.edu.in [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, 201314 Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-04-15

    We have demonstrated that the gel-like mesophase of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can be synthesized by judicial adjustment of water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), without using any additional salts, gelating agents or co-surfactants. Gel formation was found to be highly dependent on the water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), with the lowest value of W{sub 0} (41.5) resulting in rapid gel formation. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis revealed that the gel was comprised of interconnected cylindrical structures. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the gel-like mesophase was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Rheology measurements revealed that all the gel samples were highly viscoelastic in nature. Furthermore, Au and Ag containing CTAB gels were explored as precursors for the preparation of spherical Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) nanoparticles using Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent. The effects of NaBH{sub 4} concentration on the particle size and morphology of the Au and Ag nanoparticles have also been studied. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of CTAB based gel-like mesophase is reported. • CTAB gels were obtained by adjusting water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}). • FTIR analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in gel formation. • Au, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using CTAB gel and NaBH{sub 4}.

  15. Magnetic gold nanocatalyst (nanocat-Fe–Au): catalytic applications for the oxidative esterification and hydrogen transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient and sustainable protocol is described for the oxidative esterification of aldehydes and the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds that uses magnetically separable and reusable maghemite-supported gold nanocatalyst (nanocat-Fe-Au) under mild conditions. The complex ch...

  16. Fast and facile preparation of CTAB based gels and their applications in Au and Ag nanoparticles synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated that the gel-like mesophase of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can be synthesized by judicial adjustment of water to surfactant molar ratio (W0), without using any additional salts, gelating agents or co-surfactants. Gel formation was found to be highly dependent on the water to surfactant molar ratio (W0), with the lowest value of W0 (41.5) resulting in rapid gel formation. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis revealed that the gel was comprised of interconnected cylindrical structures. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the gel-like mesophase was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Rheology measurements revealed that all the gel samples were highly viscoelastic in nature. Furthermore, Au and Ag containing CTAB gels were explored as precursors for the preparation of spherical Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) nanoparticles using Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent. The effects of NaBH4 concentration on the particle size and morphology of the Au and Ag nanoparticles have also been studied. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of CTAB based gel-like mesophase is reported. • CTAB gels were obtained by adjusting water to surfactant molar ratio (W0). • FTIR analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in gel formation. • Au, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using CTAB gel and NaBH4

  17. Silver Nanopartical over AuFON Substrate for Enhanced Raman Readout and Their Application in Pesticide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman detection of thiram is demonstrated by using Ag-nanoparticles (Ag NPs on Au film over nanosphere (AuFON substrate as the hybrid substrate. The SERS signal of the Ag NPs attached to solid supports is studied. The close coupling together of thousands of Ag NPs on AuFON leads to the generation of hot spots for SERS. The Ag NPs on AuFON can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G with the detection limitation of 10−11 M and the pesticide thiram in acetone with a detection limit of as low as 0.24 ppm, which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. The hybrid substrates are shown to be highly sensitive for the detection of thriam, which produce highly enhanced Raman signals with good uniformity and reproducibility due to having plenty of hot spots on its surface.

  18. A Fabrication Route for Arrays of Ultra-low-Noise MoAu Transition Edge Sensors on Thin Silicon Nitride for Space Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Glowacka, D M; Goldie, D J; Withington, S

    2014-01-01

    We describe a process route to fabricate arrays of Ultra-low-Noise MoAu Transition Edge Sensors (TESs). The low thermal conductance required for space applications is achieved using 200 nm-thick Silicon Nitride (SiNx ) patterned to form long-thin legs with widths of 2.1 {\\mu}m. Using bilayers formed on SiNx islands from films with 40 nm-thick Mo and Au thicknesses in the range 30 to 280 nm deposited by dc-sputtering in ultra-high vacuum we can obtain tunable transition temperatures in the range 700 to 70 mK. The sensors use large-area absorbers fabricated from high resistivity, thin-film beta-phase Ta to provide impedance-matching to incident radiation. The absorbers are patterned to reduce the heat capacity associated with the nitride support structure and include Au thermalizing features to assist the heat flow into the TES. Arrays of 400 detectors at the pixel spacing required for the long-wavelength band of the far-infrared instrument SAFARI are now being fabricated. Device yields approaching 99% are achi...

  19. CAS Announces Academicians Elected in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Thirty five Chinese scientists and six of their colleagues from Canada,France and the United States were elected into CAS in 2009.The announcement was made by CAS President LU Yongxiang at a press conference held on December 4,2009,in Beijing.CAS Vice President LI Jinghai read the list of the new Members.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9基因编辑系统研究进展及其在动物基因编辑研究中的应用%The Progress of CRISPR/Cas9 System and Its Application in Animal Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮玮; 刘瑞琪; 吴勇延; 杨严格; 王勇胜; 卿素珠

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated(Cas)系统是由一种短小RNA调控的对DNA修饰的基因编辑工具,是一种较锌指核酸酶(Zinc-fingers nuclease,ZFN)和转录激活因子样效应物核酸酶(Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases,TALEN)打靶更加快速、高效、精准的新型基因组编辑工具,它易于设计,且具有特异性.本文回顾了CRISPR/Cas系统的结构与功能,概述了Cas9的设计策略、影响Cas9基因编辑效率的因素、脱靶检测分析方法及其在动物基因编辑研究中的应用.基于CRISPR/Cas9已经在多种动物上成功实现了基因编辑,它有望成为建立动物模型和研究疾病防治的一种新型可行性途径.

  1. One-step generation of triple knockout CHO cell lines using CRISPR/Cas9 and fluorescent enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grav, Lise Marie; Lee, Jae Seong; Thomsen, Signe Gerling;

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has previously been shown to be a highly efficient tool for generating gene disruptions in CHO cells. In this study we further demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing by disrupting FUT8, BAK and BAX simultaneously....... Taken together, multiplexing with CRISPR/Cas9 can accelerate genome engineering efforts in CHO cells even further....

  2. Diverse evolutionary roots and mechanistic variations of the CRISPR-Cas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraju, Prarthana; Makarova, Kira S; Zetsche, Bernd; Zhang, Feng; Koonin, Eugene V; van der Oost, John

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive immunity had been long thought of as an exclusive feature of animals. However, the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas defense system, present in almost half of prokaryotic genomes, proves otherwise. Because of the everlasting parasite-host arms race, CRISPR-Cas has rapidly evolved through horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules, resulting in extreme structural and functional diversity. CRISPR-Cas systems are divided into two distinct classes that each consist of three types and multiple subtypes. We discuss recent advances in CRISPR-Cas research that reveal elaborate molecular mechanisms and provide for a plausible scenario of CRISPR-Cas evolution. We also briefly describe the latest developments of a wide range of CRISPR-based applications. PMID:27493190

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated target validation of the Splicing Inhibitor Pladienolide B

    KAUST Repository

    Aouida, Mustapha

    2016-02-24

    CRISPR/Cas9 system confers molecular immunity in archeal and bacterial species against invading foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR/Cas9 system is used for genome engineering applications across diverse eukaryotic species. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system for drug target validation in human cells. Pladienolide B is a natural macrolide with antitumor activities mediated through the inhibition of pre-mRNA splicing. To validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B, we employed the CRSIPR/Cas9 system to introduce targeted mutations in the subunits of the SF3B complex in the HEK293T cells. Our data reveal that targeted mutagenesis of the SF3b1 subunit exhibited higher levels of resistance to Pladienolide B. Therefore, our data validate the spliceosomal target of Pladienolide B and provide a proof of concept on using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for drug target identification and validation.

  4. Editing of mouse and human immunoglobulin genes by CRISPR-Cas9 system

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Taek-Chin; Compagno, Mara; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to edit the genome have widely expanded to include DNA gene knock-out, deletions, chromosomal rearrangements, RNA editing and genome-wide screenings. Here we show the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to edit the mouse and human immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. By delivering Cas9 and guide-RNA (gRNA) with retro- or lenti-virus to IgM+ mouse B cells and hybridomas, we induce class-switch recombination (CSR) of the IgH chain to the desired subclass. Similarl...

  5. Efficient fdCas9 Synthetic Endonuclease with Improved Specificity for Precise Genome Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Aouida, Mustapha; Eid, Ayman; Ali, Zahir; Cradick, Thomas; Lee, Ciaran; Deshmukh, Harshavardhan; Atef, Ahmed; AbuSamra, Dina; Gadhoum, Samah Zeineb; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Bao, Gang; Mahfouz, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease is used for genome editing applications in diverse eukaryotic species. A high frequency of off-target activity has been reported in many cell types, limiting its applications to genome engineering, especially in genomic medicine. Here, we generated a synthetic chimeric protein between the catalytic domain of the FokI endonuclease and the catalytically inactive Cas9 protein (fdCas9). A pair of guide RNAs (gRNAs) that bind to sense and antisense strands with a defined spac...

  6. Transport adiabatique et phases de Berry : application au contrôle quantique cohérent passif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, D.

    2004-11-01

    L'étude de l'interaction d'atomes ou de molécules avec des champs électromagnétiques intenses, nécéssite le développement de nouveaux outils de modélisation rendant compte de la dynamique quantique de ces systèmes. Une approche purement perturbative étant impossible en champs forts, on s'est tourné vers une approche “adiabatique”. Afin de traiter correctement le cas des croisements de valeurs propres, on a généralisé les formules de transport adiabatique en faisant intervenir une généralisation de la phase de Berry non-abélienne.

  7. Lentivirus pre-packed with Cas9 protein for safer gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J G; Dang, Y; Abraham, S; Ma, H; Zhang, J; Guo, H; Cai, Y; Mikkelsen, J G; Wu, H; Shankar, P; Manjunath, N

    2016-07-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides an easy way to edit specific site/s in the genome and thus offers tremendous opportunity for human gene therapy for a wide range of diseases. However, one major concern is off-target effects, particularly with long-term expression of Cas9 nuclease when traditional expression methods such as via plasmid/viral vectors are used. To overcome this limitation, we pre-packaged Cas9 protein (Cas9P LV) in lentiviral particles for transient exposure and showed its effectiveness for gene disruption in cells, including primary T cells expressing specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We then constructed an 'all in one virus' to express sgRNAs in association with pre-packaged Cas9 protein (sgRNA/Cas9P LV). We successfully edited CCR5 in TZM-bl cells by this approach. Using an sgRNA-targeting HIV long terminal repeat, we also were able to disrupt HIV provirus in the J-LAT model of viral latency. Moreover, we also found that pre-packaging Cas9 protein in LV particle reduced off-target editing of chromosome 4:-29134166 locus by CCR5 sgRNA, compared with continued expression from the vector. These results show that sgRNA/Cas9P LV can be used as a safer approach for human gene therapy applications. PMID:27052803

  8. A simple approach to the synthesis of eccentric Au@SiO2 Janus nanostructures and their catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Di; Hu, Huicheng; Chen, Lei; Xu, Yong; Qu, Lili; Yang, Peipei; Zhang, Qiao

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method to synthesize eccentric Au@SiO2 Janus nanoparticles. By simply tuning the concentration of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), the surface of gold nanoparticle can be partially or fully wrapped with the amphiphilic ligand. As a result, Janus nanoparticle or concentric core-shell nanostructures can be obtained, respectively. A systematic study has been carried out to confirm the function of PVP molecules. The as-prepared Janus nanoparticle can act as a catalyst to catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, while the core-shell nanostructure is not active due to the coverage of dense silica shell. This work provides a robust and scalable method to produce Au@SiO2 Janus nanoparticles.

  9. Intrathecal application of 198Au-colloid in children suffering from leukemia and non-Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    26 children suffering from acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (group 1) received intrathecal Au-198-colloid injections as a prophylactic measure against central nervous system (CNS) relapses. No primary CNS relapses were observed in the period from 1 Sep. 1974 to 31 Oct. 1978. Two children were taken ill at the same time with meningosis leucaemica in the first and second relapse, respectively. Four children (group 2) were treated with Au-198-colloid after overcoming a meningosis leucaemica. It was not possible to prevent another CNS relapse in all four patients of this group. Clinical status, liquor tests and EEG examinations carried out after the therapy showed good tolerance of the gold colloid. (author)

  10. A Biophysical Model of CRISPR/Cas9 Activity for Rational Design of Genome Editing and Gene Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Iman; Salis, Howard M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to precisely modify genomes and regulate specific genes will greatly accelerate several medical and engineering applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 (Type II) system binds and cuts DNA using guide RNAs, though the variables that control its on-target and off-target activity remain poorly characterized. Here, we develop and parameterize a system-wide biophysical model of Cas9-based genome editing and gene regulation to predict how changing guide RNA sequences, DNA superhelical densities, Cas9 and crRNA expression levels, organisms and growth conditions, and experimental conditions collectively control the dynamics of dCas9-based binding and Cas9-based cleavage at all DNA sites with both canonical and non-canonical PAMs. We combine statistical thermodynamics and kinetics to model Cas9:crRNA complex formation, diffusion, site selection, reversible R-loop formation, and cleavage, using large amounts of structural, biochemical, expression, and next-generation sequencing data to determine kinetic parameters and develop free energy models. Our results identify DNA supercoiling as a novel mechanism controlling Cas9 binding. Using the model, we predict Cas9 off-target binding frequencies across the lambdaphage and human genomes, and explain why Cas9’s off-target activity can be so high. With this improved understanding, we propose several rules for designing experiments for minimizing off-target activity. We also discuss the implications for engineering dCas9-based genetic circuits. PMID:26824432

  11. A Biophysical Model of CRISPR/Cas9 Activity for Rational Design of Genome Editing and Gene Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Farasat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to precisely modify genomes and regulate specific genes will greatly accelerate several medical and engineering applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 (Type II system binds and cuts DNA using guide RNAs, though the variables that control its on-target and off-target activity remain poorly characterized. Here, we develop and parameterize a system-wide biophysical model of Cas9-based genome editing and gene regulation to predict how changing guide RNA sequences, DNA superhelical densities, Cas9 and crRNA expression levels, organisms and growth conditions, and experimental conditions collectively control the dynamics of dCas9-based binding and Cas9-based cleavage at all DNA sites with both canonical and non-canonical PAMs. We combine statistical thermodynamics and kinetics to model Cas9:crRNA complex formation, diffusion, site selection, reversible R-loop formation, and cleavage, using large amounts of structural, biochemical, expression, and next-generation sequencing data to determine kinetic parameters and develop free energy models. Our results identify DNA supercoiling as a novel mechanism controlling Cas9 binding. Using the model, we predict Cas9 off-target binding frequencies across the lambdaphage and human genomes, and explain why Cas9's off-target activity can be so high. With this improved understanding, we propose several rules for designing experiments for minimizing off-target activity. We also discuss the implications for engineering dCas9-based genetic circuits.

  12. Introduction au droit commercial

    OpenAIRE

    Thirion, Nicolas; Delvaux, Thierry; Benoit-Moury, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l'économie. Les liens avec des disciplines autres que le droit, notamment l'économie et l'histoire, seront privilégiés, afin d'adapter la matière aux besoins et centres d'intérêts d'étudiants en sciences humaines. Après une introduction générale, le cours s'articule autour de la trilogie fondamentale ...

  13. Electronic Characterization of Au/DNA/ITO Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Diode and Its Application as a Radiation Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA molecules expressed as double-stranded (DSS) negatively charged polymer plays a significant role in electronic states of metal/silicon semiconductor structures. Electrical parameters of an Au/DNA/ITO device prepared using self-assembly method was studied by using current-voltage (I-V) characteristic measurements under alpha bombardment at room temperature. The results were analyzed using conventional thermionic emission model, Cheung and Cheung's method and Norde's technique to estimate the barrier height, ideality factor, series resistance and Richardson constant of the Au/DNA/ITO structure. Besides demonstrating a strongly rectifying (diode) characteristic, it was also observed that orderly fluctuations occur in various electrical parameters of the Schottky structure. Increasing alpha radiation effectively influences the series resistance, while the barrier height, ideality factor and interface state density parameters respond linearly. Barrier height determined from I-V measurements were calculated at 0.7284 eV for non-radiated, increasing to about 0.7883 eV in 0.036 Gy showing an increase for all doses. We also demonstrate the hypersensitivity phenomena effect by studying the relationship between the series resistance for the three methods, the ideality factor and low-dose radiation. Based on the results, sensitive alpha particle detectors can be realized using Au/DNA/ITO Schottky junction sensor.

  14. 利用CRISPR/Cas9技术构建大肠杆菌aroA基因的敲除系统及其初步应用%The Application of CRISPR/Cas 9 Technology for aroA Gene Knockout in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余深翼; 赵金荣; 郑玲红; 朱二鹏; 周五朵; 吴宝成

    2016-01-01

    旨在利用CRISPR/Cas 9新型基因编辑技术构建大肠杆菌aroA基因的敲除系统,并分析其对不同大肠杆菌aroA基因敲除、修复的差异.首先构建靶向aroA基因的CRISPR/Cas 9载体;随后人工设计同源修复供体基因序列,并亚克隆到CRISPR/Cas 9载体中,构建成完整的CRISPR/Cas 9基因敲除体系;将该系统分别应用到大肠杆菌DH10B、DH5a和JM109细胞中,PCR鉴定筛选到的阳性菌株,并回收其扩增条带进行克隆、测序.CRISPR/Cas 9载体的酶切与测序结果均正确,表明载体构建成功;PCR鉴定结果显示,该系统对三种大肠杆菌均能进行aroA基因的有效敲除,敲除效率为46%~58%;测序结果进一步证实目的基因敲除成功.本试验成功构建大肠杆菌a roA基因CRISPR/Cas 9敲除系统,为进一步研究致病菌aroA基因功能及开发减毒大肠杆菌疫苗提供新型、有效的基因敲除工具.

  15. Safety assessment for octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3) from use in food contact applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal-Kluever, April P; Bailey, Allan B; Hatwell, Karen R

    2015-12-01

    Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3), currently marketed as Irganox 1076 (I-76), is a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant used in a variety of organic substrates, including those used in the manufacture of food contact articles. In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS), initiated a post-market re-evaluation of the food contact applications of I-76. This project aimed to ensure that current dietary exposures from the use of I-76 in food contact articles are accurately captured and the safety assessment considered all relevant and available toxicological information. To accomplish these aims, the USFDA reviewed the available toxicological studies and chemistry information on food contact applications of I-76. Based on this in-depth analysis, a NOAEL of 64 mg/kg-bw/d (female rats) from a chronic rat study and a cumulative estimated dietary intake (CEDI) of 4.5 mg/p/d, was used to calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) of ∼850. We concluded that the previous and current exposure levels provide an adequate margin of safety (MOS) and remain protective of human health for the regulated uses. PMID:26482640

  16. Exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 System for Targeted Genome Mutagenesis in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhang; Xia Yang; Chunping Yang; Mingyang Li; Yulong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has emerged as a powerful approach for targeted genome modification in eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human cell lines. Its successful application in several plant species promises enormous potential for basic and applied plant research. However, extensive studies are still needed to assess this system in other important plant species, to broaden its fields of application and to improve methods. Here we showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is efficient in pe...

  17. Trans-spliced Cas9 allows cleavage of HBB and CCR5 genes in human cells using compact expression cassettes

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Eli J; Appleton, Caleb M.; Douglas E. White; Brown, Matthew T.; Harshavardhan Deshmukh; Kemp, Melissa L.; Gang Bao

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used in a wide variety of biological studies; however, the large size of CRISPR/Cas9 presents challenges in packaging it within adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) for clinical applications. We identified a two-cassette system expressing pieces of the S. pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) protein which splice together in cellula to form a functional protein capable of site-specific DNA cleavage. With specific CRISPR guide strands, we demonstrated the efficacy of this system in c...

  18. Generation of mutant mice by pronuclear injection of circular plasmid expressing Cas9 and single guided RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Mashiko; Yoshitaka Fujihara; Yuhkoh Satouh; Haruhiko Miyata; Ayako Isotani; Masahito Ikawa

    2013-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas mediated genome editing has been successfully demonstrated in mammalian cells and further applications for generating mutant mice were reported by injecting humanized Cas9 (hCas) mRNA and single guide RNA into fertilized eggs. Here we inject the circular plasmids expressing hCas9 and sgRNA into mouse zygotes and obtained mutant mice within a month. When we targeted the Cetn1 locus, 58.8% (10/17) of the pups carried the mutations and six of them were homozygously mutated. Co-injecti...

  19. L'endométriose de la paroi abdominale: à propos d'un cas rare

    OpenAIRE

    Jayi, Sofia; Laadioui, Meriem; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Aabdelilah

    2013-01-01

    L'endométriose de la paroi est une entité clinique rare, dont la physiopathologie demeure imprécise. Elle survient le plus souvent après une intervention chirurgicale gynécologique ou obstétricale. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente présentant une douleur cyclique, au niveau de la cicatrice de césarienne. Avec à l'examen clinique une masse de 3 cm localisée au niveau de la fosse iliaque droite. L'échographie-doppler a objectivé une image d'allure tissulaire, polylobée, à vascularisation ce...

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Shigeo S; Shirakawa, Makoto; Takagi, Junpei; Matsuda, Yoriko; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    Targeted genome modification technologies are key tools for functional genomics. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) is an emerging technology for targeted genome modification. The CRISPR/Cas9 system consists of a short guide RNA (gRNA), which specifies the target genome sequence, and the Cas9 protein, which has endonuclease activity. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been applied to model animals and flowering plants, including rice, sorghum, wheat, tobacco and Arabidopsis. Here, we report the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to targeted mutagenesis in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L., which has emerged as a model species for studying land plant evolution. The U6 promoter of M. polymorpha was identified and cloned to express the gRNA. The target sequence of the gRNA was designed to disrupt the gene encoding auxin response factor 1 (ARF1) in M. polymorpha. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, we isolated stable mutants in the gametophyte generation of M. polymorpha. CRISPR/Cas9-based site-directed mutagenesis in vivo was achieved using either the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or M. polymorpha EF1α promoter to express Cas9. Isolated mutant individuals showing an auxin-resistant phenotype were not chimeric. Moreover, stable mutants were produced by asexual reproduction of T1 plants. Multiple arf1 alleles were easily established using CRIPSR/Cas9-based targeted mutagenesis. Our results provide a rapid and simple approach for molecular genetics in M. polymorpha, and raise the possibility that CRISPR/Cas9 may be applied to a wide variety of plant species.

  1. Pt@AuNPs integrated quantitative capillary-based biosensors for point-of-care testing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze; Fu, Qiangqiang; Yu, Shiting; Sheng, Liangrong; Xu, Meng; Yao, Cuize; Xiao, Wei; Li, Xiuqing; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-15

    Current diagnostic technologies primarily rely on bulky and costly analytical instruments. Therefore, cost-effective and portable diagnosis tools that can be used for point-of-care tests (POCT) are highly desirable. In this study, we report a cost-effective, portable capillary-based biosensor for quantitative detection of biomarkers by the naked eye. This capillary-based biosensor was tested by measuring the distance of blue ink movement, which was directly correlated with the oxygen (O2) produced by efficient core-shell Pt@Au nanoparticles (Pt@AuNPs) catalysts decomposed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). By linking the Pt@AuNPs with antibodies, capillary-based biosensor sandwich immunoassays were constructed. The concentrations of the target proteins were positively correlated with the distances of ink movement. To demonstrate their performance, the biosensors were used to detect the cancer biomarker sprostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The linear detection range (LDR) of the capillary-based biosensor for detecting PSA was from 0.02 to 2.5ng/mL, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.017ng/mL. LDR of the biosensor for detecting CEA was from 0.063 to 16ng/mL, and the LOD was 0.044ng/mL. For detection of PSA and CEA in clinical serum samples, the detection results of the capillary-based biosensor were well correlate with the results from of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs). Thus, the capillary-based biosensor may potentially be a useful strategy for point-of-care testing, in addition to being portable and cost effective. PMID:27240013

  2. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Genome Engineering and Its Application in Plant Variety Improvement%CRISPR/Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术及其在作物品种改良中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平文丽; 李雪君; 林娟; 丁燕芳; 孙焕; 孙计平

    2016-01-01

    基因组编辑技术是用特殊的核酸酶对基因组进行精准修饰的一种新兴技术.2013年研究人员发现了CRISPR(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)系统,将其中的CRISPR/Cas9系统成功改造成RNA引导的核酸内切酶,发展了CRISPR/Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术.该技术能够对包括植物在内的几乎所有物种的基因组进行高效、精准的定点修饰,而且程序简易、操作方便灵活,加速了遗传工程、功能基因组学的研究,给生命科学的各个领域带来了革命性变化.本综述回顾了CRISPR/Cas9的出现、改进与发展,简述了CRISPR/Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术的作用机理,归纳总结了CRISPR/Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术在作物品种改良、提高作物品质和产量中的应用,最后,分析了该技术在作物品种改良中的发展前景及应用价值,以期为合理利用该技术进行种质创新、品种改良提供理论依据.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术在植物基因功能研究及植物改良中的应用%Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Technology in Functional Ge-nomics and Improvement of Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秀英; 侯学文

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas是发现于细菌和古细菌基因组中的特殊结构,参与细菌和古细菌破坏噬菌体和外源质粒的免疫保护。科学家将II型CRISPR/Cas改造成为一个组装简便、高效和精准的基因组编辑工具,并迅速在动物、植物和微生物基因功能研究和遗传改造中获得广泛应用。本文介绍CRISPR/Cas9技术出现近两年来,在水稻、小麦、高粱、拟南芥、烟草、甜橙等植物中的研究情况,在此基础上对该技术的优点和需要进一步改进的地方提出了看法。%CRISPR/Cas is a speciifc gene structure found in the genome of bacteria and archaea, and is the im-mune system of bacteria and archaea involved in destroying phage and exogenous plasmids. CRISPR/Cas9, a convenient, precise and efifcient genome editing technology, was developed according to the mechanism of type II CRISPR/Cas recently. From then on this technology has been broadly utilized to study gene functions and genetic modiifcation of animal, plant and microorganism. The recent developments of CRISPR/Cas9 ge-nome editing technology in rice, wheat, sorghum,Arabidopsis, tobacco and sweet orange, etc, were analyzed in detail in this paper. The advantages and further improvement aspects of this technology were also discussed at the end of this paper.

  4. CRISPR-Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术的研究进展%CR ISPR-Cas9-based Genome Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小梅; 张晓立; 于建东; 郑平; 孙际宾

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas ( clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins)系统为细菌与古生菌中抵御外源病毒或质粒DNA入侵的获得性免疫系统。该系统在crRNA的指导下,使核酸酶Cas识别并降解外源DNA。其中,Ⅱ型CRISPR-Cas系统最为简单,仅包括一个核酸酶Cas9与tracrRNA:crRNA二聚体便可完成其生物功能。基于CRISPR-Cas9的基因组编辑技术的核心为将tracrRNA:crRNA设计为引导RNA,在引导RNA的指导下Cas9定位于特定DNA序列上,进行DNA双链切割,实现基因组的定向编辑。 CRISPR-Cas9系统以设计操纵简便、编辑高效与通用性广等优势成为新一代基因组编辑技术,为基因组定向改造调控与应用等带来突破性革命。从CRISPRC-as 9介导的基因组编辑技术的发展与应用等方面综述其最新研究进展,并着重介绍该技术的关键影响因素,为相关研究者提供参考。%CRISPR-Cas ( clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) systems are the adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea that defends against infectious viruses and plasmids.Immunity is mediated by Cas nucleases, which use small RNA guides ( the crRNAs) to specify a cleavage site within the genome of invading nucleic acids. In typeⅡCRISPR-Cas systems, the DNA-cleaving activity is performed by a single enzyme Cas9 guided by an RNA duplex. Using synthetic single RNA guides, Cas9 can be reprogrammed to create specific double-stranded DNA breaks in the genomes of a variety of organisms, ranging from human cells to bacteria, and thus constitutes a powerful tool for genetic engineering.In this review, we described the development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 system with highlighting the practical considerations for implementing CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

  5. CR ISPR-Cas9-based Genome Engineering%CRISPR-Cas9介导的基因组编辑技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小梅; 张晓立; 于建东; 郑平; 孙际宾

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas ( clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) systems are the adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea that defends against infectious viruses and plasmids.Immunity is mediated by Cas nucleases, which use small RNA guides ( the crRNAs) to specify a cleavage site within the genome of invading nucleic acids. In typeⅡCRISPR-Cas systems, the DNA-cleaving activity is performed by a single enzyme Cas9 guided by an RNA duplex. Using synthetic single RNA guides, Cas9 can be reprogrammed to create specific double-stranded DNA breaks in the genomes of a variety of organisms, ranging from human cells to bacteria, and thus constitutes a powerful tool for genetic engineering.In this review, we described the development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 system with highlighting the practical considerations for implementing CRISPR-Cas9 technology.%CRISPR-Cas ( clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins)系统为细菌与古生菌中抵御外源病毒或质粒DNA入侵的获得性免疫系统。该系统在crRNA的指导下,使核酸酶Cas识别并降解外源DNA。其中,Ⅱ型CRISPR-Cas系统最为简单,仅包括一个核酸酶Cas9与tracrRNA:crRNA二聚体便可完成其生物功能。基于CRISPR-Cas9的基因组编辑技术的核心为将tracrRNA:crRNA设计为引导RNA,在引导RNA的指导下Cas9定位于特定DNA序列上,进行DNA双链切割,实现基因组的定向编辑。 CRISPR-Cas9系统以设计操纵简便、编辑高效与通用性广等优势成为新一代基因组编辑技术,为基因组定向改造调控与应用等带来突破性革命。从CRISPRC-as 9介导的基因组编辑技术的发展与应用等方面综述其最新研究进展,并着重介绍该技术的关键影响因素,为相关研究者提供参考。

  6. CAS forum for young scientists held in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Co-organized by the CAS Graduate University (GUCAS) and the CAS Kunming Branch, 2007 Science 100, a CAS annual forum for outstanding young scientists, was opened on 28 November, 2007 at the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG), with an attendance of more than 90 experts and scholars from various CAS affiliates.

  7. Implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Jake Z.; Ciccaglione, Keith M.; Tournier, Vincent; Zaratiegui, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Application of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system in the model organism Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been hampered by the lack of constructs to express RNA of arbitrary sequence. Here we present expression constructs that use the promoter/leader RNA of RNA (rrk1) and a ribozyme to produce the targeting guide RNA. Tobether with constitutive expressio nof Cas9, this system achieves selection-free specific mutagenesis with efficiencies approaching 100%. The rrk1 CRISPR-Cas9 method enables ra...

  8. DNA-binding domain fusions enhance the targeting range and precision of Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Bolukbasi, Mehmet Fatih; Gupta, Ankit; Oikemus, Sarah; Derr, Alan G.; Garber, Manuel; Brodsky, Michael H.; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Scot A Wolfe

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system is commonly employed in biomedical research; however, the precision of Cas9 is sub-optimal for gene therapy applications that involve editing a large population of cells. Variations on the standard Cas9 system have yielded improvements in the precision of targeted DNA cleavage, but often restrict the range of targetable sequences. It remains unclear whether these variants can limit lesions to a single site within the human genome over a large cohort of treated cells. He...

  9. Applying CRISPR-Cas9 tools to identify and characterize transcriptional enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rui; Korkmaz, Gozde; Agami, Reuven

    2016-09-01

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system triggered a revolution in the field of genome engineering. Initially, the use of this system was focused on the study of protein-coding genes but, recently, a number of CRISPR-Cas9-based tools have been developed to study non-coding transcriptional regulatory elements. These technological advances offer unprecedented opportunities for elucidating the functions of enhancers in their endogenous context. Here, we discuss the application, current limitations and future development of CRISPR-Cas9 systems to identify and characterize enhancer elements in a high-throughput manner.

  10. Multiplex metabolic pathway engineering using CRISPR/Cas9 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociunas, Tadas; Bonde, Ida; Herrgard, Markus;

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and efficient tool for targeted and marker-free genome engineering. Here, we report the development and successful application of a multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome engineering of up to 5 different genomic loci in one transformation step in baker's yeast Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae. To assess the specificity of the tool we employed genome re-sequencing to screen for off-target sites in all single knock-out strains targeted by different gRNAs. This extensive analysis identified no more genome variants in CRISPR/Cas9 engineered strains compared to wild-type reference strains...

  11. Application of Au-Sn eutectic bonding in hermetic radio-frequency microelectromechanical system wafer level packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Choa, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Woonbae; Hwang, Junsik; Ham, Sukjin; Moon, Changyoul

    2006-03-01

    Development of packaging is one of the critical issues toward realizing commercialization of radio-frequency-microelectromechanical system (RF-MEMS) devices. The RF-MEMS package should be designed to have small size, hermetic protection, good RF performance, and high reliability. In addition, packaging should be conducted at sufficiently low temperature. In this paper, a low-temperature hermetic wafer level packaging scheme for the RF-MEMS devices is presented. For hermetic sealing, Au-Sn eutectic bonding technology at temperatures below 300°C is used. Au-Sn multilayer metallization with a square loop of 70 µm in width is performed. The electrical feed-through is achieved by the vertical through-hole via filling with electroplated Cu. The size of the MEMS package is 1 mm × 1 mm × 700 µm. The shear strength and hermeticity of the package satisfies the requirements of MIL-STD-883F. Any organic gases or contamination are not observed inside the package. The total insertion loss for the packaging is 0.075 dB at 2 GHz. Furthermore, the robustness of the package is demonstrated by observing no performance degradation and physical damage of the package after several reliability tests.

  12. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims; Bio-indicateurs potentiels d'atteinte multi-organe: application au cas des victimes d'irradiation accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-09-15

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  13. Expanding CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Capacity in Zebrafish Using SaCas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Cheng; Han, Yuxiang; Chen, Zelin; Lu, Xiaochan; Liang, Fang; Li, Song; Qin, Wei; Lin, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used widely for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the requirement for the 5′-NGG-3′ protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its targeting sequences. Here, we report that a Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9), and its KKH variant, successfully induced targeted mutagenesis with high frequency in zebrafish. Confirming previous findings, the SpCas9 variant, VQR, can also induce targeted mutations in zebrafish. Bioinformatics analysis of these new Cas targets suggests that the number of available target sites in the zebrafish genome can be greatly expanded. Collectively, the expanded target repertoire of Cas9 in zebrafish should further facilitate the utility of this organism for genetic studies of vertebrate biology. PMID:27317783

  14. Cas de necrose cutanée chez des grenouilles africaines à griffes Xenopus laevis suite à une application topique d'eugénol.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Andréanne; Guénette, Sarah Annie; Hélie, Pierre; Vachon, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Case of cutaneous necrosis in African Clawed frogs Xenopus laevis after the topical application of eugenol. African Clawed frogs showed necrotic cutaneous lesions after a topical application of high concentrations of eugenol, an analgesic and anesthetic agent. Microscopically, ulceration of the epidermis, a loss of mucous and serous glands as well as an infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed.

  15. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. PMID:27130213

  16. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    One of the key drivers for successful metabolic engineering in microbes is the efficacy by which genomes can be edited. As such there are many methods to choose from when aiming to modify genomes, especially those of model organisms like yeast and bacteria. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with special emphasis on their application for metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria. Also, examples of how nuclease-deficient Cas9 has been applied for RNA-guided transcriptional regulation of target genes will be reviewed, as well as tools available for computer-aided design of guide-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering.

  17. CAS course on Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Plasma Wake Acceleration, held at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, from 23 to 29 November 2014.    Following a number of introductory lectures on laser and plasma physics, as well as an overview of conventional accelerators and their limitations, the course covered a large number of aspects of plasma wake acceleration schemes: the creation of plasma by high power lasers or particle beams, a description of the plasma creation process through simulations and the characteristics of the accelerated particle beams, including results of the latest achievements. Lectures on beam diagnostics, the applications of plasma accelerated beams, and topical seminars completed the programme.  The course was very successful, with 109 students of 26 nationalities attending; most participants coming from European counties, but also from the US, Israel, India, South Korea, Russia and Ukraine. Feedback from the participants was...

  18. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  19. Servei de Central Authentication Server (CAS)& Single Sign On (SSO): Cas pràctic

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Implementació d'un cas pràctic de Single Sign On mitjançant un servidor d'autenticació CAS (Central Authentication Server) Implementación de un caso práctico de Single Sign On mediante un servidor de autenticación CAS (Central Authentication Server) Implementation of a case study using a Single Sign On authentication server CAS (Central Authentication Server)

  20. Thermohydraulique des écoulements d'hélium faiblement supercritique en conduite application au refroidissement des écrans de faisceau du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hatchadourian, E

    2000-01-01

    Au cours d'observations, au-delà de la mise en évidence d'un effet inattendu, l'effort de compréhension porte tout d'abord vers une description qualitative du phénomène et ensuite quantitative. Puis, lorsque ce phénomène est compris, le travail peut s'orienter vers une étape d'exploitation o le mécanisme est utilisé pour développer de nouvelles voies de recherche ou encore apporter des solutions à des besoins d'ordre technologique. L'étude établie sur le projet du futur collisionneur de particules du CERN en est un exemple convaincant : il s'agit dans un premier temps de définir un modèle simplifié sur l'écoulement d'hélium supercritique dans des tubes soumis à des apports de chaleur, afin de permettre la compréhension des mécanismes essentiels puis developper un modèle plus précis, mais également plus complet, pour l'étude quantitative. L'application directe de cette étude thermohydraulique concerne le refroidissement des écrans de faisceau du LHC. Ces écrans, maintenus à une te...

  1. La tuberculose extra-ganglionnaire primitive de la sphère ORL: à propos de 15 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Lakouichmi, Mohammed; Tourabi, Khalid; Ammar, Haddou; Bouaity, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    Les localisations ORL extra ganglionnaires de la tuberculose sont rares. La symptomatologie clinique ainsi que les examens paracliniques sont souvent trompeurs,posant ainsi le problème de diagnostic différentiel avec la pathologie tumorale. Nous rapportons 15 cas de localisations extra ganglionnaires de tuberculose, colligés au service ORL et CCF de l'Hopital Militaire Avicenne de Marrakech colligés entre 2009 et 2013. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 33 ans. L’étude topographique a montré 6 cas au niveau du cavum, un cas de miliaire tuberculeuse pharyngée, 4 cas laryngés; 2 localisations auriculaires; 1 parotidienne et 1 localisation sous maxillaire. Le diagnostic était anatomopathologiquedans tous les cas. Tous nos patients ont reçu un traitement antituberculeux avec une bonne évolution. Mots-clés: Tuberculose, amygdale, rhinopharynx, larynx, glandes salivaires,Oreille moyenne. PMID:25815100

  2. Optimizing Decision Tree Attack on CAS Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERKOVIC, T.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show a successful side-channel timing attack on a well-known high-complexity cognitive authentication (CAS scheme. We exploit the weakness of CAS scheme that comes from the asymmetry of the virtual interface and graphical layout which results in nonuniform human behavior during the login procedure, leading to detectable variations in user's response times. We optimized a well-known probabilistic decision tree attack on CAS scheme by introducing this timing information into the attack. We show that the developed classifier could be used to significantly reduce the number of login sessions required to break the CAS scheme.

  3. Advanced and Integrated Petrophysical Characterization for CO2 Storage: Application to the Ketzin Site Caractérisation pétrophysique intégrée pour le stockage de CO2 : application au site de Ketzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury M.

    2013-06-01

    from 100 to 300 mD. Two zones were identified on the logs characterized by two different irreducible saturation ranging from 15 up to 35%. The measured relative permeability curves show a sharp decrease of the water effective permeability and suggest that a saturation lower than 50% cannot be reached in practice. The exponent of the resistivity index curve is about 1.7, lower than the default value of 2. The caprock has a permeability of 27 nD, a porosity around 15% and a pore diffusivity of 0.8 x 10-9 m2/s La simulation et le suivi d’un stockage de CO2 requiert des données pétrophysiques spécifiques. Nous présentons un ensemble d’expériences applicables à tout stockage et à toute couverture, fournissant des données pour des simulations numériques réalistes du potentiel de stockage et de l’injection. Ces expériences sont intégrées avec les données diagraphiques pour l’estimation de la porosité, la saturation irréductible, la pression capillaire et la perméabilité relative de l’eau en drainage, la saturation en gaz résiduelle, les relations résistivité-saturation et les propriétés de transport de la couverture (perméabilité et diffusivité. Le cas considéré est l’aquifère salin du Trias dans le contexte du projet CO2SINK, le premier site expérimental de stockage en Allemagne situé près de Ketzin. Nous avons utilisé des méthodes de mesure nécessitant des durées raisonnables tout en restant représentatives des processus in situ. Pour le transport diphasique, nous avons utilisé la centrifugation. Pour la résistivité, nous avons utilisé une méthode rapide « Fast Resistivity Index Measurement » (FRIM en drainage et imbibition, en condition ambiante et en condition de stockage. Pour la caractérisation de la couverture, nous avons utilisé une technique rapide RMN (Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire utilisant le deutérium comme traceur pour la mesure de diffusion et une méthode stationnaire innovante pour la mesure de

  4. Valorisation de la biomasse algale du Maroc : Potentialités pharmacologiques et Applications environnementales, cas des algues brunes Cystoseira tamariscifolia et Bifurcaria bifurcata

    OpenAIRE

    Ainane, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Morocco, with its double Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, spanning more than 3500 km, is a country deeply influenced by the sea, which implies the existence of thousands of marine species. This thesis is dedicated to the promotion of two brown algae Cystoseira tamariscifolia Bifurcaria bifurcata and the Moroccan Atlantic coast (region of Casablanca). Two applications were investigated: the potential pharmacological and environmental applications. The study of the pharmacological potential o...

  5. The Neisseria meningitidis CRISPR-Cas9 System Enables Specific Genome Editing in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciaran M; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

    2016-03-01

    The clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) system from Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) has been successfully adapted for RNA-guided genome editing in a wide range of organisms. However, numerous reports have indicated that Spy CRISPR-Cas9 systems may have significant off-target cleavage of genomic DNA sequences differing from the intended on-target site. Here, we report the performance of the Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) CRISPR-Cas9 system that requires a longer protospacer-adjacent motif for site-specific cleavage, and present a comparison between the Spy and Nme CRISPR-Cas9 systems targeting the same protospacer sequence. The results with the native crRNA and tracrRNA as well as a chimeric single guide RNA for the Nme CRISPR-Cas9 system were also compared. Our results suggest that, compared with the Spy system, the Nme CRISPR-Cas9 system has similar or lower on-target cleavage activity but a reduced overall off-target effect on a genomic level when sites containing three or fewer mismatches are considered. Thus, the Nme CRISPR-Cas9 system may represent a safer alternative for precision genome engineering applications.

  6. Occurrence and activity of a type II CRISPR-Cas system in Lactobacillus gasseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Selle, Kurt; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated genes (cas), which collectively form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system against invasive genetic elements. In silico surveys have revealed that lactic acid bacteria harbour a prolific and diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Thus, the natural evolutionary role of CRISPR-Cas systems may be investigated in these ecologically, industrially, scientifically and medically important microbes. In this study, 17 Lactobacillus gasseri strains were investigated and 6 harboured a type II-A CRISPR-Cas system, with considerable diversity in array size and spacer content. Several of the spacers showed similarity to phage and plasmid sequences, which are typical targets of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Aligning the protospacers facilitated inference of the protospacer adjacent motif sequence, determined to be 5'-NTAA-3' flanking the 3' end of the protospacer. The system in L. gasseri JV-V03 and NCK 1342 interfered with transforming plasmids containing sequences matching the most recently acquired CRISPR spacers in each strain. We report the distribution and function of a native type II-A CRISPR-Cas system in the commensal species L. gasseri. Collectively, these results open avenues for applications for bacteriophage protection and genome modification in L. gasseri, and contribute to the fundamental understanding of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria.

  7. Characterization of Au Irradiated Glassy Polymeric Carbon at 2,000°C for Nuclear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunaemeh, M.; Seif, M.; Batra, A.; Elsamadicy, A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L.; Muntele, C.; Ila, D.

    The TRISO fuel has been used in some of the Generation IV nuclear reactor designs [1]. It consists of a fuel kernel of UOx coated with several layers of materials with different functions. Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is one of the materials in the layers. In this study we investigate the possibility of using Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) as an alternative to PyC. In this work, we are comparing the changes in physical and microstructure properties of GPC after exposure to irradiation fluence of 5 MeV Au equivalent to a 1 displacement per atom (dpa) for GPC prepared at 2,000°C. The GPC material is manufactured and tested at the Center for Irradiation Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and stopping range of ions in matter (SRIM) software.

  8. CrisprGE: a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Karambir; Tandon, Himani; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR system is a powerful defense mechanism in bacteria and archaea to provide immunity against viruses. Recently, this process found a new application in intended targeting of the genomes. CRISPR-mediated genome editing is performed by two main components namely single guide RNA and Cas9 protein. Despite the enormous data generated in this area, there is a dearth of high throughput resource. Therefore, we have developed CrisprGE, a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. Presently,...

  9. CAS to Develop Multiple S&T Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the CAS leadership, Prof. BAI Chunli, executive vice president of CAS, recently gave a briefing on the future blueprint of "CAS Innovation Bases," which are clusters of science and technology.

  10. Le mal de Pott: à propos de 82 cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Fedoul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nous rapportant dans cette étude, les résultats de l’expérience du service de neurochirurgie du CHU Hassan II de Fès dans la prise en charge du mal de pott dans la région de Fès. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective de quatre-vingt-deux cas; étalée sur une période de cinq ans (janvier 2002 au décembre 2006. L’objectif de ce travail était d’illustrer les différents aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de la localisation vertébrale de la tuberculose dans notre pratique. L'âge moyen de nos patients était de 43,1 ans, avec une légère prédominance féminine (53,82%. La durée d'évolution de la maladie était longue (dix mois en moyenne; ceci est expliquée par la symptomatologie initiale insidieuse faite de rachialgies (98,78% et une admission des patients au stade de complications neurologiques (41,46%. La radiographie standard était réalisée chez tous nos patients, et complétée par la TDM dans 86.58% des cas ce qui a permis de déceler la prédominance de l'atteinte dorsale et lombaire. L'IRM est l'examen de choix, elle était demandée chez tous les malades déficitaires (37,8%.Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement antibacillaire associé à une immobilisation du foyer pottique. Une décompression par voie antérieure était réalisée chez 29 patients (35,36 %; alors que la laminectomie n'était pratiquée que chez 5 patients (6.09 %, tandis que l'évacuation de l'abcès de psoas était réalisée chez 25 patients (30,48 %. Le diagnostic de certitude histologique était posé dans 51 cas (62,19%. Les meilleurs résultats étaient obtenus chez les malades opérés par voie antérieure, 26 cas (89,65% de récupération totale et 3 cas (10,34% partielle. L'évolution vers la consolidation et la fusion vertébrale était la règle chez tous nos malades et ceci au bout de 4 à 18 mois après le traitement.

  11. Nanoscaled redox active protein adsorption on Au-dot arrays: An electrochemical scanning probe microscopic investigation for application in nano-biodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Jung, Mi; Kim, Sang-Uk [Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Junhong [College of Bionanotechnology, Kyungwon University, Bokjung-dong, Sujung-gu, Seongnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Woo, E-mail: jwchoi@sogang.ac.k [Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-30

    Highly dense and uniform protein dot arrays on Au-nanodots using size controllable method were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate in order to develop an electrochemical nanobiochip. Cysteine modified azurin was directly immobilized on the fabricated Au-nanodots without any linker materials. Atomic force microscopy was used for characterizing Au-dots formed on ITO substrate. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) revealed the monolayer formation with an in situ cyclic voltammetry to observe redox behaviour of both bare Au-dots and protein immobilized Au-dots. I-V characteristics were obtained on both bare Au-dots and protein immobilized Au-dots structured on ITO conductive electrodes.

  12. Mobile CRISPR/Cas-mediated bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Millen

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis is a biotechnological workhorse for food fermentations and potentially therapeutic products and is therefore widely consumed by humans. It is predominantly used as a starter microbe for fermented dairy products, and specialized strains have adapted from a plant environment through reductive evolution and horizontal gene transfer as evidenced by the association of adventitious traits with mobile elements. Specifically, L. lactis has armed itself with a myriad of plasmid-encoded bacteriophage defensive systems to protect against viral predation. This known arsenal had not included CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins, which forms a remarkable microbial immunity system against invading DNA. Although CRISPR/Cas systems are common in the genomes of closely related lactic acid bacteria (LAB, none was identified within the eight published lactococcal genomes. Furthermore, a PCR-based search of the common LAB CRISPR/Cas systems (Types I and II in 383 industrial L. lactis strains proved unsuccessful. Here we describe a novel, Type III, self-transmissible, plasmid-encoded, phage-interfering CRISPR/Cas discovered in L. lactis. The native CRISPR spacers confer resistance based on sequence identity to corresponding lactococcal phage. The interference is directed at phages problematic to the dairy industry, indicative of a responsive system. Moreover, targeting could be modified by engineering the spacer content. The 62.8-kb plasmid was shown to be conjugally transferrable to various strains. Its mobility should facilitate dissemination within microbial communities and provide a readily applicable system to naturally introduce CRISPR/Cas to industrially relevant strains for enhanced phage resistance and prevention against acquisition of undesirable genes.

  13. Grossesse et transplantation rénale: à propos de 10 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Karima; Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse chez les patientes transplantées rénales est à risque de complications maternelles mais surtout fœtales. Le risque de survenue de rejet aigue ou chronique inhérent à la grossesse est faible. L'objectif de notre étude était de rapporter les grossesses survenues chez nos transplantées rénales, leurs aspects évolutifs et une revue de la littérature. L’âge moyen des patientes au moment de la transplantation rénale était de 28,5 ans. Le traitement immunosuppresseur d'entretien a associé une corticothérapie, l'azathioprine et/ou la ciclosporine A. Le délai moyen entre la transplantation rénale et la découverte de la grossesse était de 6,5 ans. L’âge moyen au moment de la conception était de 33,8 ans. Il n'ya pas eu de modifications du traitement immunosuppresseur au cours de la grossesse. La créatininémie moyenne au cours de la grossesse était stable à 104,8 µmol/l avec une créatininémie supérieure à 150 µmol/l dans 2 cas. Les complications maternelles au cours de la grossesse étaient une hypertension artérielle gravidique dans 3 cas, une protéinurie dans 3 cas, une ascension de la créatininémie au 7ème mois dans 2 cas, une cholestase hépatique gravidique dans 2 cas et une hyperuricémie dans 4 cas. Une prématurité était observée dans 3 cas en rapport avec une rupture prématurée des membranes, des contractions utérines sur utérus cicatriciel et des signes de prééclampsie dans le troisième cas. Après l'accouchement, Une hypertension artérielle était observée chez 3 patientes. On n'a pas noté de rejet aigu chez nos patientes. La créatininémie moyenne était de 195,3 µmol/l (74- 553 µmol/l). Le développement statural et psychomoteur était normal pour 9 enfants. La bonne évolution des grossesses chez les patientes transplantées rénales une planification et un suivi régulier. PMID:26161215

  14. Overviews and Applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 System in Plant Functional Genomics and Creation of New Plant Germplasm%CRISPR/Cas9技术在植物基因功能研究和新种质创制中的应用与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严芳; 周焕斌

    2016-01-01

    基因组定点编辑是利用人工核酸酶,对复杂生物基因组特定位点快速而精确地进行遗传改造的一项新技术.尤其是最近从细菌和古细菌的获得性免疫防御反应中改造而来的CRISPR/Cas9系统,因其简单、廉价、高效以及通用的特性,目前已经广泛地应用于植物、动物、微生物等各种生物体和细胞的基因功能和应用研究中.CRISPR/Cas9系统的原理在于其携带的Cas9核酸酶—RNA导向的dsDNA结合蛋白,能够在靶位点对双链DNA进行定点切割,随后引发的非同源末端连接或者同源重组修复,导致了靶位点DNA的缺失、插入、替换甚至染色体大片段重排.本文对CRISPR/Cas9技术的作用机理和应用进行概括.侧重于模式植物和农作物的最新进展,探讨这一新型基因组定点编辑技术在植物基因功能研究和新种质创制中的进一步发展.

  15. Semiotic and discursive variables in cas-based didactical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Carl

    2003-01-01

    CAS, didactical engeneering, Maple, semiotics, undergraduate teaching, mathematics, education, didactics......CAS, didactical engeneering, Maple, semiotics, undergraduate teaching, mathematics, education, didactics...

  16. La tuberculose sternale: à propos de 2 cas

    OpenAIRE

    Ouarssani, Aziz; Atoini, Fouad; Ait Lhou, Fatima; Idrissi Rguibi, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire touche surtout le rachis. L’atteinte sternale est rare, elle représente moins de 1% des ostéomyélites tuberculeuses. L’abcès froid compliqué par une fracture pathologique constitue le mode de révélation le plus fréquent. Le traitement chirurgical assure l’évacuation des abcès et permet le diagnostique histologique et bactériologique. On rapporte deux cas de tuberculose sternale âgés respectivement de 45 ans et de 10ans, colligés au service de pneumologie, l’exa...

  17. Un cas isolé de tuberculose appendiculaire

    OpenAIRE

    Mountassir, Moujahid; Ennafae, Issam; Kechna, Hicham; Berrada, Samir; El Kandry, Siffedine

    2011-01-01

    La tuberculose est une affection qui sévit à l’état endémique dans notre pays, elle demeure un problème majeur de santé publique .la tuberculose appendiculaire primitive est une affection très rare. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de sexe masculin âgé de 17 ans, admis au service pour une prise en charge d'une douleur de la fosse iliaque droite évoluant dans un contexte fébrile avec conservation de l’état général posant le diagnostic d'une appendicite aigue. Une appendicectomie a été réali...

  18. In Vivo Transcriptional Activation Using CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuailiang; Ewen-Campen, Ben; Ni, Xiaochun; Housden, Benjamin E; Perrimon, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    A number of approaches for Cas9-mediated transcriptional activation have recently been developed, allowing target genes to be overexpressed from their endogenous genomic loci. However, these approaches have thus far been limited to cell culture, and this technique has not been demonstrated in vivo in any animal. The technique involving the fewest separate components, and therefore the most amenable to in vivo applications, is the dCas9-VPR system, where a nuclease-dead Cas9 is fused to a highly active chimeric activator domain. In this study, we characterize the dCas9-VPR system in Drosophila cells and in vivo. We show that this system can be used in cell culture to upregulate a range of target genes, singly and in multiplex, and that a single guide RNA upstream of the transcription start site can activate high levels of target transcription. We observe marked heterogeneity in guide RNA efficacy for any given gene, and we confirm that transcription is inhibited by guide RNAs binding downstream of the transcription start site. To demonstrate one application of this technique in cells, we used dCas9-VPR to identify target genes for Twist and Snail, two highly conserved transcription factors that cooperate during Drosophila mesoderm development. In addition, we simultaneously activated both Twist and Snail to identify synergistic responses to this physiologically relevant combination. Finally, we show that dCas9-VPR can activate target genes and cause dominant phenotypes in vivo, providing the first demonstration of dCas9 activation in a multicellular animal. Transcriptional activation using dCas9-VPR thus offers a simple and broadly applicable technique for a variety of overexpression studies.

  19. Strain distributions of confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红华; 章英; 刘晓山; 骆兴芳; 袁彩雷; 叶双莉

    2015-01-01

    The strain distributions of Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles confined in the Al2O3 matrix with different core sizes are investigated by using the finite element method, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that the compressive strains exerted on the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles can be induced by the Al2O3 matrix. Moreover, it can be found that the strain gradient existing in a Au/Ag nanoparticle is much larger than that in a Ag/Au nanoparticle, which could be due to the larger Young’s modulus of Au than that of Ag. With the core size increasing, the strain gradient existing in the Au/Ag nanoparticle becomes larger, while the strain gradient existing in the Ag/Au nanoparticle keeps constant. These different strain distributions may have significant infl uences on the structures and morphologies of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles, leading to the different physical properties for potential applications.

  20. CAS Researcher Wins International Catalysis Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Prof. Li Can, a CAS member and director of the State Key Laboratory of Catalysis at the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, received the International Catalysis Award at the 13th International Catalysis Congress (ICC)held from July 11 to 16 in Paris.

  1. International Cooperation at CAS Since 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since 1998 when the Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP) was launched,the rapid development of CAS has offered great opportunities to forge international cooperation.Focusing on capacity building to effectively absorb global innovation resources and through organizing major innovative activities,CAS has increasingly expanded and intensified international partnerships.

  2. 51 CAS Members Elected in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Atotal of 51 prominent Chinese scientists were elected CAS members in 2005. The announce ment was made at a press conference held on Dec. 16 in Beijing. CAS President LU Yongxiang was present at the conference to give a briefing on the election and the new members.

  3. CAS issues its 2008 Science & Society Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ CAS recently released its 2008 Science and Society Series consisting of three reports on scientific progress, high-tech advancement and sustainable development. Among them, the latter two were completed under the organization of the CAS Institute of Policy and Management.

  4. CAS Launches Website for Scientific Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ CAS member Wang Shouguan and SecretaryGeneral of the Ministry of Science and Technology Zhang Jing'an jointly push the button on August 26 in Beijing to launch a CAS website for scientific education (http ://www.fipse. cn/).

  5. CAS paleoichthyologist gives Artedi Lecture in Sweden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prof. ZHANG Miman (CHANG Mee-mann), a CAS Member from the CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, was invited to give a talk at the Artedi Lectures at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on 5 December, 2008.

  6. Center established at CAS for innovation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The inaugural meeting for the CAS Center for Innovation and Development (CID) was held on 14 February in Beijing. Vice Chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) ZHANG Xiaoqiang and Member of CAS Presidium FANG Xin jointly unveiled the nameplate for the new center.

  7. elaboration de polymere a empreinte moleculaire destine au developpement d'un capteur des pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    belladgham, wahiba

    2016-01-01

    Dans le present travail , notre interet s'est porté sur l'elaboration des materiaux a empreinte moleculaire MIP destines au developpement dun capteur des pesticides danc notre cas , la synthese du MIP s'est faite en polymerisant sous irradiation UV , LE MELANGE CONSTITUE .

  8. CasA mediates Cas3-catalyzed target degradation during CRISPR RNA-guided interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstrasser, Megan L; Taylor, David W; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K; Sternberg, Samuel H; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    In bacteria, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) DNA-targeting complex Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) guides to bind complementary DNA targets at sites adjacent to a trinucleotide signature sequence called the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). The Cascade complex then recruits Cas3, a nuclease-helicase that catalyzes unwinding and cleavage of foreign double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bearing a sequence matching that of the crRNA. Cascade comprises the CasA-E proteins and one crRNA, forming a structure that binds and unwinds dsDNA to form an R loop in which the target strand of the DNA base pairs with the 32-nt RNA guide sequence. Single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions of dsDNA-bound Cascade with and without Cas3 reveal that Cascade positions the PAM-proximal end of the DNA duplex at the CasA subunit and near the site of Cas3 association. The finding that the DNA target and Cas3 colocalize with CasA implicates this subunit in a key target-validation step during DNA interference. We show biochemically that base pairing of the PAM region is unnecessary for target binding but critical for Cas3-mediated degradation. In addition, the L1 loop of CasA, previously implicated in PAM recognition, is essential for Cas3 activation following target binding by Cascade. Together, these data show that the CasA subunit of Cascade functions as an essential partner of Cas3 by recognizing DNA target sites and positioning Cas3 adjacent to the PAM to ensure cleavage.

  9. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées: à propos de 121 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazmiri, Fatima Ezzahra; Fakhri, Anas; Rais, Hanane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said; Belaabidia, Badia

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées sont des tumeurs dermiques et/ou hypodermiques relativement fréquentes. Elles sont dominées par les tumeurs bénignes. A travers une série de 121 cas, nous avons étudié le profil épidémiologique, anatomopathologique et évolutif de ces tumeurs. C'est une étude rétrospective réalisée au service d'anatomie pathologique du CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech entre 2004 et 2012. Il s'agit de 121 patients. La moyenne d’âge était de 36 ans (1-80ans). Le sex-ratio H/F était de 1,12. La tumeur avait un aspect nodulaire dans 90% des cas. Le membre inférieur était la localisation la plus fréquente (30,5%). L’étude anatomopathologique a porté sur un matériel biopsique dans 100% des cas. Soixante-neuf pour cent de ces tumeurs étaient bénignes. Elles étaient représentées essentiellement par les tumeurs vasculaires, suivies par les tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires. Trente et un pour cent des tumeurs étaient malignes. Il s'agissait essentiellement de tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires, suivies de tumeurs vasculaires. L’étude immunohistochimique était réalisée dans 2cas. Le traitement chirurgical était entrepris dans 73% des cas. L’évolution était précisée dans 19% des cas avec une évolution favorable dans 13% des cas. Un cas de décès et 2 cas de récidive étaient notés. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées bénignes sont de bon pronostic, mais posent un problème majeur de nosologie et de classification. D'autre part, la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique ainsi que l’évaluation pronostique des sarcomes cutanés restent difficiles. PMID:25379113

  10. Exploiting CRISPR-Cas immune systems for genome editing in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

    2016-02-01

    The CRISPR-Cas immune system is a DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated, DNA-targeting defense mechanism, which provides sequence-specific targeting of DNA. This molecular machinery can be engineered into the sgRNA:Cas9 technology, for programmable cleavage of DNA. Following the genesis of double-stranded DNA breaks, the DNA repair machinery generates mutations at the cleavage site using various pathways. This technology has revolutionized eukaryotic genome editing, and we are at the cusp of full exploitation in bacteria. Here, we discuss the potential of CRISPR-based technologies for use in bacteria, and highlight the application of single stranded DNA recombineering combined with CRISPR-Cas selection to edit the genome of a probiotic organism. We envision that CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a key role in the development of next-generation industrial bacteria. PMID:26629846

  11. [Research progress in the third-generation genomic editing technology - CRISPR/Cas9].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yalan; Zong, Yanan; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 technology originated from type II CRISPR/Cas system, which is widely found in bacteria and equips them with acquired immunity against viruses and plasmids. CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is a RNA-guided endonuclease, which can efficiently introduce double-strand breaks at specific sites and activate homologous recombination and/or non-homologous end joining mechanism for the repair of impaired DNA. Features such as easy-to-use, cost-effectiveness, multiple targeting ability have made it the third-generation genomic engineering tool following ZFNs and TALENs. Here the history of discovery and molecular mechanism of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology are reviewed. The rapid advance in its various applications, especially for the treatment of human genetic disorders, as well as some concomitant problems are discussed. PMID:27577230

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-Assisted Transformation-Efficient Reaction (CRATER) for Near-Perfect Selective Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Greenberg, Daniel T.; Takahashi, Jack R.; Thompson, Kirsten A.; Maheshwari, Akshay J.; Kent, Ryan E.; McCutcheon, Griffin; Shih, Joseph D.; Calvet, Charles; Devlin, Tyler D.; Ju, Tina; Kunin, Daniel; Lieberman, Erica; Nguyen, Thai; Tran, Forrest; Xiang, Daniel; Fujishima, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing by providing unprecedented DNA-targeting specificity. Here we demonstrate that this system can be also applied in vitro to fundamental cloning steps to facilitate efficient plasmid selection for transformation and selective gene insertion into plasmid vectors by cleaving unwanted plasmid byproducts with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA)-Cas9 nuclease complex. Using fluorescent and chromogenic proteins as reporters, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage excludes multiple plasmids as well as unwanted ligation byproducts resulting in an unprecedented increase in the transformation success rate from approximately 20% to nearly 100%. Thus, this CRISPR/Cas9-Assisted Transformation-Efficient Reaction (CRATER) protocol is a novel, inexpensive, and convenient application to conventional molecular cloning to achieve near-perfect selective transformation.

  13. Advances in CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering: lessons learned from RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Birmingham, Amanda; Wiemann, Stefan; Beijersbergen, Roderick L; Hornung, Veit; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2015-04-20

    The discovery that the machinery of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 bacterial immune system can be re-purposed to easily create deletions, insertions and replacements in the mammalian genome has revolutionized the field of genome engineering and re-invigorated the field of gene therapy. Many parallels have been drawn between the newly discovered CRISPR-Cas9 system and the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in terms of their utility for understanding and interrogating gene function in mammalian cells. Given this similarity, the CRISPR-Cas9 field stands to benefit immensely from lessons learned during the development of RNAi technology. We examine how the history of RNAi can inform today's challenges in CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering such as efficiency, specificity, high-throughput screening and delivery for in vivo and therapeutic applications.

  14. [CRISPR/Cas: a novel way of RNA-guided genome editing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Kun-Ling; Shan, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Peng; Liang, Zhen; Gao, Cai-Xia

    2013-11-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved an adaptive immune system, known as type II prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system, which uses short RNA to direct the degradation of target sequences present in invading viral and plasmid DNAs. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas system provide an improved method for genome editing, showing robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity at targeted endogenous genomic loci. It is the latest technology to modify genome DNA specifically and effectively following zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TALE nucleases (TALENs). Compared with ZFNs and TALENs, CRISPR/Cas is much simpler and easier to engineer. This review summarizes recent progress, and discusses the prospects of CRISPR/Cas system, with an emphasis on its structure, principle, applications and potential challenges.

  15. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.;

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...

  16. Genome editing with RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease in Zebrafish embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nannan Chang; Changhong Sun; Lu Gao; Dan Zhu; Xiufei Xu; Xiaojun Zhu; Jing-Wei Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances with the type Ⅱ clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system promise an improved approach to genome editing.However,the applicability and efficiency of this system in model organisms,such as zebrafish,are little studied.Here,we report that RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease efficiently facilitates genome editing in both mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos in a simple and robust manner.Over 35% of sitespecific somatic mutations were found when specific Cas/gRNA was used to target either etsrp,gata4 or gata5 in zebrafish embryos in vivo.The Cas9/gRNA efficiently induced biallelic conversion of etsrp or gata5 in the resulting somatic cells,recapitulating their respective vessel phenotypes in etsrpy11 mutant embryos or cardia bifida phenotypes in fautm236a mutant embryos.Finally,we successfully achieved site-specific insertion of mloxP sequence induced by Cas9/gRNA system in zebrafish embryos.These results demonstrate that the Cas9/gRNA system has the potential of becoming a simple,robust and efficient reverse genetic tool for zebrafish and other model organisms.Together with other genome-engineering technologies,the Cas9 system is promising for applications in biology,agriculture,environmental studies and medicine.

  17. Au/Sn共晶键合技术在MEMS封装中的应用%Application of the Au/Sn Eutectic Bonding Technology in the Packaging of MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥超; 徐永青; 杨拥军; 杨志

    2014-01-01

    研究了Au/Sn共晶圆片键合技术在MEMS气密性封装中的应用.设计了共晶键合多层材料的结构和密封环图形,盖帽层采用Ti/Ni/Au/Sn/Au结构,器件层采用Ti/Ni/Au结构,盖帽层腔体尺寸为4.5mm×4.5 mm×20 μm,Au/Sn环的宽度为700 μm,优化了键合工艺,对影响气密性的因素(如组分配比、键合前处理和键合温度等)进行了分析.两层硅片在氮气气氛中靠静态的压力实现紧密接触.在峰值温度为300℃、持续时间为2 min的条件下实现了良好的键合效果,其剪切力平均值达到16.663 kg,漏率小于2×10-3 Pa·cm3/s,满足检验标准(GJB548A)的要求,验证了Au/Sn共晶键合技术在MEMS气密封装中的适用性.

  18. CRISPR-Cas9 systems: versatile cancer modelling platforms and promising therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wan-Shun; Yuan, Zhi-Min; Ma, Shi-Jie; Xu, Jiang; Yuan, Dong-Tang

    2016-03-15

    The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) and its variants such as nickase Cas9, dead Cas9, guide RNA scaffolds and RNA-targeting Cas9 are convenient and versatile platforms for site-specific genome editing and epigenome modulation. They are easy-to-use, simple-to-design and capable of targeting multiple loci simultaneously. Given that cancer develops from cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations, CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants (hereafter referred to as CRISPR-Cas9 systems) hold extensive application potentials in cancer modeling and therapy. To date, they have already been applied to model oncogenic mutations in cell lines (e.g., Choi and Meyerson, Nat Commun 2014;5:3728) and in adult animals (e.g., Xue et al., Nature 2014;514:380-4), as well as to combat cancer by disabling oncogenic viruses (e.g., Hu et al., Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:612823) or by manipulating cancer genome (e.g., Liu et al., Nat Commun 2014;5:5393). Given the importance of epigenome and transcriptome in tumourigenesis, manipulation of cancer epigenome and transcriptome for cancer modeling and therapy is a promising area in the future. Whereas (epi)genetic modifications of cancer microenvironment with CRISPR-Cas9 systems for therapeutic purposes represent another promising area in cancer research. Herein, we introduce the functions and mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in genome editing and epigenome modulation, retrospect their applications in cancer modelling and therapy, discuss limitations and possible solutions and propose future directions, in hope of providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area.

  19. Fabrication and spectroscopic studies of folic acid-conjugated Fe3O4@Au core-shell for targeted drug delivery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Sh.; Sadjadi, M. S.; Farhadyar, N.

    2015-09-01

    Gold coated magnetite core shell is a kind of nanoparticle that include magnetic iron oxide core with a thin layer nanogold. Fe3O4-gold core-shell nanostructure can be used in biomedical applications such as magnetic bioseparation, bioimaging, targeting drug delivery and cancer treatment. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of gold coated magnetite nanoparticles were discussed. Magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm in diameter were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method and gold-coated Fe3O4 core-shell nanostructures were produced with an average size of 11.5 nm in diameter by reduction of Au3+ with citrate ion in the presence of Fe3O4. Folate-conjugated gold coated magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized to targeting folate receptor that is overexpressed on the surface of cancerous cells. For this purpose, we used L-cysteine, as a bi-functional linker for attachment to gold surface and it was linked to the gold nanoparticles surface through its thiol group. Then, we conjugated amino-terminated nanoparticles to folic acid with an amide-linkage formation. These gold magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The magnetic and optical properties of Fe3O4 nanostructure were changed by gold coating and attachment of L-cysteine and folic acid to Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles.

  20. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Behavior of Au nanoparticles-hybridized Pb (II) metal-organic framework and its application in selective sensing hexavalent chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Hongmin Ma; Xiaojian Li; Tao Yan; Yan Li; Haiyang Liu; Yong Zhang; Dan Wu; Bin Du; Qin Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor based on Au nanoparticles-hybridized Pb (II)-β-cyclodextrin (Pb-β-CD) metal-organic framework for detecting hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed. Pb-β-CD shows excellent ECL behavior and unexpected reducing ability towards Au ions. Au nanoparticles could massively form on the surface of Pb-β-CD (Au@Pb-β-CD) without use of any additional reducing agent. In the presence of coreactant K2S2O8, the ECL emission of Pb-β-CD was enhanc...

  1. L'endométriose de la paroi abdominale: à propos d'un cas rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayi, Sofia; Laadioui, Meriem; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Aabdelilah

    2013-01-01

    L'endométriose de la paroi est une entité clinique rare, dont la physiopathologie demeure imprécise. Elle survient le plus souvent après une intervention chirurgicale gynécologique ou obstétricale. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente présentant une douleur cyclique, au niveau de la cicatrice de césarienne. Avec à l'examen clinique une masse de 3 cm localisée au niveau de la fosse iliaque droite. L'échographie-doppler a objectivé une image d'allure tissulaire, polylobée, à vascularisation centrale, mesurant 32/16 mm, évoquent une masse endométriosique ou une tumeur des parties molles. D'où la décision d'excision de la lésion, au cours de laquelle on a découvert une masse dure de 3/2 cm, en sous aponévrotique accolée au muscle grand droit de l'abdomen. L'étude anatomopathologique a confirmé le diagnostic d'endométriose pariétale. Les suites postopératoires étaient simples avec un recul de 2 ans et demie sans récidive de la masse ni de la douleur. A travers notre cas, nous insisterons sur les caractéristiques de cette pathologie notamment pronostic, ce qui permettra au praticien de comprendre l'intérêt du diagnostic et prise en charge précoce de cette entité - pour laquelle on ne pense jamais assez devant une masse pariétale - et de sa prévention au cours de chaque chirurgie gynécologique ou obstétricale. PMID:24171068

  2. Adapting CRISPR/Cas9 for functional genomics screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Abba; Katigbak, Alexandra; Cencic, Regina; Maïga, Rayelle Itoua; Robert, Francis; Miura, Hisashi; Pelletier, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The use of CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) for targeted genome editing has been widely adopted and is considered a "game changing" technology. The ease and rapidity by which this approach can be used to modify endogenous loci in a wide spectrum of cell types and organisms makes it a powerful tool for customizable genetic modifications as well as for large-scale functional genomics. The development of retrovirus-based expression platforms to simultaneously deliver the Cas9 nuclease and single guide (sg) RNAs provides unique opportunities by which to ensure stable and reproducible expression of the editing tools and a broad cell targeting spectrum, while remaining compatible with in vivo genetic screens. Here, we describe methods and highlight considerations for designing and generating sgRNA libraries in all-in-one retroviral vectors for such applications.

  3. Masculinité et paternité à l’écart du monde du travail : le cas des pères au foyer en Belgique Masculinity and Paternity outside the Working World : the Case of Stay-at-home Fathers in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Merla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, rédigé à partir d’une recherche doctorale portant sur 21 pères au foyer, s’intéresse à la difficulté qu’il y a pour un homme de gérer une image positive de soi qui se détache de la référence au travail professionnel, et ce à la fois vis-à-vis de soi-même et dans les relations à autrui. Nous mettrons en lumière la subsistance des normes de la division sexuelle du travail qui transparaît au niveau des interactions avec autrui dans et en dehors du contexte domestique ; nous examinerons également les stratégies que les pères au foyer mettent en place pour réduire la portée identitaire et relationnelle du manque de légitimité auquel ils sont confrontés. Nous mettrons en particulier l’accent sur le rôle joué par la référence au travail professionnel à la fois dans la définition de soi “pour soi” et dans la présentation de soi à autrui. En conclusion, une définition originale de l’identité de genre sera proposée.Written on the basis of doctoral research on 21 stay-at-home fathers, this article focuses on men's difficulties in managing a positive self-image that prescinds from reference to professional work roles, both vis-à-vis themselves and in relation to others. We will shed light on the persistence of norms on the sexual division of labour which show through on the level of interactions with others in and outside of the domestic context ; we will also examine the strategies that stay-at-home fathers employ in reducing the identitary and relational import of the lack of legitimacy they are confronted with. We shall place particular accent on the role played by reference to professional work, both in defining self “for self” and in the presentation of self to others. In conclusion, an original definition of gender identity will be proposed.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术在HIV-1感染治疗中的应用进展%Application progress of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in the treatment of HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英伦; 李庆伟

    2016-01-01

    基因治疗是将外源正常基因通过一定方式导入人体靶细胞以纠正或补偿因基因缺陷和异常引起的疾病,从而达到治疗目的.因此,基因治疗的技术方法在研究持续感染HIV-1或潜伏感染HIV-l原病毒患者的治疗中具有重大的现实意义.目前,现有的基因治疗方法存在识别靶向位点有限及脱靶几率大等主要问题.最新研究表明来源于细菌和古菌的规律间隔成簇短回文重复序列及其相关核酸酶9系统[Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9(Cas9),CRISPR/Cas9]已被成功改造成基因组定点编辑工具.因此,如何利用CRISPR/Cas9系统实现对HIV-1病毒基因组进行高效靶向修饰,从而达到治疗HIV-1感染病患的目的已经成为当前研究的热点.本文参考最新国内外研究成果,重点介绍了CRISPR/Cas9基因组编辑技术在HIV-1感染疾病治疗中的应用,主要包括CCR5基因编辑、清除HIV-1原病毒以及活化HIV-1原病毒,以期为HIV-1感染疾病的预防与治疗提供重要研究参考.

  5. Committee set up at CAS to address scientific integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 30 April, the CAS Committee for Scientific Integrity held its first conference in Beijing. Chaired by CAS Vice President LI Jinghai, the Committee is composed of high-ranking CAS officials, S&T celebrities, and legal and policy experts.Its office is affiliated to the CAS Bureau of Supervision and Auditing.

  6. CAS at the Cockcroft Institute

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the UK’s new centre for accelerator science, the Cockcroft Institute, jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at the Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, UK, from 16 to 28 September 2007. The venue took advantage of the excellent new facilities in the Institute and the existing infrastructure of the adjacent Daresbury Laboratory. The intermediate level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurements Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the prog...

  7. Etiologies des hypertensions artérielles endocrines: à propos d'une série de cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouznad, Naima; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    Les hypertensions artérielles (HTA) d'origine endocrine restent une cause rare d'HTA, sa prévalence globale n'excède pas 4% des hypertendus. L'intérêt de la recherche des HTA endocrines réside dans la gravité de certaines formes parfois mortelles et le caractère potentiellement curable et réversible de ces HTA. Le but du travail est de déterminer le profil clinique, para clinique, étiologique et thérapeutique des HTA secondaires d'origine endocrine chez les patients suivis au service d'endocrinologie au CHU Mohamed IV à Marrakech. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective s’étalant sur une période de 4 ans incluant 45 patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne. La moyenne d’âge est de 44,89 ans, avec une nette prédominance du sexe féminine (sexe ratio de 0,49). Les étiologies des HTA endocrines étaient dominées par le phéochromocytome (17 cas), l'hypercorticisme (11 cas) et l'acromégalie (8 cas). L'HTA était paroxystique dans 24,4%. Elle était d'emblée sevère classée grade 3 dans 40% des cas. L'HTA a été compliquée de cardiopathie dans 24% des cas et de néphropathie dans 20% des cas. Le traitement curatif a permis une guérison de l'HTA chez 60% (27 cas). Le diagnostic des HTA secondaires endocrines est parfois difficile du fait de l'absence de spécificité clinique. Il n'est pas exceptionnel que l'HTA soit l'unique manifestation de la maladie. Dans notre travail nous notons le caractère paroxystique et sévère de l'HTA. Le caractère éventuellement curable des HTA endocrines, dans plus des deux tiers des cas, fait qu'il est important de la dépister devant toute HTA sévère, résistante au traitement, ou en présence de signes cliniques, biologiques ou radiologiques évocateurs. PMID:27303586

  8. Nucleosomes Inhibit Cas9 Endonuclease Activity in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, John M; Laughery, Marian F; Wyrick, John J

    2015-12-01

    During Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotic cells, the bacterial Cas9 enzyme cleaves DNA targets within chromatin. To understand how chromatin affects Cas9 targeting, we characterized Cas9 activity on nucleosome substrates in vitro. We find that Cas9 endonuclease activity is strongly inhibited when its target site is located within the nucleosome core. In contrast, the nucleosome structure does not affect Cas9 activity at a target site within the adjacent linker DNA. Analysis of target sites that partially overlap with the nucleosome edge indicates that the accessibility of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is the critical determinant of Cas9 activity on a nucleosome.

  9. Méthode de vieillissement accéléré au dioxyde de chlore : application au polyamide 66 non stabilisé et non chargé

    OpenAIRE

    Dauseins, J.; El Mazry, Chaker; Mallet, J; Colin, Xavier; CORREC, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Dans l'objectif d'étudier à long terme des accessoires utilisés dans les réseaux intérieurs d'eau, le Centre scientifique et technique du bâtiment (CSTB) a mis au point un banc d'essai de vieillissement accéléré au dioxyde de chlore sur sa plateforme expérimentale Aquasim. Les premières études réalisées avec le banc montrent que ce désinfectant de l'eau potable attaque aussi les matériaux polymères. Initialement utilisé pour détruire les micro-organismes, il n'est pas totalement sélectif puis...

  10. Contribution à l'élaboration d'un guide de bonnes pratiques de la gestion des ressources humaines au sein des structures vétérinaires : application au personnel non vétérinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Debeaupuits, Julien

    2014-01-01

    La réussite d'un vétérinaire ne passe plus seulement par ses compétences scientifiques, il doit aussi gérer ses capitaux, son personnel, ...Le vétérinaire est un véritable entrepreneur. Le nombre de salariés non vétérinaires au sein des structures vétérinaires augmente au fil des années. De nombreuses études démontrent l'importance d'une bonne gestion des ressources humaines. Même si ces notions sont parmi les plus dificiles à gérer pour le clinicien, la réussite de cette partie du management...

  11. Insert, remove or replace: A highly advanced genome editing system using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, S Antony; Rajan, Vinothkumar; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Berman, Jason N; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-09-01

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system discovered as an adaptive immunity mechanism in prokaryotes has emerged as the most popular tool for the precise alterations of the genomes of diverse species. CRISPR/Cas9 system has taken the world of genome editing by storm in recent years. Its popularity as a tool for altering genomes is due to the ability of Cas9 protein to cause double-stranded breaks in DNA after binding with short guide RNA molecules, which can be produced with dramatically less effort and expense than required for production of transcription-activator like effector nucleases (TALEN) and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN). This system has been exploited in many species from prokaryotes to higher animals including human cells as evidenced by the literature showing increasing sophistication and ease of CRISPR/Cas9 as well as increasing species variety where it is applicable. This technology is poised to solve several complex molecular biology problems faced in life science research including cancer research. In this review, we highlight the recent advancements in CRISPR/Cas9 system in editing genomes of prokaryotes, fungi, plants and animals and provide details on software tools available for convenient design of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting plasmids. We also discuss the future prospects of this advanced molecular technology. PMID:27350235

  12. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. PMID:26979473

  13. Targeting ABCB1-mediated tumor multidrug resistance by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Li, Yong; Di, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Wei, Meng-Ning; Huang, Jia-Rong; Wang, Kun; Shi, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic (CRISPR) in combination with a CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9) nuclease system is a new rapid and precise technology for genome editing. In the present study, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target ABCB1 (also named MDR1) gene which encodes a 170 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein/P-gp) transporting multiple types of chemotherapeutic drugs including taxanes, epipodophyllotoxins, vinca alkaloids and anthracyclines out of cells to contribute multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. Our data showed that knockout of ABCB1 by CRISPR/Cas9 system was succesfully archieved with two target sgRNAs in two MDR cancer cells due to the alteration of genome sequences. Knockout of ABCB1 by CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly enhances the sensitivity of ABCB1 substrate chemotherapeutic agents and the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin in MDR cancer cells. Although now there are lots of limitations to the application of CRISPR/Cas9 for editing cancer genes in human patients, our study provides valuable clues for the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the investigation and conquest of cancer MDR. PMID:27725879

  14. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future.

  15. Efficiency and Inheritance of Targeted Mutagenesis in Maize Using CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Song, Ning; Sun, Silong; Yang, Weilong; Zhao, Haiming; Song, Weibin; Lai, Jinsheng

    2016-01-20

    CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) is an adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea to defend against invasion from foreign DNA fragments. Recently, it has been developed as a powerful targeted genome editing tool for a wide variety of species. However, its application in maize has only been tested with transiently expressed somatic cells or with a limited number of stable transgenic T0 plants. The exact efficiency and specificity of the CRISPR/Cas system in the highly complex maize genome has not been documented yet. Here we report an extensive study of the well-studied type II CRISPR-Cas9 system for targeted genome editing in maize, with the codon-optimized Cas9 protein and the short non-coding guide RNA generated through a functional maize U6 snRNA promoter. Targeted gene mutagenesis was detected for 90 loci by maize protoplast assay, with an average cleavage efficiency of 10.67%. Stable knockout transformants for maize phytoene synthase gene (PSY1) were obtained. Mutations occurred in germ cells can be stably inherited to the next generation. Moreover, no off-target effect was detected at the computationally predicted putative off-target loci. No significant difference between the transcriptomes of the Cas9 expressed and non-expressed lines was detected. Our results confirmed that the CRISPR-Cas9 could be successfully applied as a robust targeted genome editing system in maize.

  16. High-throughput screens in mammalian cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jingyu; Zhou, Yuexin; Zhu, Shiyou; Wei, Wensheng

    2015-06-01

    As a powerful genome-editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been quickly developed into a large-scale function-based screening strategy in mammalian cells. This new type of genetic library is constructed through the lentiviral delivery of single-guide RNA collections that direct Cas9 or inactive dead Cas9 fused with effectors to interrogate gene function or regulate gene transcription in targeted cells. Compared with RNA interference screening, the CRISPR-Cas9 system demonstrates much higher levels of effectiveness and reliability with respect to both loss-of-function and gain-of-function screening. Unlike the RNA interference strategy, a CRISPR-Cas9 library can target both protein-coding sequences and regulatory elements, including promoters, enhancers and elements transcribing microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. This powerful genetic tool will undoubtedly accelerate the mechanistic discovery of various biological processes. In this mini review, we summarize the general procedure of CRISPR-Cas9 library mediated functional screening, system optimization strategies and applications of this new genetic toolkit.

  17. Cas9 function and host genome sampling in Type II-A CRISPR–Cas adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yunzhou; Terns, Rebecca M.; Terns, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Wei et al. found that Cas9, previously identified as the nuclease responsible for ultimate invader destruction, is also essential for adaptation in Streptococcus thermophilus. Cas9 nuclease activity is dispensable for adaptation. Wei et al. also revealed extensive, unbiased acquisition of the self-targeting host genome sequence by the CRISPR–Cas system that is masked in the presence of active target destruction.

  18. Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR-Cas adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Heler, Robert; Samai, Poulami; Modell, Joshua W.; Weiner, Catherine; Goldberg, Gregory W.; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A.

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against viral infection in prokaryotes. Upon infection, short phage sequences known as spacers integrate between CRISPR repeats and are transcribed into small RNA guides that identify the viral targets (protospacers) of the Cas9 nuclease. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 cleavage of the viral genome requires the presence of an NGG protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) s...

  19. A newly discovered Bordetella species carries a transcriptionally active CRISPR-Cas with a small Cas9 endonuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cas9 endonuclease of the Type II-a clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) has been adapted as a widely used tool for genome editing and genome engineering. Herein, we describe a gene encoding a novel Cas9 ortholog (BpsuCas9) and th...

  20. Classification and evolution of type II CRISPR-Cas systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Eugene V Koonin

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas systems of archaeal and bacterial adaptive immunity are classified into three types that differ by the repertoires of CRISPR-associated (cas) genes, the organization of cas operons and the structure of repeats in the CRISPR arrays. The simplest among the CRISPR-Cas systems is type II in which the endonuclease activities required for the interference with foreign deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are concentrated in a single multidomain protein, Cas9, and are guided by a co-processed ...

  1. CRISPR-Cas Functional Module Exchange in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Almendros, Cristóbal; Mojica, Francisco J. M.; Díez-Villaseñor, César; Guzmán, Noemí M.; García-Martínez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes constitute the CRISPR-Cas systems found in the Bacteria and Archaea domains. At least in some strains they provide an efficient barrier against transmissible genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses. Two CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in Escherichia coli, pertaining to subtypes I-E (cas-E genes) and I-F (cas-F genes), respectively. In order to unveil the evolutionary dynamics of ...

  2. Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR-Cas adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heler, Robert; Samai, Poulami; Modell, Joshua W; Weiner, Catherine; Goldberg, Gregory W; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-03-12

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against viral infection in prokaryotes. Upon infection, short phage sequences known as spacers integrate between CRISPR repeats and are transcribed into small RNA molecules that guide the Cas9 nuclease to the viral targets (protospacers). Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 cleavage of the viral genome requires the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence immediately downstream of the viral target. It is not known whether and how viral sequences flanked by the correct PAM are chosen as new spacers. Here we show that Cas9 selects functional spacers by recognizing their PAM during spacer acquisition. The replacement of cas9 with alleles that lack the PAM recognition motif or recognize an NGGNG PAM eliminated or changed PAM specificity during spacer acquisition, respectively. Cas9 associates with other proteins of the acquisition machinery (Cas1, Cas2 and Csn2), presumably to provide PAM-specificity to this process. These results establish a new function for Cas9 in the genesis of prokaryotic immunological memory.

  3. La synovite villonodulaire de la cheville, une localisation rare: à propos d'un cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabbouha, Abdellatif; Basinga, Jonathan; Anteri, Ismail; Jaafar, Abdelouab

    2016-01-01

    La synovite villonodulaire (SVN) est une prolifération pseudotumorale bénigne rare de la synoviale articulaire, d’étiologie inconnue. Elle peut aussi se développer au sein des bourses séreuses, des gaines tendineuses. Généralement, elle atteint les grosses articulations notamment le genou et la hanche. La localisation de la cheville est rare, avec seulement quelques cas publiés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons un cas de patiente de 52 ans présentant une SVN de la cheville droite. Elle a bénéficié d'une synovectomie subtotale. A deux ans de recul, il n'y avait pas de récidive clinique. PMID:27231502

  4. A CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Drive System Targeting Female Reproduction in the Malaria Mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Andrew; Galizi, Roberto; Kyrou, Kyros; Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Katsanos, Dimitris; Gribble, Matthew; Baker, Dean; Marois, Eric; Russell, Steven; Burt, Austin; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Gene-drive systems that enable super-Mendelian inheritance of a transgene have the potential to modify insect populations over a timeframe of a few years [AU please provide a real estimate, this seems vague]. We describe CRISPR-Cas9 endonuclease constructs that function as gene-drive systems in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector for malaria [AU:OK?]. We identified three genes (AGAP005958, AGAP011377 and AGAP007280) that confer a recessive female sterility phenotype upon disruption, and insert...

  5. Heaviest yet LBO monocrystal grown at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ After three years of hard work, a research team led by Prof. HU Zhanggui with the CAS Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry has made breakthrough progress in the studies of lithium triborate (LBO), a nonlinear optical crystal.

  6. AKRO/SF: Catch Accounting System (CAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch Accounting System (CAS) creates total catch estimates for the groundfish fisheries in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Each year,...

  7. The new CAS-DIS digital ionosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A high quality digital ionosonde called the Chinese Academy of Sciences digital ionosonde (CAS-DIS has been developed for investigations of the ionosphere. Two important features are used for the CAS-DIS; first, the technique of analog down-conversion has been replaced by the new approach of digital down-conversion technology. Secondly, to solve the problem of large instantaneous receiving bandwidth in digital receivers, an analog narrowband tracking filter is used for the CAS-DIS. The center frequency of the filter tracks the carrier frequency transmitted in real-time, to ensure that the frequency components are filtered out of the effective bandwidth. This report describes the system architecture of the CAS-DIS, its main features, and its test results for ionosphere detection. 

  8. Mega-science projects at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the support form Chinese government,CAS has been undertaking several national megascience projects in line with both the requirements of the national socioeconomic development and cuttingedge development of science and technology in the world.

  9. CAS physicist receives Richard Geller Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dr. SUN Liangting from the CAS Institute of Modern Physics has been awarded the Richard Geller Prize for his outstanding contributions to the development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources, especially an all-permanent magnetic one.

  10. CAS Readjusts Implementation of Its Talent Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan

    2002-01-01

    @@ CAS has decided to readjust the way of implementing its Century Program (or Hundred-Talents Program), to give more independence to research institutes in head hunting and guarantee the support for the Program recruits on a selective basis.

  11. CRISPR/Cas systems in archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Gophna, Uri; Brodt, Avital

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats) loci have been shown to provide prokaryotes with an adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. CRISPR arrays are transcribed and processed into small CRISPR RNA molecules, which base-pair with invading DNA or RNA and lead to its degradation by CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein complexes. New spacers can be acquired by active CRISPR/Cas systems, and thus the sequences of these spacers provide a record of the past “infect...

  12. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  13. Aide à la conception de chaînes logistiques humanitaires efficientes et résilientes : application au cas des crises récurrentes péruviennes

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Florez, Jorge,

    2014-01-01

    Every year, more than 400 natural disasters hit the world. To assist those affected populations, humanitarian organizations store in advance emergency aid in warehouses. This PhD thesis provides tools for support decisions on localization and sizing of humanitarian warehouses. Our approach is based on the design of representative and realistic scenarios. A scenario expresses some disasters’ occurrences for which epicenters are known, as well as their gravity and frequency. This step is based ...

  14. Modélisation « objet » du processus de conception dans le domainedu génie électrique: application au cas de la machine asynchrone, le système OPUS

    OpenAIRE

    Escande, Eric

    1996-01-01

    This work aims at carrying out a software for the design in the field of electrical engineering.The analysis of the design activity and the specifications required for our software (such asmanagement of loop-back, capitalization of knowledge, maintenance of the software by the expert) has led usto bring out a generic model of knowledge dealing with : the product to be made, the expert valuation rulesand the strategy of solving.This model was developped with expert system and black-board techn...

  15. Modélisation thermomécanique visco-hyperélastique du comportement d'un polymère semi-cristallin : application au cas d'une matrice polyamide 6.6

    OpenAIRE

    Baquet, Erwan

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude doctorale porte sur une matrice polyamide 6.6, utilisé dans les matériaux renforcé fibre de verre courtes, et consiste en la mise en place d'une modélisation thermomécanique, autour de la transition mécanique α du polymère. Une première partie consiste en la mise en évidence expérimentale du comportement thermomécanique du matériau de l'étude. Une campagne d'essais mécanique en traction et cisaillement a été menée, où un effort important sur le protocole expérimental a été mené. L...

  16. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  17. La thématique du rebetiko : un récit politique au carrefour de deux cultures

    OpenAIRE

    LEBOUKAS, Vassilis

    2004-01-01

    Il existe peu de manifestations culturelles qui ont marqué la vie sociale d'une nation au point que celle-ci en fasse ses symboles populaires. Plus rares encore sont peut-être les cas de manifestations musicales qui, au-delà de leur forme artistique, peuvent prétendre être à la fois sources de pratiques culturelles et symboles de pratiques populaires. Le rebetiko fait partie des ces manifestations à part entière.

  18. Les fistules œsotrachéales congénitales isolées à propos de 2 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Biache, Imad; Lechqar, Maryem; Rami, Mohammed; Bouabdallah, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent 2 cas de fistules oesotrachéales isolées sans atrésie de l'oesophage, colligés au service de chirurgie pédiatrique au CHU Hassan II de Fès au Maroc entre 2008 et 2013. Il s'agit d'une anomalie rare représentée par un fin canal ascendant entre l'oesophage et la face postérieure de la trachée, à la hauteur du défilé cervico-thoracique. Elle se manifeste cliniquement par une symptomatologie respiratoire parfois digestive. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par le transit oesophagien dans les 2 cas et a permis aussi de déterminer le siège de la fistule. Le traitement était chirurgical, il a permis de supprimer la communication anormale entre l'oesophage et la trachée par un abord cervical avec interposition musculaire dans les 2 cas. Les suites post-opératoires et l’évolution à long terme étaient simples. Le but de ce travail est d'exposer les différents moyens diagnostique et thérapeutique. PMID:25328600

  19. Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

    2014-01-01

    L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

  20. Evaluation du traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif, sur la transmission de l'infection de la mère à l'enfant: cas du Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Compaore, Rebecca; Djigma, Florencia; Zagre, Nicaise; Assengone, Elsa; Traore, Lassina; Diarra, Birama; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Sagna, Tani; Karou, Simplice; Pietra, Virginio; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection au VIH chez les nouveau-nés par leur mère peut être réduite grâce à des programmes de prévention de transmission mère-enfant du VIH (PTME). L'objectif dans cette étude était d’évaluer le traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif sur la transmission mère-enfant de l'infection au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Des échantillons de spot de sang total ont été collectés chez 160 enfants âgés de 6 semaines, nés de mères VIH-1 positif et chez 40 enfants âgés de 2 à 13 mois provenant d'orphelinats et dont les mères étaient inconnues. Ces échantillons ont été testés avec le kit Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative. Un questionnaire a permis de connaitre les âges et les fonctions des femmes enceintes. Résultats Les femmes enceintes avaient un âge moyen global de 29,50±5,19 ans. Au total, 50,5% (101/200) ont été mises sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP et 29,5% (59/200) étaient sous prophylaxie (AZT/3TC). Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH-1 était de 0,0% (0/160) (p < 0,001) chez les enfants dont les mères étaient sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP ou sous prophylaxie AZT/3TC et de 15,0% (6/40) chez les enfants orphelins qui n’étaient pas inclus dans le protocole de la PTME. Conclusion Selon les résultats, le protocole de la PTME est efficace et réduit très significativement le risque de transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l'enfant. De plus, le dépistage par PCR, des enfants orphelins infectés verticalement par le VIH, permet leur prise en charge thérapeutique précoce. PMID:26301003

  1. Perceptions populaires du risque et savoirs experts en contexte de pandémie : le cas du A(H1N1 au Québec. Public perceptions of risk and expert knowledge in times of pandemic disease: the cases of A (H1N1 in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Désy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La pandémie A(H1N1 de 2009 a mis en évidence les limites des stratégies de communication du risque tout en ravivant l’intérêt pour une analyse des perceptions populaires du risque. Au Québec, la campagne de vaccination de l’automne 2009 fut le théâtre de la circulation d’informations perçues souvent comme contradictoires sur le risque épidémique. Dans le cadre de dix focus groups organisés à Montréal et à Québec dans les mois qui ont suivi la fin de la campagne de vaccination, 100 Québécois francophones ont été invités à débattre de leur perception tant du risque associé au virus et au vaccin que de la gestion qui en fut faite par les autorités de santé publique. L’article analyse ces perceptions, en illustre la diversité et montre que diverses logiques cohabitent dans un savoir populaire marqué d’une certaine réflexivité. L’article conclut sur certaines leçons à tirer pour les stratégies de communication du risque épidémique.The A(H1N1 pandemic of 2009 illustrated the limitations of communication strategies on risk and revived interest in the analysis of public perception of risk. In Quebec, during the vaccination campaign carried out in the fall of 2009, the spread of information on epidemiological risk was often perceived as contradictory. In the months following the vaccination campaign, 10 focus groups were organized in Montréal and Québec City and 100 French-speaking Quebecers were invited to discuss their perception of the risk associated with the virus and vaccination, the management of the situation by public health authorities and the pertinence of holding a public consultation in the context of a pandemic disease. The article presents the different opinions of the general public tempered, however, by a measure of reflexivity. The article concludes with lessons to be learned regarding communication strategies on epidemiological risk.

  2. Au-Loaded Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Modified Sol-Gel/Impregnation Methods and Their Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hathaithip Ninsonti; Weerasak Chomkitichai; Akira Baba; Natda Wetchakun; Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon; Sukon Phanichphant; Kazunari Shinbo; Keizo Kato; Futao Kaneko

    2014-01-01

    Au-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the modified sol-gel method together with the impregnation method. Anatase phase of TiO2 was obtained in all samples with an average particle size of 20 nm. For the enhancement of DSSCs, the dye-sensitized solar cells composed of the ITO/Au-loaded TiO2/N-719/electrolyte/Pt were fabricated. Au-loaded TiO2 films were deposited by using squeegee method. Finally, the fabricated cells were studied upon an irradiation of solar light to study the perf...

  3. Facile synthesis and intraparticle self-catalytic oxidation of dextran-coated hollow Au-Ag nanoshell and its application for chemo-thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongje; Kim, Young-Kwan; Huh, Hyun; Min, Dal-Hee

    2014-01-28

    Galvanic replacement reaction is a useful method to prepare various hollow nanostructures. We developed fast and facile preparation of biocompatible and structurally robust hollow Au-Ag nanostructures by using dextran-coated Ag nanoparticles. Oxidation of the surface dextran alcohols was enabled by catalytic activity of the core Au-Ag nanostructure, introducing carbonyl groups that are useful for further bioconjugation. Subsequent doxorubicin (Dox) conjugation via Schiff base formation was achieved, giving high payload of approximately 35 000 Dox per particle. Near-infrared-mediated photothermal conversion showed high efficacy of the Dox-loaded Au-Ag nanoshell as a combinational chemo-thermotherapy to treat cancer cells.

  4. Contribution au SAR spatial distribué

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal, Rozenn

    2006-01-01

    L'obtention d’images à partir de l'émission, de la réception et du traitement d'impulsions radar (SAR) est soumise à différentes contraintes qui limitent les performances telles que la résolution en distance, la résolution en azimut ou la largeur de la Zone imagée (fauchée). Ces limites sont en partie liées à la dimension finie de l’antenne, en particulier dans le cas du SAR spatial. Pour cette raison, on a cherché à étudier la possibilité de mettre au point des systèmes SAR spatiaux distribué...

  5. Zygote-mediated generation of genome-modified mice using Streptococcus thermophilus 1-derived CRISPR/Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Wataru; Kakuta, Shigeru; Yoshioka, Shin; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko

    2016-08-26

    Mammalian zygote-mediated genome-engineering by CRISPR/Cas is currently used for the generation of genome-modified animals. Here we report that a Streptococcus thermophilus-1 derived orthologous CRISPR/Cas system, which recognizes the 5'-NNAGAA sequence as a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), is useful in mouse zygotes and is applicable for generating knockout mice (87.5%) and targeted knock-in mice (45.5%). The induced mutation could be inherited in the next generation. This novel CRISPR/Cas can expand the feasibility of the zygote-mediated generation of genome-modified animals that require an exact mutation design. PMID:27318086

  6. Ionic liquid assisted synthesis of nano Pd-Au particles and application for the detection of epinephrine, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsuan; Thiagarajan, Soundappan; Chen Shenming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net; Cheng Chingyi

    2012-01-31

    Nano Pd-Au particles have been electrochemically fabricated utilizing ionic liquid as green electrolyte (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate). Nano Pd-Au particles modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes were examined using atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction studies. Electrodeposited nano Pd-Au particles' average diameter was found as 33 nm. Nano Pd-Au particle modified GCE was electrochemically active and stable in various pH solutions. The proposed nano particle modified GCE reduces the over potential and shows the well defined oxidation peaks for the detection of epinephrine and simultaneous determination of dopamine and uric acid (in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution) using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry.

  7. COMMUNICATION FINANCIERE ET ANALYSE DE DISCOURS. UNE REFLEXION METHODOLOGIQUE AUTOUR DU CAS SAINT-GOBAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Chekkar, Rahma

    2005-01-01

    Cette étude s'intéresse à l'analyse de du discours des dirigeants au fil du temps. Elle s'interroge en particulier sur l'évolution de la communication financière afin de savoir si l'évolution des rapports avec les actionnaires structure le discours des dirigeants. A travers l'étude du cas Saint-Gobain, cet article est l'occasion de faire le point sur l'utilisation de la statistique textuelle (Alceste).

  8. Le cavernome porte chez l'enfant: a propos de 11 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Tadmori; Mounia, Lakhdar Idrissi; Moustapha, Hida

    2014-01-01

    Le cavernome portal est la conséquence d'une occlusion chronique, du système porte extra-hépatique formé d'un réseau de veines dont le calibre est augmenté et au sein desquelles chemine un sang portal hépatopéte. Chez l'enfant, est une cause majeure d'hypertension portale dite «pré ou infra-hépatique» ou encore «extra-hépatique». Onze cas de cavernome porte parmi 78 cas d'hypertension portale ont été colligés au service sur une période allant du Janvier 2003 au Septembre 2012. L’âge de nos patients variait entre 2 et 15 ans et le sexe ratio est de 1,75. Tous nos patients étaient admis au stade d'hypertension portale avec la splénomégalie SMG (100% des cas); hémorragies digestives (63%); ascite (36%); la circulation veineuse collatérale CVC et l'hépatomégalie HMG (27%). L'exploration endoscopique a objectivé la présence de varices ‘sophagiennes dans tous les cas avec une gastropathie hypertensive dans 27% et des varices ectopiques chez 36%. Les perturbations biologiques étaient dominées par la pancytopénie. Le bilan de thrombophilie était demandé pour tous les malades mais réalisé mais n'est réalisé que chez trois revenus normaux chez deux et a objectivé une baisse de protéine S chez le troisième. L’échographie abdominale était le moyen de diagnostic positif et l’écho-doppler a confirmé l'HTP chez tous nos patients. Aucun de nos malades n'a pu être opéré pour le moment. La ligature a été réalisée chez 54,5%. Dix patients ont nécessité une transfusion sanguine. L’évolution globale de nos patients est favorable. La durée moyenne d’évolution du cavernome porte chez nos patients est de quatre ans. PMID:25870732

  9. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Au-based monolayer derivatives in honeycomb structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present electronic properties of atomic layer of Au, Au2-N, Au2-O and Au2-F in graphene-like structure within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The lattice constant of derived monolayers are found to be higher than the pristine Au monolayer. Au monolayer is metallic in nature with quantum ballistic conductance calculated as 4G0. Similarly, Au2-N and Au2-F monolayers show 4G0 and 2G0 quantum conductance respectively while semiconducting nature with calculated band gap of 0.28 eV has been observed for Au2-O monolayer. Most interestingly, half metalicity has been predicted for Au2-N and Au2-F monolayers. Our findings may have importance for the application of these monolayers in nanoelectronic and spintronics.

  10. Sonochemical fabrication of CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/Au nanotubes and their potential application in biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Feng; Liu Shanhu, E-mail: liushanhu@163.com; Jiang Liping; Zhu Junjie, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-01-15

    CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} semiconductor alloy nanotubes (with an external diameter of 140 nm and an internal diameter of 100 nm) were successfully prepared based on the sacrificial template of Cd(OH)Cl nanorods, and were further in situ assembled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a sonochemical approach to form the CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/Au nanotubes. The prepared CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/Au nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/Au nanotubes could integrate the advantages of the electronic properties of CdSeTe and the biocompatible properties of AuNPs. A novel biosensor was fabricated after the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}/Au nanotubes. The immobilized Hb exhibited fast direct electron transfer and good electrocatalytic performance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  11. A study on the effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on Au/TiO2 system for its application in photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anuradha; Srivastav, Anupam; Sharma, Dipika; Banerjee, Anamika; Sharma, Shailja; Satsangi, Vibha Rani; Shrivastav, Rohit; Avasthi, Devesh Kumar; Dass, Sahab

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate via sol-gel technique and were modified by plasmonic Au layer. The plasmonic Au modified TiO2 (Au/TiO2) thin films were then irradiated with 500 keV Ar2+ ion beam at different ion fluences viz. 1 × 1016, 3 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 to study the effect of nuclear energy deposition on the morphology, crystallinity, band gap, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak exhibited by Au particles and photoelectrochemical properties of the system. Prepared thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements and UV-visible spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements revealed that both Au/TiO2 and Au/TiO2 thin film irradiated at 1 × 1016 fluence exhibits enhanced photoelectrochemical response in comparison to pristine TiO2. The film irradiated at 1 × 1016 fluence offered maximum applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) and shows 6 times increment in photocurrent density which was attributed to more negative flat band potential, maximum decrease in band gap, high open circuit voltage (Voc) and reduced charge transfer resistance.

  12. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe3O4/TiO2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl4 with NaBH4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe3O4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min−1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h−1. (paper)

  13. Inducible in vivo genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Lukas E.; Fisher, Jonathan; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Muley, Ashlesha; Kastenhuber, Edward R.; Livshits, Geulah; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing enables the rapid genetic manipulation of any genomic locus without the need for gene targeting by homologous recombination. Here we describe a conditional transgenic approach that allows temporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 activity for inducible genome editing in adult mice. We show that doxycycline-regulated Cas9 induction enables widespread gene disruption in multiple tissues and that limiting the duration of Cas9 expression or using a Cas9D10A (Cas9n) variant,...

  14. Comprendre et intervenir sur le stress au travail : une étude de cas Understand and intervene on work stress: a case study Comprender e intervenir en el estrés laboral : un estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Poirel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article tente de mettre à l’épreuve le modèle émotivo-transactionnel sur la base de données recueillies grâce à un dispositif de confrontation vidéo (autoconfrontation. Il met en évidence une distorsion classique de ce modèle qui sert à légitimer des interventions psycho-organisationnelles centrées sur l’individu. L’analyse précise et détaillée d’un incident prenant place dans le cadre des missions de sécurité d’agent de train montre que le stress pathologique est de l’ordre d’une expérience de l’impuissance. Sur la base du cas étudié, il est ainsi possible de relier stress et anxiété en insistant sur la dimension de l’évaluation cognitive reposant sur la présence ou l’absence de ressources.This article presents a case study using stimulated recall by selfconfrontation based on the emotional-transactional model of stress. The detailed and specific analysis of an incident in a railway company shows that stress is more an experience of powerlessness. Therefore, it highlights a traditional distortion of the transactional model used to legitimate psycho-organizational interventions focused on the individual. Thus, on the basis of this case study, it is possible to link stress and pathological consequences to anxiety by showing the consequences relating to the perception of having few resources to cope with the situation.Éste articulo intenta probar el modelo emocional-transaccional sobre la base de datos tomados gracias a un dispositivo de confrontación con video (auto-confrontación. Se pone en evidencia la distorsión clásica de este modelo que sirve a legitimar las intervenciones psico-organizacionales centradas en el individuo. El análisis preciso y detallado de un incidente que se produjo en el marco de misiones de seguridad de una compañía de trenes mostró que el estrés patológico es del orden de una experiencia de impotencia. Sobre la base del caso estudiado, es así posible relacionar

  15. Production of knockout mice by DNA microinjection of various CRISPR/Cas9 vectors into freeze-thawed fertilized oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Ohmuraya, Masaki; NAKAGATA, Naomi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome editing permits the rapid production of genetically engineered mice. To make the most of this innovative technology, a streamlined procedure is needed for the robust construction of CRISPR/Cas9 vectors, the efficient preparation of mouse oocytes, and refined genotyping strategies. Although we previously demonstrated the applicability of oocyte cryopreservation tech...

  16. A Biophysical Model of CRISPR/Cas9 Activity for Rational Design of Genome Editing and Gene Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farasat, Iman; Salis, Howard M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to precisely modify genomes and regulate specific genes will greatly accelerate several medical and engineering applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 (Type II) system binds and cuts DNA using guide RNAs, though the variables that control its on-target and off-target activity remain poorly characterized. Here, we develop and parameterize a system-wide biophysical model of Cas9-based genome editing and gene regulation to predict how changing guide RNA sequences, DNA superhelical densities, ...

  17. A Biophysical Model of CRISPR/Cas9 Activity for Rational Design of Genome Editing and Gene Regulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Iman Farasat; Salis, Howard M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to precisely modify genomes and regulate specific genes will greatly accelerate several medical and engineering applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 (Type II) system binds and cuts DNA using guide RNAs, though the variables that control its on-target and off-target activity remain poorly characterized. Here, we develop and parameterize a system-wide biophysical model of Cas9-based genome editing and gene regulation to predict how changing guide RNA sequences, DNA superhelical densities, ...

  18. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  19. The CRISPR-Cas system - from bacterial immunity to genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, Maria; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient genome modifications present a great value in attempts to comprehend the roles of particular genes and other genetic elements in biological processes as well as in various pathologies. In recent years novel methods of genome modification known as genome editing, which utilize so called "programmable" nucleases, came into use. A true revolution in genome editing has been brought about by the introduction of the CRISP-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated) system, in which one of such nucleases, i.e. Cas9, plays a major role. This system is based on the elements of the bacterial and archaeal mechanism responsible for acquired immunity against phage infections and transfer of foreign genetic material. Microorganisms incorporate fragments of foreign DNA into CRISPR loci present in their genomes, which enables fast recognition and elimination of future infections. There are several types of CRISPR-Cas systems among prokaryotes but only elements of CRISPR type II are employed in genome engineering. CRISPR-Cas type II utilizes small RNA molecules (crRNA and tracrRNA) to precisely direct the effector nuclease - Cas9 - to a specific site in the genome, i.e. to the sequence complementary to crRNA. Cas9 may be used to: (i) introduce stable changes into genomes e.g. in the process of generation of knock-out and knock-in animals and cell lines, (ii) activate or silence the expression of a gene of interest, and (iii) visualize specific sites in genomes of living cells. The CRISPR-Cas-based tools have been successfully employed for generation of animal and cell models of a number of diseases, e.g. specific types of cancer. In the future, the genome editing by programmable nucleases may find wide application in medicine e.g. in the therapies of certain diseases of genetic origin and in the therapy of HIV-infected patients. PMID:27594566

  20. CASFISH: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in situ labeling of genomic loci in fixed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wulan; Shi, Xinghua; Tjian, Robert; Lionnet, Timothée; Singer, Robert H

    2015-09-22

    Direct visualization of genomic loci in the 3D nucleus is important for understanding the spatial organization of the genome and its association with gene expression. Various DNA FISH methods have been developed in the past decades, all involving denaturing dsDNA and hybridizing fluorescent nucleic acid probes. Here we report a novel approach that uses in vitro constituted nuclease-deficient clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated caspase 9 (Cas9) complexes as probes to label sequence-specific genomic loci fluorescently without global DNA denaturation (Cas9-mediated fluorescence in situ hybridization, CASFISH). Using fluorescently labeled nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) protein assembled with various single-guide RNA (sgRNA), we demonstrated rapid and robust labeling of repetitive DNA elements in pericentromere, centromere, G-rich telomere, and coding gene loci. Assembling dCas9 with an array of sgRNAs tiling arbitrary target loci, we were able to visualize nonrepetitive genomic sequences. The dCas9/sgRNA binary complex is stable and binds its target DNA with high affinity, allowing sequential or simultaneous probing of multiple targets. CASFISH assays using differently colored dCas9/sgRNA complexes allow multicolor labeling of target loci in cells. In addition, the CASFISH assay is remarkably rapid under optimal conditions and is applicable for detection in primary tissue sections. This rapid, robust, less disruptive, and cost-effective technology adds a valuable tool for basic research and genetic diagnosis.

  1. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... ethnographic component of the dissertation consists of four articles, all emphasizing the au pairs’ agency by viewing their migration as a dynamic personal and social experience. Arguing that Filipina au pairs tend to be understood primarily from the perspective of their precarious situation as domestic...... of their Danish host families. Based on their migratory status as au pairs, these young migrants must therefore negotiate the different moral and contractual rights and obligations that characterize the local and transnational family ties in which they are engaged. This study of Filipina au pair migration through...

  2. 基因组靶向编辑技术:CRISPR/Cas9研究进展%Genome editing technology: CRISPR/Cas9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原慧萍; 杨泽

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently targeted genome editing technology is required for functional elucidation of gene,animal models,etiology searching,and gene therapy.CRISPR/Cas9 is a kind of adaptive immune defenses in bacteria and archaea for foreign nucleic acids and has been proven to be a versatile tool for RNA-guided site-specific DNA cleavage in a large range of cell types and whole organisms.Compared with previous tools,CRISPR/Cas9 is a more convenient and efficient gene-targeting technology which has been used extensively in all fields.Here we describe the CRISPR/Cas9 characteristics,principle,methodology,and application,and then discuss current advantages/weaknesses and potential solutions in details.%基因组靶向编辑技术是研究基因功能、模式动物构建、疾病病因学以及基因治疗领域面临的关键问题.最近兴起的CRISPR/Cas9是细菌和古细菌在长期演化过程中形成的一种适应性免疫防御,对抗入侵的病毒以及外源DNA.利用RNA引导的Cas9核酸酶可在多种细胞及动物上实现对特定的基因组位点的切割和修饰.CRISPR/Cas9系统以其操作简单经济和快速高效等优点在各个领域广泛应用.本文简要阐述了CRISPR/Cas系统的发现、基本结构、原理及其应用,并讨论了其可能存在的问题及应对策略.

  3. Phylogeny of Cas9 determines functional exchangeability of dual-RNA and Cas9 among orthologous type II CRISPR-Cas systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonfara, Ines; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S; Lécrivain, Anne-Laure; Bzdrenga, Janek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas-derived RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease is the key element of an emerging promising technology for genome engineering in a broad range of cells and organisms. The DNA-targeting mechanism of the type II CRISPR-Cas system involves maturation of tracrRNA: crRNA duplex (dual-RNA), which directs Cas9 to cleave invading DNA in a sequence-specific manner, dependent on the presence of a Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) on the target. We show that evolution of dual-RNA and Cas9 in bacteria...

  4. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : - avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire - être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) - avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage - avoir un niveau scolaire correspondant à la 9ème générale ou moderne...

  5. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy

  6. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Shuai, E-mail: usa_2002@163.com [Baoji Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 2 Xinjian Road East, WeiBin District, Baoji City, 721000, Shanxi Province (China); Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hua, Ling [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Liu, Yun-Hui [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Yan [Baoji Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No 43, BaoFu Road, Baoji City, Shanxi Province (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  7. Retour au réel : le sens du feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoz, Claude

    2006-01-01

    International audience Le concept de feedback vient de la cybernétique, science du contrôle des systèmes, fondée en 1948 par le mathématicien américain Norbert Wiener. Mais deux notions voisinent, celle de rétroaction et celle d'interaction. Elles peuvent dans certaines conditions se recouvrir. Il convient toutefois de les distinguer. Cette petite mise au point me permettra de présenter la suite sous deux éclairages complémentaires. Un même dispositif peut en effet, dans certains cas être ...

  8. Du nursing au care : le genre d'une profession

    OpenAIRE

    YOLANDE COHEN

    2012-01-01

    Cet article présente une analyse détaillée de la professionnalisation du nursing au Québec (Canada). L'emphase porte sur deux variables principales qui permet de mieux comprendre les aspects genrés de la profession et sa féminisation persistante. Le cas québécois, présenté dans le cadre de cet article, et étudié dans son contexte canadien, permet d'identifier plusieurs éléments qui ont conduit à faire du care le fondement du nursing. L'auteure retient deux facteurs principaux, qui se trouvent...

  9. Knowledge-based applications for diagnostic and maintenance support; Applications a base de connaissances pour l'aide au diagnostic et a la maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-06-01

    Interpreting monitoring information to diagnose faulty equipment requires an important level of expertise. Software products which include a knowledge model and well fitted solving mechanism have been designed to assist plant operators in diagnosing faults for main components of EDF power plants. Three applications among those are presented here: SILEX for control rod command cabinets, DIVA for turbine generator units and DIAPO for reactor coolant pumps. Success of these applications emphasises the key role of a well adapted modelling of relevant knowledge. (author)

  10. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, a new CAS research body inaugurated in March 2002,comes from the merger of two former CAS research affiliates:Changchun Institute of Geography and Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Modernization in Harbin.

  11. CAS physicist receives Tate Medal from American Institute of Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The American Institute of Physics (AIP) 2007 Tate Medal for Leadership in International Physics goes to Prof. YU Lu, a physicist from the CAS Institute of Physics and chair of the CAS Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Studies.

  12. CAS enacts rules to guide management of its institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ CAS issued Regulations for Comprehensive Administration of Research Institutes at the annual work conference opened on 24 March in Beijing. It is regarded as another cardinal document for CAS management after its Constitution, which was decreed in 2006.

  13. CAS to Further Strengthen Cooperation with the EU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In light of the concept that scientific knowledge should serve humanity, CAS is open to the whole world and will further cooperate with the European Union in various fields, asserts CAS President Lu Yongxiang.

  14. A CRISPR/Cas9 Toolbox for Multiplexed Plant Genome Editing and Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Levi G; Zhang, Dengwei; Baltes, Nicholas J; Paul, Joseph W; Tang, Xu; Zheng, Xuelian; Voytas, Daniel F; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    The relative ease, speed, and biological scope of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated Protein9 (Cas9)-based reagents for genomic manipulations are revolutionizing virtually all areas of molecular biosciences, including functional genomics, genetics, applied biomedical research, and agricultural biotechnology. In plant systems, however, a number of hurdles currently exist that limit this technology from reaching its full potential. For example, significant plant molecular biology expertise and effort is still required to generate functional expression constructs that allow simultaneous editing, and especially transcriptional regulation, of multiple different genomic loci or multiplexing, which is a significant advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 versus other genome-editing systems. To streamline and facilitate rapid and wide-scale use of CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for plant research, we developed and implemented a comprehensive molecular toolbox for multifaceted CRISPR/Cas9 applications in plants. This toolbox provides researchers with a protocol and reagents to quickly and efficiently assemble functional CRISPR/Cas9 transfer DNA constructs for monocots and dicots using Golden Gate and Gateway cloning methods. It comes with a full suite of capabilities, including multiplexed gene editing and transcriptional activation or repression of plant endogenous genes. We report the functionality and effectiveness of this toolbox in model plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa), demonstrating its utility for basic and applied plant research. PMID:26297141

  15. CRISPR/Cas9: A powerful tool for crop genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyuan Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9 technology is evolved from a type II bacterial immune system and represents a new generation of targeted genome editing technology that can be applied to nearly all organisms. Site-specific modification is achieved by a single guide RNA (usually about 20 nucleotides that is complementary to a target gene or locus and is anchored by a protospacer-adjacent motif. Cas9 nuclease then cleaves the targeted DNA to generate double-strand breaks (DSBs, which are subsequently repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ or homology-directed repair (HDR mechanisms. NHEJ may introduce indels that cause frame shift mutations and hence the disruption of gene functions. When combined with double or multiplex guide RNA design, NHEJ may also introduce targeted chromosome deletions, whereas HDR can be engineered for target gene correction, gene replacement, and gene knock-in. In this review, we briefly survey the history of the CRISPR/Cas9 system invention and its genome-editing mechanism. We also describe the most recent innovation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, particularly the broad applications of modified Cas9 variants, and discuss the potential of this system for targeted genome editing and modification for crop improvement.

  16. A CRISPR/Cas9 Toolbox for Multiplexed Plant Genome Editing and Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Levi G; Zhang, Dengwei; Baltes, Nicholas J; Paul, Joseph W; Tang, Xu; Zheng, Xuelian; Voytas, Daniel F; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    The relative ease, speed, and biological scope of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated Protein9 (Cas9)-based reagents for genomic manipulations are revolutionizing virtually all areas of molecular biosciences, including functional genomics, genetics, applied biomedical research, and agricultural biotechnology. In plant systems, however, a number of hurdles currently exist that limit this technology from reaching its full potential. For example, significant plant molecular biology expertise and effort is still required to generate functional expression constructs that allow simultaneous editing, and especially transcriptional regulation, of multiple different genomic loci or multiplexing, which is a significant advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 versus other genome-editing systems. To streamline and facilitate rapid and wide-scale use of CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for plant research, we developed and implemented a comprehensive molecular toolbox for multifaceted CRISPR/Cas9 applications in plants. This toolbox provides researchers with a protocol and reagents to quickly and efficiently assemble functional CRISPR/Cas9 transfer DNA constructs for monocots and dicots using Golden Gate and Gateway cloning methods. It comes with a full suite of capabilities, including multiplexed gene editing and transcriptional activation or repression of plant endogenous genes. We report the functionality and effectiveness of this toolbox in model plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa), demonstrating its utility for basic and applied plant research.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9:A powerful tool for crop genome editing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoyuan Song; Meiling Jia; Kai Chen; Xingchen Kong; Bushra Khattak; Chuanxiao Xie; Aili Li; Long Mao

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 technology is evolved from a type II bacterial immune system and represents a new generation of targeted genome editing technology that can be applied to nearly all organisms. Site-specific modification is achieved by a single guide RNA (usually about 20 nucleotides) that is complementary to a target gene or locus and is anchored by a protospacer-adjacent motif. Cas9 nuclease then cleaves the targeted DNA to generate double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are subsequently repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) mechanisms. NHEJ may introduce indels that cause frame shift mutations and hence the disruption of gene functions. When combined with double or multiplex guide RNA design, NHEJ may also introduce targeted chromosome deletions, whereas HDR can be engineered for target gene correction, gene replacement, and gene knock-in. In this review, we briefly survey the history of the CRISPR/Cas9 system invention and its genome-editing mechanism. We also describe the most recent innovation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, particularly the broad applications of modified Cas9 variants, and discuss the potential of this system for targeted genome editing and modification for crop improvement.

  18. Large fragment deletion using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huanhuan; Wang, Xiaofei; Jia, Haiyan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hui; Zhang, Liping

    2016-09-15

    Large chromosomal modifications have been performed in natural and laboratory evolution studies and hold tremendous potential for use in foundational research, medicine, and biotechnology applications. Recently, the type II bacterial Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat and CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas9) system has emerged as a powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms. In this study, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to preform large fragment deletions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the performance activity to that of a traditional method that uses the Latour system. Here we report in S. Cerevisiae the CRIPR/Cas9 system has been used to delete fragments exceeding 30 kb. The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for generating chromosomal segment excision showed some potential advantages over the Latour system. All the results indicated that CRISPR/Cas9 system was a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and versatile method for genome editing and that it can be applied in further studies in the fields of biology, agriculture, and medicine. PMID:27402178

  19. The 10th Session of the Fourth CAS Presidium Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chaired by Prof. LuYongxiang, executive chairman of the CAS Presidium and president of CAS, the 10th session of the fourth CAS Presidium was held on September 2 in Beijing. The CAS Presidium is the standing leading body of the CAS General Assembly, the highest organ of the CAS Academic Divisions (CASAD).

  20. CRISPR/Cas9 for Human Genome Engineering and Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Chen, Meng; Lim, Wendell A; Zhao, Dehua; Qi, Lei S

    2016-08-31

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system, a versatile RNA-guided DNA targeting platform, has been revolutionizing our ability to modify, manipulate, and visualize the human genome, which greatly advances both biological research and therapeutics development. Here, we review the current development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for gene editing, transcription regulation, genome imaging, and epigenetic modification. We discuss the broad application of this system to the study of functional genomics, especially genome-wide genetic screening, and to therapeutics development, including establishing disease models, correcting defective genetic mutations, and treating diseases. PMID:27216776

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 for Human Genome Engineering and Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Chen, Meng; Lim, Wendell A; Zhao, Dehua; Qi, Lei S

    2016-08-31

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system, a versatile RNA-guided DNA targeting platform, has been revolutionizing our ability to modify, manipulate, and visualize the human genome, which greatly advances both biological research and therapeutics development. Here, we review the current development of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies for gene editing, transcription regulation, genome imaging, and epigenetic modification. We discuss the broad application of this system to the study of functional genomics, especially genome-wide genetic screening, and to therapeutics development, including establishing disease models, correcting defective genetic mutations, and treating diseases.

  2. Generation of genetically modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIN, Li-Fang; LI, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology in the post-genomic era, researchers have concentrated their efforts on elucidating the relationships between genes and their corresponding functions. Recently, important progress has been achieved in the generation of genetically modified mice based on CRISPR/Cas9 and haploid embryonic stem cell (haESC) approaches, which provide new platforms for gene function analysis, human disease modeling, and gene therapy. Here, we review the CRISPR/Cas9 and haESC technology for the generation of genetically modified mice and discuss the key challenges in the application of these approaches. PMID:27469251

  3. Apprentissage administratif : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/PMD/RCC L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne,Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège...

  4. Au-Free GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor with Ti/Al/W Ohmic and WN X Schottky Metal Structures for High-Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-En; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chu, Chung-Ming; Chuang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Xiang; Shi, Wang-Cheng; Dee, Chang-Fu; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Lee, Wei-I.; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an Au-free AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) with Ti/Al/W ohmic and WN x Schottky metal structures is fabricated and characterized. The device exhibits smooth surface morphology after metallization and shows excellent direct-current (DC) characteristics. The device also demonstrates better performance than the conventional HEMTs under high voltage stress. Furthermore, the Au-free AlGaN/GaN HEMT shows stable device performance after annealing at 400°C. Thus, the Ti/Al/W ohmic and WN X Schottky metals can be applied in the manufacturing of GaN HEMT to replace the Au based contacts to reduce the manufacturing costs of the GaN HEMT devices with comparable device performance.

  5. The tracrRNA and Cas9 families of type II CRISPR-Cas immunity systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Chylinski, Krzysztof; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is a rapidly evolving RNA-mediated adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea against mobile genetic elements. The system relies on the activity of short mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that guide Cas protein(s) to silence invading nucleic acids. A set of CRISPR-Cas, type II, requires a trans-activating small RNA, tracrRNA, for maturation of precursor crRNA (pre-crRNA) and interference with invading sequences. Following co-processing of tracrRNA and pre-crRNA by RNase II...

  6. Cas6 specificity and CRISPR RNA loading in a complex CRISPR-Cas system

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolowski, Richard David; Graham, Shirley; White, Malcolm F.

    2014-01-01

    This research was funded in part by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [BB/K000314/1]. The APC was paid through RCUK OA block grant funds. CRISPR-Cas is an adaptive prokaryotic immune system, providing protection against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. In type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems, CRISPR RNA (crRNA) is generated by cleavage of a primary transcript by the Cas6 endonuclease and loaded into multisubunit surveillance/effector complexes, allowing hom...

  7. Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems

    OpenAIRE

    DiCarlo, James; Norville, Julie; Mali, Prashant; Rios Villanueva, Xavier; Aach, John Dennis; Church, George McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea use RNA-guided nuclease activity to provide adaptive immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. The CRISPR-Cas components, Cas9 gene and a designer genome targeting CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), show robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity a...

  8. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, RS; Jiang, F; Doudna, JA; Lim, WA; Narlikar, GJ; De Almeida, R

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to ...

  9. Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Aryn A.; Sampson, Timothy R.; Ratner, Hannah K.; Grakoui, Arash; Weiss, David S

    2015-01-01

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats associated endonuclease, Cas9, has quickly become a revolutionary tool in genome engineering. Utilizing small guiding RNAs, Cas9 can be targeted to specific DNA sequences of interest, where it catalyzes DNA cleavage. We now demonstrate that Cas9 from the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella novicida (FnCas9) can be reprogrammed to target a specific RNA substrate, the genome of the +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, in eukaryotic cel...

  10. Cas9 as a versatile tool for engineering biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mali, Prashant; Esvelt, Kevin M.; Church, George M.

    2013-01-01

    RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems have dramatically transformed our ability to edit the genomes of diverse organisms. We believe tools and techniques based on Cas9, a single unifying factor capable of colocalizing RNA, DNA and protein, will grant unprecedented control over cellular organization, regulation and behavior. Here we describe the Cas9 targeting methodology, detail current and prospective engineering...

  11. DNA-free two-gene knockout in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii via CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangryul; Kim, Duk Hyoung; Jeong, Jooyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Melis, Anastasios; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jin, EonSeon; Bae, Sangsu

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are versatile organisms capable of converting CO2, H2O, and sunlight into fuel and chemicals for domestic and industrial consumption. Thus, genetic modifications of microalgae for enhancing photosynthetic productivity, and biomass and bio-products generation are crucial for both academic and industrial applications. However, targeted mutagenesis in microalgae with CRISPR-Cas9 is limited. Here we report, a one-step transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by the DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 method rather than plasmids that encode Cas9 and guide RNAs. Outcome was the sequential CpFTSY and ZEP two-gene knockout and the generation of a strain constitutively producing zeaxanthin and showing improved photosynthetic productivity. PMID:27466170

  12. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan;

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR...... and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided...

  13. Creating and evaluating accurate CRISPR-Cas9 scalpels for genomic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, Mehmet Fatih; Gupta, Ankit; Wolfe, Scot A

    2016-01-01

    The simplicity of site-specific genome targeting by type II clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 nucleases, along with their robust activity profile, has changed the landscape of genome editing. These favorable properties have made the CRISPR-Cas9 system the technology of choice for sequence-specific modifications in vertebrate systems. For many applications, whether the focus is on basic science investigations or therapeutic efficacy, activity and precision are important considerations when one is choosing a nuclease platform, target site and delivery method. Here we review recent methods for increasing the activity and accuracy of Cas9 and assessing the extent of off-target cleavage events.

  14. DNA-free two-gene knockout in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii via CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangryul; Kim, Duk Hyoung; Jeong, Jooyeon; Sim, Sang Jun; Melis, Anastasios; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jin, EonSeon; Bae, Sangsu

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are versatile organisms capable of converting CO2, H2O, and sunlight into fuel and chemicals for domestic and industrial consumption. Thus, genetic modifications of microalgae for enhancing photosynthetic productivity, and biomass and bio-products generation are crucial for both academic and industrial applications. However, targeted mutagenesis in microalgae with CRISPR-Cas9 is limited. Here we report, a one-step transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by the DNA-free CRISPR-Cas9 method rather than plasmids that encode Cas9 and guide RNAs. Outcome was the sequential CpFTSY and ZEP two-gene knockout and the generation of a strain constitutively producing zeaxanthin and showing improved photosynthetic productivity. PMID:27466170

  15. CAS scientists active in earthquake relief operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Soon after the devastating earthquake taking place on last 12 May in Sichuan, the CAS leadership promptly mobilized its researchers to dedicate their expertise to the nationwide drive of the disaster's relief and reduction. A leading group was established to coordinate the Academy's efforts in this regard. All of the eight CAS institutions located in Sichuan were organized to do everything possible to reduce their losses to the minimum. At the same time, a trans-departmental and interdisciplinary taskforce was formed to provide a powerful S&T backing for the nationwide drive.

  16. CNPC and CAS Sign Technological Cooperation Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 16, 2006, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed technological cooperation agreement with Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in Beijing. Vice President of CNPC Zhou Jiping and Vice President of CAS Li Jiayang signed the agreement on behalf of both sides,marking a new era of unite brainstorm in petroleum technology. It will boost the development of petrochemical technology, especially the technology for the exploration and development of oil and gas field, engineering, oil refining and chemicals.

  17. CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-10-01

    Prokaryotic organisms are threatened by a large array of viruses and have developed numerous defence strategies. Among these, only clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity against foreign elements. Upon viral injection, a small sequence of the viral genome, known as a spacer, is integrated into the CRISPR locus to immunize the host cell. Spacers are transcribed into small RNA guides that direct the cleavage of the viral DNA by Cas nucleases. Immunization through spacer acquisition enables a unique form of evolution whereby a population not only rapidly acquires resistance to its predators but also passes this resistance mechanism vertically to its progeny.

  18. The expanding footprint of CRISPR/Cas9 in the plant sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRISPR/Cas9 has evolved and transformed the field of biology at an unprecedented pace. From the initial purpose of introducing a site specific mutation within a genome of choice, this technology has morphed into enabling a wide array of molecular applications, including site-specific transgene inser...

  19. TiO2 nanotube arrays co-loaded with Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide: Facile synthesis and promising photocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Methyl orange (MO) can be efficiently removed through photodegradation process using a novel photocatalyst, Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide co-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays. Highlights: •The photocatalyst is prepared by an one-step constant potential deposition process. •The ternary photocatalyst shows effective separation of photogenerated charges. •The photocatalyst displays almost 100% photocatalytic removal of methyl orange. •The photocatalyst is easily recovered with excellent cycling stability. -- Abstract: Au nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide co-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays (Au/RGO–TiO2 NTs) were prepared through a simple one-step constant-potential electrolysis of chloroauric acid and graphene oxide on TiO2 NTs. Compared with Au–TiO2 NTs, RGO–TiO2 NTs and un-modified TiO2 NTs, the Au/RGO–TiO2 NTs exhibited high efficiency in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under simulated solar light irradiation. The highly efficient photocatalytic activity is associated with broad absorption in the visible light region, increased photoinduced charge separation through transferring photogenerated electrons from TiO2 NTs to both Au and RGO, as well as the strong adsorption ability of RGO to MO molecules. Moreover, the Au/RGO–TiO2 NTs has an excellent stability. This work provides an insight into designing and synthesizing new TiO2 NTs-based hybrid materials for effective visible light-activated photocatalysis

  20. Modélisation de la puissance triphasée contrôlée de façon discrète: application au chauffage industriel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, A.; Protin, L.

    1998-04-01

    This paper suggests a method to characterize the three-phase instantaneous power wave for an industrial heating approach using several three-phase converters. To obtain a global behaviour of this plant when the control is assumed by the means of full wave trains using minimal period (discrete control calling syncop mode), different three-phase power modelling methods are submitted. From the computed converter control signals, an associated rebuilding procedure of the three-phase instantaneous power allows to simulate and characterize performances of these industrial-heating systems. Simulation results validated by experimental tests allow envisaging the global strategy development minimising fluctuations of the instantaneous three-phase power. L'article propose, pour l'étude des chauffages industriels mettant en jeu plusieurs gradateurs triphasés, une méthode de caractérisation de l'onde de la puissance instantanée triphasée. Dans le cas d'un fonctionnement en trains d'onde à période minimale (commande discrète dite syncopée) et afin de rendre compte du comportement global d'un ensemble comportant plusieurs gradateurs, différentes modélisations de l'onde triphasée sont envisagées. Une fois établi le concept de la modélisation, et à partir de signaux de commande élaborés logiciellement, une procédure de reconstruction de l'onde de puissance associée à chaque gradateur permet de simuler et de caractériser les performances de ces systèmes de chauffage industriel. Les résultats de simulation validés par des essais expérimentaux permettent d'envisager la mise au point de stratégies globales minimisant les fluctuations de la puissance triphasée instantanée.

  1. Les garrots de prélèvement, un drame chez le nourrisson: à propos de 3 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouangré, Edgar; Bazongo, Moussa; Ouédraogo, Isso; Zida, Maurice; Ouedraogo, Daouda; Sanou, Adama; Bonkoungou, Gilbert Patindé; Doamba, Rodrigue Namékinsba; Zongo, Nayi; Traore, Si Simon

    2016-01-01

    Le délai pour la levée d'un garrot sur un membre est limité, tout retard, surtout après la 3ème heure expose à un risque d'amputation de celui-ci. Notre objectif a été de rapporter trois cas de gangrène ischémique de membre par oubli d'un garrot après un prélèvement sanguin, afin d'interpeler le personnel soignant sur ses dangers. Il s'est agi de trois nourrissons dont deux de 3 mois et un de 5 mois, reçus aux urgences viscérales du CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo pour tuméfaction du membre thoracique gauche. Dans leurs antécédents, on a noté une pose de garrot pour prélèvement de sang qui a été oublié pendant 24 heures dans deux cas et 48 heures dans un cas. L'examen avait retrouvé un œdème diffus associé à un sphacèle du membre supérieur remontant jusqu'au 1/3 moyen du bras; une abolition des pouls ulnaire et radial ainsi que de la sensibilité de la main dans 2 cas. Dans un cas les signes étaient atténués. Le diagnostic de gangrène ischémique de membre a été retenu dans tous les cas. La biologie réalisée était normale. En urgence, il a été réalisé une amputation trans-humérale dans 2 cas et un débridement associé à une amputation de quatre doigts dans un cas. L’évolution a été simple dans tous les cas. La gangrène sèche iatrogène de membre par garrot en milieu hospitalier ne devrait pas se concevoir. Cela passe par la rigueur dans l'administration des soins et une surveillance régulière et attentive des patients. PMID:27217892

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 system as an innovative genetic engineering tool: Enhancements in sequence specificity and delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Il; Suresh, Bharathi; Kim, Hyongbum; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    While human gene therapy has gained significant attention for its therapeutic promise, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has made a breakthrough as an efficient genome editing tool by emulating prokaryotic immune defense mechanisms. Although many studies have found that CRISPR/Cas9 technology is more efficient, specific and manipulable than previous generations of gene editing tools, it can be further improved by elevating its overall efficiency in a higher frequency of genome modifications and reducing its off-target effects. Here, we review the development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology, focusing on enhancement of its sequence specificity, reduction of off-target effects and delivery systems. Moreover, we describe recent successful applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in laboratory and clinical studies.

  3. Generation of a conditional analog-sensitive kinase in human cells using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Tyler C; Holland, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to rapidly and specifically modify the genome of mammalian cells has been a long-term goal of biomedical researchers. Recently, the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system from bacteria has been exploited for genome engineering in human cells. The CRISPR system directs the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to a specific genomic locus to induce a DNA double-strand break that may be subsequently repaired by homology-directed repair using an exogenous DNA repair template. Here we describe a protocol using CRISPR/Cas9 to achieve bi-allelic insertion of a point mutation in human cells. Using this method, homozygous clonal cell lines can be constructed in 5-6 weeks. This method can also be adapted to insert larger DNA elements, such as fluorescent proteins and degrons, at defined genomic locations. CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering offers exciting applications in both basic science and translational research.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 system as an innovative genetic engineering tool: Enhancements in sequence specificity and delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Il; Suresh, Bharathi; Kim, Hyongbum; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    While human gene therapy has gained significant attention for its therapeutic promise, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has made a breakthrough as an efficient genome editing tool by emulating prokaryotic immune defense mechanisms. Although many studies have found that CRISPR/Cas9 technology is more efficient, specific and manipulable than previous generations of gene editing tools, it can be further improved by elevating its overall efficiency in a higher frequency of genome modifications and reducing its off-target effects. Here, we review the development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology, focusing on enhancement of its sequence specificity, reduction of off-target effects and delivery systems. Moreover, we describe recent successful applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in laboratory and clinical studies. PMID:26434948

  5. CAS Maps Out a Blueprint for Its Future Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ At the enlarged summer session of the Party's Leading Group at CAS held from July 25 to 29 in Beijing,the CAS leadership called for implementing the third-phase work of the Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP) through innovation and reform, so as to open up new prospects for CAS development in the years to come.

  6. The 11th CAS General Assembly Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As their first plenary meetings in the new century, the 11th General Assembly of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Sixth General Assembly of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) were convened in Beijing from May 28 to June 1. A total of 490 CAS members and three foreign members attended the CAS conference.

  7. CAS, Thai S&T ministry to further cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Hosted by the CAS Bureau of International Cooperation, the Second CAS-Thai MOST Joint Workshop on S&T Cooperation was held on 28 and 29 June in Chengdu, capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province. More than 120 officials and scholars from Sichuan Provincial Government, CAS, and Thai Ministry of Science and Technology(MOST) were present at the meeting.

  8. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Bruce M; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-09-02

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli.

  9. Chondrosarcome mésenchymateux de l’orbite : à propos d’un cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PW. Atipo-Tsiba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Le chondrosarcome mésenchymateux de l’orbite est une tumeur très rare. Seule une trentaine de cas ont été publiés à ce jour. Cette observation rapporte un cas vu au CHU de Brazzaville. Méthode : Une patiente de 33 ans avait consulté notre département pour une exophtalmie gauche. Résultats : On notait une exophtalmie, un important chémosis et une nécrose cornéenne complète. Le scanner avait objectivé une masse orbitaire ovoïde, multilobée avec une zone centrale calcifie. L’histopathologie avait mis en évidence un aspect dit "bi-phasique", faite d’une mosaïque de petites cellules fusiformes associées à des hémangiopericytomes au sein d’une matrice cartilagineuse. Conclusion : Le chondrosarcome mésenchymateux de l’orbite est une tumeur exceptionnelle. Son aspect histopathologique particulier permet aisément de le différentier des autres lésions calcifies de l’orbite.

  10. L'inspection du travail et le droit en Afrique francophone au XXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Renucci, Florence

    2009-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de mettre en évidence les grandes lignes de l'histoire de l'inspection du travail et son rapport au droit français en Afrique noire tout au long du XXe siècle. Il s'agit d'une recherche introductive à un travail plus approfondi. Sans nier les différences qui peuvent exister d'un territoire à un autre de l'Afrique, nous espérons dessiner une vue d'ensemble qui devra être vérifiée au cas par cas. Elle s'appuie à la fois sur des sources juridiques traditionnelles (l...

  11. L'atteinte vésicale au cours de la neurofibromatose de Von Recklinghausen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Hajjad, Tilila; Essatara, Younes; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    La neurofibromatose de type 1 ou maladie de Von Recklinghausen est une maladie génétique autosomique dominante en rapport avec des mutations dans le gène suppresseur de tumeur NF1. L'atteinte uro-génitale au cours de cette maladie est rare et moins de 80 cas ont été rapportés à ce jour dans la littérature mondiale. Les auteurs rapportent un nouveau cas d'atteinte vésicale découverte fortuitement au cours du suivi d'une patiente atteinte de la maladie de Von Recklinghausen. A travers cette observation et une revue de la littérature les auteurs discutent également les difficultés diagnostiques, thérapeutiques ainsi que les modalités de suivi dans cette maladie. PMID:25328590

  12. Structural plasticity and in vivo activity of Cas1 from the type I-F CRISPR-Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Max E; Nakatani, Yoshio; Staals, Raymond H J; Kieper, Sebastian N; Opel-Reading, Helen K; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Fineran, Peter C; Krause, Kurt L

    2016-04-15

    CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes that provide protection against viruses and other foreign DNA. In the adaptation stage, foreign DNA is integrated into CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) arrays as new spacers. These spacers are used in the interference stage to guide effector CRISPR associated (Cas) protein(s) to target complementary foreign invading DNA. Cas1 is the integrase enzyme that is central to the catalysis of spacer integration. There are many diverse types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including type I-F systems, which are typified by a unique Cas1-Cas2-3 adaptation complex. In the present study we characterize the Cas1 protein of the potato phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, an important model organism for understanding spacer acquisition in type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. We demonstrate by mutagenesis that Cas1 is essential for adaptation in vivo and requires a conserved aspartic acid residue. By X-ray crystallography, we show that although P. atrosepticum Cas1 adopts a fold conserved among other Cas1 proteins, it possesses remarkable asymmetry as a result of structural plasticity. In particular, we resolve for the first time a flexible, asymmetric loop that may be unique to type I-F Cas1 proteins, and we discuss the implications of these structural features for DNA binding and enzymatic activity. PMID:26929403

  13. Le patrimoine maritime. Études de cas en Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORENTINA-CRISTINA MERCIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Le patrimoine maritime représente une catégorie particulière du patrimoine culturel qui s’individualise par des éléments matériels ou immat ériels liés aux activités humaines qui ont été déroulées en relation avec les ressources et les mi lieux maritimes. Le but de cette étude est de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques du patrimoi ne maritime au niveau du territoire européen par une sélection de quelques études de cas considé rées représentatives. La diversité des conditions physico-géographiques et la particularit é des cultures locales ont donné le caractère de diversité du patrimoine maritime des pays européens .

  14. Applicability of near-infrared hyperspectral imagery (NIR-HI) for sensor based sorting of an epithermal Au-Ag ore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, M.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Van Ruitenbeek, F.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the presented study test work was performed with near-infrared hyperspectral imagery (NIR-HI) on 36 ore samples from a South-American epithermal Au-Ag mine. The aim of the test work was to investigate if NIR-HI provides information about the alteration mineralogy of samples that can be used to pr

  15. The synthesis of Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite and its application in enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yayun; Li, Yuhui; Jiang, Yingying; Li, Yancai; Li, Shunxing

    2016-08-01

    A novel Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was synthesized and used to fabricate enzyme-free electrochemical sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The well-designed Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy-dispersed spectrum (EDS). The Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Au@C@Pt/GCE) exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction at 0.0 V and can be used as H2O2 sensor. The sensor displays two wide linear ranges towards H2O2 detection. The one is 9.0 μM-1.86 mM with high sensitivity of 144.7 μA mM-1 cm-2, and the other is 1.86 mM-7.11 mM with sensitivity of 80.1 μA mM-1 cm-2. When signal to noise (S/N) is 3, the calculated detection limit (LOD) is 0.13 μM. Furthermore, the interference from the common interfering species such as glucose, ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid can be effectively avoided to H2O2 detection. Additionally, the H2O2 sensor also displays good stability and reproducibility.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Au-ZrO2-SiO2 Nanocomposite Spheres and Their Application in Enrichment and Detection of Organophosphorus Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuqi; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-03-01

    Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite spheres were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of orananophosphorous agents. A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor based on an Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} modified electrode was developed for selective detection of orananophosphorous pesticides (OPs). The Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite spheres were synthesized by hydrolysis and condensation of zirconia n-butoxide (TBOZ) on the surface of SiO{sub 2} spheres and then introduction of gold nanoparticles on the surface. Transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the formation of the nanocomposite sphere. Fast extraction of OP was achieved by Au-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} modified electrode within 5 min via the specific affinity between zirconia and phosphoric group. The assay yields a broad concentration range of paraoxon-ethyl from 1.0 to 500 ng/mL{sup -1} with a detection limit 0.5 ng/mL{sup -1}. This selective and sensitive method holds great promise for the enrichment and detection of OPs.

  17. Cas9-triggered chain ablation of cas9 as a gene drive brake

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bing; Luo, Liqun; Gao, Xiaojing J

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology, researchers can construct gene drives that can bias the inheritance of edited alleles to alter entire populations. As demonstrated with the mutagenic chain reaction in Drosophila4, the CRISPR-Cas9 system can propagate genomic modification together with the genome-editing machinery itself. Although gene drives might have the potential to control insect-borne di...

  18. Cancer du sein de l'homme: à propos de 6 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazohra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, My Abdelilah; Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; Laalim, Said Ait; Anoun, Hicham; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était d'analyser les caractéristiques cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques du cancer du sein chez l'homme. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur six patients colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique II, CHU Hassan II durant la période 2009-2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 65.3 ans. Il s'agit dans 83.3% des cas, d'une tumeur rétroaréolaire dont la taille moyenne est de 44.16 mm. Nous avons retrouvé 4 (66.7%) T4, 1 (16.7%) T3 et dans un cas, une tumeur inclassable. Le type histologique le plus représenté est le carcinome canalaire infiltrant (66.7%). Le taux d'envahissement ganglionnaire axillaire est de 66.7%. L'hormonodépendance de ces tumeurs est prouvée dans 100% des cas. La survie à cinq ans est en cours d’évaluation. L'envahissement ganglionnaire, l'invasion du derme, le stade clinique TNM sont des facteurs qui influencent significativement la survenue de métastases. Aucun de ces facteurs de risque n'est apparu significatif en termes de survie globale. Le cancer du sein chez l'homme est une maladie rare (environ 1% des cancers du sein) au pronostic sombre. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent tardif et les lésions sont traitées à des stades avancés. PMID:24711870

  19. Optimization of a multiplex CRISPR/Cas system for use as an antiviral therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward M; Kornepati, Anand V R; Mefferd, Adam L; Marshall, Joy B; Tsai, Kevin; Bogerd, Hal P; Cullen, Bryan R

    2015-12-01

    RNA-guided endonucleases or CRISPR/Cas systems have been widely employed for gene engineering/DNA editing applications, and have recently been used against a variety of dsDNA viruses as a potential therapeutic. However, in vivo delivery to specific tissue reservoirs using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is problematic due to the large coding requirement for the principal effector commonly used in these applications, Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) Cas9. Here we describe design of a minimal CRISPR/Cas system that is capable of multiplexing and can be packaged into a single AAV vector. This system consists of the small Type II Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sau) driven by a truncated CMV promoter/enhancer, and flanked 3' by a poly(A) addition signal, as well as two sgRNA expression cassettes driven by either U6 or ∼70-bp tRNA-derived Pol III promoters. Specific protocols for construction of these AAV vector scaffolds, shuttle cloning of their contents into AAV and lentiviral backbones, and a quantitative luciferase assay capable of screening for optimal sgRNAs, are detailed. These protocols can facilitate construction of AAV vectors that have optimal multiplexed sgRNA expression and function. These will have potential utility in multiplex applications, including in antiviral therapy in tissues chronically infected with a pathogenic DNA virus. PMID:26291065

  20. CAS expert receives Tribology Gold Medal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Prof. XUE Qunji, a senior expert in tribology from the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (L1CP) and member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, received the Tribology Gold Medalfor 2011 on February 27, 2012 in Beijing. As one of the world's most outstanding and influential tribologists in the last forty years, Prof.

  1. MPS/CAS Partner Groups in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ MPS/CAS Partner Groups have become an important backbone of Sino-German collaboration, and they are considered to function as a nucleus for defining topics for the envisaged next generation of cooperation - as seen from the following reports and future plans.

  2. Using the CAS Standards in Assessment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the use of professional standards of practice in assessment and of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). It outlines a model for conducting program self-studies and discusses the importance of implementing change based on assessment results.

  3. CAS scores progress in MIS development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A CAS initiative to upgrade its management information system (MIS) is making landmark progress. The first-phase development of the Academia Resource Planning (ARP), a major MIS project at the Academy, passed the acceptance check by a 17-strong panel of experts on 23 January 2007 in Beijing.

  4. Boosting plant immunity with CRISPR/Cas

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas has recently been transferred to plants to make them resistant to geminiviruses, a damaging family of DNA viruses. We discuss the potential and the limitations of this method.See related Research: http://www.genomebiology.com/2015/16/1/238.

  5. High-efficiency genome editing via 2A-coupled co-expression of fluorescent proteins and zinc finger nucleases or CRISPR/Cas9 nickase pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duda, Katarzyna; Lonowski, Lindsey A; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Targeted endonucleases including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/Cas9 are increasingly being used for genome editing in higher species. We therefore devised a broadly applicable and versatile method for increasing editing...... were minimal, and when occurring, our data suggest that they may be counteracted by selecting intermediate nuclease levels where off-target mutagenesis is low, but on-target mutagenesis remains relatively high. The method was also applicable to the CRISPR/Cas9 system, including CRISPR/Cas9 mutant...

  6. Protein engineering of Cas9 for enhanced function

    OpenAIRE

    Oakes, Benjamin L.; Nadler, Dana C.; Savage, David F.

    2014-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas systems act to protect the cell from invading nucleic acids in many bacteria and archaea. The bacterial immune protein Cas9 is a component of one of these CRISPR/Cas systems and has recently been adapted as a tool for genome editing. Cas9 is easily targeted to bind and cleave a DNA sequence via a complimentary RNA; this straightforward programmability has gained Cas9 rapid acceptance in the field of genetic engineering. While this technology has developed quickly, a number of chall...

  7. DNA targeting specificity of RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Patrick D.; Scott, David A.; Weinstein, Joshua A.; Ran, F Ann; Konermann, Silvana; Agarwala, Vineeta; Li, Yinqing; Fine, Eli J; Wu, Xuebing; Shalem, Ophir; Cradick, Thomas J.; Marraffini, Luciano A.; Bao, Gang; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) nuclease can be efficiently targeted to genomic loci by means of singleguide RNAs (sgRNAs) to enable genome editing1–10. Here, we characterize SpCas9 targeting specificity in human cells to inform the selection of target sites and avoid off-target effects. Our study evaluates >700 guide RNA variants and SpCas9-induced indel mutation levels at >100 predicted genomic off-target loci in 293T and 293FT cells. We find that SpCas9 tolerates mismatches betwee...

  8. CRISPR–Cas9-assisted recombineering in Lactobacillus reuteri

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jee-Hwan; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and the CRISPR-associated (Cas) nuclease protect bacteria and archeae from foreign DNA by site-specific cleavage of incoming DNA. Type-II CRISPR–Cas systems, such as the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR–Cas9 system, can be adapted such that Cas9 can be guided to a user-defined site in the chromosome to introduce double-stranded breaks. Here we have developed and optimized CRISPR–Cas9 function in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus...

  9. CasHRA (Cas9-facilitated Homologous Recombination Assembly) method of constructing megabase-sized DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianting; Wu, Ronghai; Xue, Xiaoli; Qin, Zhongjun

    2016-08-19

    Current DNA assembly methods for preparing highly purified linear subassemblies require complex and time-consuming in vitro manipulations that hinder their ability to construct megabase-sized DNAs (e.g. synthetic genomes). We have developed a new method designated 'CasHRA (Cas9-facilitated Homologous Recombination Assembly)' that directly uses large circular DNAs in a one-step in vivo assembly process. The large circular DNAs are co-introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae by protoplast fusion, and they are cleaved by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to release the linear DNA segments for subsequent assembly by the endogenous homologous recombination system. The CasHRA method allows efficient assembly of multiple large DNA segments in vivo; thus, this approach should be useful in the last stage of genome construction. As a proof of concept, we combined CasHRA with an upstream assembly method (Gibson procedure of genome assembly) and successfully constructed a 1.03 Mb MGE-syn1.0 (Minimal Genome of Escherichia coli) that contained 449 essential genes and 267 important growth genes. We expect that CasHRA will be widely used in megabase-sized genome constructions. PMID:27220470

  10. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  11. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaş, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  12. Grossesse sur utérus cloisonné menée à terme: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Osman; Hakimi, Ihssane; Chanana, Adil; Habib, My Abdellah Baba; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayeni, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    L'utérus cloisonné est la malformation utérine la plus fréquente, comptant pour 30 à 50% des cas, suivie par les malformations utérines de type utérus bicorne et utérus unicorne. Nous rapportons un cas d'utérus cloisonné total suspecté lors de l'examen obstétrical d'une parturiente en travail, et confirmé à l'exploration au cours d'une césarienne réalisé pour le même motif. L'intérêt de ce cas est de montrer le pronostic obstétrical chez les femmes fertiles porteuses de cette malformation utérine. PMID:26955410

  13. Structure and Engineering of Francisella novicida Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Hisato; Gootenberg, Jonathan S; Horii, Takuro; Abudayyeh, Omar O; Kimura, Mika; Hsu, Patrick D; Nakane, Takanori; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Hatada, Izuho; Zhang, Feng; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-02-25

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to the guide RNA and has been applied to programmable genome editing. Cas9-mediated cleavage requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) juxtaposed with the DNA target sequence, thus constricting the range of targetable sites. Here, we report the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structures of Cas9 from Francisella novicida (FnCas9), one of the largest Cas9 orthologs, in complex with a guide RNA and its PAM-containing DNA targets. A structural comparison of FnCas9 with other Cas9 orthologs revealed striking conserved and divergent features among distantly related CRISPR-Cas9 systems. We found that FnCas9 recognizes the 5'-NGG-3' PAM, and used the structural information to create a variant that can recognize the more relaxed 5'-YG-3' PAM. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the FnCas9-ribonucleoprotein complex can be microinjected into mouse zygotes to edit endogenous sites with the 5'-YG-3' PAM, thus expanding the target space of the CRISPR-Cas9 toolbox. PMID:26875867

  14. 利用Crispr/Cas9构建POMP基因组原位荧光报告系统及其应用%Construction of mCherry reporter system of POMP by Crispr/Cas9 and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵湘湘; 沈俊杰; 彭维; 蒋璐频; 钱程

    2016-01-01

    目的 利用Crispr/Cas9系统建立蛋白酶体成熟蛋白(proteasome maturation protein,POMP)基因组原位荧光报告系统.方法 构建POMP-2A-mCherry-T载体并转染HEK293(human embryonic kdiney 293 cell)细胞;流式细胞仪分选获取mCherry阴阳性细胞;实时荧光定量PCR(real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR)检测mCherry阴阳性细胞中POMP基因转录水平表达差异;Western blot检测mCherry阴阳性细胞中POMP蛋白表达差异以及Huh7细胞中JNK1/JNK2磷酸化水平;蛋白酶体活性试剂盒检测mCherry阴阳性细胞中蛋白酶体活性差异.结果 mCherry阳性细胞POMP蛋白表达水平比mCherry阴性细胞高1.3倍(P<0.01),但其基因转录水平差异并不显著(P>0.05);同时mCherry阴性细胞中泛素化水平比mCherry阳性细胞高1.2倍(P<0.01);另外mCherry阳性细胞中蛋白酶体活性也显著高于阴性细胞(P<0.01);低表达POMP的Huh7细胞中,JNK1和JNK2的磷酸化水平分别升高1.5倍和1.4倍(P<0.01).结论 成功构建POMP荧光报告系统;将该系统用于Huh7细胞,发现POMP可改变JNK1、JNK2磷酸化水平,其可能通过JNK信号通路来影响细胞的增殖以及凋亡.

  15. Tailor-made CRISPR/Cas system for highly efficient targeted gene replacement in the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazoe, Takayuki; Miyoshi, Kennosuke; Yamato, Tohru; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Ohsato, Shuichi; Arie, Tsutomu; Kuwata, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    CRISPR/Cas-derived RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) that can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a specific sequence are widely used for targeted genome editing by induction of DSB repair in many organisms. The CRISPR/Cas system consists of two components: a single Cas9 nuclease and a single-guide RNA (sgRNA). Therefore, the system for constructing RGNs is simple and efficient, but the utilization of RGNs in filamentous fungi has not been validated. In this study, we established the CRISPR/Cas system in the model filamentous fungus, Pyricularia oryzae, using Cas9 that was codon-optimized for filamentous fungi, and the endogenous RNA polymerase (RNAP) III U6 promoter and a RNAP II fungal promoter for the expression of the sgRNA. We further demonstrated that RGNs could recognize the desired sequences and edit endogenous genes through homologous recombination-mediated targeted gene replacement with high efficiency. Our system will open the way for the development of various CRISPR/Cas-based applications in filamentous fungi. PMID:26039904

  16. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland Gay

    2002-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature :   avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Suède, Suisse) avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de ...

  17. L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland GAY

    2002-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/TD/AP L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborant(ine) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature :   avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, République slovaque, République tchèque, Royaume-Uni, Su&a...

  18. A measuring method of photo-electric cross section. Application to high-Z elements between 40 keV and 220 keV. Measurement of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study first describes a bent crystal monochromator developed for the production of monochromatic beams in a continuous energy range from 30 to 250 keV; it is completed by a metrological application of the device (determination of K absorption edge energy of Au, Th, U, Pu). A method and the associated experimental procedure were developed to measure the photo-electric cross section for high-Z elements; the results are presented with a relative uncertainty ranging between 3 and 6%. Finally, the experimental values are compared with values calculated from theories using self-consistent potential models

  19. Securite fonciere et gestion de la fertilite des sols: etudes de cas au Ghana et au Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saidou, A.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Kossou, D.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Dans le cadre d¿un programme interuniversitaire de recherche, Convergence des Sciences (CoS), une étude a été conduite sur les stratégies de gestion de la fertilité du sol dans les régions centrales du Ghana (Wenchi) et du Bénin (Savè) où des pratiques variables de gestion de la fertilité du sol son

  20. Effets de site : évalutation expérimentale et modélisations multidimensionnelles : application au site test EURO-SEISTEST (Grèce)

    OpenAIRE

    Riepl, Judith

    1997-01-01

    L'objectif de cette thèse est, l'étude fine des effets d'amplification suite à la géologie locale, notamment dans des bassins sédimentaires, ainsi que l'évaluation des avantages et Iimites des méthodes d'estimations. La partie expérimentale est basée sur des données acquises au site test EURO-SEISTEST, le premier site-test en Europe occidentale proche de Thessalonique (Grèce). Après une évaluation des effets d'amplification au site même et une étude de leur stabilité en fonction de plusieurs ...