WorldWideScience

Sample records for applicable protocol fails

  1. Apyrase treatment of myocardial infarction according to a clinically applicable protocol fails to reduce myocardial injury in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectonucleotidase dependent adenosine generation has been implicated in preconditioning related cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and treatment with a soluble ectonucleotidase has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size (IS when applied prior to induction of ischemia. However, ectonucleotidase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration only after induction of ischemia, has not previously been evaluated. We therefore investigated if treatment with the ectonucleotidase apyrase, according to a clinically applicable protocol, would reduce IS and microvascular obstruction (MO in a large animal model. Methods A percutaneous coronary intervention balloon was inflated in the left anterior descending artery for 40 min, in 16 anesthetized pigs (40-50 kg. The pigs were randomized to 40 min of 1 ml/min intracoronary infusion of apyrase (10 U/ml, n = 8 or saline (0.9 mg/ml, n = 8, twenty minutes after balloon inflation. Area at risk (AAR was evaluated by ex vivo SPECT. IS and MO were evaluated by ex vivo MRI. Results No differences were observed between the apyrase group and saline group with respect to IS/AAR (75.7 ± 4.2% vs 69.4 ± 5.0%, p = NS or MO (10.7 ± 4.8% vs 11.4 ± 4.8%, p = NS, but apyrase prolonged the post-ischemic reactive hyperemia. Conclusion Apyrase treatment according to a clinically applicable protocol, with administration of apyrase after induction of ischemia, does not reduce myocardial infarct size or microvascular obstruction.

  2. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  3. Communication Protocols Augmentation in VLSI Design Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanhu Charan Padhy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement in communication System, the use of various protocols got a sharp rise in the different applications. Especially in the VLSI design for FPGAs, ASICS, CPLDs, the application areas got expanded to FPGA based technologies. Today, it has moved from commercial application to the defence sectors like missiles & aerospace controls. In this paper the use of FPGAs and its interface with various application circuits in the communication field for data (textual & visual & control transfer is discussed. To be specific, the paper discusses the use of FPGA in various communication protocols like SPI, I2C, and TMDS in synchronous mode in Digital System Design using VHDL/Verilog.

  4. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  5. Energy Consumption in Location Sharing Protocols for Android Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prihodko, Mihails

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol in geographical location sharing applications using third generation cellular communication (3G). The MQTT protocol is compared in terms of energy efficiency and amount of data generated with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is currently used in typical location sharing applications. In order to compare the communication energy efficiency of both protocols a location sharing...

  6. Application Protocol Design for Collaborative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-Souk Sung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation will describe the effort to construct an effective educational support environment and to develop meaningful educational applications, This system is a framework supporting interactive collaboration which enables both teachers and students to interact in real-time from remote sites. The purpose of this collaboration is to bring interactive multimedia learning in real-time. In order to induce collaborative learning, this paperproposes protocol design process that shares knowledge awareness information for learning environments. The protocol helps learner to mediate and recognize collaborators in the shared knowledge space. We are developing an open-ended collaborative learning supportsystem, which is called prototype system for protocol design, and facilities to share individual knowledge and to learn through collaboration. This system architecture can be viewed asdivided in four logical parts: the infrastructure, the service functions, the advanced service functions and the application. The session management is creates/destroys the sessions and performs the functions controlling the QOS by detaching the network load. Session manager include: session control, floor control, media instance control, packet interpreter, event interpreter, media server instance, media interface, network interface private applicationinterface and media server control.

  7. Internet of Things: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is defined as a paradigm in which objects equipped with sensors, actuators, and processors communicate with each other to serve a meaningful purpose. In this paper, we survey state-of-the-art methods, protocols, and applications in this new emerging area. This survey paper proposes a novel taxonomy for IoT technologies, highlights some of the most important technologies, and profiles some applications that have the potential to make a striking difference in human life, especially for the differently abled and the elderly. As compared to similar survey papers in the area, this paper is far more comprehensive in its coverage and exhaustively covers most major technologies spanning from sensors to applications.

  8. Feature Analysis of STEP Application Protocol and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses semantic data modelling and CAD/CAPP/CAM integration to analyze the features defined in the STEP AP214, its characteristics of definition and distribution, and its influence on the complexity of CAD/CAPP/CAM application integration. A framework is developed for applications of CAD/CAPP/CAM integration based on the STEP to reduce the complexity of integration implementation. Two application program interfaces (API), namely, application protocol API and application API, are developed. The frameworks hierarchy structure and the application program interfaces between the layers make the integration of applications easier.

  9. Delay tolerant networks protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos

    2011-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) - which include terrestrial mobile networks, exotic media networks, ad-hoc networks, and sensor networks - are becoming more important and may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. This book provides a self-contained, one-stop reference for researchers and practitioners who are looking toward the future of networking. The text presents a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications. It also discusses various challenges associated with DTN. The author includes a wealth of illustrative

  10. The Research and Application Design of SDL Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at overcoming the disadvantages in the Simple Data Link(SDL) protocol, we study and modify the protocol mechanism, which enhances the flexibility in carrying the packets of various network layer protocols and improves the ability to correct errors. We research the error check and error correction of CRC and the application of MPLS labels in the SDL protocol. Furthermore, we provide a method of CRC correction and application of MPLS labels in the SDL protocol. Finally, we present a scheme of realizing the SDL protocol.

  11. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  12. OAuth protocol for CERN Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kleszcz, Emil; Rodriguez Fernandez, Luis; Marescaux, Nicolas Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Project Specification The CERN Authentication service has recently increased his offer of SSO protocols/frameworks with OAuth2 standard. The purpose of the work is to explain the need for an authorization standard and explain how does OAuth2 protocol addresses our requirements. OAuth is an open standard for authorization which provides a secure access to server resources that belongs to a user. As a wide known and relatively new standard (2012) is used by big players in the industry a...

  13. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  14. Secure communication protocol for mobile multimedia applications

    OpenAIRE

    Komninos, N.; Honary, B.; Darnell, M.

    2000-01-01

    Data transmission over wireless communication networks is increasing rapidly and security has become a very important issue. The main considerations of secure communication systems are authentication, key distribution, and data transfer. This paper describes a secure communication protocol (SCP), which provides privacy and data integrity for end-to-end data transmission over wireless communication systems.

  15. Smart environments technology, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Smart Environments contains contributions from leading researchers, describing techniques and issues related to developing and living in intelligent environments. Reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of the design of smart environments, the topics covered include the latest research in smart environment philosophical and computational architecture considerations, network protocols for smart environments, intelligent sensor networks and powerline control of devices, and action prediction and identification.

  16. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted...

  17. Wireless Intelligent Sensors Management Application Protocol-WISMAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesus Yuste-Delgado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many recent studies have focused on the development of new applications for wireless sensor networks, less attention has been paid to knowledge-based sensor nodes. The objective of this work is the development in a real network of a new distributed system in which every sensor node can execute a set of applications, such as fuzzy ruled-base systems, measures, and actions. The sensor software is based on a multi-agent structure that is composed of three components: management, application control, and communication agents; a service interface, which provides applications the abstraction of sensor hardware and other components; and an application layer protocol. The results show the effectiveness of the communication protocol and that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications. As real world applications, this work presents an example of a fuzzy rule-based system and a noise pollution monitoring application that obtains a fuzzy noise indicator.

  18. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  19. Network Coding Protocols for Data Gathering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) with various sparsity levels of the coded packets and different feedback mechanisms is analysed in the context of data gathering applications in multi-hop networks. The goal is to minimize the completion time, i.e., the total time required to collect all data...... packets from the nodes while maintaining the per packet overhead at a minimum. We exploit two types of feedback, (1) the explicit feedback sent deliberately between nodes and (2) the implicit feedback emerged when a node hears its neighbour transmissions. Analytical bounds for a line network are derived...... using a fluid model, which is valid for any field size, various sparsity levels and the aforesaid feedback mechanisms. Our results show that implicit and explicit feedback mechanisms are instrumental in reducing the completion time for sparse codes....

  20. Robustness in Network Protocols and Distributed Applications of the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jürgen; Widmer, Jörg

    The Internet connects computers from all over the world for a fast and reliable exchange of data, e.g., from e-mail or Web applications. Considering its sheer size and heterogeneity, the Internet is the most complex computer system ever built. It has coped with a tremendous growth, has handled many critical situations, and, overall, does work quite well. This is because robustness was a major goal from the very beginning, which led to a network design that is self-regulatory, redundant, scalable, and updatable. In this chapter, we will discuss these design principles and the Internet's architecture, the core protocols IP and TCP, protocols for wireless communication, and applications such as the popular BitTorrent file exchange.

  1. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  2. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  3. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, L.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  4. An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Björn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  5. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  6. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Carvajal-Flórez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO. Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG. Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048, respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8 (p = 0.009 and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6 (p = 0.007. Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8 (p = 0.62 and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9 (p = 0.65. Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system.

  7. Link-Aware Nice Application Level Multicast Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Helal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is one of the most efficient ways to distribute data to multiple users. There are different types of Multicast such as IP Multicast, Overlay Multicast, and Application Layer Multicast (ALM. In this paper, we present a link-aware Application Layer (ALM Multicast algorithm. Our proposed algorithm, Link Aware-NICE (LA-NICE [1], is an enhanced version of the NICE protocol [2]. LA-NICE protocol uses the variations of bandwidth or capacity in communication links to improve multicast message delivery and minimize end-to-end delay. OMNeT++ simulation frame work [3] was used to evaluate LA-NICE. The evaluation is done through a comparison between LA-NICE and NICE. The simulation results showed that LA-NICE produces an increased percentage of success ful message delivery ranging from 2% to 10% compared to NICE. Also, LA-NICE has less average delay and less average message hop count than NICE which reduces the overall latency of message delivery.

  8. Reputation-based Incentive Protocols in Crowdsourcing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Crowdsourcing websites (e.g. Yahoo! Answers, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and etc.) emerged in recent years that allow requesters from all around the world to post tasks and seek help from an equally global pool of workers. However, intrinsic incentive problems reside in crowdsourcing applications as workers and requester are selfish and aim to strategically maximize their own benefit. In this paper, we propose to provide incentives for workers to exert effort using a novel game-theoretic model based on repeated games. As there is always a gap in the social welfare between the non-cooperative equilibria emerging when workers pursue their self-interests and the desirable Pareto efficient outcome, we propose a novel class of incentive protocols based on social norms which integrates reputation mechanisms into the existing pricing schemes currently implemented on crowdsourcing websites, in order to improve the performance of the non-cooperative equilibria emerging in such applications. We first formulate the exchange...

  9. Is the pass/fail system applicable to a medical school in Korea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mee Young

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent reason for objection was the potential decrease in learning achievement. A pass/fail system should be considered after persuasion of the students and faculty to think positively of this system.

  10. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...

  11. A nonparametric urn-based approach to interacting failing systems with an application to credit risk modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Cirillo, Pasquale; Muliere, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new nonparametric approach to interacting failing systems (FS), that is systems whose probability of failure is not negligible in a fixed time horizon, a typical example being firms and financial bonds. The main purpose when studying a FS is to calculate the probability of default and the distribution of the number of failures that may occur during the observation period. A model used to study a failing system is defined default model. In particular, we present a general recursive model constructed by the means of inter- acting urns. After introducing the theoretical model and its properties we show a first application to credit risk modeling, showing how to assess the idiosyncratic probability of default of an obligor and the joint probability of failure of a set of obligors in a portfolio of risks, that are divided into reliability classes.

  12. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent...

  13. Leakproof secret sharing protocols with applications to group identification scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG ChunMing; GAO ShuHong

    2012-01-01

    In a traditional (t,n)-threshold secret sharing scheme,t or more honest participants can reconstruct the secret K.In the reconstruction process,the individual shares and the secret key K are revealed,hence K is shared once only. In this paper,we firstly give the definition of leakproof secret sharing scheme which is composed of a distribution protocol and a proof protocol,then propose two leakproof secret sharing protocols,a computationally secure protocol and an information-theoretically secure protocol.In our protocols,t or more participants can jointly prove that they hold the secret K by using a multi-prover zero-knowledge argument of knowledge.As a result,the secret K will be shared for as many times as desired.Furthermore,each participant can detect the dealer in the distribution protocol from cheating,and any verifier can prevent non-qualified set of participants in proof protocol from cheating.As an example of the practical impact of our work we use our techniques to construct group identification schemes with zero-knowledge.

  14. Validation of Context Based Service Discovery Protocol for Ubiquitous Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi Giridharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Service Discovery Protocol (SDP is important in ubiquitous applications, where a large number of devicesand software components collaborate unobtrusively and provide numerous services without userintervention. Existing service discovery schemes use a service matching process in order to offer services ofinterest to the users. Potentially, the context information of the users and surrounding environment can beused to improve the quality of service matching. We propose a C-IOB (Context- Information, Observationand Belief based service discovery model, which deals with the above challenges by processing the contextinformation and by formulating the beliefs based on the basis of observations. With these formulated beliefsthe required services will be provided to the users. In this work, we present an approach for automatedvalidation of C-IOB based service discovery model in a typical ubiquitous museum environment, where theexternal behavior of the system can be predicted and compared to a model of expected behavior from theoriginal requirements. Formal specification using SDL (Specification and Description Language basedsystem has been used to conduct verification and validation of the system. The purpose of this framework isto provide a formal basis for their performance evaluation and behavioral study of the SDP.

  15. Rate Compatible Protocol for Information Reconciliation: An application to QKD

    CERN Document Server

    Elkouss, David; Lancho, Daniel; Martin, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Information Reconciliation is a mechanism that allows to weed out the discrepancies between two correlated variables. It is an essential component in every key agreement protocol where the key has to be transmitted through a noisy channel. The typical case is in the satellite scenario described by Maurer in the early 90's. Recently the need has arisen in relation with Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocols, where it is very important not to reveal unnecessary information in order to maximize the shared key length. In this paper we present an information reconciliation protocol based on a rate compatible construction of Low Density Parity Check codes. Our protocol improves the efficiency of the reconciliation for the whole range of error rates in the discrete variable QKD context. Its adaptability together with its low interactivity makes it specially well suited for QKD reconciliation.

  16. Application of Quantum Process Calculus to Higher Dimensional Quantum Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Gay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of quantum process calculus to describe and analyze quantum communication protocols, following the successful field of formal methods from classical computer science. We have extended the quantum process calculus to describe d-dimensional quantum systems, which has not been done before. We summarise the necessary theory in the generalisation of quantum gates and Bell states and use the theory to apply the quantum process calculus CQP to quantum protocols, namely qudit teleportation and superdense coding.

  17. [Modified tracheostomy management: a protocol for the application of stoma buttons in difficult decannulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, U; Czepluch, C; Sticher, H; Mätzener, F; Schlaegel, W; Mäder, M

    2013-02-01

    Current approaches to decannulation management often fail to account for patients with combined swallowing and respiratory deficits. We expanded our existing weaning and decannulation protocol by adding an optional 3-day decannulation trial to evaluate readiness for decannulation. If a patient meets predefined test-decannulation criteria a tracheostomy button is inserted during a laryngoscopic examination and left in situ for up to 3 days. Before, during and after button insertion the patient's respiratory function and saliva management are closely monitored before the decision for or against permanent decannulation is made. We present evaluation criteria, protocols and flow-charts illustrating the 3-day decannulation trial as well as 2 case studies.

  18. "Knowing Is Not Enough; We Must Apply": Reflections on a Failed Action Learning Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a sub-optimal action learning application with a strategic business re-design project. The objective of the project was to improve the long-term business performance of a subsidiary business and build the strategic plan. Action learning was introduced to aid the group in expanding their view of the real problems…

  19. Though active on RINm5F insulinoma cells and cultured pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to modulate cytotoxicity and disease in a protocol of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika eBerner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22 is a cytokine displaying tissue protective and pro-regenerative functions in various preclinical disease models. Anti-bacterial, pro-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic properties mediated by activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are key to biological functions of this IL-10 family member. Herein, we introduce RINm5F insulinoma cells as rat ß-cell line that, under the influence of IL-22, displays activation of STAT3 with induction of its downstream gene targets Socs3, Bcl3, and Reg3ß. In addition, IL-22 also activates STAT1 in this cell type. To refine those observations, IL-22 biological activity was evaluated using ex vivo cultivated murine pancreatic islets. In accord with data on RINm5F cells, islet exposure to IL-22 activated STAT3 and upregulation of STAT3-inducible Socs3, Bcl3, and STEAP4 was evident under those conditions. As these observations supported the hypothesis that IL-22 may exert protective functions in toxic ß-cell injury, application of IL-22 was investigated in murine multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. For that purpose, recombinant IL-22 was administered thrice either immediately before and at disease onset (at d4, d6, d8 or closely thereafter (at d8, d10, d12. These two IL-22-treatment periods coincide with two early peaks of ß-cell injury detectable in this model. Notably, none of the two IL-22-treatment strategies affected diabetes incidence or blood glucose levels in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, pathological changes in islet morphology analyzed 28 days after disease induction were not ameliorated by IL-22 administration. Taken together, despite being active on rat RINm5F insulinoma cells and murine pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to protect pancreatic ß-cells in the tested protocols from toxic effects of STZ and thus is unable to ameliorate disease in the widely used model of STZ-induced diabetes.

  20. Why electricity deregulation is likely to fail: An explanation with an application to Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishler, Asher; Woo, Chi-Keung

    2005-12-15

    In this paper we contend that electricity deregulation likely fails because of a fundamental, but so far ignored, reason. In particular, a deregulated electricity market cannot have too many producers because they will not be able to recover their investment costs. Nor can it have too few producers because the resulting market price will likely exceed the regulated rate. If constrained by the financial viability of privately owned generators and an overarching goal of unregulated market price not exceeding the regulated rate, the set of feasible numbers of producers in the competitive market can be very small, and at times empty. Our theoretical prediction applies to deregulation of other industries with large fixed and sunk costs (e.g., gas transportation, electricity transmission and distribution, local telecom networks, ports, railways, etc.). We show that a large improvement in the operational efficiency of the deregulated industry is a necessary condition for a successful deregulation of the industry. Unfortunately, operation improvement in electricity generation is limited because fuel (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, and liquefied natural gas) and generation equipment (e.g., turbines, transformers, and cables), which constitute about 80% of the total cost of electricity generation, are commodities traded in a competitive world market. Thus, cost savings due to deregulation in the electricity generation market mainly come from efficiency improvement in capacity investment and variable input use of labor and O and M. Unless the regulated integrated utility has been investing inefficiently in surplus capacity, such savings, mainly in labor and O and M, are unlikely to produce more than a 10% reduction in total generation cost. For this reason and based on the experience to date, we caution against deregulation in regions that currently have a regulated electricity sector (e.g., China, India, Hong Kong, Israel, Africa, and many parts of North America). Our

  1. Clinical outcomes of modified long protocol used in patients who failed in first cycle with antagonist protocol%改良长方案在初次拮抗剂方案助孕治疗失败患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉琴; 蔡嘉力; 刘兰兰; 沙爱国; 任建枝; 李萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare IVF outcomes with modified long protocol and an-tagonist protocol in women who failed in their first IVF attempt with antagonist protocol. Meth-ods:A total of 169 patients failed in first cycle with antagonist protocol who underwent the sec-ondary cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups:the study group included 130 patients receiving modified long protocol and the control group included 39 patients receiving flexible antagonist protocol. Results:There was no significant difference in general characteristics between the two groups(P>0. 05). E2 level on HCG injection day,Gn duration and dosage in study group were higher than those in control group. The LH level on HCG injection day was significantly lower than the control group ( P0.05)。研究组的注射HCG日E2值、Gn用药时间和Gn剂量均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),注射HCG日LH值显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。研究组的临床妊娠率、种植率及活产率分别为55.2%、36.4%和46.4%,均显著高于对照组(27.3%、22.0%和21.2%)(P<0.05)。结论:初次拮抗剂方案失败行再次助孕治疗的患者中,改良长方案可能通过改善子宫内膜的容受性,获得了较拮抗剂方案更好的妊娠结局。

  2. The Internet of Things Key Applications and Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hersent, Olivier; Elloumi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An all-in-one reference to the major Home Area Networking, Building Automation and AMI protocols, including 802.15.4 over radio or PLC, 6LowPAN/RPL, ZigBee 1.0 and Smart Energy 2.0, Zwave, LON, BACNet, KNX, ModBus, mBus, C.12 and DLMS/COSEM, and the new ETSI M2M system level standard. In-depth coverage of Smart-grid and EV charging use cases. This book describes the Home Area Networking, Building Automation and AMI protocols and their evolution towards open protocols based on IP such as 6LowPAN and ETSI M2M. The authors discuss the approach taken by service providers to interconnect the protoc

  3. An Evaluation of Protocols for UAV Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David E.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Finch, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies data transport needs for current and future science payloads deployed on the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicle (UAV). The NASA Global Hawk communication system and operational constrains are presented. The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission is used to provide the baseline communication requirements as a variety of payloads were utilized in this mission. User needs and desires are addressed. Protocols are matched to the payload needs and an evaluation of various techniques and tradeoffs are presented. Such techniques include utilization rate-base selective negative acknowledgement protocols and possible use of protocol enhancing proxies. Tradeoffs of communication architectures that address ease-of-use and security considerations are also presented.

  4. Application of Bousinesq's and Westergaard's formulae in analysing foundation stress distribution for a failed telecommunication mast

    CERN Document Server

    Ojedokun, Olalekan Yinka

    2012-01-01

    The concurrent foundation failure of telecommunication masts in Nigeria and all over the world which endanger the lives and properties of residents situated within the fall distance of the telecommunication mast are a thing of great concern. In this study, a GSM mast that underwent foundation failure at Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria was critically examined with a view to providing engineering solution. The soil investigation at the global system for mobile communications (GSM) telecommunication tower comprised of laboratory tests: sieve analysis, Atterberg limits and moisture content tests were carried out on the soil samples obtained while Dutch cone penetrometer test was performed on the site to a depth of refusal to determine the allowable bearing pressure at various depths of the soil. The application of Boussineq's and Westergard's formulae for point loads using Java programme to simulate and compute the stress distribution at various predetermined depths showed the stress distribution pattern beneath the f...

  5. A new morphologically distinct avian malaria parasite that fails detection by established polymerase chain reaction-based protocols for amplification of the cytochrome B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Križanauskienė, Asta; Bensch, Staffan; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Asghar, Muhammad; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Scebba, Sergio; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2012-06-01

    -infections, general PCR protocols tend to favor the amplification of the parasite with the higher parasitemia or the amplification with the best matching sequence to the primers. Because the parasitemia of P. polymorphum was >50-fold higher than that of P. relictum and several different primers were tested, we suggest that the failure to amplify P. polymorphum is a more complex problem than why co-infections are commonly overlooked in PCR-based studies. We suggest possible explanations of these results and call for additional research on evolution of mitochondrial genome of hemosporidian parasites.

  6. Deciding security properties for cryptographic protocols. Application to key cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Comon-Lundh, Hubert; Zalinescu, Eugen

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in applying formal methods for validating cryptographic protocols and many results have been obtained. In this paper, we re-investigate and extend the NP-complete decision procedure for a bounded number of sessions of Rusinowitch and Turuani. In this setting, constraint systems are now a standard for modeling security protocols. We provide a generic approach to decide general security properties by showing that any constraint system can be transformed in (possibly several) much simpler constraint systems that are called \\emph{solved forms}. As a consequence, we prove that deciding the existence of key cycles is NP-complete for a bounded number of sessions. Indeed, many recent results are concerned with interpreting proofs of security done in symbolic models in the more detailed models of computational cryptography. In the case of symmetric encryption, these results stringently demand that no key cycle (e.g. $\\{k\\}_k$) can be produced during the execution of protocols. We show...

  7. Réseaux urbains de capteurs sans-fil : Applications, caractérisation et protocoles

    OpenAIRE

    Devant, Présentée; Lampin, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensors are small electronic devices made for measuring physical properties of their environment and communicating them wirelessly to an information system. In this thesis, we study existing network architectures (long-range vs multihop) and protocols (MAC and routing protocols) to devise the best-suited configuration for typical urban wireless Sensor Network use-cases, i.e. applications, QoS/energy constraints and network topology.To that effect, we provide comprehensive analytical ...

  8. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Burgy; Lawall, Julia; Muller, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The secure and robust functioning of a network relies on the defect-free implementation of network applications. As network protocols have become increasingly complex, however, hand-writing network message processing code has become increasingly error-prone. In this paper, we present a domain-specific language, Zebu, for describing protocol message formats and related processing constraints. From a Zebu specification, a compiler automatically generates stubs to be used by an application to parse network messages. Zebu is easy to use, as it builds on notations used in RFCs to describe protocol grammars. Zebu is also efficient, as the memory usage is tailored to application needs and message fragments can be specified to be processed on demand. Finally, Zebu-based applications are robust, as the Zebu compiler automatically checks specification consistency and generates parsing stubs that include validation of the message structure. Using a mutation analysis in the context of SIP and RTSP, we show that Zebu sign...

  9. Extensions to the Paillier Cryptosystem with Applications to Cryptological Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Mads Johan

    The main contribution of this thesis is a simplification, a generalization and some modifications of the homomorphic cryptosystem proposed by Paillier in 1999, and several cryptological protocols that follow from these changes. The Paillier cryptosystem is an additive homomorphic cryptosystem......, meaning that one can combine ciphertexts into a new ciphertext that is the encryption of the sum of the messages of the original ciphertexts. The cryptosystem uses arithmetic over the group and the cryptosystem can encrypt messages from the group . In this thesis the cryptosystem is generalized to work...... key set up in the defined way. This is achieved even though the servers only store a constant amount of key material. The last contribution of this thesis is a petition system based on the modified Weil pairing. This system greatly improves the naive implementations using normal signatures from using...

  10. Application of the survey protocol for chytridiomycosis to Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerratt, Lee F; McDonald, Keith R; Hines, Harry B; Berger, Lee; Mendez, Diana; Phillott, Andrea D; Cashins, Scott D; Murray, Kris A; Speare, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes chytridiomycosis, has resulted in the extinction of frogs, but the distribution of Bd is incompletely known. We trialled the survey protocol for Bd by attempting to systematically map its distribution in Queensland, Australia. Bd was easily detected in known infected areas, such as the Wet Tropics and South East Queensland. It was not detected in bioregions adjacent to, but inland from or to the north of, infected regions: Einasleigh Uplands and Cape York adjacent to the infected Wet Tropics; and Brigalow Belt South adjacent to the infected South East Queensland bioregion. These regions where Bd was not detected have bordered infected regions for between 15 yr (in northern Queensland) and 30 yr (in southern Queensland), and so they define the geographical limits of Bd with regard to the long-term environmental conditions in Queensland. The Gulf Plains, a bioregion distant from infected bioregions, was also negative. Bd was confined to rainforest and bordering habitats, such as wet eucalypt forests. Infections were largely confined to permanent water-associated species, consistent with this being an important cause of this group having the greatest declines. Our data supports biogeographic climatic models that show much of inland and northern Australia to be too hot and dry to support Bd. As there is limited opportunity for Bd to spread further in Queensland, the priority for management is reducing the impact of Bd in affected populations and assisting frogs to disperse into their former distributions. Given that the survey protocol has been applied successfully in Australia it may be useful for mapping the distribution of Bd in other parts of the world.

  11. Adaptation of mobile ad-hoc network protocols for sensor networks to vehicle control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro

    2005-12-01

    As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.

  12. Protocol for the application of cooperative MIMO based on clustering in sparse wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hua; QU Yu-gui; LIN Zhi-ting; BAI Rong-gang; ZHAO Bao-hua; PAN Quan-ke

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication are effective tools to collect data in several environments. However, how to apply cooperative MIMO in WSN remains a critical challenge, especially in sparse WSN. In this article, a novel clustering scheme is proposed for the application of cooperative MIMO in sparse WSN by extending the traditional low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. This clustering scheme solves the problem that the cluster heads (CH) cannot find enough secondary cluster heads (SCH), which are used to cooperate and inform multiple-antenna transmitters with CHs. On the basis of this protocol, the overall energy consumption of the networks model is developed, and the optimal number of CHs is obtained. The simulation results show that this protocol is feasible for the sparse WSN. The simulation results also illustrate that this protocol provides significant energy efficiencies, even after allowing for additional overheads.

  13. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  14. Implementation of Application Layer Protocol for an Active RFID System

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The emerging technology of active RFID tags has strong potential in the areas of real time health monitoring, sorting of cargo, and large scale inventory management because of their longer communication range and larger data storage capacity. The market of active RFID is growing very rapidly and therefore there has been an increase in the number of companies engaging in this field. But very often it is found that the products available in the market are not always suited to the application at...

  15. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols-HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic,furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components.

  16. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Födisch, P; Sandmann, J; Büchner, A; Enghardt, W; Kaever, P

    2015-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA ...

  17. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Reveillere, Laurent; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The secure and robust functioning of a network relies on the defect-free implementation of network applications. As network protocols have become increasingly complex, however, hand-writing network message processing code has become increasingly error-prone. In this paper, we present a domain...

  18. Comparison of subjective assessment protocols for digital cinema applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabi, M.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Quality assessment is becoming an important issue in the framework of image processing. This need is expressed by the fact that the quality threshold of end-users has been shifted up because of the large availability of high fidelity sensors at very affordable price. This observation has been made for different application domains such as printing, compression, transmission, and so on. Starting from this, it becomes very important to manufacturers and producers to provide products of high quality to attract the consumer. This high interest on quality means that tools to measure it have to be available. This work is dedicated to the comparison of subjective methodologies in the digital cinema framework. The main goal is to determine with a group of observers, which methodology is better for assessing digital cinema content and what is the annoyance level associated to each of them. Several configurations are tested side by side, Butterfly, one by one, Horizontal scroll, vertical scroll, Horizontal and vertical scroll.

  19. An Energy-Efficient, Application-Oriented Control Algorithm for MAC Protocols in WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Peng, Fei; Qian, Depei

    Energy efficiency has been a main concern in wireless sensor networks where Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays an important role. However, current MAC protocols designed for energy saving have seldom considered multiple applications coexisting in WSN with variation of traffic load dynamics and different QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose an adaptive control algorithm at MAC layer to promote energy efficiency. We focus on the tradeoff relation between collisions and control overhead as a reflection of traffic load and propose to balance the tradeoff under the constraints of QoS options. We integrate the algorithm into S-MAC and verify it through NS-2 platform. The results demonstrate the algorithm achieves observable improvement in energy performance while meeting QoS requirement for different coexisting applications in comparison with S-MAC.

  20. Demonstration of worldsens: a fast prototyping and performance evaluation of wireless sensor network applications & protocols

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    International audience; We present Worldsens, a complete environment for fast prototyping of wireless sensor protocols and applications. Our environment proposes a full simulation platform with both embedded software instruction and radio packet accuracy. We propose a demonstration including a full software design, simulation, performance estimation and deployment on a set of nodes within the same design environment. Through these first experimentations, we show that accurate sensor network s...

  1. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  2. A NEW PRIVACY-PRESERVING EUCLID-DISTANCE PROTOCOL AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN WSNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ping; Ji Yimu; Wang Ruchuan; Huang Haiping; Zhang Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recently,privacy concerns become an increasingly critical issue.Secure multi-party computation plays an important role in privacy-preserving.Secure multi-party computational geometry is a new field of secure multi-party computation.In this paper,we devote to investigating the solutions to some secure geometric problems in a cooperative environment.The problem is collaboratively computing the Euclid-distance between two private vectors without disclosing the private input to each other.A general privacy-preserving Euclid-distance protocol is firstly presented as a building block and is proved to be secure and efficient in the comparison with the previous methods.And we proposed a new protocol for the application in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs),based on the novel Euclid-distance protocol and Density-Based Clustering Protocol (DBCP),so that the nodes from two sides can compute cooperatively to divide them into clusters without disclosing their location information to the opposite side.

  3. Road and street smart lighting control systems as a new application area of the hot-potato protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiedrowski, Piotr; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Boniewicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the new application area of the hot-potato routing protocol, which is a “last-mile” communication network for controlling systems of road and street lighting. Four variants of the hot-potato protocol are analyzed with use of the graph theory. For the assessment of the traffic...

  4. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: protocol optimization, interpretation, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Savannah C; McDonald, Elizabeth S

    2013-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) has shown promise for improving the positive predictive value of breast MR imaging for detection of breast cancer, evaluating tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and as a noncontrast alternative to MR imaging in screening for breast cancer. However, data quality varies widely. Before implementing DWI into clinical practice, one must understand the pertinent technical considerations and current evidence regarding clinical applications of breast DWI. This article provides an overview of basic principles of DWI, optimization of breast DWI protocols, imaging features of benign and malignant breast lesions, promising clinical applications, and potential future directions.

  5. A Secure Routing Protocol and its application in Multi-sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Gui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are increasingly deployed in security-critical areas, such as battle field. However, general sensor nodes are manufactured with inexpensive components, and they are short of security enhancement. Therefore, an adversary could capture and compromise sensor nodes easily, then launch some malicious attacks (including tampering or discarding useful data collected from source nodes. In this paper, we propose a secure routing and aggregation protocol with low energy cost for sensor networks (named STAPLE, which utilizes one-way hash chain and multi-path mechanism to achieve security of wireless sensor networks, and develop a network expanding model to control communication cost incurred by multi-path routing. Then we discuss the protocol application in multi-sink wireless sensor networks. Finally, we perform the simulation of STAPLE in comparison with INSENS, the results demonstrate that STAPLE achieves a higher level security with considerably low communication overhead.

  6. Application of hysteroscopy in 86 infertility patientients failed in IVF-ET%宫腔镜检查在IVF-ET失败患者中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝金; 李根霞; 张金杏; 杨淑玲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨宫腔镜检查在IVF-ET失败患者中应用的重要性.方法 回顾分析2008年1月至2009年1月86例在IVF-ET失败后行宫腔镜检查的病例资料.结果 检查结果发现86例患者中57例有镜下异常,阳性率达66.28%.原发性不孕症宫腔镜检查异常为32例(61.54%),继发性不孕症宫腔镜检查异常为25例(73.53%),病变发生以子宫内膜息肉、子宫内膜炎及宫腔粘连为常见.结论 IVF-ET失败患者中宫腔病变发生率高,是导致IVF-ET失败的重要因素之一,在IVF-ET失败患者中有重要作用.%Objective To explore the application of hysteroscopy in women with inferlitily who failed in IVF-ET. Methods The clinical data of 86 cases of infertility patientients failed in IVF-ET in our Hospitall by using hysteroscopy were analysed between Jan and Dec. Results The incidence of uterine of 86 infertility patients was 66. 8%. The occurrence of uterine anormality in primary infrttility who failed IVF-ET was 61.54%,the secondary infertility patients was 73.53 %. The common disease was endometrial polpy, endometritis and uterine adhesion. Conclusion The rate of pathological changs of uterine cavity is high in infertility who failed in IVF-ET which is one of important infertile factors. Hysteroscopy has perfound useness in infertility clinic.

  7. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  8. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Loureiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  9. Quantum Adaptive Protocol and its Application in Image Storage and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Venegas-Andraca, S E

    2004-01-01

    We present a quantum state estimation technique coined quantum adaptive protocol (QAP) based on separate measurements on a finite number of identically prepared particles. Our technique is adaptive in the sense that we change the measurement basis according to previous results. We show that QAP performs better than the case when the basis for separate measurements is not adaptively varied. We also present an application of QAP for image storage and retrieval in a multiparticle quantum system. We show that QAP provides advantage to this quantum storage and retrieval over its classical counterpart.

  10. “Wireless Sensor Networks - Architectures, Protocols, Simulators and Applications: a Survey”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Shiva Prasad Yadav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as a new research technology in the distributed computing environment and plays a very important role in the pervasive computing to support various applications. It has a great potential to be utilized in battlefields and in different commercial applications like traffic surveillance, habitat monitoring, construction structures, smart homes, offices and many more. Research on several aspects of WSNs like energy efficiency, power management, rouunrting, topology control, data management and security are progressing extensively. In this technical paper a survey on recent trends in wireless sensor network research, different topologies, routing protocols, simulators and applications is carried out. A smart WSN consists of sensor nodes made of small electronic device and are deployed across a geographical area. These nodes carry out the sensing, processing and transmission of data from different physical environments. They depend on batteries which get drained very soon due to the computation and data transmission to other nodes. The architectures of WSN are mainly depending on application requirements. WSN is a multidisciplinary area of research where different applications developers, users, hardware and software designers need to work closely to implement an efficient application. The different characteristics of the sensor network like flexibility, fault tolerance, high sensing fidelity, low cost and rapid deployment create many new and exciting application areas.

  11. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate chang...

  12. Multicast Routing Protocols in Adhoc Mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Nagaprasad,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of applications are in areas where rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration are necessary and a wire line network is not available. These include military battlefields, emergency search and rescue sites, classrooms, and conventions where participants share information dynamically using their mobile devices. Well established routing protocols do exist to offer efficient multicasting service in conventional wired networks. These protocols, having been designed for fixed networks, may fails to keep up with node movements and frequent topology changes in a MANET. Therefore, adapting existing wired multicast protocols as such to a MANET, which completely lacks infrastructure, appear less promising. Providing efficient multicasting over MANET faces many challenges, includes scalability,quality of service, reliable service, security, Address configuration, Applications for multicast over MANET. The existing multicast routing protocol do not addresses these issues effectively over Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET.

  13. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  14. Energy Efficient MANET Protocol Using Cross Layer Design for Military Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Rath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In military applications mobile adhoc network plays very important role because it is specifically designed network for on demand requirement and in situations where set up of physical network is not possible. This special type of network which takes control in infrastructure less communication handles serious challenges tactfully such as highly robust and dynamic military work stations, devices and smaller sub-networks in the battle field. Therefore there is a high demand of designing efficient routing protocols ensuring security and reliability for successful transmission of highly sensitive and confidential military information in defence networks. With this objective, a power efficient network layer routing protocol in the network for military application is designed and simulated using a new cross layer approach of design to increase reliability and network lifetime up to a greater extent.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp. 146-150, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9705

  15. Acceptance testing in digital systens of mammography. Protocols applicability; Pruebas de aceptacion en equipos digitales de mamografia. Aplicabilidad de protocolos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, R.; Espana, M.L.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Gomez Barrado, A.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Fernandez Bedoya, B.

    2011-07-01

    Acceptance testing of mammographic imaging systems technical is the first approach in order to guarantee that mammograms will be achieved with the minimun radiation dose compatible with an image quality sutiable for diagnose purposes. The aim of this study is to assess the practical applicability of different protocols in acceptance test of digital mammographyc systems. This study has been carried out on the results of ltyhe acceptance tests of five flat panel digital mammographic systems. Parameters established in the systems technical specifications and those evaluated in the consulted protocols were tested. Due to the fact that the legislation oin our country does not demand to consider a specific protocol, the results obtained were also compared considering different existing protocols. Results show discrepancies between manufacturers limiting values and those established in the protocols. Some parameters, such as the authomatic exposure control compensation and the detector noise, were found out to meet or not the limiting value, depending on the selected protocol. From our results we could suggest, that protocols from manufacturers should be adapted to acknowledged documents on acceptance testing in digital mammography. They buyer representative could even specify the protocol to be followed during the acceptance tests. (Author). 25 refs.

  16. Acceptance testing in digital systems of mammography. Protocols applicability; Pruebas de aceptacion en equipos digitales de mamografia. Aplicabilidad de protocolos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, R.; Espana, M.L.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Gomez Barrado, A.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Fernandez Bedoya, B.

    2011-07-01

    Acceptance testing of mammographic imaging systems technical is the first approach in order to guarantee that mammograms will be achieved with the minimum radiation dose compatible with an image quality suitable for diagnose purposes. The aim of this study is to assess the practical applicability of different protocols in acceptance test of digital mammographic systems. This study has been carried out on the results of the acceptance tests of five flat panel digital mammographic systems. Parameters established in the systems technical specifications and those evaluated in the consulted protocols were tested. Due to the fact that the legislation in our country does not demand to consider a specific protocol, the results obtained were also compared considering different existing protocols. Results show discrepancies between manufacturers limiting values and those established in the protocols. Some parameters, such as the automatic exposure control compensation and the detector noise, were found out to meet or not the limiting value, depending on the selected protocol. From our results we could suggest, that protocols from manufacturers should be adapted to acknowledged documents on acceptance testing in digital mammography. They buyer representative could even specify the protocol to be followed during the acceptance tests. (Author). 25 refs.

  17. Isolating Spermathecae and Determining Mating Status of Drosophila suzukii: A Protocol for Tissue Dissection and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesyan, Alina; Jaffe, Benjamin D.; Guédot, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an emerging invasive pest, which attacks a wide variety of fruits and berries. Although previous studies have focused on different aspects of D. suzukii reproductive biology, there are no protocols available for determining the mating status of D. suzukii females and drosophilids in general. In this study, a step-by-step protocol for tissue dissection, isolating spermathecae, and determining the mating status of females was developed specifically for D. suzukii. This protocol is an effective and relatively quick method for determining female mating status. It has important applications from exploring reproductive output of D. suzukii females to understanding the biology of D. suzukii winter morph, which presumably plays the main role in the overwintering of this invasive species. We demonstrated applicability of this protocol for both field collected flies and flies reared in the lab, including fly specimens stored on a long-term basis. PMID:28287438

  18. APPLICATION OF NEWTON RAPHSON ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZING TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Viji Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks are growing rapidly. TCP is the most widely-used protocol on Internet and so optimizing TCP performance is very important for fast efficient data transfer. The different existing TCP variants and solutions they have not been analyzed together to identify the bottlenecks in wireless networks. TCP has a major problem in its congestion control algorithm which does not allow the flow to achieve the full available bandwidth on fast long-distance links. This problem has been studied in this study using a new high speed congestion control TCP protocol based on the Newton Raphson algorithm This study further analyses involving six TCP performance evaluation constraints namely, TCP full bandwidth utilization, throughput, packet loss rate, fairness in sharing bandwidth, friendliness in short-RTT and long-RTT and these constraints are used to evaluate the proposed Newton Raphson Congestion Control (NRC-TCP performance. This study shows that the proposed algorithm performs better compared with the other methods of application.

  19. (abstract) Experimental Results From Internetworking Data Applications Over Various Wireless Networks Using a Single Flexible Error Control Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, T.; Kramer, M.; McAuley, A. J.; Nowack, S.; Pinck, D. S.; Ramirez, G.; Stewart, I.; Tohme, H.; Tong, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes results from several wireless field trials in New Jersey, California, and Colorado, conducted jointly by researchers at Bellcore, JPL, and US West over the course of 1993 and 1994. During these trials, applications communicated over multiple wireless networks including satellite, low power PCS, high power cellular, packet data, and the wireline Public Switched Telecommunications Network (PSTN). Key goals included 1) designing data applications and an API suited to mobile users, 2) investigating internetworking issues, 3) characterizing wireless networks under various field conditions, and 4) comparing the performance of different protocol mechanisms over the diverse networks and applications. We describe experimental results for different protocol mechanisms and parameters, such as acknowledgment schemes and packet sizes. We show the need for powerful error control mechanisms such as selective acknowledgements and combining data from multiple transmissions. We highlight the possibility of a common protocol for all wireless networks, from micro-cellular PCS to satellite networks.

  20. SSH协议的研究与应用%Study and Application on Secure Shell Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婧

    2011-01-01

    SSH support the ability of secure remote login through network environment, which is\\the powerful tool for remote server configure and management. The theory and application of secure shell protocol are discussed and an environment on virtual machine is supplied for implement of OpenSSH.%SSH协议能够实现安全的网络远程登录功能,是远程服务配置管理的有力工具,文章论述SSH的基本原理和实现方法,并结合开源软件OpenSSH,采用虚拟机方式验证SSH技术的应用环境.

  1. Bounding the per-protocol effect in randomized trials: An application to colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Holme (Øyvind); M. Løberg (Magnus); M. Kalager (Mette); M. Bretthauer (Michael); G. Hoff (G.); E. Aas (Eline); M.A. Hernán (M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The per-protocol effect is the effect that would have been observed in a randomized trial had everybody followed the protocol. Though obtaining a valid point estimate for the per-protocol effect requires assumptions that are unverifiable and often implausible, lower and upper

  2. Application of a protocol for the detection of disorders of sialic acid metabolism to 124 high-risk Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Cristina D; Mello, Alexandre S; Burin, Maira G; Guidobono, Régis R; Gotardo, Silvane; Giugliani, Roberto; Coelho, Janice C

    2003-06-15

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) present great clinical variability. Included in this group are sialic acid metabolism disorders (SAMD). In the present study, we describe the application of a 3-step protocol for the diagnosis of SAMD, including (1). oligosaccharide and sialyloligosaccharide chromatography; (2). quantitative determination of sialic acid; and (3). measurement of neuraminidase activity. Application of our protocol to 124 individuals at risk for SAMD led to the diagnosis of five affected patients, two with type I sialidosis, one with type II sialidosis, and two with galactosialidosis. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, we propose the use of this protocol for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected SAMD, which could be specially useful to non-specialized laboratories and to services located in developing countries.

  3. CERN and the 10,000th application of the WorldFIP protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    On 24 April, CERN received an award for the 10,000th application of the WorldFIP industrial communication network protocol. The award was presented to Juan Antonio Rubio, Head of CERN's ETT Division, by Marc Desjardins, President of the WorldFIP association, which groups together 430 industrial partners with the aim of promoting the WorldFIP concept. Marc Desjardins, President of the WorldFIP association, presenting the award for the 10,000th application to CERN ETT Division Leader Juan Antonio Rubio. From left to right: Guy Baribaud (CERN), Ercole Gallacio (WF), Noël Fayard (WF), Gérard Demars (WF), Dario Fantoni (WF), Marc Desjardins (WF), Raymond Brun (CERN), Jean-Pierre Hauet (WF), Juan Antonio Rubio (CERN), Bernard Jouga (WF), Raymond Rausch (CERN), Jean-Pierre Froidevaux (WF), Marilena Streit-Bianchi (CERN), Michel Rabany (CERN), Patrick Chatelet (WF), Nicolas Cravoisy (WF), Jean Bergeal (WF). Communication networks, also known as fieldbuses, provide for digital comunication betwe...

  4. Towards a protocol for validating satellite-based Land Surface Temperature: Application to AATSR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Darren; Schneider, Philipp; Remedios, John

    2013-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieval accuracy can be challenging as a result of emissivity variability and atmospheric effects. Surface emissivities can be highly variable owing to the heterogeneity of the land; a problem which is amplified in regions of high topographic variance or for larger viewing angles. Atmospheric effects caused by the presence of aerosols and by water vapour absorption can give a bias to the underlying LST. Combined, atmospheric effects and emissivity variability can result in retrieval errors of several degrees. If though these are appropriately handled satellite-derived LST products can be used to improve our ability to monitor and to understand land surface and climate change processes, such as desertification, urbanization, deforestation and land/atmosphere coupling. Here we present validation of an improved LST data record from the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and illustrate the improvements in accuracy and precision compared with the standard ESA LST product. Validation is a critical part of developing any satellite product, although over the land heterogeneity ensures this is a challenging undertaking. A substantial amount of previous effort has gone into the area of structuring and standardizing calibration and validation approaches within the field of Earth Observation. However, no unified approach for accomplishing this for LST has yet to be practised by the LST community. Recent work has attempted to address this situation with the development of a protocol for validating LST (Schneider et al., 2012) under the auspices of ESA and the support of the wider LST community. We report here on a first application of this protocol to satellite LST data. The approach can briefly be summarised thus: in situ validation is performed where ground-based observations are available - being predominantly homogeneous sites; heterogeneous pixels are validated by way of established radiometric-based techniques (Wan and Li

  5. Evaluation and Application of the Strand-Specific Protocol for Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wang Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has become a powerful sequencing tool, applied in a wide range of biological studies. However, the traditional sample preparation protocol for NGS is non-strand-specific (NSS, leading to biased estimates of expression for transcripts overlapped at the antisense strand. Strand-specific (SS protocols have recently been developed. In this study, we prepared the same RNA sample by using the SS and NSS protocols, followed by sequencing with Illumina HiSeq platform. Using real-time quantitative PCR as a standard, we first proved that the SS protocol more precisely estimates gene expressions compared with the NSS protocol, particularly for those overlapped at the antisense strand. In addition, we also showed that the sequence reads from the SS protocol are comparable with those from conventional NSS protocols in many aspects. Finally, we also mapped a fraction of sequence reads back to the antisense strand of the known genes, originally without annotated genes located. Using sequence assembly and PCR validation, we succeeded in identifying and characterizing the novel antisense genes. Our results show that the SS protocol performs more accurately than the traditional NSS protocol and can be applied in future studies.

  6. Failed endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhol Islami V

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of failed intubation is higher in obstetric than other surgical patients. Failed intubation was the 2nd commonest cause of mortality during anesthesia. Bearing in mind that failre to intubate may be unavoidable in certain circumstances, it is worth reviewing. The factors, which may contribute to a disastrous out come. Priorities of subsequent management must include maintaining oxygenation and preventing aspiration of gastric contents. Fiber optic intubation is now the technique of choice with a high success rate and with least trauma to the patient.

  7. Secure Multi-party Computation Protocol for Defense Applications in Military Operations Using Virtual Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    With the advent into the 20th century whole world has been facing the common dilemma of Terrorism. The suicide attacks on US twin towers 11 Sept. 2001, Train bombings in Madrid Spain 11 Mar. 2004, London bombings 7 Jul. 2005 and Mumbai attack 26 Nov. 2008 were some of the most disturbing, destructive and evil acts by terrorists in the last decade which has clearly shown their evil intent that they can go to any extent to accomplish their goals. Many terrorist organizations such as al Quaida, Harakat ul-Mujahidin, Hezbollah, Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Toiba, etc. are carrying out training camps and terrorist operations which are accompanied with latest technology and high tech arsenal. To counter such terrorism our military is in need of advanced defense technology. One of the major issues of concern is secure communication. It has to be made sure that communication between different military forces is secure so that critical information is not leaked to the adversary. Military forces need secure communication to shield their confidential data from terrorist forces. Leakage of concerned data can prove hazardous, thus preservation and security is of prime importance. There may be a need to perform computations that require data from many military forces, but in some cases the associated forces would not want to reveal their data to other forces. In such situations Secure Multi-party Computations find their application. In this paper, we propose a new highly scalable Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC) protocol and algorithm for Defense applications which can be used to perform computation on encrypted data. Every party encrypts their data in accordance with a particular scheme. This encrypted data is distributed among some created virtual parties. These Virtual parties send their data to the TTP through an Anonymizer layer. TTP performs computation on encrypted data and announces the result. As the data sent was encrypted its actual value can’t be known by TTP

  8. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  9. New developments in the application of optimal control theory to therapeutic protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, L; Otero, J A; Suárez, P M; Tasis, C

    2016-02-01

    Optimal control theory is one of the most important tools in the development of new therapeutic protocols for treating infections. In this work, we present an algorithm able to deal with high-dimensional problems with bounded controls. The optimal solution is obtained by minimizing a positive-definite treatment cost function. Our method, based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle and the coordinate cyclic descent method, allows solving problems of varied nature. In this paper, and by way of example, therapeutic enhancement of the immune response to invasion by pathogenic attack is addressed as an optimal control problem. The generic mathematical model used describes the evolution of the disease by means of four non-linear, ordinary differential equations. The model is characterized by the concentration of pathogens, plasma cells, antibodies and a numerical value that indicates the relative characteristic of an organ damaged by disease. From a system theory point of view, drugs can be interpreted as control inputs. Therapies based on separate application of the agents are presented in previous studies. We shall present the more general problem in this paper, considering combined therapies and bounded controls. Finally, we present several numerical simulations.

  10. AH-MAC: Adaptive Hierarchical MAC Protocol for Low-Rate Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ismail Al-Sulaifanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical MAC protocol (AH-MAC with cross-layer optimization for low-rate and large-scale wireless sensor networks. The main goal of the proposed protocol is to combine the strengths of LEACH and IEEE 802.15.4 while offsetting their weaknesses. The predetermined cluster heads are supported with an energy harvesting circuit, while the normal nodes are battery-operated. To prolong the network’s operational lifetime, the proposed protocol transfers most of the network’s activities to the cluster heads while minimizing the node’s activity. Some of the main features of this protocol include energy efficiency, self-configurability, scalability, and self-healing. The simulation results showed great improvement of the AH-MAC over LEACH protocol in terms of energy consumption and throughput. AH-MAC consumes eight times less energy while improving throughput via acknowledgment support.

  11. Research and Application of Precision Time Protocol%PTP技术分析与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程翰林

    2011-01-01

    Based on "ALL IP" network background in communication system, the packet network as a unified bearer network will face new problems of synchronization need. The traditional synchronization technology has low accuracy, and it can not meet the demand for high-precision synchronization by new applications. IEEE 1588 Standard (Precision Time Protocol) becomes an effective solution to the problem of high-precision synchronization. Firstly, the principle of PTP is analyzed, then the advantages of PTP are obtained by comparing several commonly synchronization technique. Finally, the application program is proposed, and the implementation and deployment are analyzed flexibility. PTP can be applied in a packet network easily and flexibly with submicrosecond-level synchronization accuracy, and will become an effective alternative to CPS.%在通信系统全网IP化的大背景下,分组网络作为统一承载网将面临新的同步需求问题.传统的同步技术精度较低,无法满足新应用对高精度同步的需求.IEEE 1588标准精密时间同步协议(PIP)的提出,成为一种有效解决高精度同步问题的方案.首先分析了PTP技术的同步原理,接着通过综合比较当今几种常用的同步技术的特点得出PTP技术的优势,最后提出了应用方案,并分析了实施过程和部署灵活性.PTP技术可方便灵活地应用于分组网络中,同步精度可达亚微秒级,将成为GPS的有效替代.

  12. Analysis and Application of Covert Channels of Internet Control Message Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xueguang; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the covert channel's working mechanism of the internet control message protocol (ICMP) in internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), the ICMP covert channel's algorithms of the IPv4 and IPv6 are presented, which enable automatic channeling upon IPv4/v6 nodes with non-IPv4-compatible address, and the key transmission is achieved by using this channel in the embedded Internet terminal. The result shows that the covert channel's algorithm, which we implemented if, set correct, the messages of this covert channel might go through the gateway and enter the local area network.

  13. A new real-time ethernet MAC protocol for time-critical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈钢; 许晓鸣; 蔡云泽; 何星; 张卫东

    2002-01-01

    The authors propose a new persistent transmission-based real-time Ethernet MAC protocol that provides a predictable upper bound for the delivery delay of real-time frames. Moreover, it is compatible with the protocol used by the existing Ethernet controllers for conventional datagram traffic and thus standard Ethernet stations can be used in the system without any modification. The paper describes the protocol in detail and analyses the maximum delivery delay for real-time traffic and the efficiency of the channel.

  14. When physical intuition fails

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the problem solving strategies of physics professors in a case where their physical intuition fails. A non-intuitive introductory-level problem was identified and posed to twenty physics professors. The problem placed the professors in a situation often encountered by students, and their response highlights the importance of intuition and experience in problem solving. While professors had difficulty in solving the problem under the time constraint, they initially employed a system...

  15. Who fails lantern tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, B L; Vingrys, A J

    1983-05-01

    A battery of clinical colour vision tests was given to a group of 100 observers with abnormal colour vision who were also tested on the Farnsworth lantern and the Holmes-Wright lanterns types A and B. It was found that clinical colour vision tests are imperfect predictors of lantern test performance. However, observers classified as having a 'severe' colour vision defect were found to fail the lantern tests but only one half to two-thirds of those who fail the lantern tests can be identified in this way. It is not possible to identify with certainty any of the people likely to pass the lantern tests: about one-third to two-thirds of observers classified as being mildly affected fail the lantern tests. The Farnsworth D-15 and City University tests were found to be the best predictors of lantern test performance but other tests such as the Nagel anomaloscope, the H-16, L'Anthony's desaturated test can also be used. The lack of a strong correlation between clinical tests and the recognition of the small coloured stimuli presented by the lantern tests suggests that clinical tests do not test the same aspect of colour vision that is important to the recognition of signal lights. For this reason lantern tests should be retained for occupational testing of colour vision.

  16. A Multi-Criteria Model Selection Protocol for Practical Applications to Nutrient Transport at the Catchment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tuo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Process-based models are widely used to investigate nutrient dynamics for water management purposes. Simulating nutrient transport and transformation processes from agricultural land into water bodies at the catchment scale are particularly relevant and challenging tasks for water authorities. However, few practical methods guide inexperienced modelers in the selection process of an appropriate model. In particular, data availability is a key aspect in a model selection protocol, since a large number of models contain the functionalities to predict nutrient fate and transport, yet a smaller number is applicable to specific datasets. In our work, we aim at providing a model selection protocol fit for practical application with particular emphasis on data availability, cost-benefit analysis and user’s objectives. We select for illustrative purposes five process-based models with different complexity as “candidates” models: SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model, GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Function, AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution model and HSPF (Hydrological simulation program-FORTRAN. The models are described in terms of hydrological and chemical output and input requirements. The model selection protocol considers data availability, model characteristics and user’s objectives and it is applied to hypothetical scenarios. This selection method is particularly formulated to choose process-based models for nutrient modeling, but it can be generalized for other applications which are characterized by a similar degree of complexity.

  17. Failed theories of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalian, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Almost half a century passed between the discovery of superconductivity by Kammerlingh Onnes and the theoretical explanation of the phenomenon by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer. During the intervening years the brightest minds in theoretical physics tried and failed to develop a microscopic understanding of the effect. A summary of some of those unsuccessful attempts to understand superconductivity not only demonstrates the extraordinary achievement made by formulating the BCS theory, but also illustrates that mistakes are a natural and healthy part of the scientific discourse, and that inapplicable, even incorrect theories can turn out to be interesting and inspiring.

  18. Evaluation of hand motion capture protocol using static computed tomography images: application to an instrumented glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, James H; Sancho Bru, Joaquín Luis; Crisco, Joseph J; Murray, Wendy M

    2014-12-01

    There has been a marked increase in the use of hand motion capture protocols in the past 20 yr. However, their absolute accuracies and precisions remain unclear. The purpose of this technical brief was to present a method for evaluating the accuracy and precision of the joint angles determined by a hand motion capture protocol using simultaneously collected static computed tomography (CT) images. The method consists of: (i) recording seven functional postures using both the motion capture protocol and a CT scanner; (ii) obtaining principal axes of the bones in each method; (iii) calculating the flexion angle at each joint for each method as the roll angle of the composite, sequential, roll-pitch-yaw rotations relating the orientation of the distal bone to the proximal bone; and (iv) comparing corresponding joint angle measurements. For demonstration, we applied the method to a Cyberglove protocol. Accuracy and precision of the instrumented-glove protocol were calculated as the mean and standard deviation, respectively, of the differences between the angles determined from the Cyberglove output and the CT images across the seven postures. Implementation in one subject highlighted substantial errors, especially for the distal joints of the fingers. This technical note both clearly demonstrates the need for future work and introduces a solid, technical approach with the potential to improve the current state of such assessments in our field.

  19. Congestion Avoidance and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for WSN Healthcare Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailpour, Babak; Rezaee, Abbas Ali; Abad, Javad Mohebbi Najm

    Recent advances in wireless sensor technology facilitate the development of remote healthcare systems, which can significantly reduce the healthcare cost. The use of general and efficient routing protocols for Healthcare wireless sensor networks (HWSN) has crucial significance. One of the critical issues is to assure the timely delivery of the life-critical data in the resource-constrained WSN environment. Energy, and some other parameters for HWSN are considered here. In this paper, a data centric routing protocol which considers end to end delay, reliability, energy consumption, lifetime and fairness have been taken into account. The Proposed protocol which is called HREEP (Healthcare REEP) provides forwarding traffics with different priorities and QoS requirements based on constraint based routing. We study the performance of HREEP using different scenarios. Simulation results show that HREEP has achieved its goals.

  20. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  1. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  2. On the Performance of the Current MANET Routing Protocols for VoIP, HTTP, and FTP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheb A. Jabbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances of ensemble mobile environment of smart devices with embedded sensors have enabled the MANET to play a key role in the smart cities as well as WSN and WMN. However, these smart devices are still limited in terms of energy, processor, and memory. Moreover, the efficient routing for reliable network connectivity at anytime, anywhere, and about everything is still a challenge in multihop wireless networks. This paper evaluates the QoS and energy efficiency of three active routing protocols: (i OLSRv2, a successor to OLSR, (ii DYMO, a successor to both DSR and AODV, and (iii MP-OLSR multipath extension to OLSRv2. In contrast to the related previous works which focused only on CBR traffic without considering the influence of specific traffic types on the performance of routing protocols, this work focused on this area from a different perspective. It evaluates the performance of three internet-based traffic types that can be used in the smart city applications: VoIP, HTTP, and FTP using different simulation models. The impact of the network density, load traffic, and nodes mobility on the considered protocols was evaluated by considering particular performance metrics for each traffic application. Based on the results, the study concludes by presenting useful recommendations for future work.

  3. When physical intuition fails

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the problem solving strategies of physics professors in a case where their physical intuition fails. A non-intuitive introductory-level problem was identified and posed to twenty physics professors. The problem placed the professors in a situation often encountered by students, and their response highlights the importance of intuition and experience in problem solving. While professors had difficulty in solving the problem under the time constraint, they initially employed a systematic approach, e.g., visualizing the problem, considering various conservation laws, and examining limiting cases. After finding that familiar techniques were not fruitful, they made incorrect predictions based on one of two equally important factors. By contrast, other more familiar problems that require the consideration of two important principles (e.g., conservation of both energy and momentum for a ballistic pendulum) are quickly solved by the same professors. The responses of students who were given the same problem...

  4. Jacobsen protocols for large-scale epoxidation of cyclic dienyl sulfones: application to the (+)-pretazettine core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, G Reza; du Jourdin, Xavier Mollat; Fuchs, Philip L

    2012-05-18

    A Jacobsen epoxidation protocol using H2O2 as oxidant was designed for the large-scale preparation of various epoxy vinyl sulfones. A number of cocatalysts were screened, and pH control led to increased reaction rate, higher turnover number, and improved reliability.

  5. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  7. Lower bounds on information complexity via zero-communication protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kerenidis, Iordanis; Lerays, Virginie; Roland, Jeremie; Xiao, David

    2012-01-01

    We show that almost all known lower bound methods for communication complexity are also lower bounds for the information complexity. In particular, we define a relaxed version of the partition bound of Jain and Klauck and prove that it lower bounds the information complexity of any function. Our relaxed partition bound subsumes all norm based methods (e.g. the factorization norm method) and rectangle-based methods (e.g. the rectangle/corruption bound, the smooth rectangle bound, and the discrepancy bound), except the partition bound. Our result uses a new connection between rectangles and zero-communication protocols where the players can either output a value or abort. We prove the following compression lemma: given a protocol for a function f with information complexity I, one can construct a zero-communication protocol that has non-abort probability at least 2^{-O(I)} and that computes f correctly with high probability conditioned on not aborting. Then, we show how such a zero-communication protocol relate...

  8. 移动应用的消息推送与MQTT协议%Mobile Application Message Push and MQTT Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳

    2015-01-01

    随着智能设备的快速普及和移动应用的迅猛发展,已进入移动互联网时代。消息推送是移动应用的一个显著特征,是移动互联网时代的基础设施。苹果和谷歌都提供消息推送服务,但并不能满足企业级移动应用的推送要求。MQTT协议是由IBM提出的面向物联网的通讯协议,其简洁,高效,可靠等特征非常适合用于构建消息推送服务。文章讨论了使用MQTT协议构建消息推送服务的必要性和适用性,并指出了在具体实现上应注意的一些关键问题,同时给出了相关建议。%With the rapid development of smart devices and the rapid development of mobile applications, we have entered the era of mobile Internet. Message push is a feature of mobile applications, is the infrastructure of the mobile Internet era. Both apple and Google offer message push service, but can not meet the push requirements for enterprise mobile applications. MQTT protocol is a protocol of Internet based communication proposed by IBM, which is simple, efifcient and reliable, and is suitable for building the messaging service.. In this paper, the necessity and applicability of MQTT protocol to construct message push service are discussed, and some key issues are pointed out, and some relevant suggestions are given.

  9. Virtual reality transfer protocol (VRTP): implementing a monitor application for the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) using the Java Media Framework (JMF)

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Francisco Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) supports the transmission of time-based media, such as audio and video, over wide-area networks (WANs), by adding synchronization and quality-of-service (QoS) feedback capabilities to the existing transport protocol. RTP has been widely used in the Multicast Backbone (MBone), a virtual network that has become a shared worldwide medium for Internet multicast communications. This work presents the d...

  10. A Sample-to-Sequence Protocol for Genus Targeted Transcriptomic Profiling: Application to Marine Synechococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Frances D.; Millard, Andrew; Ostrowski, Martin; Dervish, Suat; Mazard, Sophie; Paulsen, Ian T.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Scanlan, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies using whole community metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches are revealing important new insights into the functional potential and activity of natural marine microbial communities. Here, we complement these approaches by describing a complete ocean sample-to-sequence protocol, specifically designed to target a single bacterial genus for purposes of both DNA and RNA profiling using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The importance of defining and understanding the effects of a sampling protocol are critical if we are to gain meaningful data from environmental surveys. Rigorous pipeline trials with a cultured isolate, Synechococcus sp. BL107 demonstrate that water filtration has a well-defined but limited impact on the transcriptomic profile of this organism, whilst sample storage and multiple rounds of cell sorting have almost no effect on the resulting RNA sequence profile. Attractively, the means to replicate the sampling strategy is within the budget and expertise of most researchers.

  11. Cryopreservation of cryosensitive basidiomycete cultures by application and modification of perlite protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masanori; Sukenobe, Junji; Nakagiri, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Homolka's perlite protocol (HPP) for cryopreservation of fungal cultures was evaluated in 12 strains (7 species) of cryosensitive basidiomycete cultures maintained in NBRC culture collection by investigating viability, time to recover, and basic morphological study after freezing and storing at -80 degree C for 6 months. The viability of the fungal strains was 60 percent in Phallus hadriani and 100 percent in remaining 11 strains, indicating the efficacy of HPP method for cryopreservation of some cryosensitive basidiomycetes. The HPP method was modified by changing the addition of cryoprotectant (glycerol) from prior precultivation to post precultivation, limiting the cryoprotectant exposure time to 48 hours, and increasing the glycerol concentration from 5 percent to 12 percent. The viability of P. hadriani strain increased from 60 percent to 100 percent with the modified perlite protocol after storage at -80 degree C for 6 months.

  12. A Sample-to-Sequence Protocol for Genus Targeted Transcriptomic Profiling: Application to Marine Synechococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Diana Pitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies using whole community metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches are revealing important new insights into the functional potential and activity of natural marine microbial communities. Here, we complement these approaches by describing a complete ocean sample-to-sequence protocol, specifically designed to target a single bacterial genus for purposes of both DNA and RNA profiling using fluorescence activated cell sorting. The importance of defining and understanding the effects of a sampling protocol are critical if we are to gain meaningful data from environmental surveys. Rigorous pipeline trials with a cultured isolate, Synechococcus sp. BL107 demonstrate that water filtration has a well-defined but limited impact on the transcriptomic profile of this organism, whilst sample storage and multiple rounds of cell sorting have almost no effect on the resulting RNA sequence profile. Attractively, the means to replicate the sampling strategy is within the budget and expertise of most researchers.

  13. A Novel Fair Anonymous Contract Signing Protocol for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Damodaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the economy developing and popular Internet, the general concept of contract signing has changed.In the past, people usually sign a contract at the same time and same place face to face, but actually eachparty involved in contract may live in different part of earth, they want to sign something for business orsome other things in economic, efficient, secure and fairway. A fair contract signing protocol allows twopotentially mis-trusted parities to exchange their commitments (i.e., digital signatures to an agreedcontract over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature, orneither party does. Based on the LUCAS signature scheme, a new digital anonymous contract signingprotocol is proposed in this paper. Like the existing LUCAS-based solutions for the same problem, ourprotocol is fair, anonymous and optimistic. Furthermore, the proposed protocol satisfied a newproperty, i.e., it is abuse-free. That is, if the protocol is executed unsuccessfully, either of the two partiescan not show the validity of intermediate results to others.

  14. A conceptual framework and protocol for defining clinical decision support objectives applicable to medical specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbie Justin W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services established the Electronic Health Record (EHR Incentive Program in 2009 to stimulate the adoption of EHRs. One component of the program requires eligible providers to implement clinical decision support (CDS interventions that can improve performance on one or more quality measures pre-selected for each specialty. Because the unique decision-making challenges and existing HIT capabilities vary widely across specialties, the development of meaningful objectives for CDS within such programs must be supported by deliberative analysis. Design We developed a conceptual framework and protocol that combines evidence review with expert opinion to elicit clinically meaningful objectives for CDS directly from specialists. The framework links objectives for CDS to specialty-specific performance gaps while ensuring that a workable set of CDS opportunities are available to providers to address each performance gap. Performance gaps may include those with well-established quality measures but also priorities identified by specialists based on their clinical experience. Moreover, objectives are not constrained to performance gaps with existing CDS technologies, but rather may include those for which CDS tools might reasonably be expected to be developed in the near term, for example, by the beginning of Stage 3 of the EHR Incentive program. The protocol uses a modified Delphi expert panel process to elicit and prioritize CDS meaningful use objectives. Experts first rate the importance of performance gaps, beginning with a candidate list generated through an environmental scan and supplemented through nominations by panelists. For the highest priority performance gaps, panelists then rate the extent to which existing or future CDS interventions, characterized jointly as “CDS opportunities,” might impact each performance gap and the extent to which each CDS opportunity is compatible with

  15. A Survey on Application Layer Protocols for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Vasileios; Chatzimisios, Periklis; Vázquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zárate, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than fifteen years since the term Internet of Things (IoT) was introduced to the public. However, despite the efforts of research groups and innovative corporations, still today it is not possible to say that IoT is upon us. This is mainly due to the fact that a unified IoT architecture has not been yet clearly defined and there is no common agreement in defining protocols and standards for all IoT parts. The framework that current IoT platforms use consists mostly in technol...

  16. The application of Kyoto Protocol in Italy: role and required synergies between central and regional administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Parties included in Annex I shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities. To assess these activities, Italy has to define methods to estimate land use change occurring after 31 December 1989. On the other hand, Italy elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goals of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper considers the key-role that central and regional Administrations may have in order to solve some specific problems regarding data collection and management issues.

  17. Analysis and Applications of Session Initiation Protocol(SIP)in Internet Telephony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Lin; WARFIELD Bob

    2005-01-01

    Session Initiation Protocol(SIP)is a key technology in the Internet telephony or Voice-over-IP(VoIP), also it is an important signaling technology in the next generation multimedia communications.Based on the comparison between SIP and H.323 technology,this paper concludes the advantages of SIP.Then grounded on the major components and their interaction,it analyzes the mechanism and features of the Internet telephony based on SIP.Finally,it discusses the disadvantages of SIP and provides the emphasis of future work.

  18. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  19. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server’s Public Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Nam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010: (1 the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2 the protocol cannot protect clients’ passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3 the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  20. To fail or not to fail : clinical trials in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard

    2008-01-01

    To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during dru

  1. Sealed source and device design safety testing. Technical report on the findings of task 4. Investigation of a failed brachtherapy needle applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukezich, S.J.

    1997-05-01

    As a result of an incident in which a radioactive brachytherapy treatment source was temporarily unable to be retracted, an analysis was performed on the needle applicator used during the treatment. In this report, the results of laboratory evaluations of the physical, mechanical, and metallurgical condition of the subject applicator and two additional applicators are presented. A kink formed in the subject applicator during the incident. The laboratory investigation focused on identifying characteristics which would increase the susceptibility of an applicator to form a kink when subjected to bending loads. The results obtained during this investigation could not conclusively identify the cause of the kink. The subject applicator exhibited no unique features which would have made it particularly susceptible to forming a kink. The three applicators examined represent two methods of manufacturing. A number of characteristics inherent to the method used to manufacture the subject applicator which could lead to an increased susceptibility to the formation of a kink were observed. The use of an insertion device, such as the biopsy needle used during this incident, could also dramatically increase the likelihood of the formation of a kink if the applicator is subjected to bending loads. 33 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. ANODR-ECC Key Management protocol with TELNET to secure Application and Network layer for Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Padmavathi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs is a self-organizing network that consists of mobile nodes that are connected through wireless media. A number of unique features, such as lack of infrastructural or central administrative supports, dynamic network topologies, open communication channels, and limited device capabilities and bandwidths, have made secure, reliable and efficient routing operations in MANET a challenging task. The ultimate goal of the security solutions for MANET is to provide security services, such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, and availability to mobile users. To achieve the goals, the security solution need for entire protocol stack. . The proposed protocol ANODRECC with Telnet provide application layer security and it ensures route anonymity and location privacy and is robust against eavesdropping attack.For route anonymity, it prevents strong adversaries from tracing a packet flow back to its source or destination; for location privacy, it ensures that adversaries cannot discover the real identities of local transmitters. The simulation is done using network simulator qualnet 5.0 for different number of mobile nodes. The proposed model has exposed improved results in terms of Average throughput, Average end to end delay, Average packet delivery ratio and Average jitter.

  3. Evaluation of two protocols for low-level laser application in patients submitted to orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marquezan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different low-level laser (LLL irradiation protocols have been tested to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. Nevertheless, divergent results have been obtained. It was suggested that the stimulatory action of low level laser irradiation occurs during the proliferation and differentiation stages of bone cellular precursors, but not during later stages. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two protocols of LLL irradiation on experimental tooth movement: One with daily irradiations and another with irradiations during the early stages. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were divided into control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3 and irradiated groups (IrG1, IrG2, IrG3 according to the presence of: experimental tooth movement, laser irradiation, type of laser irradiation protocol and date of euthanasia (3th or 8th day of experiment. At the end of experimental periods, a quantitative evaluation of the amount of OTM was made and the reactions of the periodontium were analyzed by describing cellular and tissue reactions and by counting blood vessels. RESULTS: The amount of OTM revealed no significant differences between groups in the same experimental period (p INTRODUÇÃO: diferentes protocolos de irradiação por laser de baixa potência (LBP têm sido testados para potencializar o movimento ortodôntico; entretanto, há resultados divergentes. Foi sugerido que seu efeito bioestimulador ocorre nas fases de proliferação e diferenciação celular, não agindo em estágios tardios. OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito de dois protocolos de irradiação do LBP na movimentação ortodôntica: um com irradiações diárias e outro em que irradiações foram realizadas apenas nos períodos iniciais. MÉTODOS: trinta e seis ratos Wistar foram divididos em grupos controles (GC1, GC2 e GC3 e irradiados (GIr1, GIr2 e GIr3, de acordo com a presença de dispositivo ortodôntico, a presença de irradiação, o tipo de protocolo de irradia

  4. Screening Protocol for Iodine-Specific Getters in YMP-Related Invert Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Krumhansl; J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka

    2006-07-17

    This document defines a standardized screening protocol for use in developing iodine ''getters'' for placement in the proposed YMP-repository invert. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology International (S&T) during 2004-2005. First, the likely environmental conditions in the invert are reviewed as a basis for defining the thermal and geochemical regimes in which a getter must function. These considerations, then, served as the basis for laying out a hierarchy of materials screening tests (Table 1). An experimental design for carrying out these screening tests follows next. Finally, the latter half of the document develops methods for preparing test solutions with chemistries that relate to various aspects of the YMP-repository environment (or, at least to such representations as were available from program documents late in 2004). Throughout the document priority was given to defining procedures that would quickly screen out unpromising candidate materials with a minimum amount of labor. Hence, the proposed protocol relies on batch tests over relatively short times, and on a hierarchy of short pre-test conditioning steps. So as not to repeat the mistakes (and frustrations) encountered in the past (notably in preparing WIPP test brines) particular care was also given to developing standardized test solution recipes that could be prepared easily and reproducibly. This document is principally intended for use as a decision-making tool in evaluating and planning research activities. It is explicitly NOT a roadmap for qualifying getters for actual placement in the repository. That would require a comprehensive test plan and a substantial consensus building effort. This document is also not intended to provide a complete list of all the tests that individuals may wish to carry out. Various materials will have their own peculiar concerns that

  5. Reconstruction and analysis of the pupil dilation signal: Application to a psychophysiological affective protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Francesco; Barbieri, Riccardo; Mauri, Maurizio; Russo, Vincenzo; Mainardi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Pupil dilation (PD) dynamics reflect the interactions of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations in the iris muscle. Different pupillary responses have been observed with respect to emotionally characterized stimuli. Evidences of the correlation between PD and respiration, heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) are present in literature, making the pupil dilation a candidate for estimating the activity state of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), in particular during stressful and/or emotionally characterized stimuli. The aim of this study is to investigate whether both slow and fast PD dynamics can be addressed to characterized different affective states. Two different frequency bands were considered: the classical autonomic band [0-0.45] Hz and a very high frequency (VHF) band [0.45-5] Hz. The pupil dilation signals from 13 normal subjects were recorded during a psychological protocol suitable to evoke particular affective states. An elaborate reconstruction of the missing data (blink events and artifacts) was performed to obtain a more reliable signal, particularly in the VHF band. Results show a high correlation between the arousal of the event and the power characteristics of the signal, in all frequencies. In particular, for the "Anger" condition, we can observe 10 indices out of 13 significantly different with respect to "Baseline" counterparts. These preliminary results suggest that both slow and fast oscillations of the PD can be used to characterize affective states.

  6. Developing consistent Landsat data sets for large area applications: the MRLC 2001 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Huang, C.; Yang, L.; Homer, C.; Larson, C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts in large area land cover mapping over the last two decades was the completion of two U.S. National Land Cover Data sets (NLCD), developed with nominal 1992 and 2001 Landsat imagery under the auspices of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. Following the successful generation of NLCD 1992, a second generation MRLC initiative was launched with two primary goals: (1) to develop a consistent Landsat imagery data set for the U.S. and (2) to develop a second generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). One of the key enhancements was the formulation of an image preprocessing protocol and implementation of a consistent image processing method. The core data set of the NLCD 2001 database consists of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images. This letter details the procedures for processing the original ETM+ images and more recent scenes added to the database. NLCD 2001 products include Anderson Level II land cover classes, percent tree canopy, and percent urban imperviousness at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat imagery. The products are freely available for download to the general public from the MRLC Consortium Web site at http://www.mrlc.gov.

  7. An Overview of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for the Existing Protocols and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Omari, Saleh Ali K; 10.5121/jgraphhoc.2010.2107

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without the aid of any centralized administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure. And it's an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to be dynamically and some time act as routers at the same time, and we discuss in this paper the distinct characteristics of traditional wired networks, including network configuration may change at any time, there is no direction or limit the movement and so on, and thus needed a new optional path Agreement (Routing Protocol) to identify nodes for these actions communicate with each other path, An ideal choice way the agreement should not only be able to find the right path, and the Ad Hoc Network must be able to adapt to changing network of this type at any...

  8. Wikis and collaborative writing applications in health care: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Patrick Michel; van de Belt, Tom H; Grajales Iii, Francisco J; Eysenbach, Gunther; Aubin, Karine; Gold, Irving; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Kuziemsky, Craig E; Turgeon, Alexis F; Poitras, Julien; Faber, Marjan J; Kremer, Jan A M; Heldoorn, Marcel; Bilodeau, Andrea; Légaré, France

    2012-04-11

    The rapid rise in the use of collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis, Google Documents, and Google Knol) has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge translation (KT) tools in the health care sector and for an inventory of the factors that affect their use. While researchers have conducted systematic reviews on a range of software-based information and communication technologies as well as other social media (eg, virtual communities of practice, virtual peer-to-peer communities, and electronic support groups), none have reviewed collaborative writing applications in the medical sector. The overarching goal of this project is to explore the depth and breadth of evidence for the use of collaborative writing applications in health care. Thus, the purposes of this scoping review will be to (1) map the literature on collaborative writing applications; (2) compare the applications' features; (3) describe the evidence of each application's positive and negative effects as a KT intervention in health care; (4) inventory and describe the barriers and facilitators that affect the applications' use; and (5) produce an action plan and a research agenda. A six-stage framework for scoping reviews will be used: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies within the selected databases (using the EPPI-Reviewer software to classify the studies); (3) selecting studies (an iterative process in which two reviewers search the literature, refine the search strategy, and review articles for inclusion); (4) charting the data (using EPPI-Reviewer's data-charting form); (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results (performing a descriptive, numerical, and interpretive synthesis); and (6) consulting knowledge users during three planned meetings. Since this scoping review concerns the use of collaborative writing applications as KT interventions in health care, we will use the Knowledge to Action (KTA

  9. Full-length protein extraction protocols and gel-based downstream applications in formalin-fixed tissue proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanca, Alessandro; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue repositories and their associated clinical information can represent a valuable resource for tissue proteomics. In order to make these tissues available for protein biomarker discovery and validation studies, dedicated sample preparation procedures overcoming the intermolecular cross-links introduced by formalin need to be implemented. This chapter describes a full-length protein extraction protocol optimized for downstream gel-based proteomics applications. Using the procedures detailed here, SDS-PAGE, western immunoblotting, GeLC-MS/MS, 2D-PAGE, and 2D-DIGE can be carried out on FFPE tissues. Technical tips, critical aspects, and drawbacks of the method are presented and discussed.

  10. Rationale and protocol for using a smartphone application to study autism spectrum disorders: SMARTAUTISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Bonneau, Dominique; Doudard, Aude; Duverger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Longitudinal studies on the evolution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are limited and have primarily used repeated measurements performed several months apart. However, measurements of changes in everyday life should more closely reflect the ‘real life’ of the patient and his or her family. We propose to study the child's ASD symptoms and their effect on the quality of life, psychological status and anxiety of the child's parents over a 6-month period using SMARTAUTISM, a smartphone application. Method and analysis This is a prospective, longitudinal, exploratory, open study with a 6-month follow-up period. Data will be recorded longitudinally over multiple weeks under natural conditions. The factors affecting the quality of life and anxiety of parents of children with ASD and the children's functional symptoms will be examined, and the feasibility of using a smartphone application designed for parents of ASD patients will be assessed. Primary objective: Explore the evolution of a child's behaviour over 6 months and the (psychological and social) effects of these changes on the family. Secondary objective: Assess the feasibility of our application by examining the filling rate and application usage by parents for 6 months. 100 families containing 1 child diagnosed with ASD will be included. At baseline, sociodemographic, psychiatric and medical data will be recorded. The correlations of the general epidemiological variables (primary outcome measure) will be evaluated via multivariate analysis. The application filling rate (relative to the ideal filling rate) will be used to assess the feasibility of the application (secondary outcome measure). Ethics and dissemination The SMARTAUTISM study has the approval of the local ethics committee, and data security will be ensured via the use of encryption and a secure medical server. The use of this application will be proposed at autism resource centres across France. PMID:27881525

  11. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO2 emissions.

  12. Wikis and collaborative writing applications in healthcare: a scoping review protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archambault, P.M.; Belt, T.H. van de; Grajales III, F.J.; Eysenbach, G.; Aubin, K.; Gold, I.; Gagnon, M.P.; Kuziemsky, C.E.; Turgeon, A.F.; Poitras, J.; Faber, M.J.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Heldoorn, M.; Bilodeau, A.; Legare, F.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rapid rise in the use of collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis, Google Documents, and Google Knol) has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge translation (KT) tools in the health care sector and for an inventory of the factors th

  13. A family of quantum protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Devetak, I; Winter, A

    2003-01-01

    We introduce two dual, purely quantum protocols: for entanglement distillation assisted by quantum communication (``mother'' protocol) and for entanglement assisted quantum communication (``father'' protocol). We show how a large class of ``children'' protocols (including many previously known ones) can be derived from the two by direct application of teleportation or super-dense coding. Furthermore, the parent may be recovered from most of the children protocols by making them ``coherent''. We also summarize the various resource trade-offs these protocols give rise to.

  14. Analysis and application of C++layer protocol TCP/IP%TCP/IP应用层协议分析与C++实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓春; 刘婉妮; 王宏

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet today,as Internet based TCP/IP protocol has penetrated into every aspect of our lives.This paper makes a detailed analysis on the application layer protocol in TCP/IP protocol;then introduces how to use the C++ programming language,the TCP/IP protocol Telnet,FTP application layer protocol in a visual,easy operation of the client/server mode (C/S mode) show.In order to facilitate the people to better understand the TCP/IP protocol,the work principle of TCP/IP protocol and the reference value for network application development.%在互联网高速发展的今天,作为Internet国际互联网络基础的TCP/IP协议已经渗透到我们生活的各个方面。本文首先对TCP/IP协议中的应用层协议进行了详细的分析;然后介绍了如何运用C++语言进行编程,将TCP/IP协议中的Telnet、FTP等应用层协议以一种可视化、易操作的客户端/服务器端模式(C/S模式)展现出来。从而便于人们更好的认识和理解TCP/IP协议,对了解TCP/IP协议的工作原理及进行网络应用程序开发一定的参考价值。

  15. A Data Acquisition Protocol for a Reactive Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi A. Aderohunmu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limiting energy consumption is one of the primary aims for most real-world deployments of wireless sensor networks. Unfortunately, attempts to optimize energy efficiency are often in conflict with the demand for network reactiveness to transmit urgent messages. In this article, we propose SWIFTNET: a reactive data acquisition scheme. It is built on the synergies arising from a combination of the data reduction methods and energy-efficient data compression schemes. Particularly, it combines compressed sensing, data prediction and adaptive sampling strategies. We show how this approach dramatically reduces the amount of unnecessary data transmission in the deployment for environmental monitoring and surveillance networks. SWIFTNET targets any monitoring applications that require high reactiveness with aggressive data collection and transmission. To test the performance of this method, we present a real-world testbed for a wildfire monitoring as a use-case. The results from our in-house deployment testbed of 15 nodes have proven to be favorable. On average, over 50% communication reduction when compared with a default adaptive prediction method is achieved without any loss in accuracy. In addition, SWIFTNET is able to guarantee reactiveness by adjusting the sampling interval from 5 min up to 15 s in our application domain.

  16. Positive indicators of cattle welfare and their applicability to on-farm protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on animal welfare has focused on the negative aspects of the matter including an array of stress categories, whereas little has been done about the positive states of well being. The present study aims to describe indicators of positive animal welfare suitable for on-farm assessment. Appropriate environmental stimulation favours good welfare and, in an adequately enriched environment, positive indicators of welfare such as play behaviour tend to be more common. In addition, animals are motivated to perform these behaviours only if their primary needs are satisfied. In cattle, beneficial effects of social licking have been observed with positive correlation between being licked vs. milk production and weight gain, respectively. Ruminants are gregarious and a high degree of synchronisation within the herd may indicate a positive welfare state, in particular for subordinate animals. They may be able to meet their basic feeding and resting requirements performing these behaviours when the competition for a particular resource is low, however their welfare state would be improved if they could choose when and where (i.e. along with the other members of the group to perform such behaviours. Due to the reduced applicability (mainly young animals, low feasibility (time consuming and lack of research on reliability, play behaviour, albeit of proven validity, does not appear to be suitable for a rapid implementation in a welfare assessment scheme. Social licking is rarely expressed and its detection may be time consuming and scarcely feasible. Although validity and reliability need more studies, behaviour synchrony seems to be a promising positive welfare indicator as the instantaneous scan sampling technique makes this indicator easily applicable. Recently, a new methodology called “qualitative assessment of animal behaviour” has been developed. The method relies on a number of terms which are freely generated by observers. Thus

  17. Perfusion computed tomography in colorectal cancer: Protocols, clinical applications and emerging trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Yao Wu; Prasanna Ghimire

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a novel functional imaging technique with gradually increasing importance in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). By providing the functional tumor microvasculature, it also helps the assessment of therapeutic response of anti-angiogenic drugs as it may reflect tumor angiogenesis. Perfusion CT has been applied in clinical practice to delineate inflammatory or neoplastic lymph nodes irrespective of their size,identify micro-metastases and to predict metastases in advance of their development. It is of increasing significance for preoperative adjuvant therapies and avoidance of unnecessary interventions. Despite controversies regarding the techniques employed, its validity and reproducibility, it can be advantageous in the management of CRCs in which the prognosis is dependent on preoperative staging. With recent advances in the perfusion CT techniques, and incorporation to other modalities like positron emission tomography, perfusion CT will be a novel tool in the overall management of CRCs. This article aims at reviewing the existing clinical applications and recent advances of perfusion CT with a reference to future development in the management of CRCs.

  18. Comparative Performance Analysis of Wireless Communication Protocols for Intelligent Sensors and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakkor Saad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The systems based on intelligent sensors are currently expanding, due to theirs functions and theirs performances of intelligence: transmitting and receiving data in real-time, computation and processing algorithms, metrology remote, diagnostics, automation and storage measurements…The radio frequency wireless communication with its multitude offers a better solution for data traffic in this kind of systems. The mains objectives of this paper is to present a solution of the problem related to the selection criteria of a better wireless communication technology face up to the constraints imposed by the intended application and the evaluation of its key features. The comparison between the different wireless technologies (Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, UWB, Bluetooth, ZigBee, ZigBeeIP, GSM/GPRS focuses on their performance which depends on the areas of utilization. Furthermore, it shows the limits of their characteristics. Study findings can be used by the developers/ engineers to deduce the optimal mode to integrate and to operate a system that guarantees quality of communication, minimizing energy consumption, reducing the implementation cost and avoiding time constraints.

  19. Intrabody application of eptotermin alpha enhances bone formation in osteoporotic fractures of the lumbar spine; however, fails to increase biomechanical stability - results of an experimental sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Anica; Roepenack, Paula; Herlyn, Philipp Karl Ewald; Roesner, Jan; Martin, Heiner; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gradl, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of eptotermin α application into fractured vertebrae. It is hypothesized that eptotermin α is capable to enhance bony healing of the osteoporotic spine. In 10 Merino sheep osteoporosis induction was performed by ovariectomy, corticosteroid therapy and calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D-deficient diet; followed by standardized creation of lumbar vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) type A3.1 and consecutive fracture reduction/fixation using expandable mesh cages. Randomly, intravertebral eptotermin α (G1) or no augmentation was added (G2). Macroscopic, micro-CT, and biomechanical evaluation assessed bony consolidation two months postoperatively: Micro-CT data revealed bony consolidation for all cases with significant increased callus development for G2 (60%) and BV/TV (bone volume/total volume 73.45%, osteoporotic vertebrae 35.76%). Neither group showed improved biomechanical stability. Eptotermin α enhanced mineralisation in VCFs in an experimental setup with use of cementless augmentation via an expandable cage. However, higher bone mineral density did not lead to superior biomechanical properties.

  20. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  1. IPv6 Protocol Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the emerging of next generation Intemet protocol (IPv6), it is expected to replace the current version of Internet protocol (IPv4) that will be exhausted in the near future. Besides providing adequate address space, some other new features are included into the new 128 bits of IP such as IP auto configuration, quality of service, simple routing capability, security, mobility and multicasting. The current protocol analyzer will not be able to handle IPv6 packets. This paper will focus on developing protocol analyzer that decodes IPv6 packet. IPv6 protocol analyzer is an application module,which is able to decode the IPv6 packet and provide detail breakdown of the construction of the packet. It has to understand the detail construction of the IPv6, and provide a high level abstraction of bits and bytes of the IPv6 packet.Thus it increases network administrators' understanding of a network protocol,helps he/she in solving protocol related problem in a IPv6 network environment.

  2. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  3. The application of the HT2012 HART○R Modem to the HART protocol%HT2012 HART○RModem在HART协议中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡立虹; 庞彦斌

    2001-01-01

    本文介绍了SMAR公司的HT2012 HART○RModem芯片的特点与功能以及在HART协议物理层中的应用%This paper presents the features and the functions of the Smar HT2012 HART○R Modem and also describes the application of the HT2012 chip to the physical layer of the HART protocol.

  4. Application of MAC protocol in aeronautical Ad Hoc networks%MAC协议在航空自组网中应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振林; 孙荣平; 柏长帅

    2013-01-01

      MAC protocol of aeronautical Ad hoc network is a direct controller of grouping messages in the wireless channel sending and reception. Therefore,in aeronautical Ad Hoc network,it is crucial for the performance of aeronautical Ad Hoc net⁃work whether MAC protocol can efficiently and fairly use the limited wireless channel resources. The MAC functions and the in⁃fluence factors of aeronautical Ad Hoc networks on MAC protocols are summarized in in this paper. MAC protocol characteristics of the wireless Ad Hoc networks and the key technologys of aeronautical Ad Hoc networks are analyzed in combination with the application of MAC in MANET.%  航空自组网MAC协议是分组报文在无线信道上发送和接收的直接控制者,因此,在航空自组网中,MAC协议能否高效、公平地利用有限的无线信道资源对航空自组网的性能起至关重要的作用。概述了MAC的功能作用、航空自组网对MAC协议的影响因素,并结合MAC在MANET中的应用,分析了无线自组网MAC协议的特点和航空自组网MAC协议的关键技术。

  5. SAE J1939 multi packet transmission protocol and application analysis%SAE J1939多包传输协议及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娟娟; 李晋; 郑创明

    2016-01-01

    描述一种 SAE J193921协议应用于商用车车载 CAN 网络系统设计过程的多包数据传输协议的传输原理、传输过程,结合工程实践,分析了多包传输协议在商用车整车 CAN 网络系统开发过程中的应用,该协议对处理诊断报文等数据具有重要的意义。%In this paper,transport protocol and transport process for multiple packet data was introduced detailedly.This transport protocol was defined in SAE J1 939 21 protocol and used in CAN network design of commercial vehicles.Then, the application of multiple packet transport was analyzed based on the components of CAN network.The protocol is of great significance to the diagnosis of message data processing.

  6. Application of Modbus Protocol in Security and Stability Control Device%Modbus协议在安全稳定控制装置中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司庆华; 徐海波; 颜云松; 许高阳

    2016-01-01

    Modbus协议是应用非常广泛的现场总线之一,市场上有大量支持Modbus通信协议的触摸屏可选作安全稳定控制装置的人机界面.首先介绍Modbus通信协议应用于稳控装置的意义;然后提出一种利用Modbus通信协议的方法,实现安全稳定控制装置内部数据的通信,这种方法不仅使得人机界面更加友好,而且产品开发周期更短,产品可升级扩展性更好.%The Modbus protocol is one of the widely applied field buses. There are a large number of touch screens supporting Modbus protocol on the market, which can be used for human machine interface of security and stability control device. This paper firstly introduces the significance of Modbus protocol's application in the stability control device. Then a method of using Modbus communication protocol is proposed to realize the communication of the data in the security and stability control device. This method not only makes the human machine interface (HMI) more friendly, but also makes the product development cycle shorter, and the scalable extensibility of the product becomes better.

  7. Application of video system based on RTMP protocol%基于RTMP协议的视频系统的应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范围

    2015-01-01

    本文从网络多媒体应用中的视频传输需求出发,对基于RTMP协议的视频系统的应用进行探析,介绍并比较了TCP协议、UDP协议、RTMP等协议的特点,并阐述了该视频系统的基本系统结构和优化改造的措施,使之能够便于设计与维护,并提高安全性与实时性,更好的适应网络状态的变化。%This paper analyzes the application of video system based on RTMP protocol, and introduces the characteristics of TCP protocol, UDP protocol, RTMP protocol, and describes the basic system structure and optimization of the video system, which makes it easy to design and maintain, and improve the security and real-time performance.

  8. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  9. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  10. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  11. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeli Minicante, S.; Ambrosi, E.; Back, M.; Barichello, J.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Trave, E.

    2016-07-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a, b and c), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts.

  12. The Ontological Perspectives of the Semantic Web and the Metadata Harvesting Protocol: Applications of Metadata for Improving Web Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Karl V.; Campbell, D. Grant

    2001-01-01

    Compares the implied ontological frameworks of the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting and the World Wide Web Consortium's Semantic Web. Discusses current search engine technology, semantic markup, indexing principles of special libraries and online databases, and componentization and the distinction between data and…

  13. Transdiagnostic treatment using a unified protocol: application for patients with a range of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a unified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for group treatment of patients with a range of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. METHODS: In this open-trial study, the unified protocol was followed for the psychotherapeutic treatment of 16 patients with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, the World Health Organization Quality of Life evaluation instrument, and the ARIZONA scale of sexual function were used to evaluate progress in patients throughout the therapeutic process. RESULTS: All patients showed unipolar depressive disorder. Comorbidity with anxiety disorders was distributed as follows: generalized anxiety disorder, 13 (81.3%; panic disorder, 3 (18.8%; social anxiety disorder, 1 (6.3%; and post-traumatic stress disorder, 1 (6.3%. Improvement was observed in the signs and symptoms of depression (F = 78.62, p < 0.001 and anxiety (F = 19.64, p < 0.001, overall quality of life (F = 39.72, p < 0.001, physical domain (F = 28.15, p < 0.001, psychological variables (F = 9.90, p = 0.007, social functioning (F = 36.86, p < 0.001, environmental variables (F = 27.63, p < 0.001, and sexuality (F = 13.13; p < 0.005. All parameters showed highly significant correlations (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: An effort to establish one unified treatment protocol for a whole family of emotional disorders (primarily mood and anxiety disorders showed benefits in the field of clinical psychology and for the treatment of patients. No other data were found in the literature describing the implementation of the unified protocol in a transdiagnostic group. Our results revealed statistically significant improvement in all variables, suggesting that the protocol proposed can become an important tool to improve quality of life, sexuality, and anxiety/depression symptoms in patients with different diagnoses.

  14. Why good projects fail anyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  15. 40 CFR 205.160-6 - Passing or failing under SEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Passing or failing under SEA. 205.160... failing under SEA. (a) A failing vehicle is one whose measured noise level is in excess of the applicable... vehicles is less than or equal to the number in Column A, the sample passes. (c) Pass or failure of an...

  16. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study.

  17. ADNP-CSMA Random Multiple Access protocol application with the function of monitoring in Ad Hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ad Hoc networks,the net work of mobile nodes exchange information with their wireless transceiver equipment,the network throughput is in increased,compared to other such multiple hops network.Moreover along with the rapid development of modern information,communication business also will be increase.However,the access and adaptive of previous CSMA protocol are insufficient.According to these properties,this paper presents a kind of adaptive dual clock with monitoring function P-CSMA random multiple access protocol(ADNP-CSMA,and discusses two kinds of P-CSMA.ACK with monitoring function is introduced to maintain the stability of the whole system,and the introduction of dual clock mechanism reduces the channel of idle period.It calculate the system throughput expression through the method of average period,and the simulation results show that the system is constant in the case of high load throughput.

  18. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1 DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2 Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 μl water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 μg/μl for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3 Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4 High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  19. Protocol: a rapid and economical procedure for purification of plasmid or plant DNA with diverse applications in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Li, Li; Sheen, Jen

    2010-01-14

    Research in plant molecular biology involves DNA purification on a daily basis. Although different commercial kits enable convenient extraction of high-quality DNA from E. coli cells, PCR and agarose gel samples as well as plant tissues, each kit is designed for a particular type of DNA extraction work, and the cost of purchasing these kits over a long run can be considerable. Furthermore, a simple method for the isolation of binary plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells with satisfactory yield is lacking. Here we describe an easy protocol using homemade silicon dioxide matrix and seven simple solutions for DNA extraction from E. coli and A. tumefaciens cells, PCR and restriction digests, agarose gel slices, and plant tissues. Compared with the commercial kits, this protocol allows rapid DNA purification from diverse sources with comparable yield and purity at negligible cost. Following this protocol, we have demonstrated: (1) DNA fragments as small as a MYC-epitope tag coding sequence can be successfully recovered from an agarose gel slice; (2) Miniprep DNA from E. coli can be eluted with as little as 5 mul water, leading to high DNA concentrations (>1 mug/mul) for efficient biolistic bombardment of Arabidopsis seedlings, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated Arabidopsis protoplast transfection and maize protoplast electroporation; (3) Binary plasmid DNA prepared from A. tumefaciens is suitable for verification by restriction analysis without the need for large scale propagation; (4) High-quality genomic DNA is readily isolated from several plant species including Arabidopsis, tobacco and maize. Thus, the silicon dioxide matrix-based DNA purification protocol offers an easy, efficient and economical way to extract DNA for various purposes in plant research.

  20. Development of a standardized protocol for reproducible generation of matured monocyte-derived dendritic cells suitable for clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Bohnenkamp, H.R.; Noll, T.

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the generation of dendritic cells (DC) for cancer immunotherapy. In order to utilize DC in clinical trials it is necessary to have standardized, reproducible and easy to use protocols. We describe here the process development for the generation of DC as the result of investigation of culture conditions as well as consumption rates of medium and cytokines. Our studies demonstrate that highly viable DC (93 ± 2%) can be produced from CD14+ enriched monocytes via i...

  1. AODV协议在嵌入式平台中的应用研究%Application and Research on AODV Routing Protocol in Embedded Development Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余本功; 许绍斌

    2013-01-01

    文中介绍了一个在嵌入式Linux系统上实现无线Ad-Hoc网络的应用,目的旨在建立一个基于嵌入式Linux和DevKit8000的嵌入式无线网络平台,并在嵌入式开发板中部署运行AODV路由协议,通过对AODV路由协议在嵌入式开发平台中的运行情况进行实验并分析,验证基于嵌入式开发平台的无线自组织网络部署运行AODV路由协议并组网的可行性。实验表明所移植的AODV路由协议运行稳定可靠,通过分析实验数据,体现了AODV路由协议在一定程度上具有稳定性,同时Ad-Hoc网络运行正常,各节点可通过运行的AODV路由协议进行稳定通信。%It describes the application of wireless Ad-Hoc networks in an embedded Linux system,aims to establish an embedded wireless network platform based on the embedded Linux and DevKit8000,and deploy embedded development board running the AODV routing protocol. Through analysis and validation of AODV routing protocol running in the embedded development platform,the feasibility is ver-ified of running AODV routing protocol and networking in wireless self-organizing network based on embedded development platform. Experiments show that AODV routing protocol transplanting is reliable and stable to operate,through the analysis of experimental data,re-flecting the stability of AODV routing protocol in a certain extent. The Ad-Hoc network is operating normally,each node can run AODV routing protocol to communicate.

  2. Research and Application of the MQTT Protocol on the Android Platform%MQTT协议在Android平台上的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关庆余; 李鸿彬; 于波

    2014-01-01

    MQTT is a lightweight protocol based on publish/subscribe messaging transport. It provides a new way for message push on Android. For the demand of message push protocol on Android, analyzed the structure of MQTT and the format of its message, and compared with other message push solutions on the Android platform. Then, designed and implemented an instant messaging application based on the MQTT protocol. Has finished many functions such as login/register, send instant message, manage friends and so on. Finally, the test result indicated that this application is satisfy the basic functionality and requirements of the instant messaging applications.%MQTT是一种基于发布/订阅的轻量级消息传输协议,它的出现为Android平台上实现消息推送提供了新的途径。针对Android平台消息推送协议的需求,研究了MQTT协议的结构及消息格式,对比分析了Android平台上其他消息推送方案,设计并实现了一款基于 MQTT 协议的即时通信应用,完成了登录/注册、即时通信、好友管理等功能。测试结果表明此应用能够满足即时通信应用的基本功能及需求。

  3. Effectiveness of the 'Home-but not Alone' mobile health application educational programme on parental outcomes: A randomized controlled trial, study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Peng Mei, Yvonne; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe;

    2016-01-01

    IM: To describe a study protocol that evaluates the effectiveness of the 'Home-but not Alone' educational programme delivered via a mobile health application in improving parenting outcomes. BACKGROUND: The postnatal period is a stressful period that poses numerous challenges for parents. To ensure...... of theory-based educational programmes that have incorporated technology such as a mobile health application in the early postpartum period. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with a two-group pre-test and post-test design. METHODS: The data will be collected from 118 couples, including both first......-time parents and parents already with kids on the day of their discharge from a public hospital. Eligible parents will be randomly allocated to either a control group (receiving routine care) or an intervention group (routine care plus access to the 'Home-but not Alone' mobile health application. Outcome...

  4. Ontology-based configuration of problem-solving methods and generation of knowledge-acquisition tools: application of PROTEGE-II to protocol-based decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, S W; Eriksson, H; Gennari, J H; Shahar, Y; Musen, M A

    1995-06-01

    PROTEGE-II is a suite of tools and a methodology for building knowledge-based systems and domain-specific knowledge-acquisition tools. In this paper, we show how PROTEGE-II can be applied to the task of providing protocol-based decision support in the domain of treating HIV-infected patients. To apply PROTEGE-II, (1) we construct a decomposable problem-solving method called episodic skeletal-plan refinement, (2) we build an application ontology that consists of the terms and relations in the domain, and of method-specific distinctions not already captured in the domain terms, and (3) we specify mapping relations that link terms from the application ontology to the domain-independent terms used in the problem-solving method. From the application ontology, we automatically generate a domain-specific knowledge-acquisition tool that is custom-tailored for the application. The knowledge-acquisition tool is used for the creation and maintenance of domain knowledge used by the problem-solving method. The general goal of the PROTEGE-II approach is to produce systems and components that are reusable and easily maintained. This is the rationale for constructing ontologies and problem-solving methods that can be composed from a set of smaller-grained methods and mechanisms. This is also why we tightly couple the knowledge-acquisition tools to the application ontology that specifies the domain terms used in the problem-solving systems. Although our evaluation is still preliminary, for the application task of providing protocol-based decision support, we show that these goals of reusability and easy maintenance can be achieved. We discuss design decisions and the tradeoffs that have to be made in the development of the system.

  5. Histology protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tim D. Hewitson & Ian A. Darby (Eds Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 611, 2010 Pages: 230; € 83.15 ISBN: 978-1-60327-344-2 Impressive as it can sounds in the era that Biology see a clear dominance of reductionism with the idea that complexity can be disentagled more and more thanks to the use of molecular tools, the reader will remain fascinated by this slim and agile volume devoted to bring together what apparently are two separeted words: molecular biology and histology. Simply remembering to the youngest scientists.....

  6. A Secure Short Message Communication Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Wen Chang; Heng Pan; Hong-Yong Jia

    2008-01-01

    According to the security requirement of the short message service (SMS) industry application, a secure short message communication protocol is proposed. This is an application level protocol constructed on the standard SMS communication protocol using public key authentication and key agreement without the need of wireless public key infrastructure (WPKI). Secure short message transmission and dynamic key agreement between mobile terminals and the accessing gateway are realized. The security of the proposed protocol is validated through the BAN logic. Compared with the standard SMS protocol, the effective payload rate of our protocol can reach 91.4%, and subscriber identity module (SIM) tool kit (STK) applications based on our protocol suit well for all kinds of mobile terminals in practical application.

  7. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  8. Law project for the application of additional protocol to the agreement between France and the atomic energy european community and the international atomic energy agency relative to the application of guaranties in France, signed at Vienna the 22 september 1998; Projet de loi portant application du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France, signe a Vienne le 22 septembre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    This law project aims to allow the application of the additional protocol. This protocol plans the transmission, by France, to IAEA of defined information. These information concern materials and nuclear activities non declared by States not owning the nuclear weapon. (A.L.B.)

  9. Novel analysis and improvement of Yahalom protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun-ling; YU Han; L(U) Heng-shan; WANG Ru-chuan

    2009-01-01

    The modified version of Yahalom protocol improved by Burrows, Abradi, and Needham (BAN) still has security drawbacks. This study analyzed such flaws in a detailed way from the point of strand spaces, which is a novel method of analyzing protocol's security. First, a mathematical model of BAN-Yahalom protocol is constructed. Second, penetrators' abilities are restricted with a rigorous and formalized definition. Moreover, to increase the security of this protocol against potential attackers in practice, a further improvement is made to the protocol. Future application of this re-improved protocol is also discussed.

  10. Fast and easy protocol for the purification of recombinant S-layer protein for synthetic biology applications

    KAUST Repository

    Norville, Julie E.

    2011-06-17

    A goal of synthetic biology is to make biological systems easier to engineer. One of the aims is to design, with nanometer-scale precision, biomaterials with well-defined properties. The surface-layer protein SbpA forms 2D arrays naturally on the cell surface of Lysinibacillus sphaericus, but also as the purified protein in solution upon the addition of divalent cations. The high propensity of SbpA to form crystalline arrays, which can be simply controlled by divalent cations, and the possibility to genetically alter the protein, make SbpA an attractive molecule for synthetic biology. To be a useful tool, however, it is important that a simple protocol can be used to produce recombinant wild-type and modified SbpA in large quantities and in a biologically active form. The present study addresses this requirement by introducing a mild and non-denaturing purification protocol to produce milligram quantities of recombinant, active SbpA.

  11. A protocol to convert spatial polyline data to network formats and applications to world urban road networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karduni, Alireza; Kermanshah, Amirhassan; Derrible, Sybil

    2016-06-21

    The study of geographical systems as graphs, and networks has gained significant momentum in the academic literature as these systems possess measurable and relevant network properties. Crowd-based sources of data such as OpenStreetMaps (OSM) have created a wealth of worldwide geographic information including on transportation systems (e.g., road networks). In this work, we offer a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) protocol to transfer polyline data into a workable network format in the form of; a node layer, an edge layer, and a list of nodes/edges with relevant geographic information (e.g., length). Moreover, we have developed an ArcGIS tool to perform this protocol on OSM data, which we have applied to 80 urban areas in the world and made the results freely available. The tool accounts for crossover roads such as ramps and bridges. A separate tool is also made available for planar data and can be applied to any line features in ArcGIS.

  12. Applications of a hologram watermarking protocol: aging-aware biometric signature verification and time validity check with personal documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

    2003-06-01

    Our paper addresses two issues of a biometric authentication algorithm for ID cardholders previously presented namely the security of the embedded reference data and the aging process of the biometric data. We describe a protocol that allows two levels of verification, combining a biometric hash technique based on handwritten signature and hologram watermarks with cryptographic signatures in a verification infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of a Trusted Central Public Authority (TCPA), which serves numerous Enrollment Stations (ES) in a secure environment. Each individual performs an enrollment at an ES, which provides the TCPA with the full biometric reference data and a document hash. The TCPA then calculates the authentication record (AR) with the biometric hash, a validity timestamp, and a document hash provided by the ES. The AR is then signed with a cryptographic signature function, initialized with the TCPA's private key and embedded in the ID card as a watermark. Authentication is performed at Verification Stations (VS), where the ID card will be scanned and the signed AR is retrieved from the watermark. Due to the timestamp mechanism and a two level biometric verification technique based on offline and online features, the AR can deal with the aging process of the biometric feature by forcing a re-enrollment of the user after expiry, making use of the ES infrastructure. We describe some attack scenarios and we illustrate the watermarking embedding, retrieval and dispute protocols, analyzing their requisites, advantages and disadvantages in relation to security requirements.

  13. A protocol to convert spatial polyline data to network formats and applications to world urban road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karduni, Alireza; Kermanshah, Amirhassan; Derrible, Sybil

    2016-06-01

    The study of geographical systems as graphs, and networks has gained significant momentum in the academic literature as these systems possess measurable and relevant network properties. Crowd-based sources of data such as OpenStreetMaps (OSM) have created a wealth of worldwide geographic information including on transportation systems (e.g., road networks). In this work, we offer a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) protocol to transfer polyline data into a workable network format in the form of; a node layer, an edge layer, and a list of nodes/edges with relevant geographic information (e.g., length). Moreover, we have developed an ArcGIS tool to perform this protocol on OSM data, which we have applied to 80 urban areas in the world and made the results freely available. The tool accounts for crossover roads such as ramps and bridges. A separate tool is also made available for planar data and can be applied to any line features in ArcGIS.

  14. Development of a standardized protocol for reproducible generation of matured monocyte-derived dendritic cells suitable for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, H R; Noll, T

    2003-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the generation of dendritic cells (DC) for cancer immunotherapy. In order to utilize DC in clinical trials it is necessary to have standardized, reproducible and easy to use protocols. We describe here the process development for the generation of DC as the result of investigation of culture conditions as well as consumption rates of medium and cytokines. Our studies demonstrate that highly viable DC (93 +/- 2%) can be produced from CD14(+) enriched monocytes via immunomagnetic beads in a high yield (31 +/- 6%) with X-VIVO 15, 400 U ml(-1) GM-CSF and 2000 U ml(-1) IL-4 without serum and feeding. For the maturation of DC different cocktails (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha, PGE(2)) were compared. In both cases cells expressed typical surface molecules of mature DC and induced high proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte reactions which led to IFN-gamma producing T-lymphocytes. The data suggest that the use of this optimized, easy to use protocol results in highly mature DC.

  15. Design of the Network Monitoring Applications Using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol with Early Warning System and Network Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazam Nugroho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP adalah sebuah protokol yang digunakan untuk kebutuhan monitoring pada jaringan komputer. Dalam bekerja, SNMP terdiri dari Network Management Station (NMS atau manager dan SNMP agent. NMS berfungsi sebagai mesin pengolahan informasi dari perangkat-perangkat jaringan yang dipantau (yang disebut sebagai SNMP agent. SNMP agent  terimplementasi  pada manageable node seperti router, server, dan perangkat jaringan lainnya.Pada periode sebelumnya,di Laboratorium Jaringan Telekomunikasi Jurusan Teknik Elektro ITS telah dibuat tiga sistem monitoring jaringan, yaitu network monitor yang dilengkapi dengan database, sistem peringatan dini, dan pemetaan jaringan (Network Mapping. Ketiga sistem ini masih berdiri sendiri, sehingga perlu dilakukan integrasi agar didapat suatu sistem yang memiliki fungsi lengkap.Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan perancangan dan pembuatan suatu Network Monitoring System yang merupakan integrasi antara Network Monitoring, Network Mapping, dan Sistem Peringatan Dini.

  16. Quercetin-imprinted chromatographic sorbents revisited: optimization of synthesis and rebinding protocols for application to natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Antonelle; Mespouille, Laetitia; Blankert, Bertrand; Trouillas, Patrick; Surin, Mathieu; Dubois, Philippe; Duez, Pierre

    2014-10-17

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) based on quercetin and synthesized by either bulk, precipitation or suspension polymerization were characterized in terms of size and shape by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After a study of rebinding protocols, the optimal materials were evaluated as sorbents for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to confirm the presence of imprinted cavities and to assess their selectivity. Besides quercetin, other structurally related natural compounds, naringenin, daidzein and curcumin, were employed for selectivity tests of MIPs. Although rebinding protocols previously described for such MIPs are typically based on binding, washing and eluting methanol-based solutions, we show that this highly polar solvent leads to weak specific interactions (imprinting factor2.4). This calls for reviewing most of previously published data on quercetin-MIPs; in proper binding conditions, published MIPs may prove more performing than initially assessed. As expected, tested MIPs exhibited the highest selective rebinding towards quercetin template (imprinting effect, quercetin, 3.41; naringenin, 1.54; daidzein, 1.38; curcumin, 1.67); the differences in selectivity between quercetin analogues were explained by the ligand geometries and H-bonding patterns obtained from quantum-chemical calculations. The evaluation of MIPs under identical analytical conditions allowed investigating the effect of the production method on chromatographic performances. The MIPs in bead materials (for quercetin, peak width, 0.69; number of theoretical plates, 143; symmetry factor, 2.22) provided a significant improvement in chromatographic efficiency over the bulk materials (for quercetin, peak width, 1.25; number of theoretical plates, 115; symmetry factor, 2.92). Using the quercetin-beaded MIP as SPE sorbent, quercetin was selectively extracted from Allium cepa L. extract. The MIP

  17. Application of MQTT Protocol to Instant Communicationin Mobile Internet%MQTT协议在移动互联网即时通信中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马跃; 孙翱; 贾军营; 孙建伟; 于碧辉; 杨雪华

    2016-01-01

    移动互联网下的即时通信应用现今已经成为人们日常沟通必不可少的工具,然而作为其开发基础的即时通信协议却始终没有一个统一的标准,已有的即时通信协议都不能够很好的适应移动互联网网络环境不稳定,低带宽高延迟,设备计算能力差等特点.MQTT协议作为一种基于发布/订阅模型的轻量级消息传输协议,在移动平台具有节省流量和能耗,可扩展性强的优点.本文首先介绍了当前一些主流的即时通信协议,指出了它们在移动互联网环境下存在哪些缺陷;之后研究了MQTT协议的消息格式与使用方式,并与已有的即时通信协议进行了对比;最后基于MQTT协议,对即时通信应用的两项核心功能IM和Presence进行了设计和实现,并经过测试表明使用MQTT协议能够在移动互联网环境下提供比传统即时通信协议更少的带宽耗费和更良好的用户体验.%Instant communication applications in Mobile Internet have become an indispensable part for people's daily communication nowadays. The real-time communication protocol, which is the basis for the development of instant communication applications, however, has no unified standard. The existing real-time communication protocols are not able to perfectly adapt to mobile Internet, which has a constrained network environment with the characteristics of low-bandwidth, limited processing capabilities and high latency. MQTT is a publish/subscribe based, extremely simple and lightweight messaging protocol, whose design principle is to minimize the network bandwidth and device resource requirements. This article first introduces some existing mainstream instant communication protocols and points out their shortcomings in mobile Internet environment. The second part introduces MQTT protocol briefly and studies the format and interaction process of MQTT message. Finally, based on MQTT, the article puts forward an implementation of IM and

  18. Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichon, N; Rapp, B; Denoziere, M; Daures, J; Ostrowsky, A; Bordy, J-M

    2013-05-07

    Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol.

  19. Smoke and mirrors: the Kyoto Protocol and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is considered a necessary first step toward an effective future climate accord. As argued in this paper, however, the protocol will likely fail because it has too many loopholes, inadequate governance structures, and insufficient compliance provisions. This view is supported by ca

  20. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  1. Application of Induced Containment Therapy with adapted protocol for home care and its contributions to the motor condition and patient rehabilitation after encephalic vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tonús

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Encephalic Vascular Accident (EVA is among the most important diseases that cause physical and functional limitations. Hemiplegia is the most common physical changes post-EVA, as compromises the upper and lower limbs at the same side of the body, characterized by a rigid pattern of the flexor muscles of the upper limb and the extensor muscles of the lower limb. The Induced Containment Therapy has been a major rehabilitation technique recently aiming to promote functional improvement of the hemiplegic limb of those who suffered EVA and enable performance and quality of life of the individual. Objective: This study aimed to identify the possible contributions of Induced Containment Therapy using a protocol adapted to technique application to the hemiplegic limb. Moreover, this research points out the influence of the environment interventions, which on the present study, occurred in the participant’s home. Method: this is a case study with exploratory feature. Results and Conclusion: The results indicated improvements in functional ability at the time of execution of the tasks and increased use of hemiplegic limb, increasing motor performance after applying the Induced Containment Therapy adapted protocol compared to the start of treatment

  2. The measurement and analysis of normal incidence solar UVB radiation and its application to the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis at the Dead Sea, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-01-01

    The broad-band normal incidence UVB beam radiation has been measured at Neve Zohar, Dead Sea basin, using a prototype tracking instrument composed of a Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The diffuse and beam fraction of the solar global UVB radiation have been determined using the concurrently measured solar global UVB radiation. The diffuse fraction was observed to exceed 80% throughout the year. The application of the results of these measurements to the possible revision of the photoclimatherapy protocol for psoriasis patients at the Dead Sea medical spas is now under investigation. The suggested revision would enable the sun-exposure treatment protocol to take advantage of the very high diffuse fraction by allowing the patient to receive the daily dose of UVB radiation without direct exposure to the sun, viz. receive the diffuse UVB radiation under a sunshade. This would require an increase in sun-exposure time intervals, as the UVB radiation intensity beneath a sunshade is less than that on an exposed surface.

  3. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  4. Is journalism failing on climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  5. Treatment for TMD with occlusal splint and electromyographic control: application of the FARC protocol in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira e Silva, Carolina A; da Silva, Marco Antônio M Rodrigues; Melchior, Melissa de Oliveira; de Felício, Cláudia Maria; Sforza, Chiarella; Tartaglia, Gianluca M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply Functional Anatomy Research Center (FARC) Protocol of TMD treatment, which includes the use of a specific type of mandibular occlusal splint, adjusted based on the electromyographic index, in a group of 15 patients with disc displacement, classified according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and then analyzing the results compared with the control group. The clinical evaluations were completed both before and after the treatment. Electromyographic (EMG) data was collected and recorded on the day the splint was inserted (visit 1), after one week (visit 2) and after five weeks of treatment (visit 3). The control group consisted of 15 asymptomatic subjects, according to the same diagnostic criteria (RDC/TMD), who were submitted to the same evaluations with the same interval periods as the treatment group. Immediately after splint adjustment, masseter muscle symmetry and total muscular activity were significantly different with than without the splint (p < 0.05), showing an increased neuromuscular coordination. After treatment, significant variations (p < .05) were found in mouth opening and in pain remission. There were no significant differences among the three sessions, either with or without the splint. There were significant differences between the TMD and control groups for all analyzed indices of muscular symmetry, activity and torque, with the exception of total muscular activity. The use of the splint promoted balance of the EMG activities during its use, relieving symptoms. EMG parameters identified neuromuscular imbalance, and allowed an objective analysis of different phases of TMD treatment, differentiating individuals with TMD from the asymptomatic subjects.

  6. Analysing ZigBee Key Establishment Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Yüksel, Ender

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we present our approach for protocol analysis together with a real example where we find an important flow in a contemporary wireless sensor network security protocol. We start by modelling protocols using a specific process algebraic formalism called LySa process calculus. We then apply an analysis based on a special program analysis technique called control flow analysis. We apply this technique to the ZigBee-2007 End-to-End Application Key Establishment Protocol and with the help of the analysis discover an unknown flaw. Finally we suggest a fix for the protocol, and verify that the fix works by using the same technique.

  7. Security Analysis of Broadcaster Group Key Exchange Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Huanguo

    2006-01-01

    Group key exchange protocols are basic protocols to provide privacy and integrity in secure group communication. This paper discusses the security of one type of group key exchange protocols and defines the kind of protocols as broadcaster group protocols. It points out two attacks on this kind of protocols. The first attack can be avoided by using fresh values in each action during one session of the group protocol. The second attack should be related with concrete application. It also proposes a dynamic key agreement protocol as an example of solutions at the last part of the paper.

  8. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  9. Study Protocol on Ecological Momentary Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life using a Smartphone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mareva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a construct of increasing importance in modern healthcare, and has typically been assessed using retrospective instruments. While such measures have been shown to have predictive utility for clinical outcomes, several cognitive biases associated with human recall and current mood state may undermine their validity and reliability. Retrospective tools can be further criticized for their lack of ecology, as individuals are usually assessed in less natural settings such as hospitals and health centers, and may be obliged to spend time and money travelling to receive assessment. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA is an alternative, as mobile assessment using mobile health (mHealth technology has the potential to minimize biases and overcome many of these limitations. Employing an EMA methodology, we will use a smartphone application to collect data on real-time HRQoL, with an adapted version of the widely used WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. We aim to recruit a total of 420 students from seven different universities across Europe. Participants will be prompted by the application to report their real-time HRQoL over two weeks together with information on mood and current activities. At the end of two weeks, students will complete a retrospective assessment of their HRQoL and provide information about their sleep quality and perceived stress. The psychometric properties of real-time HRQoL will be assessed, including analysis of the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the measure, and compared with retrospective HRQoL responses for the same two-week testing period. Further, we aim to identify factors associated with real-time HRQoL (e.g. mood, activities, the feasibility of the application, and within- and between-person variability in real-time HRQoL. We expect real-time HRQoL to have adequate validity and reliability, and positive responses on the feasibility of using a smartphone application for

  10. Study Protocol on Ecological Momentary Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Using a Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareva, Silvana; Thomson, David; Marenco, Pietro; Estal Muñoz, Víctor; Ott, Caroline V; Schmidt, Barbara; Wingen, Tobias; Kassianos, Angelos P

    2016-01-01

    Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is a construct of increasing importance in modern healthcare, and has typically been assessed using retrospective instruments. While such measures have been shown to have predictive utility for clinical outcomes, several cognitive biases associated with human recall and current mood state may undermine their validity and reliability. Retrospective tools can be further criticized for their lack of ecology, as individuals are usually assessed in less natural settings such as hospitals and health centers, and may be obliged to spend time and money traveling to receive assessment. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative, as mobile assessment using mobile health (mHealth) technology has the potential to minimize biases and overcome many of these limitations. Employing an EMA methodology, we will use a smartphone application to collect data on real-time HRQoL, with an adapted version of the widely used WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. We aim to recruit a total of 450 healthy participants. Participants will be prompted by the application to report their real-time HRQoL over 2 weeks together with information on mood and current activities. At the end of 2 weeks, they will complete a retrospective assessment of their HRQoL and they will provide information about their sleep quality and perceived stress. The psychometric properties of real-time HRQoL will be assessed, including analysis of the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the measure, and compared with retrospective HRQoL responses for the same 2-week testing period. Further, we aim to identify factors associated with real-time HRQoL (e.g., mood, activities), the feasibility of the application, and within- and between-person variability in real-time HRQoL. We expect real-time HRQoL to have adequate validity and reliability, and positive responses on the feasibility of using a smartphone application for routine HRQoL assessment. The direct comparison of real

  11. 合并规制“破产公司抗辩”原则的应用及启示--以英国Kingfisher及Stericycle公司收购案为例%Application and Inspiration of Failing Firm Defense in Merger Control:Based on Kingfisher Acquisition of 30 Former Focus Stores and Stericycle Acquisition of SRCL in UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕; 马海峰

    2015-01-01

    Merger is a path of recovery for failing companies but it might be alleged monopoly. This paper researches how anti-trust organizations regulate merger with Failing Firm Defense based on the cases of acquisitions of UK Kingfisher and Stericy-cle. Thus this paper puts forward the application rules of Failing Firm Defense that on one side antitrust law should add speed-ing process;on the other side aiming failing firm defense antitrust authority should assess the real reasons that lead to failing, preventing purchasers intend to plunges acquired firms into debt by malicious competition which will weaken competition and consumer interests.%合并是濒临破产公司的一条重生之路,但这可能会涉嫌垄断。以英国Kingfisher及Stericycle公司收购案为例,本文探讨反垄断机构如何运用“破产公司抗辩”原则进行合并审查,从而明晰“破产公司抗辩”实施的要点。结论是反垄断法应当增加加速程序的相应规定;对以破产抗辩为理由提出的合并申请,应评估导致一家公司濒临倒闭的真实原因,避免一方恶意竞争导致另一方陷入危机,再以破产公司抗辩为理由而成功购并其竞争对手,最终弱化市场竞争,损害消费者利益。

  12. LOARP: A Low Overhead Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Hasinur Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless communications among underwater sensor nodes enable a large number of scientific, environmental and military applications. For example, autonomous underwater vehicles will enable exploration of deep sea resources and gathering of scientific data for collaborative missions. In order to make underwater applications possible, real-time communication protocols among underwater devices must be enabled. Because of the high attenuation and scattering effect of radio and optical waves, respectively, these underwater devices are based on acoustic wireless technology. The unique characteristics of underwater acoustic channel - such as distance-dependent limited bandwidth and high propagation delays, require new, efficient and reliable communication protocols over multiple hops to network multiple devices which may be either static or mobile. This paper proposes a new low overhead ad hoc routing protocol designed for underwater acoustic sensor network. The protocol performs route discovery when needed in an on-demand manner. It also characterises a route maintenance phase which tries to recover a failed route. Detection of route failure can generate a lot of routing traffic. The proposed protocol tries to minimize this routing traffic by detecting failure in a more intelligent way either by monitoring network data traffic (if present or generating lazy acknowledgements (if necessary. Reducing routing traffic minimizes the chance of packet collisions which in turn increases data packet delivery ratio. The performance of the proposed protocol is measured in terms of network throughput, packet delivery ratio, average endto-end delay and control overhead. The results are compared to those obtained using similar on-demand routing protocols. Simulation results show that the reduction of routing trafficcan improve the performance of the network.

  13. Wifi, WiMax and LTE multi-hop mesh networks basic communication protocols and application areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hung-Yu; Dixit, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Wifi, WiMAX, and Cellular Multihop Networks presents an overview of WiFi-based and WiMAX-based multihop relay networks. As the first text to cover IEEE 802.16j multihop hop relay technology, this revolutionary resource explores the latest advances in multi-hop and ad-hoc networking. Not only does this reference provide the technological aspects, but also the applications for the emerging technology and architectural issues. Ranging from introductory material to advanced topics, this guidebook, plus PowerPoint slides, is essential for engineers, researchers, and students interested in

  14. TinyCoAP: A Novel Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP Implementation for Embedding RESTful Web Services in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on TinyOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Calveras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design and implementation of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP for TinyOS, which we refer to as TinyCoAP. CoAP seeks to apply the same application transfer paradigm and basic features of HTTP to constrained networks, while maintaining a simple design and low overhead. The design constraints of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs require special attention in the design process of the CoAP implementation. We argue that better performance and minimal resource consumption can be achieved developing a native library for the operating system embedded in the network. TinyOS already includes in its distribution an implementation of CoAP called CoapBlip. However, this is based on a library not originally designed to meet the requirements of TinyOS. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by a comprehensive performance evaluation. In particular, we test and evaluate TinyCoAP and CoapBlip in a real scenario, as well as solutions based on HTTP. The evaluation is performed in terms of latency, memory occupation, and energy consumption. Furthermore, we evaluate the reliability of each solution by measuring the goodput obtained in a channel affected by Rayleigh fading. We also include a study on the effects that high workloads have on a server.

  15. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...... of communication protocols. With it, partners can suggest a new protocol by sending its specification. After formally verifying the specification, each partner generates an implementation, which can then be used for establishing communication. We also present a practical realisation of the Protocol Implementation...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....

  16. WSN应用层协议MQTT-SN与CoAP的剖析与改进%Analysis and Improvement of WSN Application Layer Protocol MQTT-SN and CoAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旖; 张美平; 许力

    2015-01-01

    For the problem that WSN needs a suitable application layer communication protocol, this paper analyzes two kinds of mainstream WSN application layer communication protocols MQTT-SN and CoAP and gives the corresponding improvement schemes. By analyzing the design concept and working mechanism of these two application layer communication protocol, this paper shows the protocol performance and the differences among applicable scenarios. Using the CoAP advantages, we further improve the MQTT-SN scheme to make it is suitable for the P2P communication and the blockwise data transmission.%针对WSN网络通讯中急需适合其特点的应用层通讯协议的问题,剖析了两种主流的WSN应用层通讯协议并做出改进。通过剖析应用层通讯协议MQTT-SN与CoAP的设计理念与工作机制,展示了协议性能与适用的场景的差异。借助CoAP的优点进一步提出了MQTT-SN的改进方案,使之适合于点对点通讯与大块数据传输的情况。

  17. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use of...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  18. Development of a protocol for selection of genes fit for the in vivo knockdown method and its application to insulin receptor substrate genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mikako; Kakutani, Yukari; Kaburagi, Misako; Funabashi, Hisakage; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Prediabetes model mice in which more than one gene associated with diabetes is knocked down simultaneously are potentially useful for pharmaceutical and medical studies of diabetes. However, the effective conditions for sufficient knockdown in vivo are dependent on the intrinsic properties of the target genes. It is necessary to investigate which genes are applicable or not to the in vivo knockdown method. In this study, insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (Irs-1, Irs-2) were selected as target genes. Effective siRNAs against the respective genes were designed, and their efficacy was confirmed by cell-based experiments. Based on the results of siRNAs, shRNA expression vectors against Irs-1 and Irs-2 were constructed, respectively. Their efficacy was also confirmed by cell-based experiments. A hydrodynamic method was applied to the delivery of the vectors to mice. This method was found to be effective for predominant delivery to the liver by demonstrative delivery of an EGFP expression vector and successive histochemical analysis. Fifty micrograms of the shRNA expression vector was injected into the tail vein. After 24 h, the liver, pancreas, and muscle were isolated, and the expression levels of Irs-1 and Irs-2 were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the liver, Irs-2 was effectively knocked down to 60% of the control level, but Irs-1 was not influenced even under the same conditions. The protocol developed here is feasible for the selection of genes fit for in vivo knockdown method.

  19. A modified protocol for RNA isolation from high polysaccharide containing Cupressus arizonica pollen. Applications for RT-PCR and phage display library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico de Coaña, Yago; Parody, Nuria; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Alonso, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    RNA isolation is the first step in the study of gene expression and recombinant protein production. However, the isolation of high quantity and high-quality RNA from tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides has proven to be a difficult process. Cupressus arizonica pollen, in addition to containing high polysaccharide levels, is a challenging starting material for RNA isolation due to the roughness of the pollen grain's walls. Here, we describe an improved technique for RNA isolation from C. arizonica pollen grains. The protocol includes a special disruption and homogenization process as well as a two-step modified RNA isolation technique which consists of an acid phenol extraction followed by a final cleanup using a commercial kit. Resulting RNA proved to be free of contaminants as determined by UV spectrophotometry. The quality of the RNA was analyzed on a bioanalyzer and showed visible 25S and 18S bands. This RNA was successfully used in downstream applications such as RT-PCR and phage display library construction.

  20. A Comparison Between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol: Session Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Haj Aliwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many multimedia conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications have been developed due to the use of signaling protocols in providing video, audio and text chatting services between at least two participants. This paper compares between two widely common signaling protocols: InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX and the extension of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (Jingle in terms of delay time during call setup, call teardown, and media sessions.

  1. 多源交互式应用层组播路由协议%Multi-Source Interactive Application Layer Multicast Routing Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建敏; 陆慧梅; 曹元大

    2011-01-01

    Application layer multicast (ALM) without expanding the basic underlying network can support greater range of multicast communications, which makes it a popular mechanism for multicast applications.However, compared with the traditional IP multicast, ALM has larger network delay and the node stability is poor, which makes it become a unique and challenging problem to implement multi-source interactive multicast application.In this paper, an ALM protocol called Thunder is proposed.According to the roles of members in the group, Thunder divides the interactive group into core-network and peripheral-tree.The core-network consists of the multicast data sources.By using Mesh-Tree structure, it constructs an optimal distribution tree for each data source and pursues fast forwarding to optimize the interactive process.The peripherals-tree is a tree structure composed by the unstable members which just receive data or only produce a small amount of data.Additionally,Peripherals-tree structure allows more members to receive multicast data.Those unstable nodes will not influence the interaction process of core-network, so the response speed and the protocol scalability of the interactive process are improved.Experiments demonstrate that Thunder can decrease network delay of interactive ALM and improve the scalability, which makes the multi-source interactive multicast applications be deployed and implemented more easily.%应用层组播无需扩充底层基础网络就可以实现较大范围的组播通信,已成为倍受瞩目的组播实现机制.但相对于传统的IP组播,应用层组播的网络延迟大,节点稳定性差,使得采用应用层组播来实现多源交互式组播应用成为一个独特的具有挑战性的问题.Thunder协议将组播结构分为核心网和外围树两部分:核心网通过Mesh-Tree结构追求快速转发以优化交互式过程;外围树允许更多的成员接收组播数据,却不会对交互过程产生影响,可提高协议

  2. Implementation and application of HTTP protocol and JSON format in ZStack%HTTP协议与JSON格式在ZStack中的实现与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少军; 过丹婷; 刘守印

    2016-01-01

    TI ZStack ,a protocol stack up to ZigBee standard ,focused on building low power ,low rate wirelss sensor network(WSN) .Aiming at it’s not direct access to the Internet ,the application of HTTP protocal in ZStack is provided .Firstly ,With the aid of the network chip ENC28J60 ,uIP protocal is ported to the ZStack providing the ZigBee easy access to the internet .Secondly ,encapsulating the TCP client mode in the uIP protocol stack realizes the POST requirement in the HTTP protocal .JSON markup language widely used in the internet is adopted to transfer data to the PC datebase so the simple and effective communication is ensured .Finally ,with the use of this program collecting temperature and humility and transfer the related data to backstage ,and realize the real‐time data curve drawing of temperature and humidity and displaying of ZigBee network topology .%ZStack是TI公司推出的符合ZigBee标准的协议栈,专注于构建低功耗、低速率的无线传感器网络。针对该协议栈无法直接接入互联网,提出了HTTP协议在ZStack中的应用方案。首先通过以太网芯片ENC28J60将uIP协议栈移植到ZStack中,实现了ZigBee网络便捷接入互联网;其次对 uIP协议栈中的 TCP客户端模式进行封装,实现了HTTP协议的POST请求,采用互联网中通用的JSON标记语言传输数据到PC数据库,保证了通信的简单高效;最后采用此方案采集温湿度信息并传输到后台,在WEB端实现温湿度曲线的实时绘制与ZigBee网络的拓扑显示。

  3. A Survey of RFID Authentication Protocols Based on Hash-Chain Method

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan; Chang, Elizabeth; Han, Song; 10.1109/ICCIT.2008.314

    2010-01-01

    Security and privacy are the inherent problems in RFID communications. There are several protocols have been proposed to overcome those problems. Hash chain is commonly employed by the protocols to improve security and privacy for RFID authentication. Although the protocols able to provide specific solution for RFID security and privacy problems, they fail to provide integrated solution. This article is a survey to closely observe those protocols in terms of its focus and limitations.

  4. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  5. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  6. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  7. Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers contemporary "moral panics" around the underachievement of boys in school examinations in the UK and America. In the UK, in particular, the underachievement of boys is central to current "crisis accounts" about falling standards and failing pupils. "Underachievement" is a familiar word to those…

  8. Understanding Failing Schools: Perspectives from the Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidou, Maria; Ainscow, Mel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of so-called "failing schools" in order to develop understandings that can inform improvement efforts. It reports on a study of the experiences of a small number of English primary schools placed in "special measures" as a result of being inspected. The study is unusual in that, in the past, researchers have…

  9. Optimization on BitTorrent Protocol for Video Application%面向视频应用的BitTorrent协议优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏宁; 鱼滨; 杨力

    2015-01-01

    BitTorrent protocol is a file sharing protocol based on P2P (Peer to Peer),with"the more users the download faster" feature. It reflects the superiority of the system especially for large files. In recent years,video media streams are a class file that the most amounts of Internet users occupied. With the further increase of consumer bandwidth,more and more people want to get the multimedia applica-tions such as video on demand. The traditional C/S architecture,when a sharp increase is conducted in the number of users,prone to over-load the server,using the server cluster or distributed system to cause the cost increases. BitTorrent can better reduce server load and im-prove the scalability and robustness of the system. But BitTorrent is designed for ordinary share large files,selecting the file fragments are disorder conduction,and cannot effectively support on-demand and live video for large files. In this paper,for video-on-demand needs of large files,fragment selection algorithm is optimized of BitTorrent protocol,realizing on-demand and live of video files.%BitTorrent协议是一种基于P2P(Peer to Peer)的文件共享协议,具有"用户越多,下载速度越快"的特点,尤其是针对大文件的下载,更能体现出系统的优越性.视频媒体流是近年来网络用户占有量最多的一类文件,随着消费者带宽的进一步增加,越来越多的人希望得到像视频点播这样的多媒体应用.传统的C/S架构在当用户数目急剧增加时,容易产生服务器过载现象,使用服务器集群或分布式系统成本增大.BitTorrent能够较好地降低服务器负担,提高系统的扩展性和健壮性.但是BitTorrent针对普通大文件的共享设计,对文件的片段选择是无序进行的,不能有效地支持视频大文件的点播和直播.文中针对视频大文件的点播需求,对BitTorrent协议的片段选择算法进行优化,实现了视频文件的点播和直播.

  10. Research on Protocol Migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  11. Symmetric cryptographic protocols for extended millionaires' problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShunDong; WANG DaoShun; DAI YiQi

    2009-01-01

    Yao's millionaires' problem is a fundamental problem in secure multiparty computation, and its solutions have become building blocks of many secure multiparty computation solutions. Unfortunately,most protocols for millionaires' problem are constructed based on public cryptography, and thus are inefficient. Furthermore, all protocols are designed to solve the basic millionaires' problem, that is,to privately determine which of two natural numbers is greater. If the numbers are real, existing solutions do not directly work. These features limit the extensive application of the existing protocols. This study introduces and refines the first symmetric cryptographic protocol for the basic millionaires' problem, and then extends the symmetric cryptographic protocol to privately determining which of two real numbers is greater, which are called the extended millionaires' problem, and proposes corresponding Constructed based on symmetric cryptography, these protocols are very efficient.

  12. Topological Design of Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur; Wozniakowski, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We give a topological simulation for tensor networks that we call the two-string model. In this approach we give a new way to design protocols, and we discover a new multipartite quantum communication protocol. We introduce the notion of topologically compressed transformations. Our new protocol can implement multiple, non-local compressed transformations among multi-parties using one multipartite resource state.

  13. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  14. A new protocol for evaluating putative causes for multiple variables in a spatial setting, illustrated by its application to European cancer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Robert R; Oden, Neal L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Thomson, Barbara A

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a statistical protocol for analyzing spatially varying data, including putative explanatory variables. The procedures comprise preliminary spatial autocorrelation analysis (from an earlier study), path analysis, clustering of the resulting set of path diagrams, ordination of these diagrams, and confirmatory tests against extrinsic information. To illustrate the application of these methods, we present incidence and mortality rates of 31 organ- and sex-specific cancers in Europe; these rates vary markedly with geography and type of cancer. Additionally, we investigated three factors (ethnohistory, genetics, and geography) putatively affecting these rates. The five variables were correlated separately for the 31 cancers over European reporting stations. We analyzed the correlations by path analysis, k-means clustering, and nonmetric multidimensional scaling; coefficients of the 31 path diagrams modeling the correlations vary substantially. To simplify interpretation, we grouped the diagrams into five clusters, for which we describe the differential effects of the three putative causes on incidence and mortality. When scaled, the path coefficients intergrade without marked gaps between clusters. Ethnic differences make for differences in cancer rates, even when the populations tested are ancient and complex mixtures. Path analysis usefully decomposes a structural model involving effects and putative causes, and estimates the magnitude of the model's components. Smooth intergradation of the path coefficients suggests the putative causes are the results of multiple forces. Despite this continuity of the path diagrams of the 31 cancers, clustering offers a useful segmentation of the continuum. Etiological and other extrinsic information on the cancers map significantly into the five clusters, demonstrating their epidemiological relevance.

  15. Study on characteristics of base isolation system with fail-safe devices. ; Fundamental dynamic characteristic of fail-safe devices. Menshin sochi no fail-safe kiko ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Fail-safe sochi no kihon dotokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramura, A.; Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, T.; Nohata, A.; Tsunoda, T.; Okada, H.; Yasui, Y. (Obayashi, Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-10

    This study describes fail-safe mechanisms to be built in the laminated rubber base isolation devices for the purpose of developing a base isolation system necessary for the application to nuclear fuel facilities. There are two types of fail-safe devices developed in the fundamental study; a landing type on which the bottom of the building is supported and a stopper type for restricting excessive development. The basic characteristics of these devices were investigated through static and dynamic fundamental tests and input of earthquake force on a shaking table. As a result of these tests and analyses, it was proved that the whole restoring force characteristics of the two types of fail-safe devices were almost the same as expected, and their earthquake response characteristics met the initially designed performance. Moreover, it was shown that they prevent buckling of rubber bearings under input of excessive earthquake forces and consequently enhance safety of superstructures of the buildings. 4 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.

  17. Transfemoral amputation after failed knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfriedsen, Tinne B; Morville Schrøder, Henrik; Odgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfemoral amputation is considered the last treatment option for failed knee arthroplasty. The extent to which this procedure is performed is not well known. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and causes of amputation following failure of knee arthroplasty...... in a nationwide population. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Patient Register, and the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register. With use of individual data linkage, 92,785 primary knee arthroplasties performed from 1997 to 2013 were identified. Of these, 258...... for causes related to failed knee arthroplasty. The 15-year cumulative incidence of amputation was 0.32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23% to 0.48%). The annual incidence of amputation following arthroplasties performed from 1997 to 2002 was 0.025% compared with 0.018% following arthroplasties performed...

  18. Questions encountered in the application of emergency rescue protocol for safety production of building engineering and countermeasures%建筑工程安全应急预案应用中的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻泉

    2009-01-01

    Based upon introduction of the matters deserving attention in the application of emergency rescue protocol for safety production of building engineering the questions encountered in the application of emergency rescue protocol for safety production of building engineering in our country at present are summarized, at the same time corresponding countermeasures are proposed in order to rescue in time and reduce loses and casualty after accident.%在阐述建筑工程安全生产应急救援预案过程中应注意事项的基础上,总结归纳了我国目前安全生产应急救援预案在实际应用中存在的问题,并针对性地提出应对措施,从而在事故发生后及时救援,减少损失,降低人员伤亡.

  19. Extensions Application of 802.1x Standard and Radius Protocol%浅谈802.1x标准和Radius协议的扩展应用问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝彦峰

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the 802.1x standard and the Radius protocol application problems are introduced, such problems after the expansion of the corresponding method.%本文重点就802.1x标准和Radius协议的应用中存在的问题进行介绍,后就此类问题提出相应的扩展方法。

  20. A rapid and versatile combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol and its application to the analysis of a novel DNA marker set polymorphic between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Landsberg erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland George

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many established PCR-based approaches in plant molecular biology rely on lengthy and expensive methods for isolation of nucleic acids. Although several rapid DNA isolation protocols are available, they have not been tested for simultaneous RNA isolation for RT-PCR applications. In addition, traditional map-based cloning technologies often use ill-proportioned marker regions even when working with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where the availability of the full genome sequence can now be exploited for the creation of a high-density marker systems. Results We designed a high-density polymorphic marker set between two frequently used ecotypes. This new polymorphic marker set allows size separation of PCR products on agarose gels and provides an initial resolution of 10 cM in linkage mapping experiments, facilitated by a rapid plant nucleic acid extraction protocol using minimal amounts of A. thaliana tissue. Using this extraction protocol, we have also characterized segregating T-DNA insertion mutations. In addition, we have shown that our rapid nucleic acid extraction protocol can also be used for monitoring transcript levels by RT-PCR amplification. Finally we have demonstrated that our nucleic acid isolation method is also suitable for other plant species, such as tobacco and barley. Conclusion To facilitate high-throughput linkage mapping and other genomic applications, our nucleic acid isolation protocol yields sufficient quality of DNA and RNA templates for PCR and RT-PCR reactions, respectively. This new technique requires considerably less time compared to other purification methods, and in combination with a new polymorphic PCR marker set dramatically reduces the workload required for linkage mapping of mutations in A. thaliana utilizing crosses between Col-0 and Landsberg erecta (Ler ecotypes.

  1. The Application of Cytidyl Guanosyl Oligodeoxynucleotide Can Affect the Antitumor Immune Response Induced by a Combined Protocol of Cryoablation and Dendritic Cells in Lewis Lung Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi; Yin, Tianquan; Lu, Yuan; Feng, Huasong

    2016-04-19

    BACKGROUND Recently, several combined therapeutic strategies and targeted agents have been under investigation for their potential role in lung cancer. The combined administration of dendritic cells (DCs) and immune-adjuvant cytidyl guanosyl oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) after cryosurgery has proven to be an effective strategy for treating lung cancer. However, whether the application of CpG-ODN could affect the therapeutic results remained to be further explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Lewis lung cancer (LLC)-bearing mice received cryoablation and injection of ex vivo-cultured DCs into the peritumoral zone. Subsequently, CpG-ODN was administered to experimental animals 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after DC injection. The mice in the control group received coadministration of DCs and CpG-ODN simultaneously. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by survival rates. The resistance to rechallenge of LLC cell was assessed by lung metastasis and in vitro cytotoxicity of splenocytes. Furthermore, T-cell subsets and multiple cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, -10, and-12; interferon [IFN]-γ; tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) in the blood were assessed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS Higher ratios of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were found in the blood of the mice that received CpG-ODN therapy 12 h after DC injection. The cytotoxicity potency of the splenocytes of these mice was significantly higher compared with the mice in other groups. Moreover, the mice receiving CpG-ODN therapy 12 h after DC injection showed significantly better resistance to rechallenge. Compared with the mice in other groups, the mice receiving CpG-ODN therapy 12 h after DC injection were superior in survival rates and antimetastatic effects. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggested that the therapeutic efficacy was closely associated with CpG-ODN administration in the combined therapeutic protocol of cryoablation, DCs, and immune adjuvant. In situ

  2. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  3. International Electronical Committee (IEC 61850 Mapping with Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP in Smart Grids Based European Telecommunications Standard Institute Machine-to-Machine (M2M Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jae Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As power systems develop rapidly into smarter and more flexible configurations, so too must the communication technologies that support them. Machine-to-machine (M2M communication in power systems enables information collection by combining sensors and communication protocols. In doing so, M2M technology supports communication between machines to improve power quality and protection coordination. When functioning in a “smart grid” environment, M2M has been labelled by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI. International Electronical Committee (IEC 61850 as the most important standard in power network systems. As evidence, this communication platform has been used for device data collection/control in substation automation systems and distribution automation systems. If the IEC 61850 information model were to be combined with a set of contemporary web protocols, the potential benefits would be enormous. Therefore, a constrained application protocol (CoAP has been adopted to create an ETSI M2M communication architecture. CoAP is compared with other protocols (MQTT, SOAP to demonstrate the validity of using it. This M2M communication technology is applied in an IEC61850, and use the OPNET Modeler 17.1 to demonstrate intercompatibility of CoAP Gateway. The proposed IEC 61850 and CoAP mapping scheme reduces the mapping time and improves throughput. CoAP is useful in the ETSI M2M environment where device capability is able to be limited.

  4. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Mittal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same infrastructure. IPTV is not the Internet Video that simply allows users to watch videos, like movie previews and web-cams, over the Internet in a best effort fashion. IPTV technology offers revenue-generating opportunities for the telecom and cable service providers. For traditional telephone service providers, Triple Play is delivered using a combination of optical fiber and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL technologies to its residential base. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered by using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. In this paper I am trying to discuss this topic as my knowledge, including what is IPTV, how it works, its advantages and its applications

  5. Application Layer Real-time Proactive Defense System Based on Application Layer Protocol Analysis%基于应用层协议分析的应用层实时主动防御系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢柏林; 余顺争

    2011-01-01

    主动防御是当今网络安全研究领域的一个热点,现有的主动防御技术主要从网络层和传输层的角度来防御攻击.由于新出现的网络攻击主要发生在应用层,这类攻击在网络层和传输层的数据流与正常数据流没有显著区别,导致现有的主动防御技术无法有效应对这一类攻击,因此研究有效的应用层主动防御具有重要的意义.文中提出一种基于隐半马尔可夫模型的应用层风险实时评估方法,该方法通过分析网络中的实时数据流来评估应用层风险.基于上述风险实时评估方法和应用层协议分析,提出一种应用层实时主动防御系统,当系统发现用户的应用层协议行为存在风险时,该系统根据用户行为的风险值对其产生的数据包进行排队控制,自动纠正用户的异常行为,实现应用层主动防御.实验结果表明该系统具有良好的实时主动防御性能.%Proactive defense is a prevalent topic in current research field of network security. Existing proactive defense techniques mainly detect attacks from network layer and transport layer. Since most new attacks are based on application layer protocols and don't present significant difference in network traffic, it is difficult for existing proactive defense techniques to effectively detect such application layer attacks without special techniques. Therefore, the research on proactive defense of application layer becomes very important. This paper presents a risk real-time evaluation method for application layer based on hidden semi-Markov model. This method evaluates the application layer risk by analyzing network traffic. Based on this risk evaluation method and application layer protocol analysis, this paper presents a real-time proactive defense system for application layer. When user's behavior is at risk, the system queues the user's packets according to the risk indicator. By this means, the proposed system can automatically

  6. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  7. Multiparty Quantum Cryptographic Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ramzan; M. K. Khan

    2008-01-01

    We propose a multiparty quantum cryptographic protocol. Unitary operators applied by Bob and Charlie, on their respective qubits of a tripartite entangled state encoding a classical symbol that can be decoded at Alice's end with the help of a decoding matrix. Eve's presence can be detected by the disturbance of the decoding matrix. Our protocol is secure against intercept-resend attacks. Furthermore, it is efficient and deterministic in the sense that two classical bits can be transferred per entangled pair of qubits. It is worth mentioning that in this protocol, the same symbol can be used for key distribution and Eve's detection that enhances the effciency of the protocol.

  8. Application of Protocol Analysis Software in Computer Network Teaching%协议分析软件在计算机网络教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏浩; 郭新明

    2012-01-01

    In the process of teaching computer network, the paper introduces protocol analysis software to capture and analyze network protocol packets, describes the interaction of the protocol in detail. The teacher teaches the courses in interesting. The students have a strong perceptual, and can deeply understand network protocol and theory. It improves teaching efficiency and produces a good teaching result.%在计算机网络教学中引入协议分析软件,利用协议分析软件的嗅探功能,捕获和分析网络协议数据包,逐层展现网络的封包格式,详细描述协议交互过程,使讲授过程生动、有趣,使学生对网络协议有较强的感性认识,能深入了解网络协议,深刻理解网络原理,提高了教学效率,取得了良好的教学效果.

  9. Application of RS485 Protocol in Horizontal Impregnating and Drying Production Line%基于RS485协议的通信技术在卧式浸渍干燥生产线中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建利; 宋惠萌

    2014-01-01

    基于底层RS485协议的通信方式以其良好的性价比、极强的通用性在工业现场被广泛采用。本文主要介绍了通过RS485协议的汇川PLC、伺服控制系统在人造板二次加工卧式浸渍干燥生产线中的应用。%With attractive price/quality ratio and the high versatility, the underlying communication mode based on RS485 protocol is widely used in the fieldwork. This paper mainly described the application of the Inovance PLC and servo control system with RS485 protocol in the horizontal impregnating and drying production line.

  10. A Solution to ``Too Big to Fail''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Its a tricky business to reconcile simulations of our galaxys formation with our current observations of the Milky Way and its satellites. In a recent study, scientists have addressed one discrepancy between simulations and observations: the so-called to big to fail problem.From Missing Satellites to Too Big to FailThe favored model of the universe is the lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) cosmological model. This model does a great job of correctly predicting the large-scale structure of the universe, but there are still a few problems with it on smaller scales.Hubble image of UGC 5497, a dwarf galaxy associated with Messier 81. In the missing satellite problem, simulations of galaxy formation predict that there should be more such satellite galaxies than we observe. [ESA/NASA]The first is the missing satellites problem: CDM cosmology predicts that galaxies like the Milky Way should have significantly more satellite galaxies than we observe. A proposed solution to this problem is the argument that there may exist many more satellites than weve observed, but these dwarf galaxies have had their stars stripped from them during tidal interactions which prevents us from being able to see them.This solution creates a new problem, though: the too big to fail problem. This problem states that many of the satellites predicted by CDM cosmology are simply so massive that theres no way they couldnt have visible stars. Another way of looking at it: the observed satellites of the Milky Way are not massive enough to be consistent with predictions from CDM.Artists illustration of a supernova, a type of stellar feedback that can modify the dark-matter distribution of a satellite galaxy. [NASA/CXC/M. Weiss]Density Profiles and Tidal StirringLed by Mihai Tomozeiu (University of Zurich), a team of scientists has published a study in which they propose a solution to the too big to fail problem. By running detailed cosmological zoom simulations of our galaxys formation, Tomozeiu and

  11. Transport Protocol Throughput Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Bhatti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Interest continues to grow in alternative transport protocols to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. These alternatives include protocols designed to give greater efficiency in high-speed, high-delay environments (so-called high-speed TCP variants, and protocols that provide congestion control without reliability. For the former category, along with the deployed base of ‘vanilla’ TCP – TCP NewReno – the TCP variants BIC and CUBIC are widely used within Linux: for the latter category, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP is currently on the IETF Standards Track. It is clear that future traffic patterns will consist of a mix of flows from these protocols (and others. So, it is important for users and network operators to be aware of the impact that these protocols may have on users. We show the measurement of fairness in throughput performance of DCCP Congestion Control ID 2 (CCID2 relative to TCP NewReno, and variants Binary Increase Congestion control (BIC, CUBIC and Compound, all in “out-of-the box” configurations. We use a testbed and endto- end measurements to assess overall throughput, and also to assess fairness – how well these protocols might respond to each other when operating over the same end-to-end network path. We find that, in our testbed, DCCP CCID2 shows good fairness with NewReno, while BIC, CUBIC and Compound show unfairness above round-trip times of 25ms.

  12. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave TV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tarjani Vivek Dave, Faraz Ali Mohammed, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik The Institute of Dacryology, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR. Patients and methods: Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results: Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19 followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16 and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83. The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1 were noted in the external group only. Conclusion: Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. Keywords: failed

  13. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  14. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment for failing dental implants due to peri-implantitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Dawn; Blodgett, Kris; Braga, Charles; Finkbeiner, Larry; Fourrier, Jeanne; George, John; Gregg, Robert; Honigman, Allen; Houser, Bruce; Lamas, William; Lehrman, Neal; Linden, Eric; McCarthy, Delwin; McCawley, Tom; McCormick, Randy; Marcus, Ed; Noraian, Kirk; Rubelman, Peter; Salama, Maurice; Saunders, Steven; Seamons, Brandon; Thein, David; Toms, Michael; Vassos, George; Harris, David M.

    2014-02-01

    A large percentage of dental implants experience complications, most commonly, infection leading to peri-implantitis and peri-mucositis, inflammatory disease involving pathogen contamination. It presents with radiographic findings of crestal bone loss. At this time there appears to be no compelling evidence for an effective intervention. The LANAP protocol is a FDA cleared surgical protocol that produces new attachment and bone regeneration when applied to periodontally infected natural teeth. The LANAP protocol and laser dosimetry have been modified to treat ailing and failing implants. Twenty-one clinicians who have been trained to perform the LANAP protocol and the LAPIPTM protocol have volunteered 26 LAPIP case reports. The time from implant to intervention ranges from 3 months to 16 years. Post-LAPIP radiographs range from 2-48 months. Ten cases were excluded for technical reasons. All 16 remaining cases provide radiographic evidence of increase in crestal bone mass around the implant and, when reported, probe depth reductions. All treating clinicians report control of the infection, reversal of bone loss and rescue of the incumbent implant. Although the success/failure rate cannot be judged from these data, any successes in this area deserve reporting and further study.

  15. Fail-over file transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  16. Adaptive Baud Protocol For Wireless Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Eskafi, F. H.; Nassiri-toussi, K.; G. Liu

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose an algorithm that increases and decreases the transmission speed according to a user-specified function. The design objective is to regulate baud as efficiently as possible and ensure that in each transmission interval, transmitter and receiver bauds are equal for some period of time during data transmission. An equivalent discrete-time version of the protocol is verified by using the COSPAN software. Application for this adaptive baud protocol for wireless ...

  17. Revision of Failed Artroscopic Bankart Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiño, José María Silberberg; Gimenez, Martín Alejandro; Salvucci, Mauro Gabriel Maroa; Ferro, Diego; Rullan, Ramón Muiña

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To present our functional outcomes from patients treated arthroscopically for a failed Bankart repair, using suture anchors and capsulolabral tissue only. Methods: Series of 22 patients presented with a recurrence of instability after a previous stabilization surgery (3 Latarjet, Bankart 19). We treated them by a an all-arthroscopic procedure, avoiding bone grafts, when glenoid track was found to be enough to proceed. The failure was associated with trauma in 11 patients, a non-anatomic repair in 6 patients, capsular laxity in 4 patients and a non-union of the coracoid graft in 1 patient. Revision surgery included: Bankart repair with anchors in 17 cases, a posterior-inferior capsulo-labral plication in one case, and 5 remplissages. In 4 cases subscapularis augmentation was used because of poor capsular quality. Screw removal was necessary when treating the non-union case. Patients were followed-up by a minimum of 23 months (range 23-26), and evaluated by the UCLA Test, SS test and Rowe score. Results: Thirteen patients had an excellent result, 6 good, 2 satisfactory and one bad result, according to UCLA score. The mean Rowe score was 90.4, at final follow up. The Simple Shoulder Test went from an 8 preoperative to an 11 postoperative, mean scores. 19 of 22 patients returned to the same level of activity prior to the injury. Complications: recurrence in 2 cases, subluxation in 2 and one shoulder stiffness that required an arthrolysis. Conclusion: An arthroscopic revision surgery, after a failed Bankart repair, presents satisfactory results in selected patients. Arthroscopic vision allows a correct diagnosis of injuries as possible causes of failure and subsequent treatment.

  18. Salvage arthrodesis for failed total ankle arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Arthur W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has gained popularity in recent years. If it fails, however, salvage arthrodesis must be reliable as a rescue procedure. We therefore investigated the clinical, radiographic, and subjective outcome after salvage arthrodesis in a consecutive group of patients, and concentrated on the influence of the method of fixation on union rate and on salvage in inflammatory joint disease. Patients and methods Between 1994 and 2005, salvage arthrodesis was performed on 18 ankles (18 patients). Diagnosis was inflammatory joint disease (IJD) in 15 cases and osteoarthritis (OA) in 3. Tibio-talar fusion was performed in 7 ankles, and tibio-talocalcaneal fusion in 11. Serial radiographs were studied for time to union. Clinical outcome at latest follow-up was measured by the AOFAS score, the foot function index (FFI) and by VAS scores for pain, function, and satisfaction. Results Blade plates were used in 7 ankles (4 IJD, 3 OA); all united. Nonunion developed in 7 of the 11 rheumatic ankles stabilized by other methods. 11 patients (8 fused ankles, 3 nonunions) were available for clinical evaluation. Their mean AOFAS score was 62 and mean overall FFI was 70. VAS score for pain was 20, for function 64, and for satisfaction 74. The scores were similar in united and non-united ankles. Interpretation Blade plate fixation is successful in salvage arthrodesis for failed TAA. A high nonunion rate was found after salvage ankle arthrodesis in IJD with other methods of fixation. Clinical results were fair to good. PMID:20175648

  19. MILITARY MULTI-HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Military tactical network is one of the most important applications of ad hoc network. Currently the existing routing protocols are put forward based on the simple and universal network model which has the ability of multi-hop routing but cannot work efficiently in the special military applications. The narrow bandwidth and limited energy of the wireless network make general routing protocols seem to be more redundant.In order to satisfy military needs properly, this letter makes a detailed analysis of physical nodes and traffic distribution in military network, uses cross-layer design concept for reference, combines traffic characteristic of application layer with routing protocol design. It categorized routing problem as crucial routes and non-crucial routes which adopted separate maintenance methods. It not only realizes basic transmission function but also works efficiently. It is quite fit for military application.

  20. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  1. Application of hysteroscope in intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity%宫腔镜在宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败诊治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴书仪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of hysteroscope in intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity. Methods Process of hysteroscopic diagnosis and treatment in 21 intrauterine adhesion patients complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity were analyzed. Cure rate of postoperative intrauterine adhesion was provided by clinical follow-up.Results All the 21 cases with intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity were examined by hysteroscope, and underwent hysteroscopic electrotomy+complete curettage of uterine cavity. After surgery, 3-month artificial menstrual cycle treatment was given to the patients. The effective rate of intrauterine adhesion treatment was 71.4%, but the postoperative endometrial thickness did not meet the normal range.Conclusion Hysteroscopic examination is a good way to determine intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity. Hysteroscopic electrotomy+complete curettage of uterine cavity are effective, safe and minimally invasive treatment methods of intrauterine adhesion complicated with missed abortion or fetal tissue remaining after failed complete curettage of uterine cavity.%目的:探讨宫腔镜在宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败诊治中的应用价值。方法分析21例宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败患者经宫腔镜的诊治过程,临床随访术后宫腔粘连的治愈率。结果21例宫腔粘连合并稽留流产或合并妊娠物残留清宫失败患者均经宫腔镜检查明确诊断并行宫腔镜下宫腔粘连切除术+清宫术,术后辅以人工周期治疗3个月,宫腔粘连治疗有效率71.4%,但术后子宫内

  2. Proteomic analysis of membrane microdomains derived from both failing and non-failing human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Cristina; Brioschi, Maura; Wait, Robin; Begum, Shajna; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Fratto, Pasquale; Polvani, Gianluca; Vitali, Ettore; Parolari, Alessandro; Mussoni, Luciana; Tremoli, Elena

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells plasma membranes are organized into microdomains of specialized function such as lipid rafts and caveolae, with a specific lipid composition highly enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. In addition to their role in regulating signal transduction, multiple functions have been proposed, such as anchorage of receptors, trafficking of cholesterol, and regulation of permeability. However, an extensive understanding of their protein composition in human heart, both in failing and non-failing conditions, is not yet available. Membrane microdomains were isolated from left ventricular tissue of both failing (n = 15) and non-failing (n = 15) human hearts. Protein composition and differential protein expression was explored by comparing series of 2-D maps and subsequent identification by LC-MS/MS analysis. Data indicated that heart membrane microdomains are enriched in chaperones, cytoskeletal-associated proteins, enzymes and protein involved in signal transduction pathway. In addition, differential protein expression profile revealed that 30 proteins were specifically up- or down-regulated in human heart failure membrane microdomains. This study resulted in the identification of human heart membrane microdomain protein composition, which was not previously available. Moreover, it allowed the identification of multiple proteins whose expression is altered in heart failure, thus opening new perspectives to determine which role they may play in this disease.

  3. We still fail to account for Mendel's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porteous John W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present article corrects common textbook accounts of Mendel's experiments by re-establishing what he wrote and how he accounted for his observations. It notes the long-established tests for the validity of any explanations that purport to explain observations obtained by experiment. Application of these tests to Mendel's paper shows that the arguments he used to explain his observations were internally consistent but were, on one crucial issue, implausible. The same tests are applied to the currently accepted explanation for Mendel's observations. Conclusions The currently favoured explanation for Mendel's observations is untenable. It misrepresents Mendel, fails to distinguish between the parameters and the variables of any system of interacting components, its arguments are inconsistent, it repeats the implausibility in Mendel's paper, fails to give a rational explanation for his observed 3:1 trait ratio and cannot explain why this ratio is not always observed in experimental practice. A rational explanation for Mendel's observations is initiated. Readers are challenged to complete the process before a further article appears.

  4. Android平台可增量同步的网络应用协议%Incremental Synchronizable Network Application Protocol on Android Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 戴鸿君; 郭凤华; 赵国玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve data synchronization interruption caused by instability of mobile communication network, this paper uses Extensible Markup Language(XML) to design incremental synchronizable network protocol, and tags-bit to record incremental synchronization information. The protocol achieves the incremental synchronization process by coordinating of database and file system to improve the system performance and security. The incremental file transfer technology used in the protocol can improve the efficiency of data synchronization. The network protocol is applied to a dormitory management system on mobile phone with Android. Experimental results show that the system supports transmission interrupt and the reliability of the data synchronization is improved.%针对移动通信网络不稳定所造成的数据同步中断问题,使用可扩展标记语言设计一种可增量同步的网络应用协议,采用标记位方式记录同步执行情况,通过数据库、文件系统的相互配合实现增量同步,以提高系统性能及安全性,并利用增量文件传输技术提高数据同步效率.将该协议用于Android手机宿舍管理系统,结果表明,系统支持传输中断,数据同步的可靠性明显提高.

  5. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  6. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  7. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise......Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification...... implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust....

  8. Fail forward: Mitigating failure in energy research and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    on participant observation and empirical field research in three case companies, the OFEI model is developed to identify inappropriate behaviors that cause energy research and innovation to fail. The OFEI model can be used to give failed (or failing) projects a second chance and the article concludes...

  9. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.52 Section 983.52..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios... committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed...

  10. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  11. Signaling pathways in failing human heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, H; Hasenfuss, G; Holubarsch, C

    1997-07-01

    Experimental studies have delineated important signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes and their alterations in heart failure; however, there is now evidence that these observations are not necessarily applicable to human cardiac muscle cells. For example, angiotensin II (A II) does not exert positive inotropic effects in human ventricular muscle cells, in contrast to observation in rats. Thus, it is important to elucidate cardiac signaling pathways in humans in order to appreciate the functional role of neurohumoral or mechanical stimulation in human myocardium in health and disease. In the present article, we review signal pathways in the failing human heart based on studies in human cardiac tissues and in vivo physiological studies related to A II, nitric oxide, and β-adrenergic stimulation. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997; 7:151-160). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  13. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    the secure computation. Especially we look at the communication complexity of protocols in this model, and perfectly secure protocols. We show general protocols for any finite functionality with statistical security and optimal communication complexity (but exponential amount of preprocessing). And for two......This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  14. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  17. Development of a genome-wide multiple duplex-SSR protocol and its applications for the identification of selfed progeny in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Linglong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum is a herbaceous crop for the cellulosic biofuel feedstock development in the USA and Europe. As switchgrass is a naturally outcrossing species, accurate identification of selfed progeny is important to producing inbreds, which can be used in the production of heterotic hybrids. Development of a technically reliable, time-saving and easily used marker system is needed to quantify and characterize breeding origin of progeny plants of targeted parents. Results Genome-wide screening of 915 mapped microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR markers was conducted, and 842 (92.0% produced clear and scorable bands on a pooled DNA sample of eight switchgrass varieties. A total of 166 primer pairs were selected on the basis of their relatively even distribution in switchgrass genome and PCR amplification quality on 16 tetraploid genotypes. Mean polymorphic information content value for the 166 markers was 0.810 ranging from 0.116 to 0.959. From them, a core set of 48 loci, which had been mapped on 17 linkage groups, was further tested and optimized to develop 24 sets of duplex markers. Most of (up to 87.5% targeted, but non-allelic amplicons within each duplex were separated by more than 10-bp. Using the established duplex PCR protocol, selfing ratio (i.e., selfed/all progeny x100% was identified as 0% for a randomly selected open-pollinated ‘Kanlow’ genotype grown in the field, 15.4% for 22 field-grown plants of bagged inflorescences, and 77.3% for a selected plant grown in a growth chamber. Conclusions The study developed a duplex SSR-based PCR protocol consisting of 48 markers, providing ample choices of non-tightly-linked loci in switchgrass whole genome, and representing a powerful, time-saving and easily used method for the identification of selfed progeny in switchgrass. The protocol should be a valuable tool in switchgrass breeding efforts.

  18. Rethinking low extra delay background transport protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Carofiglio, Giovanna; Rossi, Dario; Testa, Claudio; Valenti, Silvio

    2010-01-01

    BitTorrent has recently introduced LEDBAT, a novel application-layer congestion control protocol for data exchange. The protocol design starts from the assumption that network bottlenecks are at the access of the network, and that thus user traffic competes creating self-inducing congestion. To relieve from this phenomenon, LEDBAT is designed to quickly infer that self-induced congestion is approaching (by detecting relative changes of the one-way delay in the transmission path), and to react by reducing the sending rate prior that congestion occurs. Prior work has however shown LEDBAT to be affected by a latecomer advantage, where newly arriving connections can starve already existing flows. In this work, we propose modifications to the congestion window update mechanism of the LEDBAT protocol that aim at solving this issue, guaranteeing thus intra-protocol fairness and efficiency. Closed-form expressions for the stationary throughput and queue occupancy are provided via a fluid model, whose accuracy is conf...

  19. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  20. Gender differences in electrophysiological gene expression in failing and non-failing human hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Ambrosi

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of human cardiac tissues for study are critically important in increasing our understanding of the impact of gender, age, and other parameters, such as medications and cardiac disease, on arrhythmia susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to compare the mRNA expression of 89 ion channel subunits, calcium handling proteins, and transcription factors important in cardiac conduction and arrhythmogenesis in the left atria (LA and ventricles (LV of failing and nonfailing human hearts of both genders. Total RNA samples, prepared from failing male (n = 9 and female (n = 7, and from nonfailing male (n = 9 and female (n = 9 hearts, were probed using custom-designed Taqman gene arrays. Analyses were performed to explore the relationships between gender, failure state, and chamber expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chamber specific expression patterns, but failed to identify disease- or gender-dependent clustering. Gender-specific analysis showed lower expression levels in transcripts encoding for K(v4.3, KChIP2, K(v1.5, and K(ir3.1 in the failing female as compared with the male LA. Analysis of LV transcripts, however, did not reveal significant differences based on gender. Overall, our data highlight the differential expression and transcriptional remodeling of ion channel subunits in the human heart as a function of gender and cardiac disease. Furthermore, the availability of such data sets will allow for the development of disease-, gender-, and, most importantly, patient-specific cardiac models, with the ability to utilize such information as mRNA expression to predict cardiac phenotype.

  1. Modbus协议在破管检测系统中的应用%Application of Modbus protocol in the detection system of broken pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 王勇

    2014-01-01

    The broken pipe detection system adopts a PIC24F microcontroller(PIC24FJ64GA006) of the Microchip Technology Inc. as the main controller chip. In order to realize communication between the system and the Personal Computer, Modbus communication protocol is used on the basis of RS485 serial port. The implementation and design process of the Modbus communication protocol in the broken pipe detection system are analyzed, and the main flow chart of the software is given. The reading and writing register procedure of Modbus RTU(Remote Terminal Unit) communication protocol is explained, and the Modbus RTU protocol is simplified according to the actual situation so as to effectively improve data transmission and the efficiency of the code. The experimental result shows that the scheme can improve the stability and safety in the process of data transfer.%本破管检测系统采用美国微芯科技公司的 PIC24F单片机(PIC24FJ64GA006)为主控制器芯片。为了实现 PIC24F 和上位机的通信,在 RS485串行通信总线接口基础上,应用了 Modbus通信协议。文中分析了 Modbus协议在破管检测系统中的实现和设计过程,给出了软件的主要功能流程图,阐述了 Modbus RTU(远程终端单元)通信协议读写寄存器过程,并结合实际对 Modbus RTU协议进行相应的裁剪,以有效实现有效数据传输,提高代码运行的效率。实验验证:本协议的实现方案能提高数据传输的稳定性和安全性,已成功运用到破管检测系统中。

  2. The role of central, regional and local administrations in the application of the Kyoto protocol in the forestry sector in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent UNFCCC COP's and national decisions, Italy shall report the net changes in GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (art. 3.3 and forest management (art. 3.4 activities. To assess art. 3.3 activities, Italy will define methods to estimate land use changes occurring after 31 December 1989. The paper considers the key-role that central administration shall have, as well as the role of regional and local administrations in order to solve some specific topics regarding data collection and management issues.

  3. Research of Application Layer Protocol in Electric Vehicle Based on CAN Bus%应用于电动汽车的CAN网络应用层协议研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传义; 吴志新; 刘成晔; 黄学勤

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CAN技术规范和OSI参考模型;从通信内容的确定、标识符分配、消息编码方式、消息调度策略、数据格式定义5个方面考虑,制定了一套适用于电动汽车的CAN网络应用层协议.实际应用表明,采用该协议的CAN总线通信系统有很高的可靠性,通信负载率不超过30%,保证了紧急报文的及时发现和处理.%The CAN technical specifications and OS1 reference model were introduced, and an application layer protocol of CAN network was established for electric vehicle considering five aspects including determination of communication contents, identifier assignment, message encoding, message scheduling strategies and data format define. Practical application result showed that CAN bus communication system adopting the protocol has high reliability and the communication load rate is less than 30%, which ensures timely detection and treatment of emergency messages.

  4. Analysing the fate of nanopesticides in soil and the applicability of regulatory protocols using a polymer-based nanoformulation of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Machinski, Patrick; Koerner, Petra; Tiede, Karen; Grillo, Renato; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, regulatory protocols defined in the OECD guidelines were applied to determine the fate properties of a nanopesticide in two agricultural soils with contrasting characteristics. The nanoformulation studied had no effect on the degradation kinetics of atrazine indicating that (1) the release of atrazine from the polymer nanocarriers occurred rapidly relative to the degradation kinetics (half-lives 36-53 days) and/or that (2) atrazine associated with the nanocarriers was subject to biotic or abiotic degradation. Sorption coefficients, derived from a batch and a centrifugation technique at a realistic soil-to-solution ratio, were higher for the nanoformulated atrazine than for the pure active ingredient. Results indicate that the nanoformulation had an effect on the fate of atrazine. However, since the protocols applied were designed to assess solutes, conclusions about the transport of atrazine loaded onto the nanocarriers should be made extremely cautiously. The centrifugation method applied over time (here over 7 days) appears to be a useful tool to indirectly assess the durability of nanopesticides under realistic soil-to-solution ratios and estimate the period of time during which an influence on the fate of the active ingredient may be expected. More detailed investigations into the bioavailability and durability of nanopesticides are necessary and will require the development of novel methods suitable to address both the "nano" and "organic" characteristics of polymer-based nanopesticides.

  5. Modbus通信协议在地铁FAS/BAS上的应用%Application of Modbus communication protocol in Metro FAS/BAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪建辉; 胡明辉

    2016-01-01

    Modbus通信协议运用于地铁FAS/BAS系统中,需要一种专用设备将只支持Modbus RTU通信模式的设备与支持Modbus TCP通信模式的主控PLC相互通信。本文通过详细分析Modbus RTU模式和Modbus TCP模式的协议格式,实现了Modbus RTU和Modbus TCP的通信数据互连互通,该方法已在上海轨道交通11号线北段二期FAS/BAS项目中成功应用。%The Modbus communication protocol used in Metro FAS/BAS system,a special equipment need support to communicate Modbus RTU equipment with the main control PLC which support Modbus TCP Modbus communication mode. The detailed analysis of Modbus RTU mode and the Modbus TCP model protocol format to realize the communication Modbus RTU mode with Modbus TCP mode. The method has been applied in Shanghai Rail Transit Line 11 North Section phase II FAS/BAS project.

  6. A methodology for analysing temporal changes of forest surface using aerial photos for the application of Kyoto protocol: a study case in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadori I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Italy, like other Parties included in Annex I, shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities (ARD. To evaluate these activities, Italy has to elaborate methods to estimate the conversion of non-forested to forested land, occurred after 31 December 1989. The aim of this study was to test a methodology to estimate the ARD activities. The approach was experimented in the Comunità Montana del Grappa (about 10500 ha considered as a pilot area in the Prealpine region (NE Italy. The land-use change relative to the forest area was assessed by multitemporal classification of 1131 sampling points on orthocorrected aerial photos relative to 1991, 1996 and 1999. The forest area based on different definitions (minimum land cover equal to 10%, 20% or 30% and minimum surface equal to 2000 m2 or 5000 m2 was also assessed. Between 1991 and 1999, the total increment of the forest area was equal to 224 ha. However, the estimated increment was strongly related to the minimum surface (2000 m2 vs 5000 m2 of the forest definition. The proposed procedure was relatively easy to implement and highlighted the role of ARD and revegetation to attain the goals appointed from the Kyoto Protocol.

  7. 基于SNAP的协商过程支持协议设计与实现%SNAP based Negotiation Support Protocol Design and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蚁龙; 刘连臣; 倪晚成

    2008-01-01

    资源共享是解决资源短缺、提高整体生产力的有效方法.基于服务水平合同(Service Level Agreement,SLA)的资源买卖属于以市场经济为基础的资源共享环境.由于目前基于SLA的网上买卖协议(Protocol)没有SLA交易条件协商过程支持.所以系统无法有效地对交易过程提供协商功能.SNAP(Service Negotiation and Acquisition Protocol)是基于SLA的信息协议方案,本文对原来SNAP方案基础上增加交易条件协商过程的描写,并提供具体系统建设使用的方法,最后以"全国贵重与优质教育资源共享"项目为背景进行了的使用验证.

  8. Efficient recovery of whole cell proteins in Oenococcus oeni--a comparison of different extraction protocols for high-throughput malolactic starter applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Caterina; Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Salzano, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we compared different total protein extraction protocols to achieve highly efficient isolation and purification of total proteins for the specific protein profiling of Oenococcus oeni. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns obtained for the different extraction protocols revealed not only a qualitative similar protein pattern but also quantitative variations with different intensity bands depending on the extraction method used. The selected extraction method added with sonication proved to work extremely well and efficiently and was able to obtain a high-resolution 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) map. Prominent spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and corresponded to 76 different proteins involved in the main metabolic pathways. The approach allowed to achieve a protein profiling specific for O. oeni from Aglianico wine with numerous characterized protein products corresponding to many different O. oeni genes and associated with main cellular pathways. Further investigations of the 2-DE protein expression profile will provide useful and interesting information on the molecular mechanisms at the protein level responsible for growth and survival of O. oeni in wine.

  9. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  10. FDAN: Failure Detection Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkaouha, Haroun; Abdelli, Abdelkrim; Bouyahia, Karima; Kaloune, Yasmina

    This work deals with fault tolerance in distributed MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Networks) systems. However, the major issue for a failure detection protocol is to confound between a fault and a voluntary or an involuntary disconnection of nodes, and therefore to suspect correct nodes to be failing and conversely. Within this context, we propose in this paper a failure detection protocol that copes with MANET systems constraints. The aim of this work is to allow to the system to launch recovery process. For this effect, our protocol, called FDAN, is based on the class of heartbeat protocols. It takes into account: no preliminary knowledge of the network, the nodes disconnection and reconnection, resources limitation...Hence, we show that by using temporary lists and different timeout levels, we achieve to reduce sensibly the number of false suspicions.

  11. Lightweight Distance bound Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eslam Gamal; Hashem, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Almost all existing RFID authentication schemes (tag/reader) are vulnerable to relay attacks, because of their inability to estimate the distance to the tag. These attacks are very serious since it can be mounted without the notice of neither the reader nor the tag and cannot be prevented by cryptographic protocols that operate at the application layer. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising way to thwart relay attacks, by measuring the round trip time of short authenticated messages. All the existing distance bounding protocols use random number generator and hash functions at the tag side which make them inapplicable at low cost RFID tags. This paper proposes a lightweight distance bound protocol for low cost RFID tags. The proposed protocol based on modified version of Gossamer mutual authentication protocol. The implementation of the proposed protocol meets the limited abilities of low-cost RFID tags.

  12. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  13. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  14. Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...

  15. Using machine learning to speed up manual image annotation: application to a 3D imaging protocol for measuring single cell gene expression in the developing C. elegans embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waterston Robert H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis is an essential component in many biological experiments that study gene expression, cell cycle progression, and protein localization. A protocol for tracking the expression of individual C. elegans genes was developed that collects image samples of a developing embryo by 3-D time lapse microscopy. In this protocol, a program called StarryNite performs the automatic recognition of fluorescently labeled cells and traces their lineage. However, due to the amount of noise present in the data and due to the challenges introduced by increasing number of cells in later stages of development, this program is not error free. In the current version, the error correction (i.e., editing is performed manually using a graphical interface tool named AceTree, which is specifically developed for this task. For a single experiment, this manual annotation task takes several hours. Results In this paper, we reduce the time required to correct errors made by StarryNite. We target one of the most frequent error types (movements annotated as divisions and train a support vector machine (SVM classifier to decide whether a division call made by StarryNite is correct or not. We show, via cross-validation experiments on several benchmark data sets, that the SVM successfully identifies this type of error significantly. A new version of StarryNite that includes the trained SVM classifier is available at http://starrynite.sourceforge.net. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of a machine learning approach to error annotation for StarryNite. In the process, we also provide some general methodologies for developing and validating a classifier with respect to a given pattern recognition task.

  16. Variation of forest surface and carbon fixation in mountain areas of the Regione Veneto (Italy and the application of the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parties that have signed the Kyoto Protocol must reduce global emissions of Greenhouse Gasses (GHG during the First Commitment Period (2008 - 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. This share is 6.5% for Italy. The Kyoto Protocol lays down some measures for reducing GHG emissions, which include actions in agriculture and forestry. it will thus be possible to take emissions and absorptions resulting from land use changes into account in the National Balances. Given the widespread forests in Italy, it is very important to have an assessment of the aptitude of this sector to act as a carbon sink. In this study we analysed the variation of forestland cover in a mountain area of the Veneto Region (NE Italy. The analysis was done by comparing aerial photos taken in 1991 with orthophotos reported to 2003, by photointerpretation of points with casual distribution on sample areas, according to a stratified sampling. We estimated a statistically relevant increment of about 0.095% of forest land only up to 1500 m compared to the estimated forest cover for 1990 (about 42 ha, underlining how this low increase is mainly due to forest management. The second step was to estimate the fixed carbon in the areas where forests increased. This was achieved by collecting biometrical data in the field, and then using allometric functions. The annual carbon sink was estimated as 0.69 Mg ha-1 year-1. Comparing these results with previous studies done in the pre-alpine region we estimate the annual increment of the forest area in the whole Veneto region to be about 409.94 ha and that the total carbon sink is about 282.86 Mg C year-1. A method for estimating carbon sink in afforestation/reforestation areas is proposed that could also be applied to other sites in Italy.

  17. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT PROTOCOL DURING LIVE MIGRATION OF VIRTUAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash H R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Physical servers used in IT are under-utilized. The better utilization of these servers can be achieved using virtualization technology. Virtualization techniques create multiple partitions whichare isolated with each other called virtual machines. Each virtual machine (guest runs their own operating system. The resource allocated for these VMs may fail to execute an application because ofresource conflict or un availability of resources. This motivates towards live migration of virtual machines. The live migration copies the running VM from source host to destination host seamlesslyusing TCP as transport protocol.This paper evaluates performance of TCP in live migration of KVM based virtual machines. The flexibility in UDP which drives the concentration can also be used for thismigration.

  19. Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...

  20. IP Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando

    2002-03-01

    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  1. Wastewater GHG Accounting Protocols as Compared to the State of GHG Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John L; Yuan, Zhiguo; Murthy, Sudhir

    2016-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting protocols have addressed emissions from wastewater conveyance and treatment using a variety of simplifying methodologies. While these methodologies vary to some degree by protocol, within each protocol they provide consistent tools for organizational entities of varying size and scope to report and verify GHG emissions. Much of the science supporting these methodologies is either limited or the protocols have failed to keep abreast of developing GHG research. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the sources of direct GHG emissions (both those covered and not covered in current protocols) from wastewater handling; provides a review of the wastewater-related methodologies in a select group of popular protocols; and discusses where research has out-paced protocol methodologies and other areas where the supporting science is relatively weak and warrants further exploration.

  2. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication,quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible.Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology.However,the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency,e.g.,parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth.We have proposed two distinctive protocols,which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones.We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping.Another protocol,based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression,which can improve the efficiency of the network,works in the star-like network.The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption.In general,the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols.

  3. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  4. Additional protocol between France, EURATOM and IAEA. 2001-2002 ordinary session. Project of law authorizing the ratification of the additional protocol to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the application of warranties in France; Protocole additionnel entre la France, Euratom et l'AIEA. Session ordinaire de 2001-2002. Projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This additional protocol to the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA aims at reinforcing the nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime. This protocol widens the field of competences of the IAEA with the supply of new information relative to: the civil nuclear cooperation between France and countries having no nuclear weapons in the domain of fuel cycle; the regular inspection of French nuclear facilities; the trade (import and export) of medium- or high-level radioactive wastes containing plutonium, highly enriched uranium or {sup 233}U, and the trade of some non-nuclear equipments or materials with countries having no nuclear weapons. The protocol defines also some practical dispositions relative to the delays and periodicity of controls, to the transmission of data, to the appointment of IAEA inspectors and their access to the facilities and sites considered. The list of the activities and equipments covered by the protocol are given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  5. Study and Improvement of WTLS Protocol in WAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; LIU Ying; XIAO Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    Wireless application protocol (WAP)is a set of protocol designed for mobile terminal toconnect to Internet and is likely to become world stan-dard. Wireless transport layer security (WTLS) incor-porates the security features in WAP. In this paper,the analysis of the performance of WTLS is made.Two improvement schemes on WTLS are given: oneis that the client stores the certificate of servers; theother is that a new WTLS protocol is proposed basedon the designed authentication scheme.

  6. Tactical Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Protocols and Techniques (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    forwarded, a route is known and can be used immediately – Reactive (on-demand) routing protocols ( AODV , DSR) • Invoke a route determination...M dpower levels, data rates, routing protocols , antenna weighting, link scheduling… – Can run multiple real applications on a single computer and...table-driven) routing protocols (OSPF, OLSR) • Attempt to continuously evaluate all of the routes within a network • When a packet needs to be

  7. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  8. First Study on Mobile Video Application Based on IPv6 Protocol%基于IPv6协议的手机视频应用示范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪幸; 臧伟

    2014-01-01

    Under the help of IPv6 application demonstration project of Shanghai mobile network, this paper studied the key tech-nology which is suitable for Shanghai mobile network transition, and developed an end-to-end solution for mobile video appli-cation progress in IPv6 protocol. Based on the analysis of IPv6 test under multi-terminal, as well as multi-network conditions, the conclusion was obtained that the Android client of Mobile Video had the best results in WLAN environment. Moreover, the paper suggests to increase the number of mobile terminals which support IPv6 protocol and puts forward that IPv6 applications should been promoted first in WLAN and LTE environment.%借助上海移动互联网IPv6应用示范项目,研究了适用于本次移动互联网IPv4向IPv6过渡的关键技术,制定了手机视频IPv6应用改造的端到端解决方案。通过在多终端类型以及多网络条件下,对改造后的手机视频应用进行一系列测试,文章得出了安卓客户端在WLAN网络下表现最佳的结论,并提出了增加手机终端对IPv6协议的支持度,以及优先在WLAN和LTE网络中推广IPv6应用的建议。

  9. Cryptanalysis and improvement of authentication and key agreement protocols for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S K Hafizul; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2014-10-01

    Recently, many authentication protocols have been presented using smartcard for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS). In 2014, Xu et al. put forward a two-factor mutual authentication with key agreement protocol using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). However, the authors have proved that the protocol is not appropriate for practical use as it has many problems (1) it fails to achieve strong authentication in login and authentication phases; (2) it fails to update the password correctly in the password change phase; (3) it fails to provide the revocation of lost/stolen smartcard; and (4) it fails to protect the strong replay attack. We then devised an anonymous and provably secure two-factor authentication protocol based on ECC. Our protocol is analyzed with the random oracle model and demonstrated to be formally secured against the hardness assumption of computational Diffie-Hellman problem. The performance evaluation demonstrated that our protocol outperforms from the perspective of security, functionality and computation costs over other existing designs.

  10. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC, organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation. The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches. Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT

  11. Protocol Materials: A Clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Wilfred; O'Gorman, David

    "Protocol materials" are records or recordings of a wide variety of behavioral situations. Characteristically they are neither simulated nor extensively edited. They are to be used for the empirical verification of concepts derived from both educational theory and the social sciences. They are attempts to capture reality so that it may be studied…

  12. THE MASTER PROTOCOL CONCEPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Carmen J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution---from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars---to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demand the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study). PMID:26433553

  13. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  14. Security Protocol Design: A Case Study Using Key Distribution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Dojen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays security protocols are a key component in providing security services for fixed and mobile networks. These services include data confidentiality, radio link encryption, message integrity, mobile subscriber authentication, electronic payment, certified e-mail, contract signing and nonrepudiation. This paper is concerned with design of effective security protocols. Security protocols are introduced and some common attacks against security protocols are discussed. The vulnerabilities that lead to theattacks are analyzed and guidelines for effective security protocol design are proposed. The presented guidelines are applied to the Andrew Secure RPC protocol and its adapted versions. It is demonstrated that compliance with the guidelines successfully avoidsfreshness and parallel session attacks.

  15. TR069协议在IPTV终端管理系统中的研究与应用%Research and Application of TR069 Protocol on IPTV Terminal Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭先会; 曾浩; 李致兴

    2011-01-01

    According to the present IPTV service and interactive demand, it has the enormous practical significance to design a set of real time and effective terminal management system. The TR069 protocol and its key technologies are analyed. the IPTV set-top box is researched emphatically, and TR069 protocol in the IPTV set-top box terminal management service application has been realized. The test results show that the IPTV set-top box terminal management system can satisfy the IPTV terminal management's real time and effective demand.%根据目前IPTV业务和互动需求,设计一套实时有效的IPTV终端管理系统具有极大的现实意义.详细分析了TR069协议及其关键技术,着重对IPTV机顶盒进行研究,实现了TR069协议在IPTV机顶盒终端管理业务中的应用.测试结果显示,所设计的IPTV机顶盒终端管理系统能够满足IPTV终端管理的实时性、有效性需求.

  16. Design and Application of a Flexible and Tolerant Scheduling Algorithm of TTCAN Protocol%一种柔性容错TTCAN协议调度算法的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒领; 康乐峰; 韦勇宇; 张宏伟; 姜晓东

    2014-01-01

    CAN bus has been widely used in the current weapons and equipment. Since it uses priority-based non-destructive bitwise arbitration mechanism,there are some flaws of real-time and reliability in the communication. In response to these problems,this paper introduces a time-triggered TTCAN protocol. After the analysis of the popular scheduling algorithm of TTCAN protocol,we put forward a four-point program to optimize the algorithm and design a new fault-tolerant scheduling algorithm,and finally we have an example of a certain type of tanks for the application background to verify it.%CAN总线在当前的武器信息装备中已经得到广泛的应用,其采用的基于优先级的非破坏性逐位仲裁机制,在通信实时性和可靠性等方面存在一定缺陷。针对上述问题,引入了基于时间触发的TTCAN协议,在分析当前流行的TTCAN协议调度算法的基础上提出了4点优化方案,设计出一种新型容错调度算法,并以某型坦克为应用背景进行了实例验证。

  17. Applications and methods utilizing the Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol (SSWAP) for bioinformatics resource discovery and disparate data and service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Scientific data integration and computational service discovery are challenges for the bioinformatic community. This process is made more difficult by the separate and independent construction of biological databases, which makes the exchange of data between information resources difficult and labor intensive. A recently described semantic web protocol, the Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol (SSWAP; pronounced "swap") offers the ability to describe data and services in a semantically meaningful way. We report how three major information resources (Gramene, SoyBase and the Legume Information System [LIS]) used SSWAP to semantically describe selected data and web services. Methods We selected high-priority Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL), genomic mapping, trait, phenotypic, and sequence data and associated services such as BLAST for publication, data retrieval, and service invocation via semantic web services. Data and services were mapped to concepts and categories as implemented in legacy and de novo community ontologies. We used SSWAP to express these offerings in OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and eXtensible Markup Language (XML) documents, which are appropriate for their semantic discovery and retrieval. We implemented SSWAP services to respond to web queries and return data. These services are registered with the SSWAP Discovery Server and are available for semantic discovery at http://sswap.info. Results A total of ten services delivering QTL information from Gramene were created. From SoyBase, we created six services delivering information about soybean QTLs, and seven services delivering genetic locus information. For LIS we constructed three services, two of which allow the retrieval of DNA and RNA FASTA sequences with the third service providing nucleic acid sequence comparison capability (BLAST). Conclusions The need for semantic integration technologies has preceded available solutions. We

  18. Applications and methods utilizing the Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol (SSWAP for bioinformatics resource discovery and disparate data and service integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rex T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific data integration and computational service discovery are challenges for the bioinformatic community. This process is made more difficult by the separate and independent construction of biological databases, which makes the exchange of data between information resources difficult and labor intensive. A recently described semantic web protocol, the Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol (SSWAP; pronounced "swap" offers the ability to describe data and services in a semantically meaningful way. We report how three major information resources (Gramene, SoyBase and the Legume Information System [LIS] used SSWAP to semantically describe selected data and web services. Methods We selected high-priority Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL, genomic mapping, trait, phenotypic, and sequence data and associated services such as BLAST for publication, data retrieval, and service invocation via semantic web services. Data and services were mapped to concepts and categories as implemented in legacy and de novo community ontologies. We used SSWAP to express these offerings in OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL, Resource Description Framework (RDF and eXtensible Markup Language (XML documents, which are appropriate for their semantic discovery and retrieval. We implemented SSWAP services to respond to web queries and return data. These services are registered with the SSWAP Discovery Server and are available for semantic discovery at http://sswap.info. Results A total of ten services delivering QTL information from Gramene were created. From SoyBase, we created six services delivering information about soybean QTLs, and seven services delivering genetic locus information. For LIS we constructed three services, two of which allow the retrieval of DNA and RNA FASTA sequences with the third service providing nucleic acid sequence comparison capability (BLAST. Conclusions The need for semantic integration technologies has preceded

  19. Application of serial communication based on Modbus protocol%基于Modbus协议的串行通信的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海琴; 陈兴; 翟林鹏

    2013-01-01

    针对目前工控领域,现场数据采集分散管理的不足,该文采用了Modbus RTU通信协议和串口通信技术,设计了主从式通信的采集系统,实现对各个现场的远程集中监控,即集散控制系统.详细阐述了在C#环境下基于Modbus RTU通信协议的上住机和DAM-3504系列三相多功能电量采集模块经过GPRS网络的主从式串行通信的实现.经过现场测试验证,表明该方案运行稳定,操作简便,能够对采集的数据进行实时显示,解决了对现场的统一监控和分布式管理的问题,为工业控制现场提供了一套可行性方案.%Lacking of decentralized management of the field data collection, for industrial control field, the paper using the Modbus RTU communication protocol and serial communication technology, designed a collection system of master-slave communication,and realized remote centralized monitoring of each scene, that is distributed control system.lt Elaborated the realization of master-slave communication based on Modbus RTU communication protocol between host computer and the DAM-3504 series three-phase multifunction power collection modules in the C # environment through the GPRS network. After field testing and validation,with the stable operation of the program, easy to operate, real-time displaying of the data collected, solved the problem of unified on-site monitoring and distributed management, it provides a feasible plan for the industrial control field.

  20. Multiparty Authentication Services and Key Agreement Protocols with Semi-Trusted Third Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东; 陈克非; 尤晋元

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new family of group key establishment protocols suit-able for small or medium-sized groups. Five protocols are presented, using a semi-trustedserver, with varying security service. The first one is a non-authenticated key agreement pro-tocol suitable for applications with low security requirements. The second protocol adds anauthenticated key agreement to provide collaborative authentication. The third and the fourthprotocols provide key establishment with integrity and confirmation services, and the fifth pro-tocol is the member adding protocol. A major advantage of the protocols is that they reducethe numbers of rounds from n to 5.

  1. Application of EtherCAT protocol in CNC system%EtherCAT协议在开放式数控系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少勋; 郗晓田

    2013-01-01

    根据数控系统发展趋势提出了基于实时工业以太网的开放式数控系统新架构,详细分析了EtherCAT协议通信原理、EtherCAT协议应用于开放式数控系统的优势及其设计.系统主站采用凌动D520工控机、Linux平台的数控软件EMC2,从站设备选用日本三洋公司的RS系列伺服驱动器及马达.最后,给出实验结果.%According to the development trends of CNC system,it put forward a new architecture of CNC system based on real-time industrial Ethemet.It detailed the theory of EtherCAT protocol,and it' s superiority and design on CNC system.The master of system applied Atom IPC-D520,and CNC softwareEMC2 based on Linux.The slaves applied servo driver and motor of type RS from SANMotion in Japan.Finally,it gave the experimental results.

  2. Introduction to CCSDS AOS Protocols and Its Applications%CCSDS高级在轨系统协议及其应用介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云飞; 陈晓敏; 安军社; 熊蔚明; 孙辉先

    2011-01-01

    首先简要回顾了CCSDS(空间数据系统咨询委员会)AOS(高级在轨系统)建议及其在空间数据系统信息交换和处理方面的优势,然后介绍了继载人航天飞船有效载荷数据管理系统、“实践”五号卫星及双星探测计划之后,中国科学院空间科学与应用研究中心在“嫦娥”卫星、月球车综合电子演示系统、百兆级高速多路复接器及“萤火”一号探测器上开展CCSDS AOS应用研究的新进展.%Following a review of the AOS (Advanced Orbiting System) protocols of CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) and its advantages in space data links, this paper introduces the progress made by CSSAR in research on and development of the Payload Data Management System of Chang'E satellites, lunar rover avionics demonstration system, Mb/s-level high rate multiplexer and YH-1 satellite following research on and development of the Payload Data Management Systems for China's Shenzhou-series manned spaceships, SJ-5 satellite and Double-Star Program satellites.

  3. An efficient protocol for the generation of monocyte derived dendritic cells using serum-free media for clinical applications in post remission AML patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Simoneti, Gisele; Saad, Sara Teresinha Olalla; Gilli, Simone Cristina Olenscki

    2014-01-01

    Protocols for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs) using serum as a supplementation of culture media leads to reactions due to animal proteins and disease transmissions. Several types of serum-free media (SFM), based on "good manufacture practices" (GMP), have recently been used and seem to be a viable option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the differentiation, maturation, and function of DCs from Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients (AML), generated in SFM and medium supplemented with autologous serum (AS). DCs were analyzed by phenotype characteristics, viability, and functionality. The results showed the possibility of generating viable DCs in all the conditions tested. In patients, the X-VIVO 15 medium was more efficient than the other media tested in the generation of DCs producing IL-12p70 (p=0.05). Moreover, the presence of AS led to a significant increase of IL-10 by DCs as compared with CellGro (p=0.05) and X-Vivo15 (p=0.05) media, both in patients and donors. We concluded that SFM was efficient in the production of DCs for immunotherapy in AML patients. However, the use of AS appears to interfere with the functional capacity of the generated DCs.

  4. A Rapid and Efficient Sonogashira Protocol and Improved Synthesis of Free Fatty Acid 1 (FFA1) Receptor Agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Ulven, Trond

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for rapid and efficient Pd/Cu-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides and iodides to terminal alkynes has been developed with use of 2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)-N-phenylindole (cataCXium PIntB) as ligand in TMEDA and water. The new protocol successfully couples substrates which failed with ...

  5. Accountability Analysis of Electronic Commerce Protocols by Finite Automaton Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiao-yao; Zhang Huan-guo

    2004-01-01

    The accountability of electronic commerce protocols is an important aspect to insures security of electronic transaction. This paper proposes to use Finite Automaton (FA) model as a new kind of framework to analyze the trans action protocols in the application of electronic commerce.

  6. Modelling and Verification of Web Services Business Activity Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri; Vighio, Saleem

    2011-01-01

    WS-Business Activity specification defines two coordination protocols in order to ensure a consistent agreement on the outcome of long-running distributed applications. We use the model checker Uppaal to analyse the Business Agreement with Coordination Completion protocol type. Our analyses show...

  7. Programming and Application of Master/Slavery Station of Modbus Protocol Based on S7-200 PLC%基于S7-200 PLC的Modbus主从站编程与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊田忠

    2012-01-01

    从工程需求出发,提出了利用 S7-200 PLC集成免费的Modbus RTU上站和从站通信库,以一个典型实例编程实现S7-200PLC作为工业自动化领域含Modbus通信协议的网络中间设备,具有很好的实用价值.%Programming application of master/slavery station of Modbus RTU protocol by S7-200 PLC is proposed originally from the engineering requirements. Due to its free and integrated Modbus RTU library, the S7-200 acts as a media device in the automation area including Modbus as a typical example. It shows that the method in this paper has a good practical value.

  8. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  9. The covert channel over HTTP protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniszewski, Waldemar; Krupski, Jacek; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a new steganographic method - the covert channel is created over HTTP protocol header, i.e. trailer field. HTTP protocol is one of the most frequently used in the Internet. The popularity of the Web servers and network traffic from, and to them, is one of the requirements for undetectable message exchange. To study this kind of the information hiding technique an application in Javascript language based on the Node.js framework was written. The results of the experiment that was performed to send a message in the covert channel are also presented.

  10. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.152 Section 983.152..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.152 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Inshell rework procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of...

  11. Performance comparison of hierarchical checkpoint protocols grid computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeye Massata NDIAYE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Grid infrastructure is a large set of nodes geographically distributed and connected by a communication. In this context, fault tolerance is a necessity imposed by the distribution that poses a number of problems related to the heterogeneity of hardware, operating systems, networks, middleware, applications, the dynamic resource, the scalability, the lack of common memory, the lack of a common clock, the asynchronous communication between processes. To improve the robustness of supercomputing applications in the presence of failures, many techniques have been developed to provide resistance to these faults of the system. Fault tolerance is intended to allow the system to provide service as specified in spite of occurrences of faults. It appears as an indispensable element in distributed systems. To meet this need, several techniques have been proposed in the literature. We will study the protocols based on rollback recovery. These protocols are classified into two categories: coordinated checkpointing and rollback protocols and log-based independent checkpointing protocols or message logging protocols. However, the performance of a protocol depends on the characteristics of the system, network and applications running. Faced with the constraints of large-scale environments, many of algorithms of the literature showed inadequate. Given an application environment and a system, it is not easy to identify the recovery protocol that is most appropriate for a cluster or hierarchical environment, like grid computing. While some protocols have been used successfully in small scale, they are not suitable for use in large scale. Hence there is a need to implement these protocols in a hierarchical fashion to compare their performance in grid computing. In this paper, we propose hierarchical version of four well-known protocols. We have implemented and compare the performance of these protocols in clusters and grid computing using the Omnet++ simulator

  12. CCPA: Component-based communication protocol architecture for embedded systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hong-jun; CHEN Tian-zhou; CHEN Chun

    2005-01-01

    For increased and various communication requirements of modem applications on embedded systems, general purpose protocol stacks and protocol models are not efficient because they are fixed to execute in the static mode. We present the Component-Based Communication Protocol Architecture (CCPA) to make communication dynamic and configurable. It can develop, test and store the customized components for flexible reuse. The protocols are implemented by component assembly and support by configurable environments. This leads to smaller memory, more flexibility, more reconfiguration ability, better concurrency, and multiple data channel support.

  13. A Flexible Improvement for Ping-Pong Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; HUA Sha; WANG Xiao-Xin; LI Yue; YE Jun; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    A deterministic quantum communication protocol, called the ping-pong protocol, has been represented by Bostr(o)m and Felbinger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 187902]. Based on an entangled pair of photons, it allows asymptotically secure key distribution and quasi-secure direct communication. However, it was concluded from our previous research that the experiment realization of this protocol requires two optic paths strictly equivalent for interferometry. Here we propose an improved protocol, which is more flexible and secure for conceivable applications. Its feasibility and security are also discussed.

  14. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70→T point mutation observed in human amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchko, Garry W; Shaw, Wendy J

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenin is the predominant extracellular protein responsible for converting carbonated hydroxyapatite into dental enamel, the hardest and most heavily mineralized tissue in vertebrates. Despite much effort, the precise mechanism by which amelogenin regulates enamel formation is not fully understood. To assist efforts aimed at understanding the biochemical mechanism of enamel formation, more facile protocols to purify recombinantly expressed amelogenin, ideally without any tag to assist affinity purification, are advantageous. Here we describe an improved method to purify milligram quantities of amelogenin that exploits its high solubility in 2% glacial acetic acid under conditions of low ionic strength. The method involves heating the frozen cell pellet for two 15min periods at ∼70°C with 2min of sonication in between, dialysis twice in 2% acetic acid (1:250 v/v), and reverse phase chromatography. A further improvement in yield is obtained by resuspending the frozen cell pellet in 6M guanidine hydrochloride in the first step. The acetic acid heating method is illustrated with a murine amelogenin containing the corresponding P70→T point mutation observed in an human amelogenin associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (P71T), while the guanidine hydrochloride heating method is illustrated with wild type murine amelogenin (M180). The self-assembly properties of P71T were probed by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies as a function of protein (0.1-1.8mM) and NaCl (0-367mM) concentration. Relative to similar studies with wild type murine amelogenin, P71T self-associates at lower protein or salt concentrations with the interactions initiated near the N-terminus.

  15. Mitosis Methods & Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis Methods & Protocols Andrew D. McAinsh (Edt Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 545, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60327-992-5   It is quite clear from the contents of this book that the remarkably fascinating phenomenon of mitosis (that captured, and still is capturing, the attention of entire generations of scientists is still open to research. This is mainly due to our lack of knowledge of so many multifaced events of this extraordinarly complex process. The reader giving a glace through the Contents and Contributors sections is speechless: All of the first-class models (i.e., budding yeast, Caenorabditis, Drosophila, Xenopus and Human are presented..... 

  16. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF FAILED ENDONASAL DCR OPERATIONS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naveed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic Intra nasal approach to by-pass the obstruction of lacrimal apparatus is a simple and commonly practiced surgery among the ENT Surgeons. Various modifications in the form of usage of micro drill, application of Mitomycin C and preserving the nasal flap to line the opening in the sac to name a few are being used. Recurrence of epiphora and closure of the neo opening is described and observed are labeled as failed endonasal DCR. This study makes an attempt to review retrospectively and prospectively to evaluate the degree of recurrence and causes of failure. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: This study also attempts to determine the causes of failure of endonasal DCR and its subsequent management. Thus this study precludes the role of revision DCR. Materials and Methods: 50 patients who underwent endonasal DCR surgery at GGH Kurnool and reported with symptoms of returning of epiphora, purulent discharge from the eye were included. A detailed history taking and endoscopic examination done to find the cause of failure. An attempt is made to classify the causes and find suitable remedy.RESULTS:36% of the patients showed tendency to form synaechiae, 18.6% of patients presented with thick lacrimal crest, 9% of them showed formation of a thin veil like membrane over the neo-ostium. All the patients were subjected to revision surgery and subjective improvement in 92% of the patients reported at the time of reporting of the study.

  17. Cognitive Protocol Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 cognitive...related to mobility and topology changes in a wireless multi-hop ad hoc network. (xv) We used a cross-layer formulation to design transmission...the transmission parameters, the implemented protocol and the network topology . The solution adopted involves a heuristic metric to measure how the

  18. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  19. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  20. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  1. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  2. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  3. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  4. A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Improved Availability, Capacity, Load and Reduced Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Parul; Tripathi, Maheshwari

    2016-12-01

    Data replication is playing a vital role in the design of distributed information systems. This paper presents a novel and efficient distributed algorithm for managing replicated data and for better performance and availability. This paper presents an extension to existing wheel protocol for improved performance. Wheel protocol imposes a logical wheel structure on the set of copies of an object and gives smallest read quorum. In addition to small read quorum size for read intensive applications, it is necessary to have good write availability as well. This paper proposes two hybrid wheel protocols, which superimpose logarithmic and ring protocols on top of the wheel protocol. It shows that, both protocols help in improving write availability, read capacity, load and message overhead and also compare their performances with wheel and other protocols. Hybrid protocols expand usage of wheel protocol to different type of applications.

  5. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LACHHMAN DAS DHOMEJA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity, Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared, etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth from what the server has (e.g. WiFi, connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange, L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol, RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities

  6. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo;

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  7. History-based MAC Protocol for Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks: the SLACK-MAC Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affoua Thérèse Aby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly used in environmental monitoring applications. They are designed to operate for several months by featuring low activity cycles in order to save energy. In this paper, we propose a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol for suchWSNs with very low duty-cycles of 1% and less. Nodes are activated randomly and use a history of previous successful frame exchanges to decide their next activation time. We study the choice of the history size, and we compare the performance of our protocol with other protocols from the literature. We show by simulations and real experiments that with a limited history size of only six entries, our protocol achieves better performance than other protocols from the literature, while keeping the advantages of fully asynchronous protocols.

  8. Bayesian Authentication: Quantifying Security of the Hancke-Kuhn Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Meadows, Catherine; Mislove, M.; Selinger, P.

    2010-01-01

    As mobile devices pervade physical space, the familiar authentication patterns are becoming insufficient: besides entity authentication, many applications require, e.g., location authentication. Many interesting protocols have been proposed and implemented to provide such strengthened forms of authe

  9. Analysis on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N.Renjith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outlook of wireless communication system marked an extreme transform with the invention of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. WSN is a promising technolog y for enabling a variety of applications like environmental monitoring, security and applications that save our lives and assets. In WSN, large numbers of sensor nodes are deployed to sensing and gathering information and forward them to the base station with the help of routing protocol. Routing protocols plays a major role by identifying and maintaining the routes in the network. Competence o f sensor networks relay on the strong and effective routing protocol used. In this paper, we present a simulation based performance evaluation of differen t Ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR, LANM AR, RIP and ZRP in Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on the study, the future research areas and k ey challenges for routing protocol in WSN are to optimize network performance for QoS support and en ergy conservation

  10. Cryptanalysis and enhancement of two low cost rfid authentication protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Jannati, Hoda

    2012-01-01

    Widespread attention is recently paid upon RFID system structure considering its ease of deployment over an extensive range of applications. Due to its several advantages, many technical articles are published to improve its capabilities over specific system implementations. Recently, a lightweight anti-de-synchronization RFID authentication protocol and a lightweight binding proof protocol to guard patient safety are proposed. This contribution provides enough evidence to prove the first introduced protocol vulnerability to de-synchronization attack. It also provides the other protocol's suffering from de-synchronization attack as well as tracking the movements of the tags. This paper also addresses appropriate solutions to fix the security flaws concerning the two described protocols for secure RFID applications.

  11. Pictorial essay: Role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Botchu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available USG has been used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Scarring and incomplete decompression are the main causes for persistence or recurrence of symptoms. We performed a retrospective study to assess the role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression. Of 422 USG studies of the wrist performed at our center over the last 5 years, 14 were for failed carpal tunnel decompression. Scarring was noted in three patients, incomplete decompression in two patients, synovitis in one patient, and an anomalous muscle belly in one patient. No abnormality was detected in seven patients. We present a pictorial review of USG findings in failed carpal tunnel decompression.

  12. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A; O'Brien, B; Houlihan, T; Darker, C; O'Shea, B

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child's weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres' for Disease Control's BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  13. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  14. Testing AMQP protocol on unstable and mobile networks

    OpenAIRE

    LUZURIAGA QUICHIMBO, JORGE ELOY; Pérez, Miguel; Boronat, Pablo; Cano Escribá, Juan Carlos; Tavares De Araujo Cesariny Calafate, Carlos Miguel; Manzoni ., Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-11692-1_22 AMQP is a middleware protocol extensively used for exchanging messages in distributed applications. It provides an abstraction of the different participating parts and simplifies communication programming details. AMQP provides reliability features and alleviates the coordination of different entities of an application. However, implementations of this protocol have not been w...

  15. Quantum key distribution with delayed privacy amplification and its application to the security proof of a two-way deterministic protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, HF; Fung, CHF; X.; Ma; Cai, QY

    2012-01-01

    Privacy amplification (PA) is an essential postprocessing step in quantum key distribution (QKD) for removing any information an eavesdropper may have on the final secret key. In this paper, we consider delaying PA of the final key after its use in one-time pad encryption and prove its security. We prove that the security and the key generation rate are not affected by delaying PA. Delaying PA has two applications: it serves as a tool for significantly simplifying the security proof of QKD wi...

  16. CT protocol review and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, James M; Cody, Dianna D; Morin, Richard L

    2014-03-01

    To reduce the radiation dose associated with CT scans, much attention is focused on CT protocol review and improvement. In fact, annual protocol reviews will soon be required for ACR CT accreditation. A major challenge in the protocol review process is determining whether a current protocol is optimal and deciding what steps to take to improve it. In this paper, the authors describe methods for pinpointing deficiencies in CT protocols and provide a systematic approach for optimizing them. Emphasis is placed on a team approach, with a team consisting of at least one radiologist, one physicist, and one technologist. This core team completes a critical review of all aspects of a CT protocol and carefully evaluates proposed improvements. Changes to protocols are implemented only with consensus of the core team, with consideration of all aspects of the CT examination, including image quality, radiation dose, patient care and safety, and workflow.

  17. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 74683-79494

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  18. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  19. Application and development of ZigBee based on Z-stack protocol stack ZCL and conform to HA specification%基于Z-stack协议栈ZCL库且符合HA规范的ZigBee应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志鹏

    2013-01-01

    The protocol standards of ZigBee products in native market are all in the status quo of disunity and the ZigBee products with single standard are in demanded. For this reason, the basic procedures and notes of Z-stack-based ZigBee developing applications conform to HA specification was concluded after studying and analyzing the codes and standards made by ZigBee Alliance. In combination with the structure features and the function library of Z-stack, the ZigBee application and development flow based on Z-stack to realize HA specification are summed up, and relevant matters needing attention as well.%  鉴于国内ZigBee产品协议标准不统一的现状和市场对符合统一标准的ZigBee产品的需求,为了实现基于Z-stack协议栈且符合HA规范的应用开发,通过对ZigBee联盟制定的相关规范和标准文件的学习和解读,结合Z-stack协议栈的结构特点及其提供的函数库,总结归纳了基于该协议栈来实现HA规范的ZigBee应用开发的基本流程和相关注意事项。

  20. Application of IPv6 Protocol in Web Portals of Ministry of Water Resources%IPv6 在水利部门户网站群中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨非; 陈国旭; 花基尧; 刘庆涛; 姚葳; 杨柳; 胡亚丽; 魏永静; 李珊珊; 王昊源

    2016-01-01

    随着互联网和计算机技术的快速发展,IPv4网络协议自身问题正逐渐凸显,地址空间日趋不足。系统介绍IPv6在水利部门户网站群中的应用,重点解决由IPv4向IPv6转化迁移中的技术问题,有效应对IPv6与IPv4在一段时间内相互共存的困扰。其对网络环境、应用系统的升级改造,对类似项目建设具有重要借鉴意义。%With the rapid development of Internet and computer technology, the problem of IPv4 network protocol is becoming more and more prominent. And the address space is becoming less and less. This paper describes the application of IPv6 in the water resources department portal group, focusing on solving the technical problems from the IPv4 to IPv6 transformation and migration, and effectively deals with the IPv4 and IPv6 in a period of mutual coexistence of the troubles. Its upgrade to the network environment and application systems has an important reference for the construction of similar projects.

  1. Failing The Final Exam In Equal Employment And Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Tower

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anglo-American educational global leaders are failing the final exam for overall transparency of EEO activities with over 90% non-disclosure.  Australian entities should be modeled as important communication exemplars.

  2. Efficacy and tolerance of the topical application of potassium hydroxide (10% and 15% in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum: Randomized clinical trial: Research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Gisela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molluscum contagiosum is a non-severe pediatric viral infection. Because it is highly contagious and current treatments have negative aesthetic and psychological effects, we want to test an alternative treatment in the primary care setting, consisting of two different concentrations of potassium hydroxide solution. Methods/design The study design is a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, using three types of topical treatment. The treatment consist of daily applications of potassium hydroxide (KOH in aqueous solution at 10% and 15% concentration, and a placebo administered in the control group. Four follow-up visits (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are planned to evaluate treatment effectiveness and patient tolerance. The main outcome measure of the trial will be the healing rate, defined as lesion disappearance in the affected zones after the topic application of the experimental treatment. Secondary measures will be the principal characteristics and evolution of the affected zone (surface area, number of lesions, size and density of lesions, treatment tolerance (hyperpigmentation, itching, burning, pain, recurrence rate and the natural evolution of lesions in the control group. Discussion KOH can potentially be an effective and safe treatment for MC in primary care, and can also reduce referrals to dermatologists and hospital pediatric departments. In addition, KOH may be a valid and less expensive alternative to current invasive treatments (surgical excision. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01348386

  3. EMMP :a highly efficient membership management protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Renfa; XIE Yunlong; WEN Jigang; YUE Guangxue

    2007-01-01

    Gossip (or epidemic) algorithms have recently become popular solutions to multicast message dissemination in peer-to-peer systems.Nevertheless,it is not straightforward to apply gossip to on-demand streaming because it often fails to achieve a timely delivery.To solve this problem and taking into account the characteristic of peers randomly joining and leaving in peer-to-peer systems,an Efficient Membership Management Protocol (EMMP) has been presented.Every node only needs to keep contact with O (log(N)) nodes,and EMMP can support the reliable dissemination of messages.Considering the "distance" between peers,it causes the major data to be transmitted in a local area and reduces the backbone's traffic,and speeds up the dissemination of messages between peers.This paper has adopted the"goodfriend" mechanism to reduce the influence on the system when a peer fails or leaves.Simulation results show that EMMP is highly efficient,and both the redundancy and the delay of the system are well solved.

  4. The Failed State and the State of Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hitchcock

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available What does Marx have to say about the “failed state”? Less than one might think. Peter Hitchcock seizes on the problem of the organic composition of capital to bring theories of state sovereignty and its dissolution into chiastic relation with Marxist political economy. This flexibly-bound double of Marxism and failed-state theory then offers a new perspective on our current moment and its possible futures.

  5. US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions=Poor Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally

  6. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  7. High-Bandwidth Tactical-Network Data Analysis in a High-Performance-Computing (HPC) Environment: Transport Protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/User Datagram Protocol [TCP/UDP]) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Protocol [TCP/UDP]) Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kenneth D Renard and James R Adametz...guaranteed and ordered delivery of data from application to application. Internet Protocol ( IP ) does not guarantee either of these capabilities...that require reliable transport services, careful examination of TCP protocol performance is necessary. Data collected during test events includes IP

  8. Behavioral activation-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Kien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for cost-effective interventions for people suffering from major depressive disorders is essential. Behavioral activation is an intervention that can largely benefit from the use of new mobile technologies (for example smartphones. Therefore, developing smartphone-based behavioral activation interventions might be a way to develop cost-effective treatments for people suffering from major depressive disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a smartphone-delivered behavioral activation treatment. Methods The study will be a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 120 participants, with 60 patients in each group. The treatment group includes an 8-week smartphone-based behavioral activation intervention, with minimal therapist contact. The smartphone-based intervention consists of a web-based psychoeducation, and a smartphone application. There is also a back-end system where the therapist can see reports from the patients or activities being reported. In the attention control group, we will include brief online education and then recommend use of a smartphone application that is not directly aimed at depression (for example, ‘Effective meditation’. The duration of the control condition will also be 8 weeks. For ethical reasons we will give the participants in the control group access to the behavioral activation treatment following the 8-week treatment period. Discussions We believe that this trial has at least three important implications. First, we believe that smartphones can be integrated even further into society and therefore may serve an important role in health care. Second, while behavioral activation is a psychological treatment approach for which there is empirical support, the use of a smartphone application could serve as the therapist’s prolonged arm into the daily life of the patient. Third, as we have been doing trials on guided Internet treatment for more than 10

  9. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Clomiphene Citrate versus Letrozole in Mild IVF in Poor Prognosis Subfertile Women with Failed IVF Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Oktem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate (CC vs. letrozole (L plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol in poor prognosis women with previous failed ovarian stimulation undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included cycles with CC and L plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocols of 32 poor responders who had failed to have ideal follicles to be retrieved during oocyte pick-up (OPU or embryo transfer (ET at least for 2 previous in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with microdose flare protocol or GnRH antagonist protocol from January 2006 to December 2009. Main outcome measures were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle. Duration of stimulation, mean gonadotropin dose used, endometrial thickness, number of mature follicles, serum estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of retrieved oocytes and fertilization rates were also evaluated. Results: A total number of 42 cycles of 32 severe poor responders were evaluated. Total gonadotropin consumption was significantly lower (1491 ± 873 vs. 2808 ± 1581 IU, P=0.005 and mean E2 level on the day of hCG injection were significantly higher in CC group than L group (443.3 ± 255.2 vs. 255.4 ± 285.2 pg/mL, P=0.03. ET, overall pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle were significantly higher in CC than L protocol (27.2 vs. 15%, 13.6 vs. 0% and 4.5 vs. 0%, respectively, P<0.05. Conclusion: Severe poor responders who had previously failed to respond to microdose or GnRH antagonist protocols may benefit from CC plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocol despite high cancellation rate.

  10. Securing Zone Routing Protocol in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks, and security requirements of applications. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP; the most popular hybrid routing protocol. The importance of the proposed solution lies in the fact that it ensures security as needed by providing a comprehensive architecture of Secure Zone Routing Protocol (SZRP based on efficient key management, secure neighbor discovery, secure routing packets, detection of malicious nodes, and preventing these nodes from destroying the network. In order to fulfill these objectives, both efficient key management and secure neighbor mechanisms have been designed to be performed prior to the functioning of the protocol.To validate the proposed solution, we use the network simulator NS-2 to test the performance of secure protocol and compare it with the conventional zone routing protocol over different number of factors that affect the network. Our results evidently show that our secure version paragons the conventional protocol in the packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security analysis proves in details that the proposed protocol is robust enough to thwart all classes of ad-hoc attacks.

  11. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol\\'s perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain\\'s fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  12. Kyoto protocol: at last the agreement has been reached; Protocole de Kyoto: un accord enfin conclu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After more than 3 years of negotiations, 180 countries agreed at Bonn on the application of the Kyoto protocol to fight the climatic warming. The main aspects of this agreement are discussed: the carbon wells, the tools of the pollution control for the developed countries and the financial help to the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  13. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  14. Fault recovery in the reliable multicast protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) provides a unique, group-based model for distributed programs that need to handle reconfiguration events at the application layer. This model, called membership views, provides an abstraction in which events such as site failures, network partitions, and normal join-leave events are viewed as group reformations. RMP provides access to this model through an application programming interface (API) that notifies an application when a group is reformed as the result of a some event. RMP provides applications with reliable delivery of messages using an underlying IP Multicast (12, 5) media to other group members in a distributed environment even in the case of reformations. A distributed application can use various Quality of Service (QoS) levels provided by RMP to tolerate group reformations. This paper explores the implementation details of the mechanisms in RMP that provide distributed applications with membership view information and fault recovery capabilities.

  15. Service-Oriented Synthesis of Distributed and Concurrent Protocol Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad Al Dallal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed for synthesizing computer communication protocol specifications from service specifications. Some protocol synthesis methods based on the finite state machine (FSM model assume that primitives in the service specifications cannot be executed simultaneously. Others either handle only controlled primitive concurrency or have tight restrictions on the applicable FSM topologies. As a result, these synthesis methods are not applicable to an interesting variety of inherently concurrent applications, such as the Internet and mobile communication systems. This paper proposes a concurrent-based protocol synthesis method that eliminates the restrictions imposed by the earlier methods. The proposed method uses a synthesis method to obtain a sequential protocol specification (P-SPEC from a given service specification (S-SPEC. The resulting P-SPEC is then remodeled to consider the concurrency behavior specified in the S-SPEC, while guaranteeing that P-SPEC provides the specified service.

  16. Adaptive digital access protocol: new features and performance improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, B. T.; Dravida, S.; Kustka, G. J.; Magill, Peter D.; Siller, Curtis A., Jr.; Kotikalapudi, Sriram

    1996-11-01

    This paper reports on a broadband multiple access protocol for bi-directional hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) networks. Referred to here as the enhanced adaptive digital access protocol (ADAPt+TM), it builds upon earlier work to define a medium access control (MAC) protocol amenable to a multiple service environment supporting subscriber access in HFC networks with tree and branch topologies. ADAPt+ efficiently supports different access modes such as synchronous transfer mode (STM), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and variable length (VL) native data (e.g., IP, IPX). This enhanced protocol adapts to changing demands for a mix of circuit- and packet-mode applications, and efficiently allocates upstream and downstream bandwidth to isochronous and bursty traffic sources. This paper describes: ADAPt+ for upstream communication and multiplexing/demultiplexing for downstream communication; its applicability to STM, ATM and other native data applications; and performance attributes such as bandwidth efficiency and latency.

  17. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  18. Improvements in Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination via LA-MC-ICP-MS by Application of an Alternative Data Reduction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietzke, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Guenther, D.; Frische, M.; Zumholz, K.; Hansteen, T. H.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2008-12-01

    An alternative approach for the evaluation of isotope ratio data using LA-MC-ICP-MS will be presented. In contrast to previously applied methods it is based on the simultaneous responses of all analyte isotopes of interest and the relevant interferences without performing a conventional background correction. Significant improvements in precision and accuracy can be achieved when applying this new method and will be discussed based on the results of two first methodical applications: a) radiogenic and stable Sr isotopes in carbonates b) stable chlorine isotopes of pyrohydrolytic extracts. In carbonates an external reproducibility of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of about 19 ppm (RSD) was achieved, an improvement of about a factor of 5. For recent and sub-recent marine carbonates a mean radiogenic strontium isotope ratio 87Sr/86Sr of 0.709170±0.000007 (2SE) was determined, which agrees well with the value of 0.7091741±0.0000024 (2SE) reported for modern sea water [1,2]. Stable chlorine isotope ratios were determined ablating pyrohydrolytic extracts with a reproducibility of about 0.05‰ (RSD). For basaltic reference material JB1a and JB2 chlorine isotope ratios were determined relative to SMOC (standard mean ocean chlorinity) δ37ClJB-1a = (-0.99±0.06) ‰ and δ37ClJB-1a = (-0.60±0.03) ‰ (SD), respectively, in accordance with published data [3]. The described strategies for data reduction are considered to be generally applicable for all isotope ratio measurements using LA-MC-ICP-MS. [1] J.M. McArthur, D. Rio, F. Massari, D. Castradori, T.R. Bailey, M. Thirlwall, S. Houghton, Palaeogeo. Palaeoclim. Palaeoeco., 2006, 242 (126), doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.06.004 [2] J. Fietzke, V. Liebetrau, D. Guenther, K. Guers, K. Hametner, K. Zumholz, T.H. Hansteen and A. Eisenhauer, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2008, 23, 955-961, doi:10.1039/B717706B [3] J. Fietzke, M. Frische, T.H. Hansteen and A. Eisenhauer, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2008, 23, 769-772, doi:10.1039/B718597A

  19. Development of a Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection Protocol for Cercospora kikuchii in Soybean Leaves and Its Use for Documenting Latent Infection as Affected by Fungicide Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, A K; Ward, N A; Robertson, C L; Chen, Z-Y; Schneider, R W

    2014-10-01

    Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) of soybean, caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a serious disease in the southern United States. A sensitive TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed to specifically detect and quantify C. kikuchii in naturally infected soybean plants. The sensitivity was 1 pg of genomic DNA, which was equivalent to about 34 copies of genome of C. kikuchii. Using this qPCR assay, we documented a very long latent infection period for C. kikuchii in soybean leaves beginning at the V3 growth stage (as early as 22 days after planting). The levels of biomass of C. kikuchii remained low until R1, and a rapid increase was detected from the R2/R3 to R4/R5 growth stages shortly before the appearance of symptoms at R6. The efficacy of various fungicide regimens under field conditions also was evaluated over a 3-year period using this qPCR method. Our results showed that multiple fungicide applications beginning at R1 until late reproductive stages suppressed the development of C. kikuchii in leaves and delayed symptom expression. Different fungicide chemistries also had differential effects on the amount of latent infection and symptom expression during late reproductive growth stages.

  20. A Density Functional Theory Based Protocol to Compute the Redox Potential of Transition Metal Complex with the Correction of Pseudo-Counterion: General Theory and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toru; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Okumura, Mitsutaka

    2013-07-09

    We propose an accurate scheme to evaluate the redox potential of a wide variety of transition metal complexes by adding a charge-dependent correction term for a counterion around the charged complexes, which is based on Generalized Born theory, to the solvation energy. The mean absolute error (MAE) toward experimental redox potentials of charged complexes is considerably reduced from 0.81 V (maximum error 1.22 V) to 0.22 V (maximum error 0.50 V). We found a remarkable exchange-correlation functional dependence on the results rather than the basis set ones. The combination of Wachters+f (for metal) and 6-31++G(d,p) (for other atoms) with the B3LYP functional gives the least MAE 0.15 V for the test complexes. This scheme is applicable to other solvents, and heavier transition metal complexes such as M1(CO)5(pycn) (M1 = Cr, Mo, W), M2(mnt)2 (M2 = Ni, Pd, Pt), and M3(bpy)3 (M3 = Fe, Ru, Os) with the same quality.

  1. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  2. Selective and cost effective protocol to separate bioactive triterpene acids from plant matrices using alkalinized ethanol: Application to leaves of Myrtaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia M. Belem Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triterpenes as betulinic (BA, oleanolic (OA and ursolic acids (UA have increasingly gained therapeutic relevance due to their wide scope of pharmacological activities. To fit large scale demands, exploitable sources of these compounds have to be found and simple, cost effective methods to extract them developed. Leaf material represents the best plant sustainable raw material. To obtain triterpene acid rich extracts from leaves of Eugenia, Psidium and Syzygium species (Myrtaceae by directly treating the dry plant material with alkalinized hydrated ethanol. This procedure was adapted from earlier methods to effect depolymerization of the leaf cutin. Materials and Methods: Extracts were prepared by shaking the milled dry leaves in freshly prepared 2% NaOH in 95% EtOH solution (1:4 w/v at room temperature for 6 h. Working up the product in acidic aqueous medium led to clear precipitates in which BA, OA and UA were quantified by gas chromatography. Results: Pigment free and low polyphenol content extracts (1.2–2.8% containing 6–50% of total triterpene acids were obtained for the six species assayed. UA (7–20% predominated in most extracts, but BA preponderated in Eugenia florida (39%. Carried out in parallel, n hexane defatted leaves led to up to 9% enhancement of total acids in the extracts. The hydroalcoholate treatment of Myrtaceae species dry leaves proved to be a cost effective and environmentally friendly method to obtain triterpene acids, providing them be resistant to alkaline medium. These combined techniques might be applicable to other plant species and tissues.

  3. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  4. A PROGRAMMED LABOUR - PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Prospective randomized Clinical study of outcome of labour following. “A Programmed labour. Protocol” was done at Department of OBG, MRMC Gulbarga. The Protocol was aimed with dual. Objective of Providing Pain relief during labour and teaching the goal of safe motherhood by optimizing objective outcome. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Shortening of duration of labour. Effect of labour analgesia. Monitoring of the events during labour. Lowering the incidence of operative deliveries. METHODS: 100 cases primi pregnant women admitted in labour room are randomly selected. It is designed to apply to low risk primi parous, singleton cephalic presentation without evidence of CPD and spontaneous onset of labour. RESULTS: Shortened duration of all the stages of Labour, especially significant reduction in duration of active phase of labour. CONCLUSION: The programmed labour is simple easy and effective method for painless and safe delivery.

  5. Survey protocol for invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Menza, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This protocol was developed by the Biogeography Branch of NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment to support invasive species research by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The protocol’s objective is to detect Carijoa riisei and Hypnea musciformis in deepwater habitats using visual surveys by technical divers. Note: This protocol is designed to detect the presence or absence of invasive species. A distinct protocol is required to collect information on abundance ...

  6. The application of percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions in patients with failed back surgery syndrome A aplicação da lise percutânea de aderências epidurais em pacientes com síndrome pós-laminectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chun-jing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and the feasibility of application of percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS using a stiff type guide wire and 4F vascular catheter. METHODS: Ninety two patients with FBSS were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (treated by injection dexamethasone only and percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions group. Visual analog scale scores (VAS and therapeutic evaluation were observed in the preoperative, seven days postoperative, one month and six months postoperative. RESULTS: VAS scores for pain were significantly reduced in both groups at seven days. The VAS scores were in controlled group at one month, six months was significantly higher than that in epidural lysis group. However, there was no statistical difference in VAS scores of one month and six months when respectively compared to that of before operation in controlled group. Patients on epidural lysis reported clinical effectiveness rate was 50%. Patients on control was 5.26%, there was a statistical difference between two groups. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions by using a stiff type guide wire and 4F vascular catheter is an effective method in the treatment of FBSS and it has a value in clinical application.OBJETIVO: Investigar a eficácia e a exequibilidade da aplicação da lise percutânea de aderências epidurais na síndrome pós-laminectomia usando um fio-guia tipo Stiff e um cateter vascular 4F. MÉTODOS: Noventa e dois pacientes com síndrome pós-laminectomia foram randomizados em dois grupos: grupo controle (tratado somente com injeção de dexametazona e grupo lise percutânea de aderências epidurais. Escores de escala visual analógica (VAS e avaliação terapêutica foram observadas no pré-operatório, no sétimo dia de pós-operatório, um mês e seis meses de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Escores VAS para dor foram significantemente reduzidos em ambos os grupos

  7. Impact of transport layer protocols on the efficiency of special purpose radio-communications

    OpenAIRE

    NEDELJKOVIC LJUBISA S.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of special purpose radio-communications depends on transport layer protocols. Meny factors have an impact on special purpose radio-communications efficiency, as well as TCP and UDP protocols. This paper presents the transport protocols throughput analysis in the HF and VHF radio-communications versus RTT and packet error rate probability. This paper considers a posibility of the application of TCP and UDP protocols in special purpose radio-communications. The following factors ...

  8. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  9. Quantum Dot Solar Cell Fabrication Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernomordik, Boris D.; Marshall, Ashley R.; Pach, Gregory F.; Luther, Joseph M.; Beard, Matthew C.

    2017-01-10

    Colloidally synthesized quantum-confined semiconducting spherical nanocrystals, often referred to as quantum dots (QDs), offer a high degree of chemical, optical, and electronic tunability. As a result, there is an increasing interest in employing colloidal QDs for electronic and optical applications that is reflected in a growing number of publications. In this protocol we provide detailed procedures for the fabrication of QD solar cells specifically employing PbSe and PbS QDs. We include details that are learned through experience, beyond those in typical methodology sections, and include example pictures and videos to aid in fabricating QD solar cells. Although successful solar cell fabrication is ultimately learned through experience, this protocol is intended to accelerate that process. The protocol developed here is intended to be a general starting point for developing PbS and PbSe QD test bed solar cells. We include steps for forming conductive QD films via dip coating as well as spin coating. Finally, we provide protocols that detail the synthesis of PbS and PbSe QDs through a unique cation exchange reaction and discuss how different QD synthetic routes could impact the resulting solar cell performance.

  10. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  11. A protocol for amide bond formation with electron deficient amines and sterically hindered substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Maria E; Pandey, Sunil K; Christiansen, Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed....

  12. Impact of Communication Protocol on Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, P.H.

    1999-02-01

    We use the PSTSWM compact application benchmark code to characterize the performance behavior of interprocessor communication on the SGI/Cray Research Origin 2000 and T3E-900. We measure 1. single processor performance, 2. point-to-point communication performance, 3. performance variation as a function of communication protocols and transport layer for collective communication routines, and 4. performance sensitivity of full application code to choice of parallel implementation. We also compare and contrast these results with similar results for the previous generation of parallel platforms, evaluating how the relative importance of communication performance has changed.

  13. A PROPOSED MAPPING ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN IAX AND JINGLE PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Saleh Haj Aliwi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, multimedia communication has improved rapidly to allow people to communicate via the Internet. However, Internet users cannot communicate with each other unless they use the same chatting applications since each chatting application uses a certain signaling protocol to make the media call. The mapping architecture is a very critical issue since it solves the communication problems between any two protocols, as well as it enables people around the world to make a voice/video call even if they use different chatting applications. Providing the interoperability between different signaling protocols and multimedia applications takes the advantages of more than one protocol. Many mapping architectures have been proposed to ease exchanging the media between at least two users without facing any difficulties such as SIP-Jingle, IAX-RSW, H.323-MGCP, etc. However, the design of any of the existing mapping architectures has some weaknesses related to larger delay, time consuming, and security matters. The only way to overcome these problems is to propose an efficient mapping architecture. This paper proposed a new mapping architecture between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol. The proposed mapping architecture consists of IAX domain (IAX client, IAX server, IAX-to-Jingle gateway, and Jingle domain (Jingle client, Jingle server, Jingle-to-IAX gateway. The tasks of the translation gateways are represented by the URI conversion, media capability exchange, translator of call setup and teardown signals, and real time media transmission.

  14. Application Research on the TTCAN Protocol in lntelligent Lighting Control System%TTCAN协议在智能照明控制系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章澜岚; 马小军; 蒋月红

    2014-01-01

    The intelligent light system is the applicable promotion of automation technology in lighting control field. The intelligent lighting control system based on CAN bus has been gradually promoted in the market, while there are some disadvantages in CAN communication network, e. g. , low priority data latency, poor real time performance and deterministic, etc. Aiming at this situation, the TTCAN protocol based on time triggering is proposed, and the hardware structure of TTCAN network system which is composed of main node and multiple slave nodes is given. The design and application of the optimized uniform scheduling algorithm are introduced, comparing with standard CAN network, the TTCAN network lighting control system enhances the utilization of bus and improves the real time performance of system in certain extent.%智能照明系统是自动化技术在照明控制领域的应用推广。基于CAN总线的智能照明控制系统已经逐步在市场推广,而针对CAN通信网络中低优先级数据传输延迟较大、存在实时性和确定性较差的问题,提出了基于时间触发的TTCAN协议,给出了由主节点和多个从节点构成的TTCAN网络系统硬件结构,介绍了一种优化的均匀调度算法的设计和应用。试验结果表明,与标准的CAN网络相比,TTCAN网络照明控制系统提高了总线利用率,并在一定程度上提高了系统的实时性。

  15. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  16. 基于VRRP协议实现路由冗余和负载均衡的应用研究%The Research and Application of VRRP Protocol on Routing Redundancy and load Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷宝磊

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid popularization of computer network,a variety of network applications(OA systems,voice sys-tems,video surveillance systems)become increasingly complex,the importance of the network transmission of data, complexity is increasing,users require network has a high degree of redundancy. For the end user in the network,it is desirable from time to time to maintain good communication with the rest of the network part. Virtual Routing Protocol (VRRP,Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)provides a way to ensure a reliable end-user contact your network with-out interruption. For network reliability and security requirements,VRRP not only in highly redundant network layer to ensure that the system,but also can achieve load balancing network traffic.%随着计算机网络的迅速普及,网络的各种应用(OA系统、语音系统、网络视频监控系统)日趋复杂,网络上传输数据的重要性、复杂性也越来越高,用户要求网络具有高度的冗余性。对于网络中的终端用户来说,希望时时与网络中的其他部分保持良好的通信。虚拟路由协议(VRRP,Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)提供一种方法,能够保证终端用户与网络的联系可靠而不中断。出于网络可靠性和安全性的要求,VRRP不仅能够在网络层保证系统的高度冗余,同时还可以实现网络流量的负载均衡。

  17. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  18. MANETs performance analysis with dos attack at different routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Zain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET is widely used in many industrial and people's life applications, such as earth monitoring, natural disaster prevention, agriculture biomedical related applications, and many other areas. Security threat is one of the major aspects of MANET, as it is one of the basic requirements of wireless sensor network, yet this problem has not been sufficiently explored. The main purpose of this paper is to study different MANETs routing protocols with three scenarios of Denial of Service (DoS attacks on network layer using proactive routing protocol i.e. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR and Reactive routing protocols like Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Hybrid routing protocols like Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP. Moreover, a comparative analysis of DoS attacks for throughput, Data loss, delay and network load is taken into account. The performance of MANET under the attack is studied to find out which protocol is more vulnerable to the attack and how much is the impact of the attack on both protocols. The simulation is done using OPNET 17.

  19. Heterogeneous LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks are networks of large number of tiny, battery powered sensor nodes having limited on-board storage, processing, and radio capabilities. Nodes sense and send their reports toward a processing center which is called base station. Since this transmission and reception process consumes lots of energy as compare to data processing, Designing protocols and applications for such networks has to be energy aware in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. Generally, real life applications deal with such Heterogeneity rather than Homogeneity. In this paper, a protocol is proposed, which is heterogeneous in energy. We analyze the basic distributed clustering routing protocol LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, which is a homogeneous system, and then we study the impact of heterogeneity in energy of nodes to prolong the life time of WSN. Simulation results using MATLAB shows that the proposed Leach-heterogeneous system significantly reduces energy consumption and increase the total lifetime of the wireless sensor network.

  20. A Secure Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol for Credential Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    In this paper, we propose a leakage-resilient and proactive authenticated key exchange (called LRP-AKE) protocol for credential services which provides not only a higher level of security against leakage of stored secrets but also secrecy of private key with respect to the involving server. And we show that the LRP-AKE protocol is provably secure in the random oracle model with the reduction to the computational Difie-Hellman problem. In addition, we discuss about some possible applications of the LRP-AKE protocol.

  1. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam

    2012-01-13

    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  2. Individualized Therapy Is a Long-Term Cost-Effective Method Compared to Dose Intensification in Crohn's Disease Patients Failing Infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Brynskov, Jørn; Thomsen, Ole Ø

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Crohn's disease patients failing infliximab therapy, interventions defined by an algorithm based on infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody measurements have proven more cost-effective than intensifying the infliximab regimen. AIM: This study investigated long-term economic outcomes......-protocol patients (n = 55), costs at the week 20 follow-up visit were even lower (49 %) in the algorithm group: $8,742 versus $17,236; p = 0.002. Figures were similar for patients having completed the 12-week trial as per protocol (50 % reduction in costs) (n = 45). Among patients continuing the allocated study...

  3. DebtRank: too central to fail? Financial networks, the FED and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Puliga, Michelangelo; Kaushik, Rahul; Tasca, Paolo; Caldarelli, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Systemic risk, here meant as the risk of default of a large portion of the financial system, depends on the network of financial exposures among institutions. However, there is no widely accepted methodology to determine the systemically important nodes in a network. To fill this gap, we introduce, DebtRank, a novel measure of systemic impact inspired by feedback-centrality. As an application, we analyse a new and unique dataset on the USD 1.2 trillion FED emergency loans program to global financial institutions during 2008-2010. We find that a group of 22 institutions, which received most of the funds, form a strongly connected graph where each of the nodes becomes systemically important at the peak of the crisis. Moreover, a systemic default could have been triggered even by small dispersed shocks. The results suggest that the debate on too-big-to-fail institutions should include the even more serious issue of too-central-to-fail.

  4. Internet-Protocol-Based Satellite Bus Architecture Designed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slywczak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA is designing future complex satellite missions ranging from single satellites and constellations to space networks and sensor webs. These missions require more interoperability, autonomy, and coordination than previous missions; in addition, a desire exists to have scientists retrieve data directly from the satellite rather than a central distribution source. To meet these goals, NASA has been studying the possibility of extending the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite for spacebased applications.

  5. Evidence of a "Failing Newspaper" under the Newspaper Preservation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Robert G.

    The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 makes it possible for competing newspapers to combine advertising, production, circulation and management functions into a single newspaper corporation. For the attorney general and the courts to authorize a joint operating agreement (JOA) for a "failing newspaper," certain conditions must be met and certain…

  6. Super-Earths as Failed Cores in Orbital Migration Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    I explore whether close-in super-Earths were formed as rocky bodies that failed to grow fast enough to become the cores of gas giants before the natal protostellar disk dispersed. I model the failed cores’ inward orbital migration in the low-mass or type I regime to stopping points at distances where the tidal interaction with the protostellar disk applies zero net torque. The three kinds of migration traps considered are those due to the dead zone's outer edge, the ice line, and the transition from accretion to starlight as the disk's main heat source. As the disk disperses, the traps move toward final positions near or just outside 1 au. Planets at this location exceeding about 3 M ⊕ open a gap, decouple from their host traps, and migrate inward in the high-mass or type II regime to reach the vicinity of the star. I synthesize the population of planets that formed in this scenario, finding that a fraction of the observed super-Earths could have been failed cores. Most super-Earths that formed this way have more than 4 M ⊕, so their orbits when the disks dispersed were governed by type II migration. These planets have solid cores surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Their subsequent photoevaporative mass loss is most effective for masses originally below about 6 M ⊕. The failed core scenario suggests a division of the observed super-Earth mass-radius diagram into five zones according to the inferred formation history.

  7. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valášek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandór, G.K.; Marcián, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  8. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  9. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...

  10. Age of failed restorations: A deceptive longevity parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Wilson, N.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    There is pressing need to enhance evidence base in respect of longevity of restorations. Currently, there is lack of appreciation of differences between survival data based on the age of failed restorations as compared to gold standard Kaplan-Meier statistics. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken t

  11. Government failings on energy efficiency and fuel poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A. [Association for the Conservation of Energy (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    The author delivered this year's Melchett Lecture as part of the EI's Energy in transition event in July, having been awarded the 72nd Melchett Award about the organizing for energy efficiency and the Government's current failing on fuel poverty strategy. 3 figs.

  12. Organization Theory: Bright Prospects for a Permanently Failing Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOrganization theory is a paradoxical field of scientific inquiry. It has struggled for more than fifty years to develop a unified theory of organizational effectiveness under girded by a coherent set of assumptions, and it has thus far failed to produce one. Yet, by other standards it is

  13. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  14. Preventing Suicide: A Mission Too Big to Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Preventing Suicide: A Mission Too Big to Fail by Ms. Gloria Duck Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Holman Ms. Jennifer Jessup...Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Holman United States Army Ms. Jennifer Jessup Department of Veterans Affairs Civilian Colonel Keith...Gloria Duck Department of the Army Civilian Lieutenant Colonel Timothy Holman United States Army Ms. Jennifer Jessup Department of Veterans Affairs

  15. Why Young People Fail To Get and Hold Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…

  16. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  17. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor.

  18. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  19. AN IMPROVED AUTHENTICATED KEY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, Seo and Sweeney proposed a simple authenticated key agreement protocol that was designed to act as a Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol with user authentication.Various attacks on this protocol are described and enhanced in the literature. Recently, Ku and Wang proposed an improved authenticated key agreement protocol, where they asserted the protocol could withstand the existing attacks. This paper shows that Ku and Wang's protocol is still vulnerable to the modification attack and presents an improved authenticated key agreement protocol to enhance the security of Ku and Wang's protocol. The protocol has more efficient performance by replacing exponentiation operations with message authentication code operations.

  20. Why Insurgents Fail: Examining Post-World War II Failed Insurgencies Utilizing the Prerequisites of Successful Insurgencies as a Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Baylis and Son, 1970. Geyer, Georgie A. “Why Guevara Failed: An Interview with Regis Debray.” Saturday Review. August 24, 1968. 156 Gonzalez...1949): 8-11, 34-35. Howard , Harry N. Greece and the United Nations, 1946-1949; A Summary Record. Report of the U.N. Special Committee on the

  1. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  2. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  3. REVIEW OF THE NEGOTIATION OF THE MODEL PROTOCOL ADDITIONAL TO THE AGREEMENT(S) BETWEEN STATE(S) AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY FOR THE APPLICATION OF SAFEGUARDS, INFCIRC/540 (Corrected) VOLUME II/III IAEA COMMITTEE 24, Major Issues Underlying the Model Additional Protocol (1996-1997).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Saum-Manning, L.; Houck, F.

    2010-01-01

    Volume I of this Review traces the origins of the Model Additional Protocol. It covers the period from 1991, when events in Iraq triggered an intensive review of the safeguards system, until 1996, when the IAEA Board of Governors established Committee 24 to negotiate a new protocol to safeguards agreement. The period from 1991-1996 set the stage for this negotiation and shaped its outcome in important ways. During this 5-year period, many proposals for strengthening safeguards were suggested and reviewed. Some proposals were dropped, for example, the suggestion by the IAEA Secretariat to verify certain imports, and others were refined. A rough consensus was established about the directions in which the international community wanted to go, and this was reflected in the draft of an additional protocol that was submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors on May 6, 1996 in document GOV/2863, Strengthening the Effectiveness and Improving the Efficiency of the Safeguards System - Proposals For Implementation Under Complementary Legal Authority, A Report by the Director General. This document ended with a recommendation that, 'the Board, through an appropriate mechanism, finalize the required legal instrument taking as a basis the draft protocol proposed by the Secretariat and the explanation of the measures contained in this document.'

  4. Defence Mechanism for SYBIL Attacks in MANETS using ABR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Security is of paramount concern in any adhoc network. In Mobile Adhoc NETworks (MANETs, mobility of the nodes poses a problem for providing security services [1]. The ad-hoc network is more vulnerable to attacks, since it uses wireless communication link between the mobile nodes. Sybil Attack is a spoofing attack, where a malicious node illegitimately creates multiple fake identities (called the Sybil nodes to impersonate as normal nodes. It is observed that most of the existing protocols fail to defend against Sybil attack. Associativity Based Routing (ABR protocol is an on-demand active routing protocol. It chooses the most long lived and stable route for communication rather than the shortest route. In this paper, using ABR protocol, we show that a legitimate node in the network along with the Local Server (LS can detect the Sybil attacker. We show through simulation that using the concept of a PKI secured SESSION KEY (SESS_KEY, we can detect the presence of a Sybil attacker in the network. The empirical results show that there is an increase of 10% in the throughput and 60% in good put and the integrity of the network. This would lead to a more secure communication network with a reduced overall delay.

  5. Interoperation between AODV protocol and AOHR protocol for mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaochuan; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Jiayan

    2009-12-01

    Although AOHR protocol has some excellent performance, no actual network utilizes AOHR as routing protocol. It is because that this protocol cannot interoperate with AODV protocol, which is the most famous routing protocol and used all over the world. The cost will be very huge to replace AODV protocol with AOHR protocol for existing networks, so the only feasible method is to modify AOHR protocol to interoperate with AODV as introduced in this paper. The simulation results prove that the modified AOHR protocol can help the existing AODV protocol provide routing service, and the interoperation of these two routing protocols is realized.

  6. Creating Open Digital Library Using XML Implementation of OAi-PMH Protocol at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, M; Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Simko, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the OAi-PMH protocol within the CERN Document Server (CDS). In terms of the protocol, CERN acts both as a data provider and service provider and the two core applications are described. The application of XML Schema and XSLT technology is emphasized.

  7. Process for Reviewing Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the process for conducting two types of reviews of survey protocols. A quick assessment is used to acknowledge and describe to potential...

  8. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously (prior to 2013) reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  9. National Elk Refuge vaccination protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal by the State of Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, to vaccinate elk on the National Elk Refuge. The proposal provides a protocol for vaccinating elk...

  10. Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang

    2016-10-01

    This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.

  11. A formal method to real-time protocol interoperability testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiLiang; YIN Xia; JING ChuanMing

    2008-01-01

    Interoperability testing is an important technique to ensure the quality of implementations of network communication protocol. In the next generation Internet protocol, real-time applications should be supported effectively. However, time constraints were not considered in the related studies of protocol interoperability testing, so existing interoperability testing methods are difficult to be applied in real-time protocol interoperability testing. In this paper, a formal method to realtime protocol interoperability testing is proposed. Firstly, a formal model CMpTIOA (communicating multi-port timed input output automata) is defined to specify the system under test (SUT) in real-time protocol interoperability testing; based on this model, timed interoperability relation is then defined. In order to check this relation,a test generation method is presented to generate a parameterized test behavior tree from SUT model; a mechanism of executability pre-determination is also integrated in the test generation method to alleviate state space explosion problem to some extent. The proposed theory and method are then applied in interoperability testing of IPv6 neighbor discovery protocol to show the feasibility of this method.

  12. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    Survival of endodontically treated, post-restored teeth depends on a multitude of factors, all of which are practically impossible to include in a randomized, controlled clinical study. The purpose of this survey was to characterize and analyze reported failures of post-retained restorations...... to identify factors critical to failure and to type of failure. A questionnaire was mailed to private practitioners in Denmark with a request to complete the questionnaire whenever a patient presented with a failed post-retained restoration. Information was gathered on factors related to the patient...... increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts....

  13. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    . The male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis.......Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis...

  14. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Failed SLAP Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Miller, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    In general, favorable outcomes have been achieved with arthroscopic repair of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears. However, some patients remain dissatisfied or suffer further injury after SLAP repair and may seek additional treatment to alleviate their symptoms. The cause of persistent pain or recurrent symptoms after repair is likely multifactorial; therefore, careful preoperative workup is required to elucidate the cause of pain. Review of the details of previous surgical procedures is crucial because certain fixation methods are prone to failure or can cause additional injury. Failed SLAP repair can be managed with nonsurgical or surgical options. Nonsurgical modalities include physical therapy and strengthening programs, anti-inflammatory agents, and activity modification. Surgical options include revision SLAP repair and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis with or without revision SLAP repair. Outcomes after surgical management of failed SLAP repair are inferior to those of primary repair. Select patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  15. Improved Authenticated Multi-Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; YUAN Zheng; WEN Qiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Zhou et al give an attack on Harn's modified authenticated multi-key agreement protocol, and give a protocol that can prevent the unknown key-share attack. The paper points out that the protocol is vulnerable to a concatenation attack. This paper proposes an improved authenticated multi-key agreement protocol which shows how to make Harn's protocol more secure by modifying the signature and verification. And this protocol can escape the concatenation attack.

  16. Late sodium current in failing heart: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Victor A; Undrovinas, Albertas

    2008-01-01

    Most cardiac Na+ channels open transiently upon membrane depolarization and then are quickly inactivated. However, some channels remain active, carrying the so-called persistent or late Na+ current (INaL) throughout the action potential (AP) plateau. Experimental data and the results of numerical modeling accumulated over the past decade show the emerging importance of this late current component for the function of both normal and failing myocardium. INaL is produced by special gating modes of the cardiac-specific Na+ channel isoform. Heart failure (HF) slows channel gating and increases INaL, but HF-specific Na+ channel isoform underlying these changes has not been found. Na+ channels represent a multi-protein complex and its activity is determined not only by the pore-forming alpha subunit but also by its auxiliary beta subunits, cytoskeleton, calmodulin, regulatory kinases and phosphatases, and trafficking proteins. Disruption of the integrity of this protein complex may lead to alterations of INaL in pathological conditions. Increased INaL and the corresponding Na+ flux in failing myocardium contribute to abnormal repolarization and an increased cell Ca2+ load. Interventions designed to correct INaL rescue normal repolarization and improve Ca2+ handling and contractility of the failing cardiomyocytes. This review considers (1) quantitative integration of INaL into the established electrophysiological and Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms in normal and failing cardiomyocytes and (2) a new therapeutic strategy utilizing a selective inhibition of INaL to target both arrhythmias and impaired contractility in HF.

  17. Fail-safe designs for large capacity battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad A.; Neubauer, Jeremy

    2016-05-17

    Fail-safe systems and design methodologies for large capacity battery systems are disclosed. The disclosed systems and methodologies serve to locate a faulty cell in a large capacity battery, such as a cell having an internal short circuit, determine whether the fault is evolving, and electrically isolate the faulty cell from the rest of the battery, preventing further electrical energy from feeding into the fault.

  18. Paying for innovation. Failed strategies add to hospitals' reimbursement losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarito, K

    Hospitals across the country are struggling to balance revenue shortfalls and cost increases as the lid on government and private-payer payments closes tighter. They're also grappling with losses on failed physician and HMO investments, the expense of new medical technologies and larger-than-planned costs related to "millennium bug" cures. This is the second part of a two-part series on financial turmoil in healthcare.

  19. Reorganized PKA-AKAP associations in the failing human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin-Thin; Soni, Siddarth; van Veen, Toon A B; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Cappadona, Salvatore; Varro, Andras; de Weger, Roel A; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Vos, Marc A; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2012-02-01

    Here we reveal that the characterization of large-scale re-arrangements of signaling scaffolds induced by heart failure can serve as a novel concept to identify more specific therapeutic targets. In the mammalian heart, the cAMP pathway, with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a central role, acts directly downstream of adrenergic receptors to mediate cardiac contractility and rhythm. Heart failure, characterized by severe alterations in adrenergic stimulation is, amongst other interventions, often treated with β-blockers. Contrasting results, however, have shown both beneficial and detrimental effects of decreased cAMP levels in failing hearts. We hypothesize that the origin of this behavior lies in the complex spatiotemporal organization of the regulatory subunit of PKA (PKA-R), which associates tightly with various A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) to specifically localize PKA's activity. Using chemical proteomics directly applied to human patient and control heart tissue we demonstrate that the association profile of PKA-R with several AKAPs is severely altered in the failing heart, for instance effecting the interaction between PKA and the novel AKAP SPHKAP was 6-fold upregulated upon failing heart conditions. Also a significant increase in captured cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) was observed. The observed altered profiles can already explain many aspects of the aberrant cAMP-response in the failing human heart, validating that this dataset may provide a resource for several novel, more specific, treatment options. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes".

  20. Medical Support to Failed States: Start with the Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    population can be significant. In Russia overcrowded prisons have bred new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis that have proliferated virulently...among the general public.26 Similarly in the early 1990‟s the Los Angeles Jail experienced an outbreak of cerebral meningitis that spread to the local...community.27 In the Failed States of Africa, the spread of drug resistant Tuberculosis and HIV in the prisons now pose a grave threat to the region

  1. Counterterrorism in African Failed States: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    observed in these three failed states were able to operate without attracting the attention or effective sanction of the United States or its allies...anecdotal rather than quantitative in methology .14 Sageman’s two-celled terrorist model discriminates between “hubs” and “nodes” in describing the... observing “its lack of a functioning central government” and “the absence of functioning police, immigration, customs, and intelligence agencies

  2. Organizational crisis management - crisis communication when IT fails

    OpenAIRE

    Glad, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS ABSTRACT International Business, Master’s Thesis Jutta Glad 08.05.2009 ORGANIZATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT – CRISIS COMMUNICATION WHEN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FAILS Objectives of the thesis The objective of this study is to find out what different factors an organization should consider when responding to an organizational crisis that has been caused by an information technology failure. The study also tries to find out whether crisis communicat...

  3. Why Not Let IT Fail? The IT Project Success Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, Paul,; Munro, David

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; Is a focus on information systems or information technology success a myopic view of evaluating IT success and failure? Are success and failure the opposite ends of a continuum for evaluating IT projects? Conventional measures of success such as meeting cost, time, budgets, and user needs do not address positives that can emerge from failures. We contend that a focus on success and failing to factor the possibility of failure actually hamper IT ...

  4. Formal Modeling of Communication Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    problems have been developed. 4 FORMAL MODELING OF COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS The state machine model is motivated by the observation that protocols may be...simplest types of state machine model because they have only a single state variable (the state) which takes on a relatively small range of values. For...grammar, this correspondence is very apparent. For each state of the state machine model , we define a nonterminal symbol in the grammar. The inputs

  5. Super-Earths as Failed Cores in Orbital Migration Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We explore whether close-in super-Earths were formed as rocky bodies that failed to grow fast enough to become the cores of gas giants before the natal protostellar disk dispersed. We model the failed cores' inward orbital migration in the low-mass or type I regime, to stopping points at distances where the tidal interaction with the protostellar disk applies zero net torque. The three kinds of migration traps considered are those due to the dead zone's outer edge, the ice line, and the transition from accretion to starlight as the disk's main heat source. As the disk disperses, the traps move toward final positions near or just outside 1~au. Planets at this location exceeding about 3~M$_\\oplus$ open a gap, decouple from their host trap, and migrate inward in the high-mass or type II regime to reach the vicinity of the star. We synthesize the population of planets formed in this scenario, finding that some fraction of the observed super-Earths can be failed cores. Most super-Earths formed this way have more t...

  6. Evidence of structural remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Patrick A; Younes, Laurent; Beg, Mirza F; Ennis, Daniel B; Leclercq, Christophe; Faris, Owen P; McVeigh, Elliot; Kass, David; Miller, Michael I; Winslow, Raimond L

    2006-01-01

    Ventricular remodeling of both geometry and fiber structure is a prominent feature of several cardiac pathologies. Advances in MRI and analytical methods now make it possible to measure changes of cardiac geometry, fiber, and sheet orientation at high spatial resolution. In this report, we use diffusion tensor imaging to measure the geometry, fiber, and sheet architecture of eight normal and five dyssynchronous failing canine hearts, which were explanted and fixed in an unloaded state. We apply novel computational methods to identify statistically significant changes of cardiac anatomic structure in the failing and control heart populations. The results demonstrate significant regional differences in geometric remodeling in the dyssynchronous failing heart versus control. Ventricular chamber dilatation and reduction in wall thickness in septal and some posterior and anterior regions are observed. Primary fiber orientation showed no significant change. However, this result coupled with the local wall thinning in the septum implies an altered transmural fiber gradient. Further, we observe that orientation of laminar sheets become more vertical in the early-activated septum, with no significant change of sheet orientation in the late-activated lateral wall. Measured changes in both fiber gradient and sheet structure will affect both the heterogeneity of passive myocardial properties as well as electrical activation of the ventricles.

  7. Satellite-Friendly Protocols and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner, S.; Riedler, W.

    2002-01-01

    We are currently observing a development unprecedented with other services, the enormous growth of the Internet. Video, voice and data applications can be supported via this network in high quality. Multi-media applications require high bandwidth which may not be available in many areas. When making proper use of the broadcast feature of a communications satellite, the performance of the satellite-based system can compare favourably to terrestrial solutions. Internet applications are in many cases highly asymmetric, making them very well suited to applications using small and inexpensive terminals. Data from one source may be used simultaneously by a large number of users. The Internet protocol suite has become the de-facto standard. But this protocol family in its original form has not been designed to support guaranteed quality of service, a prerequisite for real-time, high quality traffic. The Internet Protocol has to be adapted for the satellite environment, because long roundtrip delays and the error behaviour of the channel could make it inefficient over a GEO satellite. Another requirement is to utilise the satellite bandwidth as efficiently as possible. This can be achieved by adapting the access system to the nature of IP frames, which are variable in length. In the framework of ESA's ARTES project a novel satellite multimedia system was developed which utilises Multi-Frequency TDMA in a meshed network topology. The system supports Quality of Service (QoS) by reserving capacity with different QoS requirements. The system is centrally controlled by a master station with the implementation of a demand assignment (DAMA) system. A lean internal signalling system has been adopted. Network management is based on the SNMP protocol and industry-standard network management platforms, making interfaces to standard accounting and billing systems easy. Modern communication systems will have to be compliant to different standards in a very flexible manner. The

  8. A LITERARY REVIEW OF MANET SECURITY PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks offer various applications which are verymuch essential in wireless networks. But the vital problemconcerning their security aspects is the major issue whichmust be solved. A mobile adhoc network is a collection ofnodes that are connected through a wireless mediumforming rapidly changing topologies. The dynamic andcooperative nature of ad hoc networks present challenges insecuring these networks. Attacks on ad hoc network routingprotocols is the main problem which affects the networkperformance and reliability. Here a brief introduction ismade of the most popular protocols that follow the tabledrivenapproach and the source initiated on-demandapproach.

  9. A Secure and Efficient Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Hu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Digital watermarking technology has become increasing popular in the protection digital copyright. However, in the practical application, the watermarking algorithms should be combined with a secure copyright protection protocol to solve the copyright protection problems completely. In this paper, a novel buyer-seller watermarking protocol is proposed for piracy tracing, in which a memoryless Watermark Certification Authority (WCA can offer a number of watermarks for a buyer simultaneously, avoiding itself being involved in each digital transaction operated between the buyer and the seller. Besides, in order to guarantee the anonymity of the buyer, the WCA can provide the buyer with an encrypted digital certificate and have it submitted directly to the seller by the buyer. In addition, the proposed protocol also can resolve other problems, such as the customer right problem, the binding attack problem, the anonymity problem, the conspiracy problem, the dispute problem. The analyses indicate that the proposed protocol is secure and practical.

  10. Petri Net-based Analysis of the Safety Communication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongjie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a few research in area of safety-critical system, therefore the study of performance analyzing method of the protocol has important practical significance for transportation engineering. This paper first briefly introduces the execution procedure of safety communication protocol, then explores the application of Petri net to establish the model of the protocol, including the process of state transition and corresponding timer which record the time, then obtains related performance data such as maintainability and failure probability, which users usually pay most attention to, with different probability of time delay and no fault in channel by simulation. Finally this paper finds that how the probability of time delay and no fault in channel could influent the maintainability and failure probability through data process with theory of probability and mathematical statistic, this could provide a certain reference for development of safety communication protocol.    

  11. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-05-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  12. Model-Checking Web Services Business Activity Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Abinoam P.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Srba, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Web Services Business Activity specification defines two coordination protocols BAwCC (Business Agreement with Coordination Completion) and BAwPC (Business Agreement with Participant Completion)that ensure a consistent agreement on the outcome of long-running distributed applications. In order...... to verify fundamental properties of the protocols we provide formal analyses in the model checker UPPAAL.Our analyses are supported by a newly developed tool chain,where in the first step we translatetables with state-transition protocol descriptionsinto an intermediate XML format, and in the second step we...... translate this format into a network of communicating state machines directly suitable for verification in UPPAAL.Our results show that the WS-BA protocols, as described in the standard specification, violate correct operation by reaching invalid statesfor all underlying communication media except...

  13. The Analysis and Application of Short Distance Home Communication Protocol Based on FSM%基于FSM的短距离家居通讯协议的分析及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏成悦; 李文杰; 庄伟林

    2013-01-01

    Facing the rapid development of Smart-House and the diversification of communication protocol,it introduces the popular communication protocols,X-10 and CEBus,and compares their advantages and disadvantages.Then,it established a short distance communication protocol,based on FSM.With the power line carrier used,the protocol is characteristic of low cost,and it has good openness as well as security.Furthermore,this protocol uses the technology of finite state machine so as to resolve the problem of communication conflicts,ensuring communication with stability in real time.%面对智能家居快速发展以及家居通讯协议多样化的特点,介绍了主流X-10、CEBus协议,并比较其各自优缺点;针对这些优缺点制定出基于FSM的短距离家居通讯协议,该协议应用电力线载波方式,成本低廉,具有很强的开放性和很好的保密性,同时充分运用有限状态机有效地解决了各用电器间的通讯冲突问题,确保通讯的实时性和稳定性.

  14. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure.Methods: A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block.Results: There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001. The overall success rate was 92%.Conclusion: Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery.Keywords: bleb, failure, 5-FU, needling, gonioscopy

  15. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science.

  16. Synthesizing Distributed Protocol Specifications from a UML State Machine Modeled Service Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jehad Al Dallal; Kassem A.Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The object-oriented paradigm is widely applied in designing and implementing communication systems.Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language used to model the design of object-oriented systems.A protocol state machine is a UML adopted diagram that is widely used in designing communication protocols.It has two key attractive advantages over traditional finite state machines:modeling concurrency and modeling nested hierarchical states.In a distributed communication system,each entity of the system has its own protocol that defines when and how the entity exchanges messages with other communicating entities in the system.The order of the exchanged messages must conform to the overall service specifications of the system.In object-oriented systems,both the service and the protocol specifications are modeled in UML protocol state machines.Protocol specification synthesis methods have to be applied to automatically derive the protocol specification from the service specification.Otherwise,a time-consuming process of design,analysis,and error detection and correction has to be applied iteratively until the design of the protocol becomes error-free and consistent with the service specification.Several synthesis methods are proposed in the literature for models other than UML protocol state machines,and therefore,because of the unique features of the protocol state machines,these methods are inapplicable to services modeled in UML protocol state machines.In this paper,we propose a synthesis method that automatically synthesizes the protocol specification of distributed protocol entities from the service specification,given that both types of specifications are modeled in UML protocol state machines.Our method is based on the latest UML version (UML2.3),and it is proven to synthesize protocol specifications that are syntactically and semantically correct.As an example application,the synthesis method is used to derive the protocol specification of the H.323

  17. Application of QC_DR software for acceptance testing and routine quality control of direct digital radiography systems: initial experiences using the Italian Association of Physicist in Medicine quality control protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrosi, Andrea; Bertolini, Marco; Borasi, Giovanni; Botti, Andrea; Barani, Adriana; Rivetti, Stefano; Pierotti, Luisa

    2009-12-01

    Ideally, medical x-ray imaging systems should be designed to deliver maximum image quality at an acceptable radiation risk to the patient. Quality assurance procedures are employed to ensure that these standards are maintained. A quality control protocol for direct digital radiography (DDR) systems is described and discussed. Software to automatically process and analyze the required images was developed. In this paper, the initial results obtained on equipment of different DDR manufacturers were reported. The protocol was developed to highlight even small discrepancies in standard operating performance.

  18. Total hip arthroplasty following failed fixation of proximal hip fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Shekhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most proximal femoral fractures are successfully treated with internal fixation but a failed surgery can be very distressing for the patient due to pain and disability. For the treating surgeon it can be a challenge to perform salvage operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term functional outcome and complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA following failed fixation of proximal hip fracture. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 21 hips in 20 patients (13 females and seven males with complications of operated hip fractures as indicated by either established nonunion or fracture collapse with hardware failure were analysed. Mean age of the patients was 62 years (range 38 years to 85 years. Nine patients were treated for femoral neck fracture, 10 for intertrochanteric (I/T fracture and two for subtrochanteric (S/T fracture of the hip. Uncemented THA was done in 11 cases, cemented THA in eight hip joints and hybrid THA in two patients. Results: The average duration of follow-up was four years (2-13 years. The mean duration of surgery was 125 min and blood loss was 1300 ml. There were three dislocations postoperatively. Two were managed conservatively and one was operated. There was one superficial infection and one deep infection. Only one patient required a walker while four required walking stick for ambulation. The mean Harris Hip score increased from 32 preoperatively to 79 postoperatively at one year interval. Conclusion: Total hip arthroplasty is an effective salvage procedure after failed osteosynthesis of hip fractures. Most patients have good pain relief and functional improvements inspite of technical difficulties and high complication rates than primary arthroplasty.

  19. A Performance Evaluation of Improved IPv6 Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Chien Thang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, IP-based wireless sensor networks will play a key role in several application scenarios such as smart grid, smart home, healthcare, and building automation... An IPv6 routing protocol is expected to provide internet connectivity to any IP-based sensor node. In this paper, we propose IRPL protocol for IP-based wireless sensor networks. IRPL protocol uses a combination of two routing metrics that are the link quality and the remaining energy state of the preferred parent to select the optimal path. In IRPL protocol, we combine two metrics based on an alpha weight. IRPL protocol is implemented in ContikiOS and evaluated by using simulation and testbed experiments. The results show that IRPL protocol has achieved better network lifetime, data delivery ratio and energy balance compared to the traditional solution of RPL protocol

  20. Abstraction for Epistemic Model Checking of Dining Cryptographers-based Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bataineh, Omar I

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes an abstraction for protocols that are based on multiple rounds of Chaum's Dining Cryptographers protocol. It is proved that the abstraction preserves a rich class of specifications in the logic of knowledge, including specifications describing what an agent knows about other agents' knowledge. This result can be used to optimize model checking of Dining Cryptographers-based protocols, and applied within a methodology for knowledge-based program implementation and verification. Some case studies of such an application are given, for a protocol that uses the Dining Cryptographers protocol as a primitive in an anonymous broadcast system. Performance results are given for model checking knowledge-based specifications in the concrete and abstract models of this protocol, and some new conclusions about the protocol are derived.

  1. Enhancement in Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cui-rong; YANG Xiao-zong; GAO Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ad-hoc networking has mainly been associated with military battlefield networks. Security has received considerably less attention and the issue needs to be addressed before any successful applications will appear. Due to the insecure nature of the wireless link and their dynamically changing topology, wireless ad-hoc networks require a careful and security-oriented approach for designing routing protocols.In this paper, an AODV-based secure routing protocolENAODV is presented. A speed-optimized digital signature algorithm is integrated into the routing protocol. The protocol algorithm is implemented with NS-2. The security of the protocol is analyzed. The simulating results show that the performances of ENAODV protocol, such as average node energy consumption, packet delay and packet delivery is nearly the same as standard AODV protocol.

  2. Optimisation of current injection protocol based on a region of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Mayo; Jehl, Markus; Aristovich, Kirill; Avery, James; Witkowska-Wrobel, Anna; Holder, David

    2017-03-29

    Electrical Impedance Tomography has the potential to image fast neural activity associated with physiological or epileptic activity throughout the brain. These applications pose a particular challenge as expected voltage changes on the electrodes are less than 1% and geometrical constraints of the body under investigation mean that electrodes can not be evenly distributed around its boundary. Unlike other applications, however, information regarding the location of expected activity is typically available. An informative method for choosing current paths that maximise sensitivity to specific regions is desirable. Two electrode addressing protocol generation methods based on current density vectors concentrated in a region of interest have been proposed. One focuses solely on maximising its magnitude while the other considers its distribution. The quality of reconstructed images using these protocols was assessed in a simulation study conducted in a human and rat mesh and compared to the protocol that maximises distance between injecting electrodes. When implementing the protocol that focused on maximising magnitude, the current density concentrated in a region of interest increased by up to a factor of 3. When the distribution of the current was maximised, the spread of current density vectors increased by up to fivefold. For the small conductivity changes expected in the applications explored, image quality was best when implementing the protocol that maximised current density. The average image error when using this protocol was 7% better than when employing other protocols. We conclude that for fast neural EIT applications, the protocol that maximises current density is the best protocol to implement.

  3. Surgical management of vestibular schwannomas after failed radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Watanabe, Kentaro; Friedman, Allan H; Cunningham, Calhoun D; Zomorodi, Ali R

    2016-04-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) have been treated with focused-beam stereotactic radiation treatment (SRT) including Gamma knife, CyberKnife, X-knife, Novalis, or proton beam therapy. The purpose of this study was to document the incidence of tumor regrowth or symptoms that worsened or first developed following SRT and to discuss surgical strategies for patients who have failed SRT for VS. A consecutive series of 39 patients with SRT failed VS were surgically treated. Clinical symptoms, tumor regrowth at follow-up, intraoperative findings, and surgical outcome were evaluated. There were 15 males and 24 females with a mean age of 51.8 years. Thirty-six patients (92.3%) demonstrated steady tumor growth after SRT. Two (5.1%) patients with slight increase of the mass underwent surgical resection because of development of unbearable facial pain. Symptoms that worsened or newly developed following SRT in this series were deafness (41%), dizziness (35.9%), facial numbness (25.6%), tinnitus (20.5%), facial nerve palsy (7.7%), and facial pain (7.7%). Intraoperative findings demonstrated fibrous changes of the tumor mass, cyst formation, and brownish-yellow or purple discoloration of the tumor capsule. Severe adhesions between the tumor capsule and cranial nerves, vessels, and the brainstem were observed in 69.2%. Additionally, the facial nerve was more fragile and irritable in all cases. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 33.3% of patients, near-total resection (NTR) in 35.9%, and subtotal resection (STR) in 30.8% of patients. New facial nerve palsy was seen in seven patients (19.4%) postoperatively. Our findings suggest that patients with VS who fail SRT with either tumor progression or worsening of clinical symptoms will have an increased rate of adhesions to the neurovascular structures and may have radiation-influenced neuromalacia. Salvage surgery of radiation-failed tumors is more difficult and will have a higher risk of

  4. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  5. A Novel Endoscopic Technique for Failed Nasogastric Tube Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Direct visualization of the nasopharynx gives the otolaryngologist a unique advantage for addressing difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy. One common situation is being consulted to assist when the blind placement of a nasogastric tube has failed. A novel technique for managing a patient with a nasogastric tube embedded in the adenoid remnant is described with illustrations. The atraumatic method is easily employed by a resident armed with a portable nasolaryngoscope and plain suture. By using a repeated pull-through technique, the nasogastric tube can be guided past difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy and into a position from where it can be advanced into the patient's esophagus.

  6. Google+ is Google's Facebook killer doomed to fail?

    CERN Document Server

    Dino, G

    2012-01-01

    Do you have a Facebook profile? How about a Google+ page? Which do you prefer: Facebook or Google+? You may have both, but not use one as often as the other. You may have just one while waiting for the right time to join the other. The question is: When is the right time? Are you waiting to see which one is the better product? This issue has been the talk of the cybersphere since Google+ was released - will it be the Facebook killer that a number of other social media sites in the past have failed to become?

  7. A Perplexed Economist Confronts 'too Big to Fail'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines premises and data underlying the assertion that some financial institutions in the U.S. economy were "too big to fail" and hence warranted government bailout. It traces the merger histories enhancing the dominance of six leading firms in the U. S. banking industry and he sharp increases in the concentration of financial institution assets accompanying that merger wave. Financial institution profits are found to have soared in tandem with rising concentration. The paper advances hypotheses why these phenomena might be related and surveys relevant empirical literature on the relationships between market concentration, interest rates received and charged by banks, and economies of scale in banking.

  8. The mesh network protocol evaluation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Ping; PETRENKO Y.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Mesh network protocol evaluation and development. It has a special protocol. We could easily to understand that how different protocols are used in mesh network. In addition to our comprehension, Multi – hop routing protocol could provide robustness and load balancing to communication in wireless mesh networks.

  9. SECURING VIRTUAL IMAGES USING BLIND AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVIKIRAN PEELUKHANA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cloud virtualization technology improves the economy of scale for data centers through server consolidation, application consolidation and resources consolidation. Virtualization allows the provider to move Virtual Images from more congested host to less-congested hosts, as required. Enterprises also get improved server reliability, which in turn increases application performance. Despite these benefits, it includes major security challenges with the portability of Virtual Images between different cloud providers.The security and integrity of Virtual images is the foundation for the overall security of the cloud. Many of the Virtual images are intended to be shared by diverse and unrelated users. Unfortunately, existing approaches to cloud security built by cloud practitioners fall short when dealing with Virtual images. Secure transmission of virtual Images can bepossible by providing authentication using Blind Authentication protocol (BAP. The proposed approach authenticates the allocation of virtual images using Blind authentication protocol. It provides provable protection against replay and client side attacks even if the keys of the user are compromised. The encryption also provides template protection, revocability and alleviates the concerns on privacy in widespread use of biometrics. Carrying out the authentication in the encrypted domain is a secure process, while the encryption key acts as an additional layer of security.

  10. Cryptographic Protocols under Quantum Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Lunemann, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    The realm of this thesis is cryptographic protocol theory in the quantum world. We study the security of quantum and classical protocols against adversaries that are assumed to exploit quantum effects to their advantage. Security in the quantum world means that quantum computation does not jeopardize the assumption, underlying the protocol construction. But moreover, we encounter additional setbacks in the security proofs, which are mostly due to the fact that some well-known classical proof techniques are forbidden by certain properties of a quantum environment. Interestingly, we can exploit some of the very same properties to the benefit of quantum cryptography. Thus, this work lies right at the heart of the conflict between highly potential effects but likewise rather demanding conditions in the quantum world.

  11. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  12. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: 1 training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision, 2 assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely, 3 ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver, 4 simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear, 5 strict dose control for each session, 6 ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol, with corresponding corrective steps as required, 7 monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects, 8 guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations.

  13. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  14. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Protocol Writing in Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, Azzam

    2016-01-01

    Writing a research proposal is probably one of the most challenging and difficult task as research is a new area for the majority of postgraduates and new researchers. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most important steps and necessary guidelines for producing a standard research protocol. Academic and administrative success of any project is usually determined by acquiring a grant for the related field of research. Hence, the quality of a protocol is primarily required to achieve success in this scientific competition. PMID:28050522

  16. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  17. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security...

  18. Adult cancer clinical trials that fail to complete: an epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Kristian D; McBride, Russell B; Latif, Asma; Wisnivesky, Juan; Hendricks, Ryan; Roper, Nitin; Boffetta, Paolo; Hall, Simon J; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D

    2014-09-01

    The number and diversity of cancer therapeutics in the pipeline has increased over the past decade due to an enhanced understanding of cancer biology and the identification of novel therapeutic targets. At the same time, the cost of bringing new drugs to market and the regulatory burdens associated with clinical drug development have progressively increased. The finite number of eligible patients and limited financial resources available to evaluate promising new therapeutics represent rate-limiting factors in the effort to translate preclinical discoveries into the next generation of standard therapeutic approaches. Optimal use of resources requires understanding and ultimately addressing inefficiencies in the cancer clinical trials system. Prior analyses have demonstrated that a large proportion of trials initiated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Group system are never completed. While NCI Cooperative Group trials are important, they represent only a small proportion of all cancer clinical trials performed. Herein, we explore the problem of cancer clinical trials that fail to complete within the broader cancer clinical trials enterprise. Among 7776 phase II-III adult cancer clinical trials initiated between 2005-2011, we found a seven-year cumulative incidence of failure to complete of approximately 20% (95% confidence interval = 18% to 22%). Nearly 48000 patients were enrolled in trials that failed to complete. These trials likely contribute little to the scientific knowledge base, divert resources and patients from answering other critical questions, and represent a barrier to progress.

  19. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  20. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  1. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  2. Prevention Of WormholeAttacks In Geographic Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Poornima,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement..Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. Boundary State Routing (BSR is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known to be particularly susceptible to attacks.. In this paper we present the possible attacks on BSR protocol. One of the most popular and serious attacks in ad hoc networks is wormhole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. A wormhole attack is very powerful, and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, we devise efficient methods to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the BSR protocol. The first method namely Reverse Routing Scheme (RRS attempts to detect the intrusion action .The second technique namely Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS uses cryptographic concepts to detect and prevent wormhole attacks. It not only detects the fake route but also adopts preventive measures against action wormhole nodes from reappearing during routing. The proposed system is designed in Boundary state routing (BSRprotocol and analysis and simulations are performed in network simulator (NS-2.

  3. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-11-19

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  4. The object-oriented method to design protocol software and its application%协议软件实现的面向对象方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶源根; 叶砚农

    2012-01-01

    为了克服协议软件设计与实现中的复杂性,对协议软件状态机建模过程和消息处理过程进行研究,提出一种基于有限状态机机制和事件驱动机制的面向对象方法,用以设计事件发生器、事件分发器和消息格式转换器,同时分离协议栈消息处理逻辑和状态逻辑,使其便于复用和扩展,由此改善协议软件的设计。将新方法应用于GSM(Global System for Mobile Communications)通信协议栈的软件设计,并对所设计的软件进行测试,结果显示所设计软件可靠性和稳定性良好。%To simplify the design and implementation of protocol software,the state machine modeling process and message handling process was studied.An object-oriented method based on finite state machine mechanism and event-driven mechanism was proposed to design event generator,event dispatcher and message format converter,and message processing logic and state machine logic of protocol stack was separated,which leads to the improvement of protocol software's reusability and expansibility.Therefore,the design of the protocol software will be improved.The new method was used in the design of GSM(Global System for Mobile Communications) communication protocol software,the test results shows that the software has a good reliability and stability.

  5. Application of IEEE 1588 protocol in protection example value synchronization of distributed generation system%IEEE 1588在分布式发电系统保护采样值同步中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乘胜; 唐立军

    2009-01-01

    The future trend of the distributed automation system is adopting the 1EC 61850 standard to realize seamless communication in the substation and between the substation and every node of the distributed system. The IEC 61850 protocol has very high requirement for sample value synchronization accuracy. The IEEE 1588 protocol was introduced and analyzed. A separate iming index generator was established, and "side-clock" function for exchanger was realized. A new accurate time synchronization scheme was proposed which is in accordance with the IEEE 1588 protocol and can be used in distributed system protection communication, and the software and hardware structure modes were given. The realization of the IEEE 1588 protocol was accomplished by using microcontroller, and the requirement of sample value synchronization of distributed protection communication system based on IEC 61850 protocol should be satisfied.%分布式发电自动化系统未来的趋势是变电站以及变电站到分布式系统的每个节点之间都采用IEC 61850标准实现无缝通信.IEC 61850对采样值同步精确度有着非常高的精确性要求.分析并介绍了IEEE 1588协议.单独设立时标生成器,对交换机实现边界时钟功能.提出了一种符合IEEE 1588协议,可用于分布式系统保护通信中的精确时间同步新方案,并给出了软硬件结构模型.IEEE 1588协议的实现利用微控制器来完成,可以满足基于IEC 61850的分布式保护通信系统的采样值同步要求.

  6. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  7. Randomized trial for answers to clinical questions: Evaluating a pre-appraised versus a MEDLINE search protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manesh R.; Schardt, Connie M.; Sanders, Linda L.; Keitz, Sheri A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The paper compares the speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the primary medical literature. Design: A randomized trial involving medicine residents was performed. Setting: An inpatient general medicine rotation was used. Participants: Thirty-two internal medicine residents were block randomized into four groups of eight. Main Outcome Measures: Success rate of each search protocol was measured by perceived search time, number of questions answered, and proportion of articles that were applicable and valid. Results: Residents randomized to the MEDLINE-first (protocol A) group searched 120 questions, and residents randomized to the MEDLINE-last (protocol B) searched 133 questions. In protocol A, 104 answers (86.7%) and, in protocol B, 117 answers (88%) were found to clinical questions. In protocol A, residents reported that 26 (25.2%) of the answers were obtained quickly or rated as “fast” (<5 minutes) as opposed to 55 (51.9%) in protocol B, (P = 0.0004). A subset of questions and articles (n = 79) were reviewed by faculty who found that both protocols identified similar numbers of answer articles that addressed the questions and were felt to be valid using critical appraisal criteria. Conclusion: For resident-generated clinical questions, both protocols produced a similarly high percentage of applicable and valid articles. The MEDLINE-last search protocol was perceived to be faster. However, in the MEDLINE-last protocol, a significant portion of questions (23%) still required searching MEDLINE to find an answer. PMID:17082828

  8. Protocol Analysis as a Method for Analyzing Conversational Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Carlos G.; Vangelisti, Anita L.

    Protocol analysis, a technique that uses people's verbal reports about their cognitions as they engage in an assigned task, has been used in a number of applications to provide insight into how people mentally plan, assess, and carry out those assignments. Using a system of networked computers where actors communicate with each other over…

  9. Programming Model and Protocols for Reconfigurable Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arad, Cosmin Ionel

    2013-01-01

    Distributed systems are everywhere. From large datacenters to mobile devices, an ever richer assortment of applications and services relies on distributed systems, infrastructure, and protocols. Despite their ubiquity, testing and debugging distributed systems remains notoriously hard. Moreover, aside from inherent design challenges posed by partial failure, concurrency, or asynchrony, there remain significant challenges in the implementation of distributed systems. These programming challeng...

  10. Survey of Performance based Transmission Control Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Bagde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a connection-oriented transport service that ensures the reliability of message delivery. It verifies that messages and data were received. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP provides a communication service at an intermediate level between an application programs. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. TCP is a reliable transport protocol that is well tuned to perform well in traditional networks. However, several experiments and analysis have shown that this protocol is not suitable for bulk data transfer in high bandwidth, large round trip time networks because of its slow start and conservative congestion control mechanism. In this paper we discussed a survey of Performance Based Transmission Control Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network environment. The performance based techniques are categorized based upon different approaches like throughput, end-to-end delay, congestion control etc. We also analysis the major improvement in recent methods for performance based TCP in MANET.

  11. Probability Distributions over Cryptographic Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    exception. Cryptyc integrates use of pattern- matching in the spi calculus framework , which in turn allows the specification of nested cryptographic...programs too: the metaheuristic search for security protocols,” Information and Software Technology, vol. 43, pp. 891– 904, December 2001. 131 [9] X

  12. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  13. Metabolomics protocols for filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, Joel P A; Krill, Christian; Du Fall, Lauren; Waters, Ormonde D C; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and transcriptomics are established functional genomics tools commonly used to study filamentous fungi. Metabolomics has recently emerged as another option to complement existing techniques and provide detailed information on metabolic regulation and secondary metabolism. Here, we describe broad generic protocols that can be used to undertake metabolomics studies in filamentous fungi.

  14. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unacknowledged inconsistencies in the reporting of clinical trials undermine the validity of the results of the trials. Little is known about inconsistency in the reporting of academic clinical drug trials. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of consistency between protocols and...

  15. Protocol biopsies for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocol biopsies in renal transplantation are those that are procured at predetermined times post renal transplantation, regardless of renal function. These biopsies have been useful to study the natural history of the transplanted kidney as they have detected unexpected - i.e. "subclinical" pathology. The most significant subclinical pathologies that have been detected with protocol biopsies have been acute lesions, such as cellular and antibody mediated rejection, and chronic lesions, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, and transplant glomerulopathy. The potential benefit of early recognition of the above lesions is that their early treatment may result in improved long-term outcomes. Conversely, the identification of normal histology on a protocol biopsy, may inform us about the safety of reduction in overall immunosuppression. Our centre, as well as others, is attempting to develop non-invasive methods of immune monitoring of renal transplant patients. However, we believe that until such methods have been developed and validated, the protocol biopsy will remain an indispensable tool for the complete care of renal transplant patients.

  16. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrat...

  17. Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a process calculus with recursion which allows us to express an unbounded number of runs of the ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. We study the decidability issues associated with two common approaches to checking security properties, namely reachability analys...

  18. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison pr

  19. Automata-theoretic protocol programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Sung-Shik Theodorus Quirinus

    2016-01-01

    Parallel programming has become essential for writing scalable programs on general hardware. Conceptually, every parallel program consists of workers, which implement primary units of sequential computation, and protocols, which implement the rules of interaction that workers must abide by. As progr

  20. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  1. The Kyoto Protocol and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘巧云

    2005-01-01

    The kyoto Protocol is an agreement to the United Nations Framework Convention on CLimate Change (UNFCCC)2,an international treaty on global warming .It is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% compared to the level of 1990 during the 2008-12 period.

  2. Formally Generating Adaptive Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    a proven version of leader election and 2/3 consensus. In 2011 we did the same for a simple version of Paxos. At each stage of the evolution as our... leader election [2] and authentication [4] would suffice for Paxos as well. In preparation for the harder protocols, we had added expressive power to the

  3. Why did ISO 9001:2008 system fail to deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Melvyn

    2014-02-01

    This article is based on an actual investigation undertaken, and summarises the subsequent report's findings and observations. It has been anonymised for obvious reasons. In May 2013 an analysis was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that compared an NHS Trust estates department's managerial systems against the NHS national recommendations. The conclusions stated that: 'There was a systemic failure across a large number of topics generating intolerable/substantial risks to the organisation, its staff, and patients; this despite the department's managerial systems being accredited to the International Standard ISO 9001:2008'. The natural question raised when presented with this demonstrable and auditable evidence was: 'Why did the ISO 9001:2008 system fail?'

  4. Behavior of Puerto Rican parrots during failed nesting attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.A.; Wilson, M.H.; Field, R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared patterns of nesting behavior of four pairs of Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) that experienced failed nesting attempts to behavior of four pairs of parrots that experienced no substantial nest problems and successfully fledged young without management intervention. Only changes in female parrots' behavior were clearly associated with nest failure. During incubation, decreases in nest attendance, increases in duration of recesses, and increases in frequency of nest entries by female parrots were associated with imminent abandonment of nests. During early chick rearing, similar behavior was associated with the loss of broods. Low nest attendance and long recesses by female parrots during incubation were also associated with successful hatching of eggs followed by death of young several days later. The behavior patterns and changes in Puerto Rican Parrot nesting behavior described in this paper may alert biologists to nest problems that might be mitigated by management intervention.

  5. The Nixon years: failed national health reform from both parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, N

    1992-01-01

    In the November 1991 elections, popular support for national health reform (NHR) enabled Harry Wofford to become a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania. Since then a bevy of congressional proposals to reform America's health care system have emerged, with even national health insurance, or a single payer system, becoming a prominent contender for the first time in 20 years. National health reform is now a regular feature on the evening news. However, this is not the first time that NHR has attracted national attention. As pointed out in the first article in this series (Physician Executive, March-April 1992, page 23), there have been numerous efforts to enact NHR in the U.S. Each has failed because of strident opposition by interest groups, lack of active presidential interest in the specific legislation, and the absence of strong popular interest.

  6. Unaware person recognition from the body when face identification fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Allyson; Phillips, P Jonathon; Natu, Vaidehi; An, Xiaobo; O'Toole, Alice J

    2013-11-01

    How does one recognize a person when face identification fails? Here, we show that people rely on the body but are unaware of doing so. State-of-the-art face-recognition algorithms were used to select images of people with almost no useful identity information in the face. Recognition of the face alone in these cases was near chance level, but recognition of the person was accurate. Accuracy in identifying the person without the face was identical to that in identifying the whole person. Paradoxically, people reported relying heavily on facial features over noninternal face and body features in making their identity decisions. Eye movements indicated otherwise, with gaze duration and fixations shifting adaptively toward the body and away from the face when the body was a better indicator of identity than the face. This shift occurred with no cost to accuracy or response time. Human identity processing may be partially inaccessible to conscious awareness.

  7. [Multimodal therapy concepts for failed back surgery syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casser, Hans-Raimund

    2016-09-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a frequent complication (15-40 %) of lumbar disc surgery and is rarely successfully treated by surgery with the exception of a re-prolapse associated with radicular pain. Multimodal pain treatment, however, is indicated by a lack of pathoanatomical correlates, unclear cause and psychosocial risk factors.This review describes a standardized non-operative treatment starting with broad interdisciplinary clarification by medical, psychological and physiotherapeutic means (assessment).If the conditions for multimodal pain therapy are met, the OPS 8‑918-procedure can be applied to avoid chronic developing pain. In doing so, the already issued quality standards and guidelines for documentation should be respected.

  8. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions

  9. Microbial diversity in failed endodontic root-filled teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chen; HOU Ben-xiang; ZHAO Huan-ying; SUN Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent/secondary infections of human root canals play an important role in the failure of endodontic treatment.This study used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess microbial diversity in root-filled teeth associated with failed endodontic treatment.Methods DNA was extracted from 15 teeth with persistent intraradicular infections,and the 16S rRNA of all present bacteria were amplified by PCR,followed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA amplicons.Results All sample extracts were positive for PCR amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers.Negative control reactions yielded no amplicons.Sixty-five phylotypes belonging to seven phyla were identified from 760 clones; a mean of 9.4 phylotypes were detected in each sample (range 3-15).Twenty-eight phylotypes were detected in more than one sample,revealing a high inter-sample variability.Parvimonas micra (60%,9/15),Solobacterium moore (47%,7/15),Dialister invisus (33%,5/15),Enterococcus faecalis (33%,5/15),Filifactor alocis (27%,4/15),and Fusobacterium nucleatum (27%,4/15) were the prevalent species.Nineteen as-yet-uncultivated phylotypes were identified,comprising a substantial proportion of the bacteria in many cases.Conclusions Persistent intraradicular infections were present in all root-filled teeth associated with failed endodontic treatment.The current observations reveal new candidate endodontic pathogens,including as-yet-uncultivated bacteria and phylotypes that may participate in the mixed infections associated with post-treatment apical periodontitis.

  10. Application Design of SSH Protocol in Data Transmission of Resource Monitoring System%SSH协议在资源监控系统数据传输中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春龙

    2013-01-01

    随着互联网的快速发展,基于互联网远程数据传输方法起到了越来越重要的作用。本文主要介绍SSH协议,并通过一个Java实现的基于Internet资源监控系统为例,介绍SSH协议在监控系统中对远程数据传输的设计与实现。%With the rapid development of the Internet, method of remote data transmission based on Internet is playing an increasing important role. This paper mainly introduces the SSH protocol, and through a monitoring system developed by Java to introduce the use of SSH protocol in the monitoring system for the design and implementation of remote data transmission.

  11. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols Based on Internet Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Bello Said,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The topology of mobile ad hoc network (MANET changes rapidly and unpredictably due to nodes mobility. This makes routing protocols very important to analyze so as to communicate efficiently between the wireless nodes. Another important issue in the MANET is the internet protocols IPv4 and IPV6. The former which have been conventionally in use for long and the latter which is seen as the future standard for network architecture is studied due to its improved protection and huge address space support. In this paper, performance of AODV, DYMO, OLSRv2 and OLSR are analyzed under the IPv4 and IPv6 standards using the Qualnet simulator. Distinct performance metrics viz. Packet delivery ratio, Throughput, Average End-to-End Delay, and Average jitter are selected for the experiment. The results are then analyzed and scrutinized to provide qualitative assessment of their performances.

  12. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  13. The Price of Non-compliance with the Kyoto Protocol: The Remarkable Case of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hovi, Jon; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    To induce compliance, an international enforcement mechanism needs to authorize the use of punitive consequences against a non-compliant country. However, it is reasonable to require that such consequences do not cause considerable damage to other countries as well. The compliance mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol does not meet this requirement. The Marrakesh Accords instruct the Enforcement Branch of the Compliance Committee to impose punitive consequences on a country that fails to fulfill it...

  14. A note on parallel executions of restrictive blind issuing protocols for secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The receiver in a restrictive blind certificate issuing protocol can blind the issued public key and the certificate but not a certain blinding-invariant predicate of the secret key. Recently a generally applicable technique was described for designing restrictive blind issuing protocols for a certa

  15. MULTIPLE ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNITS CALIBRATION SYSTEM BASED ON EXPLICIT CALIBRATION PROTOCOL AND J1939 PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shiwei; ZHU Keqing; XU Quankui; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    The rising number of electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and the decreasing time to market have led to the need for advanced methods of calibration. A multi-ECU calibration system was developed based on the explicit calibration protocol (XCP) and J1939 communication protocol to satisfy the need of calibrating multiple ECUs simultaneously. The messages in the controller area network (CAN) are defined in the J1939 protocol. Each CAN node can get its own calibration messages and information from other ECUs, and block other messages by qualifying the CAN messages with priority, source or destination address. The data field of the calibration message is designed with the XCP , with CAN acting as the transport layer. The calibration sessions are setup with the event-triggered XCP driver in the master node and the responding XCP driver in the slave nodes. Mirroring calibration variables from ROM to RAM enables the user to calibrate ECUs online. The application example shows that the multi-ECU calibration system can calibrate multiple ECUs simultaneously, and the main program can also accomplish its calculation and send commands to the actuators in time. By the multi-ECU calibration system, the calibration effort and time can be reduced and the variables in ECU can get a better match with the variables of other ECUs.

  16. Protocol for Quantification of Defects in Natural Fibres for Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas; Madsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Natural bast-type plant fibres are attracting increasing interest for being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A protocol for the quantification of defects in natural fibres is presented. The protocol is based...... of defect size by width, and it is shown that both definitions can be used to give unbiased findings for the comparison between fibre types. Finally, considerations are given with respect to true measures of defect content, number of determinations, and number of significant figures used for the descriptive...

  17. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2006-01-01

    What started with the sundial has, thus far, been refined to a level of precision based on atomic resonance: Time. Our obsession with time is evident in this continued scaling down to nanosecond resolution and beyond. But this obsession is not without warrant. Precision and time synchronization are critical in many applications, such as air traffic control and stock trading, and pose complex and important challenges in modern information networks.Penned by David L. Mills, the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol

  18. Security protocol specification and verification with AnBx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugliesi, Michele; Calzavara, Stefano; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Designing distributed protocols is complex and requires actions at very different levels: from the design of an interaction flow supporting the desired application-specific guarantees to the selection of the most appropriate network-level protection mechanisms. To tame this complexity, we propose...... AnBx, a formal protocol specification language based on the popular Alice & Bob notation. AnBx offers channels as the main abstraction for communication, providing different authenticity and/or confidentiality guarantees for message transmission. AnBx extends existing proposals in the literature...

  19. Performance Comparison of Secure Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Garg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Each node operates not only as an end system but, also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A node can get compromised during the route discovery process. Attackers from inside or outside can easily exploit the network. Several secure routing protocols are proposed for MANETs by researchers. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent secure routing protocols for MANETs: Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector Protocol i.e. SEAD (a proactive or table driven protocol and Ariadne (a reactive or on demand protocol.Compared to the proactive routing protocols, less control overhead is a distinct advantage of the reactive protocols. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better scalability than proactive routing protocols. However, when using reactive routing protocols, source nodes may suffer from long delays for route searching before they can forward data packets. Hence these protocols are not suitable for real-time applications. As per our findings the difference in the protocols mechanics leads to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment.

  20. Fibred Coalgebraic Logic and Quantum Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marsden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by applications in modelling quantum systems using coalgebraic techniques, we introduce a fibred coalgebraic logic. Our approach extends the conventional predicate lifting semantics with additional modalities relating conditions on different fibres. As this fibred setting will typically involve multiple signature functors, the logic incorporates a calculus of modalities enabling the construction of new modalities using various composition operations. We extend the semantics of coalgebraic logic to this setting, and prove that this extension respects behavioural equivalence. We show how properties of the semantics of modalities are preserved under composition operations, and then apply the calculational aspect of our logic to produce an expressive set of modalities for reasoning about quantum systems, building these modalities up from simpler components. We then demonstrate how these modalities can describe some standard quantum protocols. The novel features of our logic are shown to allow for a uniform description of unitary evolution, and support local reasoning such as "Alice's qubit satisfies condition" as is common when discussing quantum protocols.