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Sample records for apples malus domestica

  1. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  2. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  3. Genetic variability in apple fruit polyphenol composition in Malus × domestica and Malus sieversii germplasm grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Richard K; McGhie, Tony K

    2011-11-09

    Variations in the concentrations of flavan-3-ol, oligomeric procyanidin, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcone, flavonol, and anthocyanin polyphenol groups and total polyphenols were examined in the fruit peel and cortical flesh of 93 (80 Malus × domestica and 13 Malus sieversii) apple genotypes in at least 1 year between 2003 and 2005 grown at one site in New Zealand (NZ). Differences among genotypes accounted for 46-97% of the total variation in the concentrations of total polyphenols and each of the individual phenol groups in the flesh and peel in both species, whereas effects of year and genotype × year were minimal, except for peel flavonols in M. × domestica and flesh flavonols in both species. In these cases, differences among genotypes accounted for less than 30% of the total variation, which was less than the variation found for the interaction between genotype and year. Total polyphenol concentrations among genotypes were spread over a 7- and 9-fold range in the flesh and a 4- and 3-fold range in the peel of M. sieversii and M. × domestica, respectively, with the spread in concentrations of individual polyphenol groups in each tissue and within each species varying from a 2-fold to over a 500-fold range. Higher concentrations were generally found in M. sieversii. In M. × domestica, cultivars and breeding selections originating in NZ had lower average flesh and peel total polyphenols and chlorogenic acid than older cultivars previously imported into NZ from overseas countries.

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of dried Portuguese apple variety (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-02-01

    Malus domestica Borkh apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the world, due to their sweetness and flavour. Herein, 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple fruits were characterized regarding their nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties. Besides nutrients, flavan-3-ols (i.e., epicatechin and B-type procyanidins) as also hydroxycinnamoyl-quinic acids and phloretin derivatives were identified in the samples. Extracts prepared from 'Bravo de Esmolfe' also proved to have antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, namely methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, and against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli (ESBL) (producing extended spectrum β-lactamases) and Morganella morganii. There is very little information about 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple, so this study is important to inform consumers about an alternative source of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) volatile production during high pCO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Fuji’apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] volatile compound dynamics were characterized during cold storage in air or at low pO2 controlled atmosphere (CA) with up to 5 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds in storage chambers were adsorbed onto solid sorbent traps and analyzed by GC-MS....

  6. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  7. Optimizing dehydration of apples Malus Domestica with fructo-oligosaccharide incorporation

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    Mariana Buranelo Egea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to study the effect of the variables of the osmotic dehydration process on sliced Fuji apples (Malus domestica using a 2 x 3² factorial design. The variables studied in the apple slices were the pretreatment (blanching or acidification, the temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC and the FOS concentration (40%, 50% and 60% m/v of the osmotic solution. There was no difference among the pretreatments for the water activity and titratable acidity. The slices pre-treated by the acidification presented less enzymatic browning (greatest luminosity L* value combined with a greater soluble solid contents (thus, this treatment was selected. Treatments T4 (45ºC and 40% m/v and T7 (60ºC and 40%m/v, using the acidification presented responses within the recommended standards and FOS were validated by the repetition.

  8. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...... recommended sample sizes to accurately describe the distribution of various quality variables of apples at the orchard scale....

  9. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these

  10. Old Apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) Varieties with Hypoallergenic Properties: An Integrated Approach for Studying Apple Allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro

    2016-12-07

    Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".

  11. Polyphenol profiles of French cider apple varieties (Malus domestica sp.).

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    Sanoner, P; Guyot, S; Marnet, N; Molle, D; Drilleau, J P

    1999-12-01

    The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.

  12. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala') vascular tissue and phloem sap.

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    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gould, Nick; Sandanayaka, Manoharie; Sutherland, Paul; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2010-08-04

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'). We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the GH3 family in apple (Malus × domestica).

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    Yuan, Huazhao; Zhao, Kai; Lei, Hengjiu; Shen, Xinjie; Liu, Yun; Liao, Xiong; Li, Tianhong

    2013-05-02

    Auxin plays important roles in hormone crosstalk and the plant's stress response. The auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) gene family maintains hormonal homeostasis by conjugating excess indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acids (JAs) to amino acids during hormone- and stress-related signaling pathways. With the sequencing of the apple (Malus × domestica) genome completed, it is possible to carry out genomic studies on GH3 genes to indentify candidates with roles in abiotic/biotic stress responses. Malus sieversii Roem., an apple rootstock with strong drought tolerance and the ancestral species of cultivated apple species, was used as the experimental material. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of MdGH3 genes, we showed that MdGH3s were differentially expressed in the leaves and roots of M. sieversii and that some of these genes were significantly induced after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. Given the role of GH3 in the negative feedback regulation of free IAA concentration, we examined whether phytohormones and abiotic stresses could alter the endogenous auxin level. By analyzing the GUS activity of DR5::GUS-transformed Arabidopsis seedlings, we showed that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments suppressed the auxin response. These findings suggest that other phytohormones and abiotic stress factors might alter endogenous auxin levels. Previous studies showed that GH3 genes regulate hormonal homeostasis. Our study indicated that some GH3 genes were significantly induced in M. sieversii after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments, and that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments reduce the endogenous level of axuin. Taken together, this study provides evidence that GH3 genes play important roles in the crosstalk between auxin, other phytohormones, and the abiotic stress response by maintaining auxin homeostasis.

  14. Characterization of three chalcone synthase-like genes from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

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    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ali, Samah; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ibdah, Muhammad; Shachtier, Alona; Eyal, Yoram; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2017-08-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Brokh.) is a widely cultivated deciduous tree species of significant economic importance. Apple leaves accumulate high levels of flavonoids and dihydrochalcones, and their formation is dependent on enzymes of the chalcone synthase family. Three CHS genes were cloned from apple leaves and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded recombinant enzymes were purified and functionally characterized. In-vitro activity assays indicated that MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 code for proteins exhibiting polyketide synthase activity that accepted either p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, or cinnamoyl-CoA as starter CoA substrates in the presence of malonyl-CoA, leading to production of phloretin, naringenin chalcone, and pinocembrin chalcone. MdCHS3 coded a chalcone-dihydrochalcone synthase enzyme with narrower substrate specificity than the previous ones. The apparent Km values of MdCHS3 for p-dihydrocoumaryl-CoA and p-coumaryl-CoA were both 5.0 μM. Expression analyses of MdCHS genes varied according to tissue type. MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 expression levels were associated with the levels of phloretin accumulate in the respective tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

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    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  16. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  17. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  18. In silico analysis of the polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 from apple, Malus domestica.

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    Matsaunyane, Lerato Bt; Oelofse, Dean; Dubery, Ian A

    2015-03-11

    The Malus domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1) gene, encoding the M. domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1), was isolated from the Granny Smith apple cultivar (GenBank accession no. DQ185063). The gene was used to transform tobacco and potato for enhanced resistance against fungal diseases. Analysis of the MdPGIP1 nucleotide sequence revealed that the gene comprises 993 nucleotides that encode a 330 amino acid polypeptide. In silico characterization of the MdPGIP1 polypeptide revealed domains typical of PGIP proteins, which include a 24 amino acid putative signal peptide, a potential cleavage site [Alanine-Leucine-Serine (ALS)] for the signal peptide, a 238 amino acid leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a 46 amino acid N-terminal domain and a 22 amino acid C-terminal domain. The hydropathic evaluation of MdPGIP1 indicated a repetitive hydrophobic motif in the LRR domain and a hydrophilic surface area consistent with a globular protein. The typical consensus glycosylation sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr was identified in MdPGIP1, indicating potential N-linked glycosylation of MdPGIP1. The molecular mass of non-glycosylated MdPGIP1 was calculated as 36.615 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point as 6.98. Furthermore, the secondary and tertiary structure of MdPGIP1 was modelled, and revealed that MdPGIP1 is a curved and elongated molecule that contains sheet B1, sheet B2 and 310-helices on its LRR domain. The overall properties of the MdPGIP1 protein is similar to that of the prototypical Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP 2 (PvPGIP2), and the detected differences supported its use in biotechnological applications as an inhibitor of targeted fungal polygalacturonases (PGs).

  19. Phenotypic changes associated with RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase in apple (Malus × domestica).

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    Dare, Andrew P; Tomes, Sumathi; Jones, Midori; McGhie, Tony K; Stevenson, David E; Johnson, Ross A; Greenwood, David R; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-05-01

    We have identified in apple (Malus × domestica) three chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. In order to understand the functional redundancy of this gene family RNA interference knockout lines were generated where all three of these genes were down-regulated. These lines had no detectable anthocyanins and radically reduced concentrations of dihydrochalcones and flavonoids. Surprisingly, down-regulation of CHS also led to major changes in plant development, resulting in plants with shortened internode lengths, smaller leaves and a greatly reduced growth rate. Microscopic analysis revealed that these phenotypic changes extended down to the cellular level, with CHS-silenced lines showing aberrant cellular organisation in the leaves. Fruit collected from one CHS-silenced line was smaller than the 'Royal Gala' controls, lacked flavonoids in the skin and flesh and also had changes in cell morphology. Auxin transport experiments showed increased rates of auxin transport in a CHS-silenced line compared with the 'Royal Gala' control. As flavonoids are well known to be key modulators of auxin transport, we hypothesise that the removal of almost all flavonoids from the plant by CHS silencing creates a vastly altered environment for auxin transport to occur and results in the observed changes in growth and development. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Phytohormone Interaction Modulating Fruit Responses to Photooxidative and Heat Stress on Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.

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    Carolina A. Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-related physiological disorders such as sun damage on apples (Malus domestica Borkh are caused by cumulative photooxidative and heat stress during their growing season triggering morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes in fruit tissues not only while it is on the tree but also after it has been harvested. The objective of the work was to establish the interaction of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA, abscisic acid (ABA, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET and its precursor ACC (free and conjugated, MACC during development of sun-injury-related disorders pre- and post-harvest on apples. Peel tissue was extracted from fruit growing under different sun exposures (Non-exposed, NE; Exposed, EX and with sun injury symptoms (Moderate, Mod. Sampling was carried out every 15 days from 75 days after full bloom (DAFB until 120 days post-harvest in cold storage (1°C, > 90%RH. Concentrations of IAA, ABA, JA, SA, were determined using UHPLC mass spectrometry, and ET and ACC (free and conjugated MACC using gas chromatography. IAA was found not to be related directly to sun injury development, but it decreased 60% in sun exposed tissue, and during fruit development. ABA, JA, SA, and ethylene concentrations were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 in Mod tissue, but their concentration, except for ethylene, were not affected by sun exposure. ACC and MACC concentrations increased until 105 DAFB in all sun exposure categories. During post-harvest, ethylene climacteric peak was delayed on EX compared to Mod. ABA and SA concentrations remained stable throughout storage in both tissue. JA dramatically increased post-harvest in both EX and Mod tissue, and orchards, confirming its role in low temperature tolerance. The results suggest that ABA, JA, and SA together with ethylene are modulating some of the abiotic stress defense responses on sun-exposed fruit during photooxidative and heat stress on the tree.

  1. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

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    Michele Perazzolli

    Full Text Available The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80% of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15, and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  2. Characterization of Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Their Evolutionary History of the Rosaceae Family

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    Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera. PMID:24505246

  3. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  4. Maize Lc transcription factor enhances biosynthesis of anthocyanins, distinct proanthocyanidins and phenylpropanoids in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

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    Li, Houhua; Flachowsky, Henryk; Fischer, Thilo C; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter; Schwab, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Thomas; Szankowski, Iris

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large family of polyphenolic compounds with manifold functions in plants. Present in a wide range of vegetables and fruits, flavonoids form an integral part of the human diet and confer multiple health benefits. Here, we report on metabolic engineering of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by overexpression of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf colour (Lc) regulatory gene. The Lc gene was transferred into the M. domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation which resulted in enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in regenerated shoots. Five independent Lc lines were investigated for integration of Lc into the plant genome by Southern blot and PCR analyses. The Lc-transgenic lines contained one or two Lc gene copies and showed increased mRNA levels for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase (FHT), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductases (LAR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR). HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analyses revealed higher levels of the anthocyanin idaein (12-fold), the flavan 3-ol epicatechin (14-fold), and especially the isomeric catechin (41-fold), and some distinct dimeric proanthocyanidins (7 to 134-fold) in leaf tissues of Lc-transgenic lines. The levels of phenylpropanoids and their derivatives were only slightly increased. Thus, Lc overexpression in Malus domestica resulted in enhanced biosynthesis of specific flavonoid classes, which play important roles in both phytopathology and human health.

  5. Two QTL characterized for soft scald and soggy breakdown in apple (Malus × domestica) through pedigree-based analysis of a large population of interconnected families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Tillman, John; Tong, Cindy B.S.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Luby, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Soft scald and soggy breakdown are important postharvest physiological disorders of apple (Malus × domestica). ‘Honeycrisp’ and some of its offspring are particularly susceptible to developing these disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with high

  6. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  7. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G; Sutherland, Paul W; Johnston, Sarah L; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Hallett, Ian C; Mitra, Deepali; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2012-08-02

    While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. PG1-suppressed 'Royal Gala' apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. These findings confirm PG1's role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  8. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  9. WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Gennaro; Maisto, Maria; Bottone, Sara; Badolati, Nadia; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-11-18

    Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. 'Annurca' and Malus domestica cv 'Limoncella'; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

  10. WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Riccio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP. This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract.

  11. Overexpression of a Novel Apple NAC Transcription Factor Gene, MdNAC1, Confers the Dwarf Phenotype in Transgenic Apple (Malus domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongfeng; Gong, Xiaoqing; Li, Mingjun; Li, Chao; Sun, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    Plant height is an important trait for fruit trees. The dwarf characteristic is commonly associated with highly efficient fruit production, a major objective when breeding for apple (Malus domestica). We studied the function of MdNAC1, a novel NAC transcription factor (TF) gene in apple related to plant dwarfing. Localized primarily to the nucleus, MdNAC1 has transcriptional activity in yeast cells. Overexpression of the gene results in a dwarf phenotype in transgenic apple plants. Their reduction in size is manifested by shorter, thinner stems and roots, and a smaller leaf area. The transgenics also have shorter internodes and fewer cells in the stems. Levels of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroid (BR) are lower in the transgenic plants, and expression is decreased for genes involved in the biosynthesis of those phytohormones. All of these findings demonstrate that MdNAC1 has a role in plants dwarfism, probably by regulating ABA and BR production. PMID:29702625

  12. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  14. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  17. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the SBP-box family genes in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hou, Hongmin; Li, Xiaoqin; Xiang, Jiang; Yin, Xiangjing; Gao, Hua; Zheng, Yi; Bassett, Carole L; Wang, Xiping

    2013-09-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors and play many crucial roles in plant development. In this study, 27 SBP-box gene family members were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, 15 of which were suggested to be putative targets of MdmiR156. Plant SBPs were classified into eight groups according to the phylogenetic analysis of SBP-domain proteins. Gene structure, gene chromosomal location and synteny analyses of MdSBP genes within the apple genome demonstrated that tandem and segmental duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of the SBP-box gene family in apple. Additionally, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis indicated that several paired homologs of MdSBP and AtSPL genes were located in syntenic genomic regions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of MdSBP genes in apple demonstrated their diversified spatiotemporal expression patterns. Most MdmiR156-targeted MdSBP genes, which had relatively high transcript levels in stems, leaves, apical buds and some floral organs, exhibited a more differential expression pattern than most MdmiR156-nontargeted MdSBP genes. Finally, expression analysis of MdSBP genes in leaves upon various plant hormone treatments showed that many MdSBP genes were responsive to different plant hormones, indicating that MdSBP genes may be involved in responses to hormone signaling during stress or in apple development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping in an apple (Malus x domestica) F1 segregating population based on physical clustering of differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Fazio, Gennaro; Altman, Naomi; Praul, Craig; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-04-04

    Apple tree breeding is slow and difficult due to long generation times, self-incompatibility, and complex genetics. The identification of molecular markers linked to traits of interest is a way to expedite the breeding process. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes whose steady-state transcript abundance was associated with inheritance of specific traits segregating in an apple (Malus × domestica) rootstock F1 breeding population, including resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) disease and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum). Transcription profiling was performed for 48 individual F1 apple trees from a cross of two highly heterozygous parents, using RNA isolated from healthy, actively-growing shoot tips and a custom apple DNA oligonucleotide microarray representing 26,000 unique transcripts. Genome-wide expression profiles were not clear indicators of powdery mildew or woolly apple aphid resistance phenotype. However, standard differential gene expression analysis between phenotypic groups of trees revealed relatively small sets of genes with trait-associated expression levels. For example, thirty genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. Interestingly, the genes encoding twenty-four of these transcripts were physically clustered on chromosome 12. Similarly, seven genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to woolly apple aphid, and the genes encoding five of these transcripts were also clustered, this time on chromosome 17. In each case, the gene clusters were in the vicinity of previously identified major quantitative trait loci for the corresponding trait. Similar results were obtained for a series of molecular traits. Several of the differentially expressed genes were used to develop DNA polymorphism markers linked to powdery mildew disease and woolly apple aphid resistance. Gene expression profiling

  19. Transformation of apple (Malus × domestica) using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase as a selectable marker and analysis of the T-DNA integration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.

  20. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zhang, L.; Chen, F.; Cui, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, P.; Tian, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the hormonal state of columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) based on high throughput gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Lokan, Stefanie; Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Braun, Peter; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2013-02-01

    The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10 which can appear in a heterozygous (Co/co) or homozygous (Co/Co) state. Although two deep sequencing approaches could shed some light on the transcriptome of columnar shoot apical meristems (SAMs), the molecular mechanisms of columnar growth are not yet elaborated. Since the influence of phytohormones is believed to have a pivotal role in the establishment of the phenotype, we performed RNA-Seq experiments to study genes associated with hormone homeostasis and clearly affected by the presence of Co. Our results provide a molecular explanation for earlier findings on the hormonal state of columnar apple trees. Additionally, they allow hypotheses on how the columnar phenotype might develop. Furthermore, we show a statistically approved enrichment of differentially regulated genes on chromosome 10 in the course of validating RNA-Seq results using additional gene expression studies.

  2. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a blue light receptor gene MdCRY2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-04-01

    MdCRY2 was isolated from apple fruit skin, and its function was analyzed in MdCRY2 transgenic Arabidopsis. The interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 was found by yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays. Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light receptors involved in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. Investigations of the structure and functions of cryptochromes in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pea (Pisum sativum), and rice (Oryza sativa). However, no data on the function of CRY2 are available in woody plants. In this study, we isolated a cryptochrome gene, MdCRY2, from apple (Malus domestica). The deduced amino acid sequences of MdCRY2 contain the conserved N-terminal photolyase-related domain and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain, as well as the C-terminal DQXVP-acidic-STAES (DAS) domain. Relationship analysis indicates that MdCRY2 shows the highest similarity to the strawberry FvCRY protein. The expression of MdCRY2 is induced by blue/UV-A light, which represents a 48-h circadian rhythm. To investigate the function of MdCRY2, we overexpressed the MdCRY2 gene in a cry2 mutant and wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, assessed the phenotypes of the resulting transgenic plants, and found that MdCRY2 functions to regulate hypocotyl elongation, root growth, flower initiation, and anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. These data provide functional evidence for a role of blue/UV-A light-induced MdCRY2 in controlling photomorphogenesis in apple.

  3. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The distribution and impact of common copy-number variation in the genome of the domesticated apple, Malus x domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, James; Chagné, David; Merriman, Tony R; Black, Michael A

    2015-10-23

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes, and a growing body of evidence suggests that genes affected by CNV are enriched in processes that are associated with environmental responses. Here we use next generation sequence (NGS) data to detect copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) within the Malus x domestica genome, as well as to examine their distribution and impact. CNVRs were detected using NGS data derived from 30 accessions of M. x domestica analyzed using the read-depth method, as implemented in the CNVrd2 software. To improve the reliability of our results, we developed a quality control and analysis procedure that involved checking for organelle DNA, not repeat masking, and the determination of CNVR identity using a permutation testing procedure. Overall, we identified 876 CNVRs, which spanned 3.5 % of the apple genome. To verify that detected CNVRs were not artifacts, we analyzed the B- allele-frequencies (BAF) within a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array dataset derived from a screening of 185 individual apple accessions and found the CNVRs were enriched for SNPs having aberrant BAFs (P apple scab. We present the first analysis and catalogue of CNVRs in the M. x domestica genome. The enrichment of the CNVRs with R gene models and their overlap with gene loci of agricultural significance draw attention to a form of unexplored genetic variation in apple. This research will underpin further investigation of the role that CNV plays within the apple genome.

  5. Shoot bending promotes flower bud formation by miRNA-mediated regulation in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu

    2016-02-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees plays an important life cycle role, but young trees produce fewer and inferior quality flower buds. Therefore, shoot bending has become an important cultural practice, significantly promoting the capacity to develop more flower buds during the growing seasons. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant growth, flower induction and stress responses. In this study, we identified miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and development, as well as in the response to shoot bending. Of the 195 miRNAs identified, 137 were novel miRNAs. The miRNA expression profiles revealed that the expression levels of 68 and 27 known miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in response to shoot bending, and that the 31 differentially expressed novel miRNAs between them formed five major clusters. Additionally, a complex regulatory network associated with auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) plays important roles in cell division, bud growth and flower induction, in which related miRNAs and targets mediated regulation. Among them, miR396, 160, 393, and their targets associated with AUX, miR159, 319, 164, and their targets associated with ABA and GA, and flowering-related miRNAs and genes, regulate bud growth and flower bud formation in response to shoot bending. Meanwhile, the flowering genes had significantly higher expression levels during shoot bending, suggesting that they are involved in this regulatory process. This study provides a framework for the future analysis of miRNAs associated with multiple hormones and their roles in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and formation in response to shoot bending in apple trees. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple (Malus domestica) wood under controlled conditions and in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert

    2012-07-01

    The freezing pattern and frost killing temperatures of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) xylem were determined by differential thermal analysis and infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA). Results from detached or attached twigs in controlled freezing experiments and during natural field freezing of trees were compared. Non-lethal freezing of apoplastic water in apple xylem as monitored during natural winter frosts in the field occurred at -1.9 ± 0.4 °C and did not change seasonally. The pattern of whole tree freezing was variable and specific to the environmental conditions. On detached twigs high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs) occurred 2.8 K below the temperature observed under natural frosts in the field with a seasonal mean of -4.7 ± 0.5 °C. Microporous apple xylem showed freezing without a specific pattern within a few seconds in IDTA images during HTEs, which is in contrast to macroporous xylem where a 2D freezing pattern mirrors anatomical structures. The pith tissue always remained unfrozen. Increasing twig length increased ice nucleation temperature; for increased twig diameter the effect was not significant. In attached twigs frozen in field portable freezing chambers, HTEs were recorded at a similar mean temperature (-4.6 ± 1.0 °C) to those for detached twigs. Upon lethal intracellular freezing of apple xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) low-temperature freezing exotherms (LTEs) can be recorded. Low-temperature freezing exotherms determined on detached twigs varied significantly between a winter minimum of -36.9 °C and a summer maximum -12.7 °C. Within the temperature range wherein LTEs were recorded by IDTA in summer (-12.7 ± 0.5 to -20.3 ± 1.1 °C) various tiny clearly separated discontinuous freezing events could be detected similar to that in other species with contrasting XPC anatomy. These freezing events appeared to be initially located in the primary and only later in the secondary xylem. During the LTE no

  7. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Comparative ultrastructure of fruit plastids in three genetically diverse genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Scott M.; Christian, Ryan; Castro-Velasquez, Nohely; Hyden, Brennan; Lynch-Holm, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids—chromoplasts—are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs. Recently, in a comparative study of the predicted plastid-targeted proteomes across seven plant species, we reported that each plant species is predicted to harbor a unique set of plastid-targeted proteins. However, the temporal and developmental context of these processes remains unknown. In this study, an ultrastructural analysis approach was used to characterize fruit plastids in the epidermal and collenchymal cell layers at 11 developmental timepoints in three genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.): chlorophyll-predominant ‘Granny Smith’, carotenoid-predominant ‘Golden Delicious’, and anthocyanin-predominant ‘Top Red Delicious’. Plastids transitioned from a proplastid-like plastid to a chromoplast-like plastid in epidermis cells, while in the collenchyma cells, they transitioned from a chloroplast-like plastid to a chloro-chromo-amyloplast plastid. Plastids in the collenchyma cells of the three genotypes demonstrated a diverse array of structures and features. This study enabled the identification of discrete developmental stages during which specific functions are most likely being performed by the plastids as indicated by accumulation of plastoglobuli, starch granules, and other sub-organeller structures. Information regarding the metabolically active developmental stages is expected to facilitate biologically relevant omics studies to unravel the complex biochemistry of plastids in perennial non-model systems. PMID:28698906

  9. Application of a high-speed breeding technology to apple (Malus × domestica) based on transgenic early flowering plants and marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Peil, Andreas; Patocchi, Andrea; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2011-10-01

    Breeding of apple (Malus × domestica) remains a slow process because of protracted generation cycles. Shortening the juvenile phase to achieve the introgression of traits from wild species into prebreeding material within a reasonable time frame is a great challenge. In this study, we evaluated early flowering transgenic apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of silver birch with regard to tree morphology in glasshouse conditions. Based on the results obtained, line T1190 was selected for further analysis and application to fast breeding. The DNA sequences flanking the T-DNA were isolated and the T-DNA integration site was mapped on linkage group 4. The inheritance and correctness of the T-DNA integration were confirmed after meiosis. A crossbred breeding programme was initiated by crossing T1190 with the fire blight-resistant wild species Malus fusca. Transgenic early flowering F(1) seedlings were selected and backcrossed with 'Regia' and 98/6-10 in order to introgress the apple scab Rvi2, Rvi4 and powdery mildew Pl-1, Pl-2 resistance genes and the fire blight resistance quantitative trait locus FB-F7 present in 'Regia'. Three transgenic BC'1 seedlings pyramiding Rvi2, Rvi4 and FB-F7, as well as three other BC'1 seedlings combining Pl-1 and Pl-2, were identified. Thus, the first transgenic early flowering-based apple breeding programme combined with marker-assisted selection was established. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of

  11. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost wh...... the variations between columnar and standard apple trees. This knowledge provides a better insight on the production abilities of the columnar apple trees which may be useful for future crop improvement strategies.......Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost...... on the physiological and phenotypic characteristics of the columnar apple trees were made by comparing them with the standard traditionally grown non-columnar apple trees. Data from the leaves morphological and anatomical studies and from various physiological investigations have been assembled to compare...

  12. Changes in quality of apple (Malus domestica) cultivars due to γ-irradiation and storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Dar, M.A.; Meena, R.S.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2008-01-01

    Ambri, Golden Delicious and Royal Delicious apple varieties were γ-irradiated (0.1-0.5 kGy) and stored under ambient (15 ±2 degC, 80%RH) and refrigerated (3±1 degC, 90%RH) conditions. They were evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids, acidity, juice yield, physiological loss in weight, overall acceptability and yeast and mold counts. The γ-irradiation doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy proved beneficial in maintaining the overall quality of all the 3 varieties of apple under both the storage conditions. γ-irradiation significantly reduced the yeast and mold counts of apples under storage. (author)

  13. Effects of apple (Malus x domestica) rootstocks on scion performance and hormone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootstocks can influence the productivity and profitability of an orchard in a very significant way. Dwarfing rootstocks had a large impact in making possible the high-density orchards that have been planted during the last 15 years. However, there is a serious threat to high-density apple orchards,...

  14. Development and characterisation of 140 new microsatellites in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebhard, R.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Koller, B.; Ryder, C.D.; Tarchini, R.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gessler, C.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of suitable genetic markers is essential to efficiently select and breed apple varieties of high quality and with multiple disease resistances. Microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSR) are very useful in this respect since they are codominant, highly polymorphic, abundant and

  15. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shao, W.; Ziang, R.

    2015-01-01

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could

  16. Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yun; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p

  17. Application of Freezing and Thawing in Apple (Malus domestica) Juice Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadulski, Rafał; Kobus, Zbigniew; Wilczyński, Kamil; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Grochowicz, Józef; Guz, Tomasz

    2016-09-28

    The paper presents the results of the research on the impact of enzymatic liquefaction, freezing and thawing on the efficiency of juice pressure extraction from apple pulp and quality of the obtained juices. The research was conducted using three types of pretreatment prior the pressing: crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 25 °C, crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 45 °C and crushing followed by freezing and thawing of the pulp. The study included three varieties of apples. The juice was obtained using a laboratory basket press. It was determined that the pretreatment of the pulp as well as the varietal characteristics of the fruits have a significant impact on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process. The enzymatic treatment of the pulp, irrespective of the temperature at which it was conducted, significantly increased the efficiency of the process. No effect of the temperature (25 or 45 °C) of enzymatic treatment on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process was found. Pretreatment of the pulp based on freezing and thawing contributes to the increase of efficiency of pressing in the case of two apple cultivars, that is, Idared and Red Delicious. It was showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, the soluble solids content and juice acidity (pH) depend on the pretreatment of the pulp and the varietal characteristics of apples. Following the application of pretreatment of the pulp, an increase was observed in the content of polyphenols and in the antioxidant activity of the juices obtained. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Transcriptomic signatures in seeds of apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during fruitlet abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Sergio; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Mendes, Marta Adelina; Botton, Alessandro; Eccher, Giulia; Masiero, Simona; Colombo, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the regulated process of detachment of an organ from a plant. In apple the abscission of fruits occurs during their early development to control the fruit load depending on the nutritional state of the plant. In order to control production and obtain fruits with optimal market qualities, the horticultural procedure of thinning is performed to further reduce the number of fruitlets. In this study we have conducted a transcriptomic profiling of seeds from two different types of fruitlets, according to size and position in the fruit cluster. Transcriptomic profiles of central and lateral fruit seeds were obtained by RNAseq. Comparative analysis was performed by the functional categorization of differentially expressed genes by means of Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of the apple genome. Our results revealed the overexpression of genes involved in responses to stress, hormone biosynthesis and also the response and/or transport of auxin and ethylene. A smaller set of genes, mainly related to ion transport and homeostasis, were found to be down-regulated. The transcriptome characterization described in this manuscript contributes to unravelling the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in the physiological abscission of apple fruits and suggests a role for seeds in this process.

  19. Dynamic Transcription profiles of Qinguan apple (Malus × domestica leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junke eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant’s response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of ‘Qinguan’ (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-inoculation (hpi with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular responses in Malus domestica 'M26' roots affected by apple replant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Stefan; Bartsch, Melanie; Winkelmann, Traud

    2017-06-01

    Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple 'M26' roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.

  1. Comprehensive QTL mapping survey dissects the complex fruit texture physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sara; Moretto, Marco; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2012-02-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex physiological process in plants whereby cell wall programmed changes occur mainly to promote seed dispersal. Cell wall modification also directly regulates the textural properties, a fundamental aspect of fruit quality. In this study, two full-sib populations of apple, with 'Fuji' as the common maternal parent, crossed with 'Delearly' and 'Pink Lady', were used to understand the control of fruit texture by QTL mapping and in silico gene mining. Texture was dissected with a novel high resolution phenomics strategy, simultaneously profiling both mechanical and acoustic fruit texture components. In 'Fuji × Delearly' nine linkage groups were associated with QTLs accounting from 15.6% to 49% of the total variance, and a highly significant QTL cluster for both textural components was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-located with Md-PG1, a polygalacturonase gene that, in apple, is known to be involved in cell wall metabolism processes. In addition, other candidate genes related to Md-NOR and Md-RIN transcription factors, Md-Pel (pectate lyase), and Md-ACS1 were mapped within statistical intervals. In 'Fuji × Pink Lady', a smaller set of linkage groups associated with the QTLs identified for fruit texture (15.9-34.6% variance) was observed. The analysis of the phenotypic variance over a two-dimensional PCA plot highlighted a transgressive segregation for this progeny, revealing two QTL sets distinctively related to both mechanical and acoustic texture components. The mining of the apple genome allowed the discovery of the gene inventory underlying each QTL, and functional profile assessment unravelled specific gene expression patterns of these candidate genes.

  2. TREE CANOPY PRUNING DOES NOT REGULATE BIENNIAL BEARING IN ”ELSTAR” APPLE (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pavičić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Four alternative pruning strategies (A– 25 generative buds, B– 50 generative buds, C– 75 generative buds and D–100 generative buds per tree for Elstar apple cultivar and their possible impact on improvement in productivity were examined in 1999 and 2000. Year was significant factor for all traits, except yield. The pruning strategy is significant for number of fruits per flower cluster and fruit mass. Interaction year and pruning strategy is significant only for number of fruits per flower cluster. Fruit mass was larger for pruning strategy A compared to the pruning strategies C and D. Yield efficiency and biennial bearing index were not affected by pruning strategies. The biennial bearing index variance was the lowest for the pruning strategy B. Trunk cross sectional area (TCSA had negative impact on fruit mass in pruning strategy C. Correlation between the flower and crop density was positive in pruning strategy A. Flower density was in positive correlation with yield in pruning strategy C. The research shows that tree pruning alone will not result in adequate yield regulation in ‘Elstar’ apple.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of apples (Malus Domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of the two main apple varieties, Golden Delicious and Starking, in Syria. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996. Fruits were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1,5 kGy. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 Centigrade and 80 to 90% Rh. Weight loss and spoilage due to physiological disorders and fungal diseases were evaluated throughout the different storage periods. firmness, coloration and Ph values were estimated immediately after irradiation. The results showed that, in both varieties, gamma irradiation increased the weight loss after 45 days of storage in apples gathered in 1995 but not in the 1996 season. After 180 days of storage, gamma irradiation had different effects on weight loss depending on the growing year and variety, and increased fungal spoilage. Application of gamma irradiation prevented the growth of Aspergillus niger and the formation of skin scald in 'Golden Delicious' fruits. Immediately after treatment, gamma irradiation increased the softening of fruits, changed their color from green to yellow and decreased the Ph value of the juice. (author)

  4. Impact of shelf life on content of primary and secondary metabolites in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberic, Robert; Schmitzer, Valentina; Petkovsek, Maja M; Stampar, Franci

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the changes in apple fruit quality during shelf life. After a month of cold storage, apples of cultivars "Jonagold" and "Golden Delicious" were exposed to ambient temperatures for 21 d, with subsequent sampling every 3 or 4 d. Fruit firmness, changes in amounts of sugars, malic acid, and phenolics were observed during shelf life. Chemical analyses were done with HPLC-PDA system. An interchange between various sugars was noticed, but in general, the sum of sugars remained at the same level. The content of malic acid remained stable or dropped, resulting in sweeter fruit. Levels of phenolics were more constant in the pulp of both cultivars analyzed, while in the peel, the changes were more pronounced. In the pulp, a peak in the content of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanols was noticed on the 2nd or 3rd sampling and afterwards, the amounts remained constant. In the peel an initial decrease of all analyzed phenolic groups was observed in both cultivars, however it was more pronounced in "Jonagold." It can be concluded that changes in primary and secondary metabolites are not the main reason for the lower quality of fruit exposed to ambient temperatures. On the other hand, fruit firmness might be the limiting factor for shelf life duration. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...... for the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol % xyloglucan......, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up similar to 43...

  6. Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François

    2003-10-08

    Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.

  7. Solar UV light regulates flavonoid metabolism in apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; Plunkett, Blue; Hall, Miriam; McGhie, Tony; Allan, Andrew C; Wargent, Jason J; Espley, Richard V

    2018-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) is one environmental signal perceived by plants that affects the flavonoid pathway and influences the levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins. To understand the mechanisms underlying UV exposure, apple trees were grown under spectral filters that altered transmission of solar UV light. Fruit analysis showed that UV induced changes in physiology, metabolism, and gene expression levels during development over a season. These changes were sustained after storage. Under low UV, ripening was delayed, fruit size decreased, and anthocyanin and flavonols were reduced. Expression analysis showed changes in response to UV light levels for genes in the regulation and biosynthesis of anthocyanin and flavonols. Transcription of flavonol synthase (FLS), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MYB10, and MYB22 were down-regulated throughout fruit development under reduced UV. Functional testing showed that the FLS promoter was activated by HY5, and this response was enhanced by the presence of MYB22. The MYB22 promoter can also be activated by the anthocyanin regulator, MYB10. As ambient levels of UV light vary around the globe, this study has implications for future crop production, the quality of which can be determined by the response to UV. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of apples (Malus domestica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M [Atomic Energy Commission (AECS), Dept. of Radiation Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-12-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on storability of two main apple varieties in Syria, Golden Delicious and Starking, were investigated. Fruits were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kGy and combined irradiation with 1 kGy after packaging the fruits with polyethylene or paper bags. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 C deg and 80 to 90% Rh. Weight loss and spoilage were evaluated throughout the different storage periods. Firmness, coloration and pH values were estimated immediately after irradiation. The results showed that in both varieties, gamma irradiation increased the weight loss after 45 days of storage in the 1995, but not in the 1996 season. After 180 days of storage gamma irradiation had different effects on weight loss depending on the season and variety, and increased the fungal spoilage. Application of gamma irradiation prevented the growth of Aspergillus niger and the formation of skin scald in Golden Delicious fruits. Immediately after treatment, gamma irradiation increased the softening of fruits, changed their colour from green to yellow and decreased the pH value of the juice. Combined treatments decreased the rate of weight loss and skin scald in Golden Delicious fruits and increased the fungal spoilage. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  10. Response of apple (malus domestica borkh.) cultivars grafted on two rootstocks under sub-humid temperate climate of azad jammu and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.J.; Gillani, G.M.; Kiani, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars grafted on two rootstocks were assessed on morphological and biochemical basis under sub-humid temperate region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Starking Delicious, Kala Kulu, Fuji, Red Chief, Royal Gala, Red Labnani, Red Delicious, Star Crimson and Sky Spur grafted on local Crab apple and MM.111 were studied for various growth characteristics. Red Chief exhibited maximum (415.8 cm) plant height on crab apple whereas, more flower (1866) tree-1, higher number (967.0) of fruit set tree/sup -1/, fruits matured (490.0) tree/sup -1/ and maximum (46.33 kg) weight of fruits tree/sup -1/ were recorded on MM.111. Minimum duration (5 days) of flowering was presented by Sky Spur on local crab apple while minimum (92.0) days for fruit maturation were required by Royal Gala on MM.111. Maximum (112.5 g) fruit weight, total soluble solids (13.95%), total sugars (10.9 %) and reducing sugars (7.94%) were recorded for Starking Delicious on MM.111. On the other hand more pH (3.51) and ascorbic acid (9.2 %) content were recorded for Kala Kulu on crab apple. Red Chief found to be high yielding cultivar on MM.111 than crab apple while total sugars, TSS and average fruit weight were better for Starking Delicious. It was concluded that performance of apple cultivars were variable on both rootstocks. However, MM.111 proved better than local crab apple under prevailing conditions. (author)

  11. Root-zone temperatures affect phenology of bud break, flower cluster development, shoot extension growth and gas exchange of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica) apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.

  12. Temperaturas efetivas para a dormência da macieira(Malus domestica Borkh Effective temperatures for apple tree dormancy (Malus domestica Borkh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Luiz Putti

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de macieira exigem diferentes requerimentos em frio, ou seja, o total de horas abaixo de um limite de temperatura do ar, porém são poucas as informações sobre quais temperaturas são mais eficientes para superar a dormência. As cultivares de macieira Condesa, Baronesa, Daiane, Imperatriz, Fuji e Gala foram estudadas quanto à quantidade de frio e as temperaturas do ar para a indução da brotação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial, com seis cultivares, cinco níveis de unidades de frio ( 300; 600; 900; 1200 e 1500 UF e três temperaturas do ar ( 5; 10 e 15ºC. O tempo médio para brotação foi menor quando as cultivares foram submetidas a 1.500 unidades de frio, independentemente da temperatura. A temperatura efetiva para acumular frio varia com a cultivar, podendo chegar até 15ºC para cultivares de menor exigência em frio.Apple tree cultivars demand several requirements in cold but there's a little of information about what temperatures are the most efficient. Apple tree cultivars Condesa, Baronesa, Daiane, Imperatriz, Fuji and Gala were studied on quantity of cold and different temperatures for shooting inducement. Experimental delineation was full casualized on the factorial system, with six cultivars, five levels of cold unities and three temperatures. Average time for shooting was minor when the cultivars were exposed to 1,500 cold unities independently of the temperature. Effective temperature in order to accumulate cold ranges according to the cultivar, and it is able reaching until 15ºC in case of cultivar of lower demand in cold.

  13. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  14. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  15. Role of scab-resistant apple varieties in forming assortment of new industrial apple plantings (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Д. Гончарук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identifying new scab-resistant apple varieties with high biological potential by the set of agronomic characters and the ability to realize it effectively in various soil and climatic conditions. Methods. Field, laboratory, comparison, generalization, statistical ones. Results. The author presents the results of study of 17 scab-resistant non-irrigated apple varieties on a semi-dwarf rootstock as to their adaptability to biotic and abio­tic stressors as well as their economic productivity. The studied varieties appeared to be winter-hardy, frost- and heat-resistant, but medium drought-tolerant ones. They are characterized by weak and moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew, high resistance to fruit rot and very low amounts of brown spot, except for Gold Rush variety. Such 10 year old varieties as ‘Edera’, Florina’, ‘Amulet’ and ‘Perlyna Kyieva’ and 8 year old ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Orlovskoie Polesie’ and ‘Topaz’ formed the highest productivity during the years of study. Due to the pollen quality and high interfertility, ‘Revena’ and ‘Gold Rush’ varieties were identified as universal pollinators for winter scab-resistant apple varieties. Conclusions. Such ecologically resistant winter varieties as ‘Topaz’, ‘Freedom’, ‘Edera’ and autumnal ‘Remo’, ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Amulet’ were recognized as promising for new intensive non-irrigated plantations in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. They can be the basis of new gardens occupying 25–30% of the area where ecologically safe fruits for various target purposes will be grown supplying demands of the population and processing industry.

  16. Transcriptomic responses to biotic stresses in Malus x domestica: a meta-analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Bipin; Marra, Francesco Paolo; Caruso, Tiziano; Martinelli, Federico

    2018-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an...

  17. Conservação da maçã (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Braeburn Storage in controlled atmosphere of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica, Borkh. apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2000-04-01

    objective of evaluating the effect of the temperature and of different controlled atmosphere (CA storage regimes on the fruit qualities, and occurrence of physiological disorders of 'Braeburn' apples. The experimental design was the completely randomized with two replication. Fruits were stored in cold storage at 0 and 1ºC and in the following CA conditions: at temperature of 1ºC with 1,5kPaO2/4,0KkPaCO2, 1,5kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/ 1,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/2,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2 and at temperature of 0ºC with 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2. The relative humidity was maintained around 96%. The evaluation was done after eight months of storage, at the opening of the chambers and after seven days shelf life (31ºC. At chambers openning, there was no significant difference in the flesh firmness, titratable acidity and total soluble solids (TSS among the CA conditions. However, after seven days in shelf life, the treatment with 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2 in the temperature of 0ºC maintained higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and TSS, and did not exhibiting flesh breakdown. The CA storage, with 4,0kPa CO2 and cold storage caused flesh breakdown. Already the cork breakdown, was induced by 3,0 and 4,0kPa of CO2 associated with 1,5kPa of O2. The occurrence of rot was significantly higher in cold storage than in CA and more frequent al low CO2 (1kPa. The incidence of mealiness and scald could not be associated with any storage condition. Cold storage fruits presented unsatisfactory quality for marketing and consumption after 8 months of storage.

  18. Apple (Malus domestica) MdERF2 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening by suppressing MdACS1 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Lichao; Tan, Dongmei; Wei, Yun; Yuan, Hui; Li, Tianlai; Wang, Aide

    2016-12-01

    Ripening in climacteric fruit requires the gaseous phytohormone ethylene. Although ethylene signaling has been well studied, knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is still limited. Here we show that an apple (Malus domestica) ethylene response factor, MdERF2, negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1, a gene that is critical for biosynthesis of ripening-related ethylene. Expression of MdERF2 was suppressed by ethylene during ripening of apple fruit, and we observed that MdERF2 bound to the promoter of MdACS1 and directly suppressed its transcription. Moreover, MdERF2 suppressed the activity of the promoter of MdERF3, a transcription factor that we found to bind to the MdACS1 promoter, thereby increasing MdACS1 transcription. We determined that the MdERF2 and MdERF3 proteins directly interact, and this interaction suppresses the binding of MdERF3 to the MdACS1 promoter. Moreover, apple fruit with transiently downregulated MdERF2 expression showed higher ethylene production and faster ripening. Our results indicate that MdERF2 negatively affects ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening in apple by suppressing the transcription of MdACS1 via multiple mechanisms, thereby acting as an antagonist of positive ripening regulators. Our findings offer a deep understanding of the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the B-box gene family in the Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Li, Rong; Dai, Yaqing; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    The B-box proteins (BBXs) are a family of zinc finger proteins containing one/two B-box domain(s). Compared with intensive studies of animal BBXs, investigations of the plant BBX family are limited, though some specific plant BBXs have been demonstrated to act as transcription factors in the regulation of flowering and photomorphogenesis. In this study, using a global search of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome, a total of 64 members of BBX (MdBBX) were identified. All the MdBBXs were divided into five groups based on the phylogenetic relationship, numbers of B-boxes contained and whether there was with an additional CCT domain. According to the characteristics of organ-specific expression, MdBBXs were divided into three groups based on the microarray information. An analysis of cis-acting elements showed that elements related to the stress response were prevalent in the promoter sequences of most MdBBXs. Twelve MdBBX members from different groups were randomly selected and exposed to abiotic stresses. Their expressions were up-regulated to some extent in the roots and leaves. Six among 12 MdBBXs were sensitive to osmotic pressure, salt, cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid treatment, with their expressions enhanced more than 20-fold. Our results suggested that MdBBXs may take part in response to abiotic stress.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-12-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant 'Blondee' (BLO) and its red-skin parent 'Kidd's D-8' (KID), the original name of 'Gala', to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10(-13)) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Development and validation of a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) whole genome genotyping array for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luca; Cestaro, Alessandro; Sargent, Daniel James; Banchi, Elisa; Derdak, Sophia; Di Guardo, Mario; Salvi, Silvio; Jansen, Johannes; Viola, Roberto; Gut, Ivo; Laurens, Francois; Chagné, David; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric; Troggio, Michela

    2014-01-01

    High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus). A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs). Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.

  2. Development and validation of a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP whole genome genotyping array for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bianco

    Full Text Available High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus. A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs. Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.

  3. Development and Validation of a 20K Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Whole Genome Genotyping Array for Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luca; Cestaro, Alessandro; Sargent, Daniel James; Banchi, Elisa; Derdak, Sophia; Di Guardo, Mario; Salvi, Silvio; Jansen, Johannes; Viola, Roberto; Gut, Ivo; Laurens, Francois; Chagné, David; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric; Troggio, Michela

    2014-01-01

    High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus). A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs). Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs. PMID:25303088

  4. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  5. Comparative ultrastructure of fruit plastids in three genetically diverse genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Scott M; Christian, Ryan; Castro-Velasquez, Nohely; Hyden, Brennan; Lynch-Holm, Valerie; Dhingra, Amit

    2017-10-01

    Comparative ultrastructural developmental time-course analysis has identified discrete stages at which the fruit plastids undergo structural and consequently functional transitions to facilitate subsequent development-guided understanding of the complex plastid biology. Plastids are the defining organelle for a plant cell and are critical for myriad metabolic functions. The role of leaf plastid, chloroplast, is extensively documented; however, fruit plastids-chromoplasts-are poorly understood, especially in the context of the diverse metabolic processes operating in these diverse plant organs. Recently, in a comparative study of the predicted plastid-targeted proteomes across seven plant species, we reported that each plant species is predicted to harbor a unique set of plastid-targeted proteins. However, the temporal and developmental context of these processes remains unknown. In this study, an ultrastructural analysis approach was used to characterize fruit plastids in the epidermal and collenchymal cell layers at 11 developmental timepoints in three genotypes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.): chlorophyll-predominant 'Granny Smith', carotenoid-predominant 'Golden Delicious', and anthocyanin-predominant 'Top Red Delicious'. Plastids transitioned from a proplastid-like plastid to a chromoplast-like plastid in epidermis cells, while in the collenchyma cells, they transitioned from a chloroplast-like plastid to a chloro-chromo-amyloplast plastid. Plastids in the collenchyma cells of the three genotypes demonstrated a diverse array of structures and features. This study enabled the identification of discrete developmental stages during which specific functions are most likely being performed by the plastids as indicated by accumulation of plastoglobuli, starch granules, and other sub-organeller structures. Information regarding the metabolically active developmental stages is expected to facilitate biologically relevant omics studies to unravel the complex

  6. Changes in primary metabolites and polyphenols in the peel of "Braeburn" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) during advanced maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Jan; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2013-10-30

    During the two growing seasons the evolution of primary metabolites and wide range of polyphenols in the "Braeburn" apple peel during advanced maturation were investigated. During the five weeks sucrose significantly increased, whereas fructose and glucose fluctuated around the same level in one season and decreased in another. Regarding malic and citric acids, an expected decrease was recorded. The concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, and flavanols remained quite constant or slightly decreased during advanced apple ripening. On the contrary an intensive accumulation of quercetin glycosides and anthocyanins took place during this period, starting with the onset of rapid formation approximately 3 weeks before the technological maturity of apples. Total phenolic content was relatively constant or slightly increased. The present results suggest that measures designed to improve the apple color and quality of "Braeburn" apples should be performed approximately 3-4 weeks before the expected technological maturity of apples.

  7. Maturity and storage influence on the apple (Malus domestica) allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; Foxall, Robert; Rigby, Neil M.; Browne, Thomas; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Waldron, Keith W.; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of apples can provoke severe allergic reactions, in susceptible individuals, due to the presence of the allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, found largely in the fruit skin. Levels of Mal d 3 were determined in peel as a function of apple cultivar, position of the

  8. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period.

  9. The Phytoene synthase gene family of apple (Malus x domestica) and its role in controlling fruit carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Driedonks, Nicky; Lewis, David; Shumskaya, Maria; Chen, Xiuyin; Wurtzel, Eleanore T; Espley, Richard V; Allan, Andrew C

    2015-07-28

    Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genome to further understand their involvement in fruit carotenoid accumulation. The apple PSY gene family, containing six members, was predicted to have three functional members, PSY1, PSY2, and PSY4, based on translation of the predicted gene sequences and/or corresponding cDNAs. However, only PSY1 and PSY2 showed activity in a complementation assay. Protein localisation experiments revealed differential localization of the PSY proteins in chloroplasts; PSY1 and PSY2 localized to the thylakoid membranes, while PSY4 localized to plastoglobuli. Transcript levels in 'Granny Smith' and 'Royal Gala' apple cultivars showed PSY2 was most highly expressed in fruit and other vegetative tissues. We tested the transient activation of the apple PSY1 and PSY2 promoters and identified potential and differential regulation by AP2/ERF transcription factors, which suggested that the PSY genes are controlled by different transcriptional mechanisms. The first committed carotenoid pathway step in apple is controlled by MdPSY1 and MdPSY2, while MdPSY4 play little or no role in this respect. This has implications for apple breeding programmes where carotenoid enhancement is a target and would allow co-segregation with phenotypes to be tested during the development of new cultivars.

  10. Insertion of a solo LTR retrotransposon associates with spur mutations in 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengxue; Sun, Qibao; Zhou, Junyong; Qiu, Huarong; Guo, Jing; Lu, Lijuan; Mu, Wenlei; Sun, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in stems. In contrast, no promoter activity from either the sense or the antisense strand of the 1536-bp sLTR was detected. From ~150 kb of DNA on each side of the 2190 bp, sLTR insertion site, corresponding to 300 kb of the 'Golden Delicious' genome, 23 genes were predicted. Ten genes had predicted functions that could affect shoot development. This first report, of a sLTR insertion associated with the evolution of apple spur mutation, will facilitate apple breeding, cloning of spur-related genes, and discovery of mechanisms behind dwarf habit.

  11. A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoghalaere, Fanny; Doucen, Thomas; Guitton, Baptiste; Keeling, Jeannette; Payne, Wendy; Ling, Toby John; Ross, John James; Hallett, Ian Charles; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Dayatilake, G A; Diak, Robert; Breen, Ken C; Tustin, D Stuart; Costes, Evelyne; Chagné, David; Schaffer, Robert James; David, Karine Myriam

    2012-01-13

    Auxin is an important phytohormone for fleshy fruit development, having been shown to be involved in the initial signal for fertilisation, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and ripening related events. There is considerable knowledge of auxin-related genes, mostly from work in model species. With the apple genome now available, it is possible to carry out genomics studies on auxin-related genes to identify genes that may play roles in specific stages of apple fruit development. High amounts of auxin in the seed compared with the fruit cortex were observed in 'Royal Gala' apples, with amounts increasing through fruit development. Injection of exogenous auxin into developing apples at the start of cell expansion caused an increase in cell size. An expression analysis screen of auxin-related genes involved in auxin reception, homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation showed complex patterns of expression in each class of gene. Two mapping populations were phenotyped for fruit size over multiple seasons, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were observed. One QTL mapped to a region containing an Auxin Response Factor (ARF106). This gene is expressed during cell division and cell expansion stages, consistent with a potential role in the control of fruit size. The application of exogenous auxin to apples increased cell expansion, suggesting that endogenous auxin concentrations are at least one of the limiting factors controlling fruit size. The expression analysis of ARF106 linked to a strong QTL for fruit weight suggests that the auxin signal regulating fruit size could partially be modulated through the function of this gene. One class of gene (GH3) removes free auxin by conjugation to amino acids. The lower expression of these GH3 genes during rapid fruit expansion is consistent with the apple maximising auxin concentrations at this point.

  12. A multidisciplinary approach providing new insight into fruit flesh browning physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Mario; Tadiello, Alice; Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies ('Fuji x Pink Lady' and 'Golden Delicious x Braeburn'). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple.

  13. A Multidisciplinary Approach Providing New Insight into Fruit Flesh Browning Physiology in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Lorenz, Giorgia; Masuero, Domenico; Vrhovsek, Urska; Costa, Guglielmo; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the quality of minimally processed fruit, flesh browning is fundamentally important in the development of an aesthetically unpleasant appearance, with consequent off-flavours. The development of browning depends on the enzymatic action of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome ten PPO genes were initially identified and located on three main chromosomes (2, 5 and 10). Of these genes, one element in particular, here called Md-PPO, located on chromosome 10, was further investigated and genetically mapped in two apple progenies (‘Fuji x Pink Lady’ and ‘Golden Delicious x Braeburn’). Both linkage maps, made up of 481 and 608 markers respectively, were then employed to find QTL regions associated with fruit flesh browning, allowing the detection of 25 QTLs related to several browning parameters. These were distributed over six linkage groups with LOD values spanning from 3.08 to 4.99 and showed a rate of phenotypic variance from 26.1 to 38.6%. Anchoring of these intervals to the apple genome led to the identification of several genes involved in polyphenol synthesis and cell wall metabolism. Finally, the expression profile of two specific candidate genes, up and downstream of the polyphenolic pathway, namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), provided insight into flesh browning physiology. Md-PPO was further analyzed and two haplotypes were characterised and associated with fruit flesh browning in apple. PMID:24205065

  14. Mapping in an apple (Malus x domestica) F1 segregating population based on physical clustering of differentially expressed genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Apple tree breeding is slow and difficult due to long generation times, self incompatibility, and complex genetics. The identification of molecular markers linked to traits of interest is a way to expedite the breeding process. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes whose stead...

  15. Leaf micro-environment influence the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    in the phenotype of the leaves in the leaf clusters that subtend the fruits of CATs, compared to their standard counterparts. This initial investigation considers standard and columnar trees at different levels of genetic relatedness and records significant increases in leaf area, leaf mass per unit area......Columnar apple trees (CATs) have radically-altered architecture (significantly shorter internodes and lateral branches) when compared to standard apple trees, attributed to a mutation of the Co gene involved in apical dominance. These changes in architecture have been associated with changes......, chlorophyll content and competitive shading in the fruiting leaf clusters of columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in intercepted light have been shown to be associated with the columnar structure, and carbon fixation is also increased. We propose that leaf micro-environment of columnar...

  16. Identification and expression analysis of the IPT and CKX gene families during axillary bud outgrowth in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming; Li, Guofang; Qi, Siyan; Liu, Xiaojie; Chen, Xilong; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Dong; Han, Mingyu

    2018-04-20

    Cytokinins (CKs) play a crucial role in promoting axillary bud outgrowth and targeting the control of CK metabolism can be used to enhance branching in plants. CK levels are maintained mainly by CK biosynthesis (isopentenyl transferase, IPT) and degradation (dehydrogenase, CKX) genes in plants. A systematic study of the IPT and CKX gene families in apple, however, has not been conducted. In the present study, 12 MdIPTs and 12 MdCKXs were identified in the apple genome. Systematic phylogenetic, structural, and synteny analyses were performed. Expression analysis of these genes in different tissues was also assessed. MdIPT and MdCKX genes exhibit distinct expression patterns in different tissues. The response of MdIPT, MdCKX, and MdPIN1 genes to various treatments (6-BA, decapitation and Lovastatin, an inhibitor of CKs synthesis) that impact branching were also investigated. Results indicated that most of the MdIPT and MdCKX, and MdPIN1 genes were upregulated by 6-BA and decapitation treatment, but inhibited by Lovastatin, a compound that effectively suppresses axillary bud outgrowth induced by decapitation. These findings suggest that cytokinin biosynthesis is required for the activation of bud break and the export of auxin from buds in apple tree with intact primary shoot apex or decapitated apple tree. MdCKX8 and MdCKX10, however, exhibited little response to decapitation, but were significantly up-regulated by 6-BA and Lovastatin, a finding that warrants further investigation in order to understand their function in bud-outgrowth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  18. Effect of bagging on fruit quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Fuji and Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Fateminia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple fruit color is determined by the amount of pigments in its peel which is directly affected by sunlight.  A method for improving apple fruit color is bagging. In present study, the effect of bagging and its optimum removing time was investigated on the amount of peel pigments and other fruit quantitative and qualitative characteristics for Fuji and Granny Smith apples. The experimental treatments were, no bag (control, debagging 7 and 14 days before harvest, and keeping the bag until harvest time. At the end of experiment, the amount of pigments, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pulp phenol, peel phenol, antioxidants percentage, fruit weight and volume were measured. The results showed that in debagging 7 and 14 days before harvest treatments, the amount of anthocyanin and soluble solids statistically increased as compared with control; however other measured characteristics were significantly reduced in both apple cultivars. The maximum amount of fruit anthocyanin (60.96 mg/g fresh weight belonged to Fuji cultivar in 14 days treatment and the least amount of fruit anthocyanin (1.64 mg/g fresh weight belonged to Granny Smith cultivar in zero-day treatment. The highest amount of fruit chlorophyll a (5.09µgr/lit was observed in control fruit and the lowest amount of fruit chlorophyll a (3.94 µgr/lit was observed in 14 days treatment. The decrease of chlorophyll amount is a positive characteristic for the Fuji and a negative one for Granny Smith. Therefore, bagging and 14 days before harvest debagging treatment increased the amount of anthocyanin and decreased chlorophyll which resulted in Fuji cultivar better coloring and reducing the green color quality of Granny Smith cultivar.

  19. Differential response of cell-cycle and cell-expansion regulators to heat stress in apple (Malus domestica) fruitlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaishman, Moshe A; Peles, Yuval; Dahan, Yardena; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Frieman, Aviad; Naor, Amos

    2015-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting physiological and biochemical aspects of fruit development. Current and progressing global warming is expected to change climate in the traditional deciduous fruit tree cultivation regions. In this study, 'Golden Delicious' trees, grown in a controlled environment or commercial orchard, were exposed to different periods of heat treatment. Early fruitlet development was documented by evaluating cell number, cell size and fruit diameter for 5-70 days after full bloom. Normal activities of molecular developmental and growth processes in apple fruitlets were disrupted under daytime air temperatures of 29°C and higher as a result of significant temporary declines in cell-production and cell-expansion rates, respectively. Expression screening of selected cell cycle and cell expansion genes revealed the influence of high temperature on genetic regulation of apple fruitlet development. Several core cell-cycle and cell-expansion genes were differentially expressed under high temperatures. While expression levels of B-type cyclin-dependent kinases and A- and B-type cyclins declined moderately in response to elevated temperatures, expression of several cell-cycle inhibitors, such as Mdwee1, Mdrbr and Mdkrps was sharply enhanced as the temperature rose, blocking the cell-cycle cascade at the G1/S and G2/M transition points. Moreover, expression of several expansin genes was associated with high temperatures, making them potentially useful as molecular platforms to enhance cell-expansion processes under high-temperature regimes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance associated with genes controlling cell cycle and cell expansion may lead to the development of novel strategies for improving apple fruit productivity under global warming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the 14C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-01-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  1. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi......A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars....... Significant increases in leaf number, area, weight per unit area, thickness and midrib angle, together with altered shape, have been recorded consistently for the leaves subtending the developing fruits of the columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in leaf rolling, epicuticular wax, stomatal...... of leaf characteristics is considered in terms of the very open architectural phenotype of columnar trees and the impact this may have on the canopy microclimate that influences leaf development....

  2. Using Apple (Malus domestica, Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima and Cinnamon (Cinnamom vertum to Obtain an Innovative Jam-Like Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The apple, the pumpkin and the cinnamon are raw materials that could be innovatively combined to produce a new sugar-preserved product following an original recipe. It can be considered in accordance with the European quality of jam-type varieties. It is a hybrid product, a component of “the European gastronomy” with old Bavarian roots and Romanian raw material. An adapted technological scheme and a recipe based on the TSS of the raw material and of the finished product were used. The quality indicators were determined using analytical methods. The PCA with the results provided by the panelists were used for the study of the aromatic profile. An identification of flavors, such as apple and cinnamon, is reported, which contributes to the specificity of the sensory profile of the jam. The new product has: TSS = 63.6 oBrix, TA = 0.2%, VA = 0.105 %. These values fall within the range of values for other jam and experimental jam assortments. The proportion of solids is 34%, which is far too low compared to the 45% minimum accepted limit. Taking into account that there is no “surface lifting” flaw, it is recommended to accept the value for the new assortment.

  3. Endophytic bacterial community living in roots of healthy and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'-infected apple (Malus domestica, Borkh.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Bozkurt, Adem I; Casati, Paola; Cağlayan, Kadriye; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero A

    2012-11-01

    'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation (AP) disease, is a quarantine pathogen controlled by chemical treatments against insect vectors and eradication of diseased plants. In accordance with the European Community guidelines, novel strategies should be developed for sustainable management of plant diseases by using resistance inducers (e.g. endophytes). A basic point for the success of this approach is the study of endophytic bacteria associated with plants. In the present work, endophytic bacteria living in healthy and 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali'-infected apple trees were described by cultivation-dependent and independent methods. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed the presence of the groups Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chlamydiae, and Firmicutes. In detail, library analyses underscored 24 and 17 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in healthy and infected roots, respectively, with a dominance of Betaproteobacteria. Moreover, differences in OTUs number and in CFU/g suggested that phytoplasmas could modify the composition of endophytic bacterial communities associated with infected plants. Intriguingly, the combination of culturing methods and cloning analysis allowed the identification of endophytic bacteria (e.g. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia) that have been reported as biocontrol agents. Future research will investigate the capability of these bacteria to control 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali' in order to develop sustainable approaches for managing AP.

  4. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara.

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60 0 C/20 min and 80 0 C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 3 0 C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Target metabolite and gene transcription profiling during the development of superficial scald in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, Nicola; Farneti, Brian; Tadiello, Alice; Vrhovsek, Urska; Cappellin, Luca; Biasioli, Franco; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Guglielmo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2014-07-20

    Fruit quality features resulting from ripening processes need to be preserved throughout storage for economical reasons. However, during this period several physiological disorders can occur, of which superficial scald is one of the most important, due to the development of large brown areas on the fruit skin surface. This study examined the variation in polyphenolic content with the progress of superficial scald in apple, also with respect to 1-MCP, an ethylene competitor interacting with the hormone receptors and known to interfere with this etiology. The change in the accumulation of these metabolites was further correlated with the gene set involved in this pathway, together with two specific VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), α-farnesene and its oxidative form, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Metabolite profiling and qRT-PCR assay showed these volatiles are more heavily involved in the signalling system, while the browning coloration would seem to be due more to a specific accumulation of chlorogenic acid (as a consequence of the activation of MdPAL and MdC3H), and its further oxidation carried out by a polyphenol oxidase gene (MdPPO). In this physiological scenario, new evidence regarding the involvement of an anti-apoptotic regulatory mechanism for the compartmentation of this phenomenon in the skin alone was also hypothesized, as suggested by the expression profile of the MdDAD1, MdDND1 and MdLSD1 genes. The results presented in this work represent a step forward in understanding the physiological mechanisms of superficial scald in apple, shedding light on the regulation of the specific physiological cascade.

  6. Identification of SFBB-containing canonical and noncanonical SCF complexes in pollen of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Mai F; Koyano, Ruriko; Kikuchi, Shinji; Koba, Takato; Sassa, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic S locus. The S locus contains at least two genes, S-RNase and F-box protein encoding gene SLF/SFB/SFBB that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. Generally, the F-box protein forms an E3 ligase complex, SCF complex with Skp1, Cullin1 (CUL1) and Rbx1, however, in Petunia inflata, SBP1 (S-RNase binding protein1) was reported to play the role of Skp1 and Rbx1, and form an SCFSLF-like complex for ubiquitination of non-self S-RNases. On the other hand, in Petunia hybrida and Petunia inflata of Solanaceae, Prunus avium and Pyrus bretschneideri of Rosaceae, SSK1 (SLF-interacting Skp1-like protein1) is considered to form the SCFSLF/SFB complex. Here, we isolated pollen-expressed apple homologs of SSK1 and CUL1, and named MdSSK1, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B. MdSSK1 was preferentially expressed in pollen, but weakly in other organs analyzed, while, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B were almost equally expressed in all the organs analyzed. MdSSK1 transcript abundance was significantly (>100 times) higher than that of MdSBP1. In vitro binding assays showed that MdSSK1 and MdSBP1 interacted with MdSFBB1-S9 and MdCUL1, and MdSFBB1-S9 interacted more strongly with MdSSK1 than with MdSBP1. The results suggest that both MdSSK1-containing SCFSFBB1 and MdSBP1-containing SCFSFBB1-like complexes function in pollen of apple, and the former plays a major role.

  7. The effects of ultrasonic pretreatment and structural changes during the osmotic dehydration of the 'Starking' apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Mendoza, M. E.; Fernandez-Munoz, J. L.; Arjona-Roman, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    During the osmotic dehydration (OD) of fruit, the cell membrane displays a high resistance to mass transfer, thereby reducing the dehydration rate. To reduce thermal damage to cell membranes, alternative methods have recently been introduced to reduce the initial moisture content and/or modify the structure of fruit tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an ultrasound (US) pretreatment for OD on the effective diffusion coefficients and to observe the changes in the molecular structure of 'Starking' apple cubes by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) during a 3 h process using a 45 dregee Bx sucrose solution at 60 degree centigrade. In the pretreatment step, apple samples were immersed in an ultrasonic bath at 45 kHz for 20 min. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (Dew) and solids (Des) were calculated from the observed osmotic kinetics according to Fick's second law for the transient state. The solids coefficients were higher than the water coefficients in both processes due to the concentration difference (De = 7.7 × 10{sup -}9 and 9.7 × 10{sup -}9 m{sup 2} s{sup -}1 for ODUS). The structural changes were determined by FTIR by measuring the molecular vibration frequency for sucrose. The 1,500-900 cm{sup -}1 region of the infrared spectra was used to monitor the effect of sucrose concentration on fruit structure. We observed that the first bonds formed were C-H and C-O-C stretching (at 920 and 1,129 cm{sup -}1, respectively) in the sucrose skeleton and glycoside bonds among sucrose molecules. The water concentration affected the diffusion coefficient significantly due to its dependence on the physical structure of the food. (Author) 27 refs.

  8. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Gallón, Sandra M; Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; Daudu, Dimitri; Liesecke, Franziska; Jullien, Frédéric; Papon, Nicolas; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Courdavault, Vincent; Lanoue, Arnaud; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Atehortùa, Lucia; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Besseau, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.

  10. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)—‘McIntosh’, ‘Gala’ and ‘Mutsu’—were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of ‘McIntosh’ and the flesh of ‘Mutsu’. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  11. Spatial variability in soil properties and diagnostic leaf characteristics of apple (Malus domestica) in apple growing region of Dheerkot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjumend, T.; Abbasi, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific information on the spatial variability in soil properties and nutrient status is important for understanding ecosystem processes and evaluating agricultural land management practices. This study aims to characterize the spatial variation of selected soil properties and the nutrient status of ten representative sites of apple growing region, and also to evaluate the nutrient contents of apple leaves of the same sites from sub-division Dheerkot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, (AJK) Pakistan. The sampling sites were: Hill, Chamankot, Chamyati-1 (upper), Chamyati-2 (lower), Dheerkot, Kotli, Karry, Sanghar, Neelabut, and Hanschoki. The treatments included; sites = 10; depths = 04 (0-15, 15-30, 30-45, and 45-60 cm) with 3 replications. Results indicated that texture of all the sites (except one) were loam or clay loam having silt and clay the dominant soil fractions. The soils were neutral to slightly alkaline, pH ranging from 7.2 to 8.3, non-saline, and moderately calcareous (CaCO/sub 3/ 0.00-8.97 percent). The nutrient index (NI) value for soil organic matter (SOM), available P and K were 2.5, 1.5 and 2.1 showing high, medium, and medium range, respectively. The concentration of AB-DTPA extractable Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn showed high levels of Fe (10.2-16.8 mg kg-1) and Mn (0.90-2.71 mg kg/sup -1/) while Zn (0.42-2.31 mg kg/sup -1/) deficiency was observed in few samples. All the sites were severely deficient in Cu concentration (1.35-2.05 mg kg/sup -1/). The diagnosis of apples leaves indicated that none of the samples was deficient in N (2.30-3.49 percent) and P (0.13-0.33 percent) while out of ten sites, nine sites showed severe deficiency of K (0.85-1.40 percent). The study demonstrated a significant variation in different physico-chemical properties of the soils collected from the same ecological region. In order to overcome the deficiency of some of the nutrients observed both in soil and plant samples, proper fertilization especially the use of organic manures is

  12. The AINTEGUMENTA genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, are associated with the regulation of cell production during fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Madhumita; Malladi, Anish

    2012-06-25

    Fruit growth in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is mediated by cell production and expansion. Genes involved in regulating these processes and thereby fruit growth, are not well characterized. We hypothesized that the apple homolog(s) of AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), an APETALA2-repeat containing transcription factor, regulates cell production during fruit growth in apple. Two ANT genes, MdANT1 and MdANT2, were isolated from apple and their expression was studied during multiple stages of fruit development. MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was high during early fruit growth coincident with the period of cell production, rapidly declined during exit from cell production, and remained low during the rest of fruit development. The effects of increase in carbohydrate availability during fruit growth were characterized. Increase in carbohydrate availability enhanced fruit growth largely through an increase in cell production. Expression of MdANT1 and MdANT2 increased sharply by up to around 5-fold in response to an increase in carbohydrate availability. Expression of the ANT genes was compared across two apple genotypes, 'Gala' and 'Golden Delicious Smoothee' (GS), which differ in the extent of fruit growth, largely due to differences in cell production. In comparison to 'Gala', the larger fruit-size genotype, GS, displayed higher levels and a longer duration of MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression. Expression of the ANTs and cell cycle genes in the fruit core and cortex tissues isolated using laser capture microdissection was studied. During early fruit growth, expression of the MdANTs was higher within the cortex, the tissue that constitutes the majority of the fruit. Additionally, MdANT1 and MdANT2 expression was positively correlated with that of A- and B-type CYCLINS, B-type CYCLIN-DEPENDENT-KINASES (CDKBs) and MdDEL1. Multiple lines of evidence from this study suggest that MdANT1 and MdANT2 regulate cell production during fruit growth in apple. ANTs may coordinate the expression of

  13. Effect of gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh on lipidemia of hyperlipidemic rats Efeito da maçã gala (Malus domestica Borkh na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A healthy life style and a balanced diet, associated with a high fruit and vegetable intake, are linked to good health and the prevention of diseases. Apples contain bioactive compounds that help in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia. One of the Public Health concerns in Brazil is to reduce cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of Gala apples and to study the effect of their consumption on weight gain, food intake, serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol and fecal cholesterol in male albino Wistar rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Six animals were utilized for each treatment (control, 5, 15 and 25% apple diet, during 30 and 60 days. This study showed that one apple (200 g can provide 14.5% of recommended total fiber and 55% of recommended vitamin C, besides supplying considerable quantities of phenolic compounds (0.38 g.100 g-1 and tannins (0.16 g.100 g-1. All animals showed a non-significant reduction in their weight gain and food intake with an increase in the concentration of apple in the diets. At the end of 30 days, all of the diets provided a significant reduction in the levels of triglycerides compared to the control group. The 15 and 25% apple diets showed significant reductions in the serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and an increase in the level of fecal cholesterol in relation to the control group. The 25% apple diet provided a significant reduction in the hepatic cholesterol levels compared to the control group. After 60 days, the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides in rats fed with 5, 15 and 25% apple diets were similar to the control group. This probably happened due to a revertion of the process. These results show the importance of Gala apples in the control of hyperlipidemia in rats. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits, including apples, associated to a healthy life

  14. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  15. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala; Efeito da radiacao gama e do tratamento termico na conservacao do suco natural de maca (Malus domestica), cv. gala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara

    1995-12-01

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 60{sup 0} C/20 min and 80{sup 0} C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 {+-} 3{sup 0} C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. COMPORTAMENTO DA CULTIVAR DE MACIEIRA FUJI (Malus domestica, Borkh. SOBRE TRÊS DIFERENTES PORTA-ENXERTOS BEHAVIOUR OF THE APPLE CULTIVAR FUJI (Malus domestica, Borkh. ONTO THREE DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICO DENARDI

    2001-12-01

    ,2 g, para o M-9, o M-7 e o MM-111, respectivamente. Em termos de distribuição por categoria de tamanho, o M-9 produziu 90,8% de frutos maiores que 62 mm, o M-7 produziu 79,5% e o MM-111, 70,9%, indicando que o M-9, além de mais precoce e mais produtivo, também produz frutos de maior calibre.There is a worldwide tendency for planting apples at high density system onto the so called dwarf apple rootstocks, which have a strong effect on controlling the vigor of the trees. The most used is the M-9 due to its efficiency on vigor control, precocity of flowering, high productivity and also good fruit quality it induces to the scion varieties. In South of Brazil more vigorous rootstocks, as MM-106, M-7 and MM-111, have been widely used because worldwide tradition, lower initial cost as they require less trees/ha, and their facility of propagation The objective of this work was to compare the dwarf M-9 with the semi-dwarf M-7 and the semi-vigorous MM-111 concerned to vigor control, precocity of flowering, productivity and fruit quality of the apple cultivar Fuji. The statistical design was on completely randomized blocks, with 4 replications of three trees on each plot. The main cultivar was Fuji, pollinated by cv. Gala. The experiment was established in 1996 in Fraiburgo, the main apple producer area in the country. The layout of planting was 2,0 m within row by 5,0 m between rows. The study was carried out for four years. The parameters evaluated were precocity (n0 of flower buds per cm² of trunk cross sectional area, production (kg/tree, productivity (t/ha, fruit weigh (g and distribution of fruit size (%. The results obtained on the 3rd season showed that M-9 was the most precocious, producing 1.94 times more flower buds per cm² of trunk cross sectional area than on M-7 and 2.7 times more than on MM-111. Concerned to production on 3rd season, M-9 produced 2.5 times more than M-7 and 2.7 times more than MM-111. On the 4th season M-9 produced 1.28 times more than M-7

  17. Transcriptomic responses to biotic stresses in Malus x domestica: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Bipin; Marra, Francesco Paolo; Caruso, Tiziano; Martinelli, Federico

    2018-01-31

    RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an integrated approach of pathway- and gene- set enrichment analysis, Mapman visualization tool, gene ontology analysis and inferred protein-protein interaction network. Our meta-analysis revealed that the bacterial infection enhanced specifically genes involved in sugar alcohol metabolism. Brassinosteroids were upregulated by fungal pathogens while ethylene was highly affected by Erwinia amylovora. Gibberellins and jasmonates were strongly repressed by fungal and viral infections. The protein-protein interaction network highlighted the role of WRKYs in responses to the studied pathogens. In summary, our meta-analysis provides a better understanding of the Malus X domestica transcriptome responses to different biotic stress conditions; we anticipate that these insights will assist in the development of genetic resistance and acute therapeutic strategies. This work would be an example for next meta-analysis works aiming at identifying specific common molecular features linked with biotic stress responses in other specialty crops.

  18. Morfogênese in vitro de brotos de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh. a partir de fragmentos delgados de folhas In vitro morphogenesis of shoots of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh. Starting from thin fragments of leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cristiano Erig

    2005-06-01

    plants genetic transformation, and also for the fast multiplication of the modified genotype through the micropropagation, it is a efficient regeneration protocol. The objective of this work was to study the expression of the morphogenetic potential of thin fragments of apple tree leaves, and to optimize a regeneration protocol seeking futures works of genetic transformation. The completely randomized experimental design was used, in factorial outline 3 x 2 x 6, with three cultivate of apple tree (Galaxy, Maxigala and Mastergala, two explants types (thin fragments of leaves cut in the transversal and longitudinal direction, and six concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ in the culture medium (0; 4.54; 9.08; 13.62; 18.16 and 22.7 µM, totaling 36 treatments. The MS medium salts and vitamins were added of myo-inositol (100 mg.L-1, sucrose (30 g.L-1, agar (6 g.L-1 and 1.6 µM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA. Flasks with capacity for 150 mL with 6 mL of culture medium were used. The explants were obtained of plants in vitro cultivated, in multiplication phase, 45 days after the inoculation, and they were constituted of fine fragments of the medium part of leaves, cut in the tranversal direction (length from 8 to 10 mm or longitudinal (length from 10 to 12 mm, both with approximate width of 1 mm. The regeneration percentage, the intensity of callus formation and the number of shoots formed by explant were evaluated by the 45 days of cultivation. Starting from the obtained results it was ended that the expression of the morphogenetic potential of the thin fragments of leaf cut in the transversal direction is higher than those cut in the longitudinal direction, and its cultivation in culture medium with 4.54 µM of TDZ, propitiates, simultaneously, high regeneration percentage, great number of shoots formation and smaller callus intensity.

  19. Polyphenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica and Prunus domestica Cultivars from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Mirtha; Moreira, Ileana; Arnaez, Elizabeth; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Vargas, Felipe; Alvarado, Diego; Chen, Pei

    2018-01-30

    The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives). These findings constitute the first report of such a high number and diversity of compounds in skins of one single plum cultivar and of the presence of proanthocyanidin pentamers in apple skins. Also, it is the first time that such a large number of glycosylated flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are reported in skins and flesh of a single plum cultivar. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC) was measured with high values observed for all samples, especially for fruits skins with a TPC of 619.6 and 640.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract respectively for apple and plum. Antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods were evaluated, with results showing also high values for all samples, especially again for fruit skins with IC 50 of 4.54 and 5.19 µg/mL (DPPH) and 16.8 and 14.6 mmol TE/g (ORAC) respectively for apple and plum, indicating the potential

  20. Identification of genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes in 'Red Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red) and their expression and melatonin production during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiong; Wang, Lin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing-Tian; Zuo, Bi-Xiao; Kong, Jin

    2013-11-01

    Melatonin is present in many edible fruits; however, the presence of melatonin in apple has not previously been reported. In this study, the genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes including tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase were identified in 'Red Fuji' apple. Each gene has several homologous genes. Sequence analysis shows that these genes have little homology with those of animals and they only have limited homology with known genes of rice melatonin synthetic enzymes. Multiple origins of melatonin synthetic genes during the evolution are expected. The expression of these genes is fully coordinated with melatonin production in apple development. Melatonin levels in apple exhibit an inverse relationship with the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Two major melatonin synthetic peaks appeared on July 17 and on October 8 in both unbagged and bagged apple samples. At the periods mentioned above, apples experienced rapid expansion and increased respiration. These episodes significantly elevate reactive oxygen species production in the apple. Current data further confirmed that melatonin produced in apple was used to neutralize the toxic oxidants and protect the developing apple against oxidative stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of carotenoid cleavage oxygenase genes and their responses to various phytohormones and abiotic stresses in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongfei; Zuo, Xiya; Shao, Hongxia; Fan, Sheng; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Yan, Xiangyan; Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Mingyu

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are able to cleave carotenoids to produce apocarotenoids and their derivatives, which are important for plant growth and development. In this study, 21 apple CCO genes were identified and divided into six groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We further characterized the apple CCO genes in terms of chromosomal distribution, structure and the presence of cis-elements in the promoter. We also predicted the cellular localization of the encoded proteins. An analysis of the synteny within the apple genome revealed that tandem, segmental, and whole-genome duplication events likely contributed to the expansion of the apple carotenoid oxygenase gene family. An additional integrated synteny analysis identified orthologous carotenoid oxygenase genes between apple and Arabidopsis thaliana, which served as references for the functional analysis of the apple CCO genes. The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of leaves decreased, while leaf stomatal density increased under drought and saline conditions. Tissue-specific gene expression analyses revealed diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Finally, hormone and abiotic stress treatments indicated that many apple CCO genes are responsive to various phytohormones as well as drought and salinity stresses. The genome-wide identification of apple CCO genes and the analyses of their expression patterns described herein may provide a solid foundation for future studies examining the regulation and functions of this gene family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of the genes Md-ACO1 and Md-ACS1 in ethylene production and shelf life of apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Stella, S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guerra, W.; Cecchinel, M.; Dallavia, J.; Koller, B.; Sansavini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Shelf life determines the economic life time of mature apples, which can be either freshly harvested or stored. Good shelf life is highly associated with a slow decrease of fruit firmness at room temperature. Apple is a climacteric fruit, in which loss of firmness seems to be physiologically related

  3. No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Seifert, Stephanie; Weibel, Franco P; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce. Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed. In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans. Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.

  4. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (pacids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A candidate gene based approach validates Md-PG1 as the main responsible for a QTL impacting fruit texture in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sara; Hamblin, Martha T; Trainotti, Livio; Peace, Cameron P; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2013-03-04

    Apple is a widely cultivated fruit crop for its quality properties and extended storability. Among the several quality factors, texture is the most important and appreciated, and within the apple variety panorama the cortex texture shows a broad range of variability. Anatomically these variations depend on degradation events occurring in both fruit primary cell wall and middle lamella. This physiological process is regulated by an enzymatic network generally encoded by large gene families, among which polygalacturonase is devoted to the depolymerization of pectin. In apple, Md-PG1, a key gene belonging to the polygalacturonase gene family, was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-localized within the statistical interval of a major hot spot QTL associated to several fruit texture sub-phenotypes. In this work, a QTL corresponding to the position of Md-PG1 was validated and new functional alleles associated to the fruit texture properties in 77 apple cultivars were discovered. 38 SNPs genotyped by gene full length resequencing and 2 SSR markers ad hoc targeted in the gene metacontig were employed. Out of this SNP set, eleven were used to define three significant haplotypes statistically associated to several texture components. The impact of Md-PG1 in the fruit cell wall disassembly was further confirmed by the cortex structure electron microscope scanning in two apple varieties characterized by opposite texture performance, such as 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith'. The results here presented step forward into the genetic dissection of fruit texture in apple. This new set of haplotypes, and microsatellite alleles, can represent a valuable toolbox for a more efficient parental selection as well as the identification of new apple accessions distinguished by superior fruit quality features.

  6. Recent patents on physical, mineral & organic Acid composition of golden delicious and red delicious apples (malus×domestica borkh) grown in the west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Amir H K; Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Apple is one of the fruits that has beneficial effects on human healthy diet and life. The aim of this study is to determine some physical, mineral and organic acids composition of apple cultivars grown in different locations throughout Lorestan province. Apple cultivars had been harvested from different locations throughout Lorestan province of Iran. Analyses for 3 elements (Iron, Zinc, and calcium) were conducted by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus was measured by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Sodium and Potassium were measured by the flame photometer. Organic acids were determined by Titration method using NaOH and phenolphethalein indicator. Weight was measured by scale based on 0.1 g and length and diameters were measured by caliper. The mean weight of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apples was 173.7 g and 146.7 g, respectively. The amount of iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium for the red variety was 0.24, 0.14, 28, 8.9, 4.7 and 63.8 respectively; values for the Golden variety were 0.23, 0.14, 27.9, 8.8, 4.5, and 66.3 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively. The amount of ascorbic acid, malic acid, and citric acid for Golden delicious was 9.09, 0.27 and 0.28, respectively; for Red delicious apples, the amount was 9.47, 0.26 and 0.28 mg/100 g, respectively. Acidities for Golden delicious and Red delicious were 3.7 and 4, respectively. One hundred gram of apple fruit grown in Lorestan would provide 3% of iron, 1.5% of zinc, 2.8% of calcium and 1.4% of potassium requirements. The amount of organic acid in apples of Lorestan province was lower than some other countries.

  7. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  8. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-10-31

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  10. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the cystatin gene family in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Wang, Suncai; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-06-01

    Cystatins or phytocystatins (PhyCys) comprise a family of plant-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Such inhibitors are thought to be involved in the regulation of several endogenous processes as well as defense against biotic or abiotic stresses. However, information about this family is limited in apple. We identified 26 PhyCys genes within the entire apple genome. They were clustered into three distinct groups distributed across several chromosomes. All of their putative proteins contained one or two typical cystatin domains, which shared the characteristic motifs of PhyCys. Eight selected genes displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues. Moreover, their transcript levels were also up-regulated significantly in leaves during maturation, senescence or in response to treatment with one or more abiotic stresses. Our results indicated that members of this family may function in tissue development, leaf senescence, and adaptation to adverse environments in apple. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and characterization of multiple F-box genes linked to the S9- and S10-RNase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuma; Moriya, Shigeki; Haji, Takashi; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Using 11 consensus primer pairs designed from S-linked F-box genes of apple and Japanese pear, 10 new F-box genes (MdFBX21 to 30) were isolated from the apple cultivar 'Spartan' (S(9)S(10)). MdFBX21 to 23 and MdFBX24 to 30 were completely linked to the S(9) -RNase and S(10-)RNase, respectively, and showed pollen-specific expression and S-haplotype-specific polymorphisms. Therefore, these 10 F-box genes are good candidates for the pollen determinant of self-incompatibility in apple. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of MdFBX21 to 30 with those of 25 S-linked F-box genes previously isolated from apple showed that a deduced amino acid identity of greater than 88.0 % can be used as the tentative criterion to classify F-box genes into one type. Using this criterion, 31 of 35 F-box genes of apple were classified into 11 types (SFBB1-11). All types included F-box genes derived from S(3-) and S(9-)haplotypes, and seven types included F-box genes derived from S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes. Moreover, comparison of nucleotide sequences of S-RNases and multiple F-box genes among S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes suggested that F-box genes within each type showed high nucleotide identity regardless of the identity of the S-RNase. The large number of F-box genes as candidates for the pollen determinant and the high degree of conservation within each type are consistent with the collaborative non-self-recognition model reported for Petunia. These findings support that the collaborative non-self-recognition system also exists in apple.

  12. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  13. Linkage map positions and allelic diversity of two Mal d 3 (non-specific lipid transfer protein) genes in the cultivated apple (Malus domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Schaart, J.G.; Meer, van der I.M.; Kodde, L.P.; Laimer, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) of Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apricot, cherry, plum and apple, represent major allergens for Mediterranean atopic populations. As a first step in elucidating the genetics of nsLTPs, we directed the research reported here towards identifying the

  14. Obtaining apple haploid plants (Malus X domestica Borkh.) from in situ parthenogenesis induced by irradiated pollen and in vitro culture of immature seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Lespinasse, Y.; Chevreau, E.

    1988-01-01

    Two apple varieties, ''Erovan'' and ''Lodi'', have been pollinated with pollen carrying the marker gene R irradiated by gamma rays from Cobalt 60 with doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 Gy. By in vitro cultures of the immature seeds removed 7 to 13 weeks after pollination, haploid plants (2n=x=17) have been obtained from ''Erovan'' [fr

  15. The knock-down of the expression of MdMLO19 reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) in apple (Malus domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, Stefano; Angeli, Dario; Martens, Stefan; Visser, Richard G.F.; Bai, Yuling; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Schouten, Henk J.; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Varieties resistant to powdery mildew (PM; caused by Podosphaera leucotricha) are a major component of sustainable apple production. Resistance can be achieved by knocking-out susceptibility S-genes to be singled out among members of the MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family. Candidates are MLO

  16. Silencing of flavanone-3-hydroxylase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) leads to accumulation of flavanones, but not to reduced fire blight susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Szankowski, Iris; Gosch, Christian; Stich, Karl; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic antisense flavanone-3-hydroxylase apple plants were produced to mimic the effect of the agrochemical prohexadione-Ca on apple leaves. This enzyme inhibitor for 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases is used as a growth retardant and for control of secondary fire blight of leaves. Like using the agent, silencing of flavanone-3-hydroxylase leads to an accumulation of flavanones in leaves, but in contrast not to the formation of 3-deoxyflavonoids. In prohexadione-Ca treated leaves the 3-deoxyflavonoid luteoforol is formed from accumulating flavanones, acting as an antimicrobial compound against the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Seemingly, the silencing of just one of the 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases (in apple also flavonol synthase and anthocyanidin synthase take part downstream in the pathway) does not provide a sufficiently high ratio of flavanones to dihydroflavonols. This seems to be needed to let the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase/flavanone-4-reductase enzyme reduce flavanones to luteoforol, and to let this be reduced by the leucoanthocyanidin-4-reductase/3-deoxyleucoanthocyanidin-4-reductase, each acting with their respective weak secondary activities. Accordingly, also the intended inducible resistance to fire blight by prohexadione-Ca is not observed with the antisense flavanone-3-hydroxylase apple plants. On the other hand, for most transgenic lines with strong flavanone-4-reductase down-regulation, up-regulation of gene expression for the other flavonoid genes was found. This provides further evidence for the feedback regulation of flavonoid gene expression having been previously reported for the prohexadione-Ca inhibited apple plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of TPS family members in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and the effect of sucrose sprays on TPS expression and floral induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lisha; Qi, Siyan; Ma, Juanjuan; Xing, Libo; Fan, Sheng; Zhang, Songwen; Li, Youmei; Shen, Yawen; Zhang, Dong; Han, Mingyu

    2017-11-01

    Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing disaccharide that serves as a carbon source and stress protectant in apple trees. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is the biosynthetic precursor of trehalose. It functions as a crucial signaling molecule involved in the regulation of floral induction, and is closely related to sucrose. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) family members are pivotal components of the T6P biosynthetic pathway. The present study identified 13 apple TPS family members and characterized their expression patterns in different tissues and in response to exogenous application of sucrose during floral induction. 'Fuji' apple trees were sprayed with sucrose prior to the onset of floral induction. Bud growth, flowering rate, and endogenous sugar levels were then monitored. The expression of genes associated with sucrose metabolism and flowering were also characterized by RT-quantitative PCR. Results revealed that sucrose applications significantly improved flower production and increased bud size and fresh weight, as well as the sucrose content in buds and leaves. Furthermore, the expression of MdTPS1, 2, 4, 10, and 11 was rapidly and significantly up-regulated in response to the sucrose treatments. In addition, the expression levels of flowering-related genes (e.g., SPL genes, FT1, and AP1) also increased in response to the sucrose sprays. In summary, apple TPS family members were identified that may influence the regulation of floral induction and other responses to sucrose. The relationship between sucrose and T6P or TPS during the regulation of floral induction in apple trees is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of halide salts on development of surface browning on fresh-cut 'Granny Smith' (Malus × domestica Borkh) apple slices during storage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Wills, Ron B H; Golding, John B; Huque, Roksana

    2015-03-30

    The postharvest life of fresh-cut apple slices is limited by browning on cut surfaces. Dipping in halide salt solutions was examined for their inhibition of surface browning on 'Granny Smith' apple slices and the effects on biochemical factors associated with browning. Delay in browning by salts was greatest with chloride = phosphate > sulfate > nitrate with no difference between sodium, potassium and calcium ions. The effectiveness of sodium halides on browning was fluoride > chloride = bromide > iodide = control. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of tissue extracted from chloride- and fluoride-treated slices was not different to control but when added into the assay solution, NaF > NaCl both showed lower PPO activity at pH 3-5 compared to control buffer. The level of polyphenols in treated slices was NaF > NaCl > control. Addition of chlorogenic acid to slices enhanced browning but NaCl and NaF counteracted this effect. There was no effect of either halide salt on respiration, ethylene production, ion leakage, and antioxidant activity. Dipping apple slices in NaCl is a low cost treatment with few impediments to commercial use and could be a replacement for other anti-browning additives. The mode of action of NaCl and NaF is through decreasing PPO activity resulting in reduced oxidation of polyphenols. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  20. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  1. Dissipation kinetics of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on apple (Malus domestica) and soil--a multi location study from north western Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, S K; Sharma, I D; Chandel, R S; Dubey, J K

    2013-08-01

    A new combinational fungicide formulation trifloxystrobin 25%+tebuconazole 50% (Nativo 75WG), introduced as a part of resistance management strategy, was studied for dissipation behaviour on apple fruits. Nativo 75WG was sprayed twice at the rate of 400 g and 800 g a.i. ha(-1) equal to trifloxystrobin application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1) and tebuconazole at application rate of 200 and 400 g a.i. ha(-1) at four different locations in the Northwest Himalayan region of India. The fruit samples collected at 10d interval and soil samples taken at harvest time were analyzed after second spray. The residual concentrations of trifloxystrobin, its acid metabolite CGA 321113 and tebuconazole were measured. Residues of both fungicides were determined by using gas chromatograph, Agilent 6890N having electron capture detector. The mean initial deposits of trifloxystrobin at four locations were found to be in the range of 0.333-0.387 mg kg(-1) and 0.512-0.714 mg kg(-1) at the application rate of 100 and 200 g a.i. ha(-1), and half-life were found between 19.38-24.93 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective doses. The Σ-trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole residues were below determination limit in 40 d apple fruits and soil samples. Initial deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below their Codex MRLs at the respective single doses. The half life value of the tebuconazole deposits ranged between 19.38-25.99 d and 19.84-28.86 d at the respective single and double dose. The study thus suggests 1d pre harvest interval for safe consumption of apple fruit after the application of Nativo 75 WG at single dose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  3. A novel feedstuff: ensiling of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) stover and apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) mixtures. Evaluation of the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ederson; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Silva, Valéria; Pinheiro, Victor; Rodrigues, Miguel; Ferreira, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Agro-industrial by-products are of low economic value as foods for human consumption but may have potential value as animal feedstuffs. This study evaluated a novel feedstuff, ensiled discarded apple (85%) and cowpea stover (15%) mixtures with two different ensiling periods (45 and 60 days), regarding the nutritive value, fermentation quality and aerobic stability. Generally, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed between ensiling periods for nutritive value and fermentation characteristics. Silages were stable after ensiling, presenting high lactic acid (77.3 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) and acetic acid (54.7 g kg -1 DM) and low ethanol (15.7 g kg -1 DM) and NH 3 -N (105.6 g kg -1 total N) concentrations. No butyric acid was detected in silages, and they were aerobically stable for up to 216 h. Lactic acid bacteria numbers were high at silo opening (7.14 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ), while Enterobacteriaceae were not detected and yeasts/moulds were low (2.44 log CFU g -1 ). Yeast/mould and Enterobacteriaceae numbers grew considerably during 12 days of air exposure. A mixture of low calibre discarded apples with cowpea stover can be used as animal feed after the ensiling process owing to its nutritive value and long aerobic stability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Using gamma irradiation for the improvement of MM106 and omara apple Malus domestica Borkh rootstocks to sodium chloride tolerance in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljibouri, A.A.M.; Abdel-Hussen, M.A.; Salman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro plant lets of MM106 and Omara apple rootstocks were irradiated with gamma ray doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 Gray). Shoot tips of irradiated plant lets with incremental doses were in vitro cultured on MS medium supplemented with different NaCl concentrations to study the effect of gamma rays and NaCl salt on shoot number, shoot length and rooting percentage. Results revealed that gamma rays treatment improved significantly the parameters investigated for both types of rootstocks, especially the doses of 15 and 20 Gy for MM106 and 25 Gy for Omara. On the other hand, salinity caused a significant reduction in all parameters measured with different trend between both types of rootstocks. The results also showed significant interaction between gamma rays doses and NaCl concentrations.

  5. The knock-down of the expression of MdMLO19 reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Stefano; Angeli, Dario; Martens, Stefan; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Schouten, Henk J; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-10-01

    Varieties resistant to powdery mildew (PM; caused by Podosphaera leucotricha) are a major component of sustainable apple production. Resistance can be achieved by knocking-out susceptibility S-genes to be singled out among members of the MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family. Candidates are MLO S-genes of phylogenetic clade V up-regulated upon PM inoculation, such as MdMLO11 and 19 (clade V) and MdMLO18 (clade VII). We report the knock-down through RNA interference of MdMLO11 and 19, as well as the complementation of resistance with MdMLO18 in the Arabidopsis thaliana triple mlo mutant Atmlo2/6/12. The knock-down of MdMLO19 reduced PM disease severity by 75%, whereas the knock-down of MdMLO11, alone or in combination with MdMLO19, did not result in any reduction or additional reduction of susceptibility compared with MdMLO19 alone. The test in A. thaliana excluded a role for MdMLO18 in PM susceptibility. Cell wall appositions (papillae) were present in both PM-resistant and PM-susceptible plants, but were larger in resistant lines. No obvious negative phenotype was observed in plants with mlo genes knocked down. Apparently, MdMLO19 plays the pivotal role in apple PM susceptibility and its knock-down induces a very significant level of resistance. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Characterization of the polyphenol composition of 20 cultivars of cider, processing, and dessert apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) grown in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Witrick, Katherine A; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hurley, E Kenneth; Peck, Gregory M; Stewart, Amanda C

    2014-10-15

    Polyphenols and maturity parameters were determined in 20 apple cultivars with potential for hard cider production grown in Virginia, U.S.A. Concentrations of five classes of polyphenols were significantly different across cultivar for both peel and flesh. Total polyphenol concentration ranged from 0.9 μg/g wwb in flesh of Newtown Pippin to 453 μg/g wwb in peel of Red Delicious. Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig cultivars contained the highest concentration of total flavan-3-ols in flesh, indicating potential to impart desired astringency and bitterness to cider under processing conditions where extraction of polyphenols from peel is minimal. These results can inform selection of fruit juice, extracts, and byproducts for investigations of bioactivity and bioavailability of polyphenols, and provide baseline data for horticultural and processing research supporting the growing hard cider industry in Virginia. Based on these data, cultivars Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig show high potential for cider production in Virginia.

  7. Insights into secondary growth in perennial plants: its unequal spatial and temporal dynamics in the apple (Malus domestica) is driven by architectural position and fruit load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, P E; Kelner, J J; Trottier, C; Costes, E

    2010-04-01

    Secondary growth is a main physiological sink. However, the hierarchy between the processes which compete with secondary growth is still a matter of debate, especially on fruit trees where fruit weight dramatically increases with time. It was hypothesized that tree architecture, here mediated by branch age, is likely to have a major effect on the dynamics of secondary growth within a growing season. Three variables were monitored on 6-year-old 'Golden Delicious' apple trees from flowering time to harvest: primary shoot growth, fruit volume, and cross-section area of branch portions of consecutive ages. Analyses were done through an ANOVA-type analysis in a linear mixed model framework. Secondary growth exhibited three consecutive phases characterized by unequal relative area increment over the season. The age of the branch had the strongest effect, with the highest and lowest relative area increment for the current-year shoots and the trunk, respectively. The growth phase had a lower effect, with a shift of secondary growth through the season from leafy shoots towards older branch portions. Eventually, fruit load had an effect on secondary growth mainly after primary growth had ceased. The results support the idea that relationships between production of photosynthates and allocation depend on both primary growth and branch architectural position. Fruit load mainly interacted with secondary growth later in the season, especially on old branch portions.

  8. Cryopreservation of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple (Malus sp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. Over the last three decades, great...

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the apple (Malus domestica) HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase family and expression analysis of their responsiveness to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianing; Xing, Shanshan; Cui, Haoran; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) directly participate in ubiquitin (Ub) transferring to the target proteins in the ubiquitination pathway. The HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase (UPL), one type of E3s, is characterized as containing a conserved HECT domain of approximately 350 amino acids in the C terminus. Some UPLs were found to be involved in trichome development and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. However, studies on plant UPLs, such as characteristics of the protein structure, predicted functional motifs of the HECT domain, and the regulatory expression of UPLs have all been limited. Here, we present genome-wide identification of the genes encoding UPLs (HECT gene) in apple. The 13 genes (named as MdUPL1-MdUPL13) from ten different chromosomes were divided into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. Among these groups, the encoding genes in the intron-exon structure and the included additional functional domains were quite different. Notably, the F-box domain was first found in MdUPL7 in plant UPLs. The HECT domain in different MdUPL groups also presented different spatial features and three types of conservative motifs were identified. The promoters of each MdUPL member carried multiple stress-response related elements by cis-acting element analysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the expressions of several MdUPLs were quite sensitive to cold-, drought-, and salt-stresses by qRT-PCR assay. The results of this study helped to elucidate the functions of HECT proteins, especially in Rosaceae plants.

  10. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  11. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  12. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of MAPK and MAPKK gene family in Malus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Xu, Ruirui; Luo, Xiaocui; Jiang, Zesheng; Shu, Huairui

    2013-12-01

    MAPK signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants, which are composed of three classes of hierarchically organized protein kinases, namely MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about MAPK and MAPKK genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, a total of 26 putative apple MAPK genes (MdMPKs) and 9 putative apple MAPKK genes (MdMKKs) have been identified and located within the apple genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MdMAPKs and MdMAPKKs could be divided into 4 subfamilies (groups A, B, C and D), respectively. The predicted MdMAPKs and MdMAPKKs were distributed across 13 out of 17 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, analysis of exon-intron junctions and of intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. According to the microarray and expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis, the different expression patterns indicate that they may play different roles during fruit development and rootstock-scion interaction process. Moreover, MAPK and MAPKK genes were performed expression profile analyses in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit), and all of the selected genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, indicating that the MAPKs and MAPKKs are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes of apple. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the apple MAPK and MAPKK gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the MAPK signal in apple. © 2013.

  13. A genome-wide expression profile of salt-responsive genes in the apple rootstock Malus zumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingtian; Liu, Jia; Tan, Dunxian; Allan, Andrew C; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai; Kong, Jin

    2013-10-18

    In some areas of cultivation, a lack of salt tolerance severely affects plant productivity. Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., is sensitive to salt, and, as a perennial woody plant the mechanism of salt stress adaption will be different from that of annual herbal model plants, such as Arabidopsis. Malus zumi is a salt tolerant apple rootstock, which survives high salinity (up to 0.6% NaCl). To examine the mechanism underlying this tolerance, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed, using a cDNA library constructed from salt-treated seedlings of Malus zumi. A total of 15,000 cDNA clones were selected for microarray analysis. In total a group of 576 cDNAs, of which expression changed more than four-fold, were sequenced and 18 genes were selected to verify their expression pattern under salt stress by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our genome-wide expression analysis resulted in the isolation of 50 novel Malus genes and the elucidation of a new apple-specific mechanism of salt tolerance, including the stabilization of photosynthesis under stress, involvement of phenolic compounds, and sorbitol in ROS scavenging and osmoprotection. The promoter regions of 111 genes were analyzed by PlantCARE, suggesting an intensive cross-talking of abiotic stress in Malus zumi. An interaction network of salt responsive genes was constructed and molecular regulatory pathways of apple were deduced. Our research will contribute to gene function analysis and further the understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms in fruit trees.

  14. Avaliação de diferentes métodos de sobre-enxertia na substituição da cultivar de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh. Gala por Princesa = Evaluation of different over-grafting techniques to replace 'Gala' for 'Princesa' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Simões

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados quatro métodos de enxertia: garfagem em inglês complicado (GIC; borbulhia lenhosa (BL; garfagem de topo (GT e garfagem meia-fenda esvaziada (GMFE, com o objetivo de avaliar o melhor método para execução da sobre-enxertia na substituição da cultivar de macieira Gala por Princesa. O experimento foi conduzido em São José dos Pinhais – PR, em seis macieiras localizadas em pomar com três anos de idade. As características avaliadas foram: porcentagem de pegamento dos enxertos, porcentagem de enxertos brotados, porcentagem de enxertos dormentes e porcentagem de enxertos mortos. O experimento foi finalizado após 62 dias da instalação. Após esse período conclui-se que a GIC apresentou maiores porcentagens de pegamento e brotação. Esta não se diferenciou da GT em relação à variável pegamento. A BL não é recomendada para a sobre-enxertia em macieiras.Four grafting methods were compared: whip graft, budding graft, cleft graft and the side graft, aiming at evaluating the best techniqueto replace ‘Gala’ for ‘Princesa’ apple trees. The experiment was held in São José dos Pinhais – PR in a 3-year old apple tree yard fruit. Six apple trees were selected for the experiment. The assessed characteristics were carried out by the percentage of grafting success (sprouted, sleeping grafts (no sprouts and dead ones. The experiment was concluded after 62 days of grafting. Results indicated that the budding graft showed to be more effective with a higher index of sprouting. This technique showed no difference concerning the sprouting percentage compared to the whip graft. The budding graft is not recommended to over–graft apple trees.

  15. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...

  17. Effect ofthydiazuron and choline chloride bioregulators on yield and fruit quality ofthree apple (Malus domestica Borkh. varieties Efecto de Thidiazuron y cloruro de colina como biorreguladores sobre el rendimiento y la calidad del fruto en tres variedades de manzano (Malus domestica borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benincore Mauricio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve yield and quality of Colombian apple fruits, Thydiazuron (TDZ and Choline Chloride (CC biorregulators were evaluated as supposed stimulants of growth and development of 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' varieties in the «La Calera» zone (2650 masl. 50, lOOand 150 mg-L:' of TDZ were sprayed between 30 and 45 days after blooming (dab and 500, 1000 and 1500 mg-L-' of CC 118 dab, using a completely randomized design for 'Princesa' and 'Golden Delicious' and a completely randomized
    block design for 'Gala'. TDZ showed chemical thinning and
    cytokinine activity, decreasing the number and acidity of harvested fruits, but increased mean fruit weight, In 'Gala', TDZ increased the harvested fruit number per tree; with 150 mg-L:' fruit color increased while soluble solids (SS concentration declined. On the other side, in 'Gala' apples, CC applications decreased fruit number per tree and showed higher mean weights, volume and SS content of fruits, especially with 500 mg-L:'. In 'Golden Delicious' CC produced oblong fruits with higher SS content and lower flesh firrnness.
    Con el fin de mejorar rendimiento y calidad del fruto de la manzana nacional, se evaluaron los biorreguladores Thidiazuron (TDZ y Cloruro de Colina (CC como supuestos estimuladores del crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto en las variedades 'Princesa', 'Golden Delicious' y 'Gala' en la zona de «La Calera» (2650 msnm. Para tal fin, se aplicaron 50, 100 y 150 mg-L" de TDZ entre los 30 y 45 días después de floración (ddt y 500, 1000 y 1500 mg-L-' de CC 118 ddf,
    bajo diseño completamente aleatorizado para 'Princesa' y 'Golden Delicious' y bloque completos al azar para 'Gala'. Thidiazuron actuó como agente químico raleante y como citoquinina, disminuyendo en 'Golden Delicious' el número de frutos cosechados y la acidez, pero aumentando el peso promedio del fruto. En 'Gala', TDZ aumentó el número de frutos por árbol, a 150 mg-L-' aumentó la

  18. A PR-4 gene identified from Malus domestica is involved in the defense responses against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Li, Baohua; Dai, Hongyi

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein-4 (PR-4) family is a group of proteins with a Barwin domain in C-terminus and generally thought to be involved in plant defense responses. However, their detailed roles are poorly understood in defense of apple plant against pathogenic infection. In the present study, a new PR-4 gene (designated as MdPR-4) was identified from Malus domestica, and its roles in defense responses of apple were investigated. The open reading frame of MdPR-4 gene is of 447 bp encoding a protein of 148 amino acids with a Barwin domain in C-terminus and a signal peptide of 26 amino acids in N-terminus. Sequence and structural analysis indicated that MdPR-4 protein belongs to class II of PR-4 family. The high-level expression of MdPR-4 was observed in flowers and leaves as revealed by quantitative real time PCR. The temporal expression analysis demonstrated that MdPR-4 expression could be up-regulated by Botryosphaeria dothidea infection and salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, but suppressed by diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA). In vitro assays, recombinant MdPR-4 protein exhibited ribonuclease activity specific for single strand RNA and significant inhibition to hyphal growth of three apple pathogenic fungi B. dothidea, Valsa ceratosperma and Glomerella cingulata. Moreover, the inhibition was reduced by the presence of 5'-ADP. Taken all together, the results indicate that MdPR-4 protein is involved in the defense responses of apple against pathogenic attack by directly inhibiting hyphal growth, and the inhibition is correlated with its ribonuclease activity, where as MdPR-4 expression is regulated by both SA and JA signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, s...

  20. Boron toxicity causes multiple effects on Malus domestica pollen tube growth

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    Kefeng eFang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this stress is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron stress on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results show that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron stress could decrease [Ca2+]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca2+]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron stress. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR, suggested that boron stress influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca2+]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  1. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  2. Identification, genealogical structure and population genetics of S-alleles in Malus sieversii, the wild ancestor of domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Cai, Z; Liu, W; Ge, S; Tang, L

    2017-09-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris. We further sequenced 8 nuclear genes to provide a neutral reference, and investigated the evolution of S-alleles via genealogical and population genetic analyses. Both shared ancestral polymorphism and an excess of non-synonymous substitution were detected in the S-RNases of the tribe Maleae in Rosaceae, indicating the action of long-term balancing selection. Approximate Bayesian Computations based on the reference neutral loci revealed a severe bottleneck in four of the six studied M. sieversii populations, suggesting that the low number of S-alleles found in this species is mainly the result of diversity loss due to a drastic population contraction. Such a bottleneck may lead to ambiguous footprints of ongoing balancing selection detected at the S-locus. This study not only elucidates the constituents and number of S-alleles in M. sieversii but also illustrates the potential utility of S-allele number shifts in demographic inference for self-incompatible plant species.

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of low-temperature fractioning products of Malus domestica Borkh (common Antonovka

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    Elena Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has been performed. We obtained by fractionation the biologically active products that are the dehydrated concentrate of juice and the powder of pomace fibers. Use of low temperature minimizes biological value losses during processing. These fractions of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka are experimentally studied. It is found that the fractions have high antioxidant activity and include bioflavonoids and organic and phenol carboxylic acids. Analysis of chromatograms showed availability of the identical compounds in the products of low-temperature fractionation. Sodium and potassium are part of the cells of biological systems as highly mobile ionic forms. Therefore, these elements prevail in the concentrated juice. Iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are biogenic trace elements or components of enzyme systems and are evenly distributed as in plant cell walls as well in protoplasm. It follows from the results of the study of the mineral composition that the products of the low-temperature fractioning can be used for a functional food as a result of its high content of magnesium and iron. The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has antimicrobial activity against the standard strains of spoilage: Bacillus subtilis VKM-B-501, Micrococcus luteus VKM-As-2230, Aspergillus flavus VKM-F-1024, Penicillium expansion VKM-F-275, Mucor mucedo VKM- F-1257, Rhizopus stolonifer VKM- F-2005. Experimental data show that the products of low-temperature fractioning of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka inhibit microorganism's growth. The detected composition of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka fractions allows using these products as natural additives in food technology to maintain and increase period of storage and also for preventive nutrition.

  4. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Fengli; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Fengwang; Li, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of "Gala" apple. Genes for sugar alcohol [including 17 sorbitol transporters (SOTs)], sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs). Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  5. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eWei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of ‘Gala’ apple. Genes for sugar alcohol (including 17 sorbitol transporters, sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  6. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Dardick, Chris D; Beers, Eric P; Callanhan, Ann M; Xia, Rui; Yuan, Rongcai

    2011-10-17

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ), sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII) efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible regulatory genes involved in the induction of young fruit

  7. A gene expression analysis of cell wall biosynthetic genes in Malus × domestica infected by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Giorno, Filomena; Ciccotti, Anna Maria; Schmidt, Silvia; Baric, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Apple proliferation (AP) represents a serious threat to several fruit-growing areas and is responsible for great economic losses. Several studies have highlighted the key role played by the cell wall in response to pathogen attack. The existence of a cell wall integrity signaling pathway which senses perturbations in the cell wall architecture upon abiotic/biotic stresses and activates specific defence responses has been widely demonstrated in plants. More recently a role played by cell wall-related genes has also been reported in plants infected by phytoplasmas. With the aim of shedding light on the cell wall response to AP disease in the economically relevant fruit-tree Malus × domestica Borkh., we investigated the expression of the cellulose (CesA) and callose synthase (CalS) genes in different organs (i.e., leaves, roots and branch phloem) of healthy and infected symptomatic outdoor-grown trees, sampled over the course of two time points (i.e., spring and autumn 2011), as well as in in vitro micropropagated control and infected plantlets. A strong up-regulation in the expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes was recorded in roots from infected trees. Secondary cell wall CesAs showed up-regulation in the phloem tissue from branches of infected plants, while either a down-regulation of some genes or no major changes were observed in the leaves. Micropropagated plantlets also showed an increase in cell wall-related genes and constitute a useful system for a general assessment of gene expression analysis upon phytoplasma infection. Finally, we also report the presence of several ‘knot’-like structures along the roots of infected apple trees and discuss the occurrence of this interesting phenotype in relation to the gene expression results and the modalities of phytoplasma diffusion. PMID:23086810

  8. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as euca...

  9. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  10. Tissue location of resistance in apple to the rosy apple aphid established by electrical penetration graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, E.; Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Chicca, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Pasqualini, E.; Baroni, P.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the constitutive resistance of the apple cultivar Florina, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera Aphididae), was performed for the first time by the electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system, using the susceptible apple

  11. Delta 13C predicts water deficit sensitivity in Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. from a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern apples [Malus x domestica (Borkh.)] are thought to have originated in western China from the progenitor species, Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. Due to many generations of selection for traits associated with high fruit quality, our current breeding germplasm has become dangerously narrow....

  12. Effect of irradiance and spectral composition of radiation on in vitro shoot proliferation in Malus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noè, N.; Eccher, T.; Bonini, L.

    1997-01-01

    Four clones of Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious - namely Smoothee, Crielaard, Reinders and Golden B - were cultured in vitro from single-node microcuttings placed on solid medium under irradiance (PPFD) of 50 micromol m -2 s -1 . After 9 months an average shoot proliferation of 5.3 was achieved; Crielaard showed the highest rate (7.1), followed Golden B (5.4), Smoothee and Reinders (4.4). Proliferating shoots were then exposed to higher PPFD (80 micromol m -2 s -1 ) and different spectral composition of radiation using PMMA-B and PMMA-R/FR filters. High PPFD decreased the average proliferation rate to 4.5, in particular in Crielaard and Golden B, while it increased proliferation in Reinders. When a PMMA-R/FR filter was interposed, the mean proliferation rate slightly increased. PMMA-B filters decreased the overall proliferation rate to 3.0; only in Crielaard it was increased, but shoots were very small. Thus PPFD and spectral composition influenced in vitro shoot proliferation and growth and the responses were different among the clones. (author)

  13. Future bloom and blossom frost risk for Malus domestica considering climate model and impact model uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Rath, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The future bloom and risk of blossom frosts for Malus domestica were projected using regional climate realizations and phenological ( = impact) models. As climate impact projections are susceptible to uncertainties of climate and impact models and model concatenation, the significant horizon of the climate impact signal was analyzed by applying 7 impact models, including two new developments, on 13 climate realizations of the IPCC emission scenario A1B. Advancement of phenophases and a decrease in blossom frost risk for Lower Saxony (Germany) for early and late ripeners was determined by six out of seven phenological models. Single model/single grid point time series of bloom showed significant trends by 2021-2050 compared to 1971-2000, whereas the joint signal of all climate and impact models did not stabilize until 2043. Regarding blossom frost risk, joint projection variability exceeded the projected signal. Thus, blossom frost risk cannot be stated to be lower by the end of the 21st century despite a negative trend. As a consequence it is however unlikely to increase. Uncertainty of temperature, blooming date and blossom frost risk projection reached a minimum at 2078-2087. The projected phenophases advanced by 5.5 d K(-1), showing partial compensation of delayed fulfillment of the winter chill requirement and faster completion of the following forcing phase in spring. Finally, phenological model performance was improved by considering the length of day.

  14. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  15. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  16. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol.
    Apple

  17. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  18. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as natural antioxidant agents. So in this study, the effect of thyme, coriander and rosemary essential oils were evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase activity in apples (Malus domestica Mill. cv Golden delicious), (M. domestica Mill.

  19. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same conditions... apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to protect against the...

  20. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  1. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled

  2. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  3. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that gro...

  4. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  5. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. First report of Sphaeropsis rot of apple caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2012, decayed ‘Empire’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were sampled from apples stored in bins for 6 months under controlled atmosphere at a commercial packinghouse in Orleans County in New York State. The fruit were completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown. The incidence o...

  7. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitory potential of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-02-01

    The involvement of sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) has been described in the pathophysiology of diseases including ischemic heart and brain diseases, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, epilepsy, dementia, and neuropathic pain. Synthetic NHE inhibitors have not achieved much clinical success; therefore, plant-derived phytoconstituents may be explored as NHE inhibitors. In the present study, the NHE inhibitory potential of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal fractions of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale was evaluated. The different concentrations of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for their NHE inhibitory activity in the platelets using the optical swelling assay. Among the hydroalcoholic extracts, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by M. domestica (IC50=2.350 ± 0.132 μg/mL) followed by Musa × paradisiaca (IC50=7.967 ± 0.451 μg/mL), D. carota (IC50=37.667 ± 2.517 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=249.330 ± 1.155 μg/mL). Among the alkaloidal fractions, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by the alkaloidal fraction of Musa × paradisiacal (IC50=0.010 ± 0.001 μg/mL) followed by D. carota (IC50=0.024 ± 0.002 μg/mL), M. domestica (IC50=0.031 ± 0.005 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=4.233 ± 0.379 μg/mL). The IC50 of alkaloidal fractions was comparable to the IC50 of synthetic NHE inhibitor, EIPA [5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride] (IC50=0.033 ± 0.004 μg/mL). It may be concluded that the alkaloidal fractions of these plants possess potent NHE inhibitory activity and may be exploited for their therapeutic potential in NHE activation-related pathological complications.

  8. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005.

  9. Differences in acidity of apples are probably mainly caused by a malic acid transporter gene on LG16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Beekwilder, J.; Schaart, J.G.; Mumm, R.; Soriano, J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Acidity has profound effects on the taste of apples (Malus × domestica). Malic acid is the predominant organic acid in apples. Differences in malic acid content are caused by differences in accumulation of malic acid in the vacuole. This accumulation may be caused by a gene that is responsible for

  10. Towards the onset of fruit tree growing north of the Alps: ancient DNA from waterlogged apple (Malus sp.) seed fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumbaum, Angela; van Glabeke, Sabine; Roldan-Ruiz, Isabel

    2012-01-20

    Wild apples (Malus sp.) have been a major food source in the northern Alpine region since prehistory and their use is well understood. The onset of deliberate fruit tree growing in the area is, however, less clear. It is generally assumed that horticulture was practised in Roman times, but it might be even earlier. In the archaeological record seed testa and pericarp remains are particularly frequent at sites with waterlogged preservation such as lakeshore settlements or wells, pits and ditches, but the distinction between wild and domestic plants is not morphologically possible. With waterlogged remains being one main source of information about past fruit cultivation, we have tested the feasibility of analysing ancient DNA from waterlogged preserved bulk samples of testa fragments. We studied apple seeds from three Neolithic and three Roman sites with waterlogged preservation in the Alpine foreland. Chloroplast markers failed in all samples, but nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer region 1) of the ribosomal DNA was successfully typed in two Roman samples from the site Oedenburg/Biesheim-Kunheim (Haut-Rhin, F). The retrieved ITS1 sequences are identical to each other and are shared with wild Malus sylvestris and Malus sieversii, and with domestic apple cultivars, supporting the potential of using waterlogged remains for identifying the genetic status of apple diachronically. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Involvement of Auxin and Brassinosteroid in Dwarfism of Autotetraploid Apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Xue, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Ou, Chunqing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-05-24

    The plant height is an important trait in fruit tree. However, the molecular mechanism on dwarfism is still poorly understood. We found that colchicine-induced autotetraploid apple plants (Malus × domestica) exhibited a dwarf phenotype. The vertical length of cortical parenchyma cells was shorter in autotetraploids than in diploids, by observing paraffin sections. Hormone levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroid (BR) were significantly decreased in 3- and 5-year-old autotetraploid plants. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in IAA and BR pathways. microRNA390 was significantly upregulated according to microarray analysis. Exogenous application of IAA and BR promoted stem elongation of both apple plants grown in medium. The results show that dwarfing in autotetraploid apple plants is most likely regulated by IAA and BR. The dwarf phenotype of autotetraploid apple plants could be due to accumulation of miR390 after genome doubling, leading to upregulation of apple trans-acting short-interfering RNA 3 (MdTAS3) expression, which in turn downregulates the expression of MdARF3. Overall, this leads to partial interruption of the IAA and BR signal transduction pathway. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dwarfism in autopolyploid apple plants.

  12. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  13. An atypical R2R3 MYB transcription factor increases cold hardiness by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways in apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yinpeng; Chen, Pengxiang; Yan, Yan; Bao, Chana; Li, Xuewei; Wang, Liping; Shen, Xiaoxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaofang; Niu, Chundong; Zhu, Chen; Fang, Nan; Shao, Yun; Zhao, Tao; Yu, Jiantao; Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Lingfei; Nocker, van Steven; Ma, Fengwang; Guan, Qingmei

    2018-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) trees are vulnerable to freezing temperatures. However, there has been only limited success in developing cold-hardy cultivars. This lack of progress is due at least partly to lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms of freezing tolerance in apple. In this study,

  14. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  15. The Effect of Ozone Oxydans in Plastic of Polyethylene used for The Storage of Apple Manalagi (malus Sylvestris M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isyuniarto; Agus-Purwadi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ozone oxydans in plastic of polyethylene used for the storage of apple Manalagi (malus sylvestris M) have been done. Firstly, apple selected according to form and size then packed into storage of plastic polyethylene 3 and 5 mm in thickness and ozonization process is done from 0, 20, 40 and 60 seconds. The sample is monitored every 7, 14 and 21 days. Parameter perceived is texture of fruit, colour, smell and panelist option to this research. The result is thickly of plastic 3 mm and ozonization time 60 seconds. (author)

  16. Genes and quality trait loci (QTLs) associated with firmness in Malus x domestica

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-03-31

    Fruit firmness, a quality quantitative trait, has long been established as a key textural property and one of the essential parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life of apples. Loss of firmness, also referred to as fruit softening, is undesirable in apples and represents a serious problem for growers in many countries. This results in the reduction of apple shelf life and in turn influences its commercialization. Low firmness impacts negatively on the sensory values of juiciness, crunchiness and crispness. Fruit firmness is affected by the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci and their possible interactions with the environment. Identification of these loci is key for the determination of genetic candidate markers that can be implemented in marker assisted selection and breeding for trees and/or cultivars that can yield firmer fruits with economic value. In turn, this technique can help reduce the time needed to evaluate plants and new cultivars could become available faster. This review provides an overview of quantitative trait loci (QTL), including additional putative QTLs that we have identified, and genes associated with firmness and their importance to biotechnology, the breeding industry and eventually the consumers.

  17. Description et modélisation de la croissance et du développement du pommier (Malus x domestica Borkh. I. Structure la plus probable de l'arbre jeune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planchon V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Description and modelisation of growth and development of appletree (Malus x domestica Borkh.. I. Most probable structure of young tree. Based on the observation of all or, at least, a large number of shoots growing on unpruned apple trees, cv. Cox's Orange Pippin and Jonagold grafted on EM9, an original codification system has been conceived. It allows to locate and identify quickly and unequivocally any shoot or growth. From a comprehensive collection of such codified observations, the most probable structure of young one to five year old trees has been established, with the amount and characters of the different observed shoot types. Both varieties display very similar gross structures, despite minor differences in form, flowering mode and productivity. The development of the trees occurs in two phases. The first one builds up a frame composed by the trunk and several storied sets of branches. Flowering is rather strictly alternate during this phase. The second one consists in the reinforcement of the branches by axillary growth, but even more by sympodial branching due to increasing and repeated terminal flowering. This basic structure provides a reference to appreciate changes in tree development brought about by rootstock, fruit load or training practices.

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Appl’In® polyphenolic apple extract powder (Malus domestica)” and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Diana Naturals pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “Appl....... The Panel considers that reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (as long as post-prandial insulinaemic responses are not disproportionally increased) may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided one published and two unpublished human studies, three animal studies and two...... in vitro studies as pertinent to the claim. The Panel notes that the food used in one human study did not comply with the specifications of the food which is the subject of the claim and considers that no conclusion can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. In two other...

  19. Characterization of the MLO gene family in Rosaceae and gene expression analysis in Malus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Stefano; Pavan, Stefano; Catalano, Domenico; Gallotta, Alessandra; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Malnoy, Mickael; Schouten, Henk J

    2014-07-22

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a major fungal disease of thousands of plant species, including many cultivated Rosaceae. PM pathogenesis is associated with up-regulation of MLO genes during early stages of infection, causing down-regulation of plant defense pathways. Specific members of the MLO gene family act as PM-susceptibility genes, as their loss-of-function mutations grant durable and broad-spectrum resistance. We carried out a genome-wide characterization of the MLO gene family in apple, peach and strawberry, and we isolated apricot MLO homologs through a PCR-approach. Evolutionary relationships between MLO homologs were studied and syntenic blocks constructed. Homologs that are candidates for being PM susceptibility genes were inferred by phylogenetic relationships with functionally characterized MLO genes and, in apple, by monitoring their expression following inoculation with the PM causal pathogen Podosphaera leucotricha. Genomic tools available for Rosaceae were exploited in order to characterize the MLO gene family. Candidate MLO susceptibility genes were identified. In follow-up studies it can be investigated whether silencing or a loss-of-function mutations in one or more of these candidate genes leads to PM resistance.

  20. Development of a protocol that allows safe consumption of the hypoallergenic apple cultivar Santana

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, van der, M.P.; Schenk, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivar Santana was shown to have a low allergenicity in a previously reported clinical trial. A protocol was developed to validate these results outside a clinical setting and to market the Santana as a hypoallergenic apple for large-scale consumption. This protocol was designed to ensure safe consumption of the Santana by consumers suffering from apple allergy. We tested the protocol in a pilot in 100 supermarket stores and evaluated in an internet-based survey...

  1. Identification and cloning of an NADPH-dependent hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase involved in dihydrochalcone formation in Malus×domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibdah, Mwafaq; Berim, Anna; Martens, Stefan; Valderrama, Andrea Lorena Herrera; Palmieri, Luisa; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Gang, David R

    2014-11-01

    The apple tree (Malus sp.) is an agriculturally and economically important source of food and beverages. Many of the health beneficial properties of apples are due to (poly)phenolic metabolites that they contain, including various dihydrochalcones. Although many of the genes and enzymes involved in polyphenol biosynthesis are known in many plant species, the specific reactions that lead to the biosynthesis of the dihydrochalcone precursor, p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA (3), are unknown. To identify genes involved in the synthesis of these metabolites, existing genome databases of the Rosaceae were screened for apple genes with significant sequence similarity to Arabidopsis alkenal double bond reductases. Herein described are the isolation and characterization of a Malus hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase, which catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of p-coumaroyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA to p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA and dihydroferuloyl-CoA, respectively. Its apparent Km values for p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and NADPH were 96.6, 92.9 and 101.3μM, respectively. The Malus double bond reductase preferred feruloyl-CoA to p-coumaroyl-CoA as a substrate by a factor of 2.1 when comparing catalytic efficiencies in vitro. Expression analysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase gene revealed that its transcript levels showed significant variation in tissues of different developmental stages, but was expressed when expected for involvement in dihydrochalcone formation. Thus, the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA double bond reductase appears to be responsible for the reduction of the α,β-unsaturated double bond of p-coumaroyl-CoA, the first step of dihydrochalcone biosynthesis in apple tissues, and may be involved in the production of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of root application of 6-benzylamine purine on auxin transport in Malus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutte, G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of 6-benzylamine purine (BA) on movement of napthalene acetic acid (NAA) applied to the shoot was investigated. Three-month-old York apple seedlings in sand culture were placed under mercury halide lamps (285 μmol m -2 s -1 ) at 22 0 C for 24 hours; then 13.8, 27.5 or 55 μMol of BA was applied as a soil drench. [ 14 C]-NAA was injected into the shoot at petiole base of 4th mature leaf. After 24 hours plants were harvested and movement of label acropetally to new shoot growth and basipetally to old shoot growth or roots determined. Seventeen (S.E. 3.3) percent of applied label was recovered away from application site. In controls, 67% of 14 C that moved was recovered from new shoot growth, 9% in roots and 24% in old shoot tissue. The 13.8 μMol treatment resulted in 37% of label being recovered in root tissue and 48% in new growth. The 27.5 and 55 μMol applications increased the amount recovered in old shoot tissue but did not increase labelling of root tissues

  3. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus?domestica Borkh.) is one of the world?s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted a...

  5. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F.; Peck, Gregory M.; O'Keefe, Sean F.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest f...

  6. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Buts, Kim; Hatoum, Darwish; Ho, Quang Tri; Johnston, Jason W; Watkins, Christopher B; Schaffer, Robert J; Gapper, Nigel E; Giovannoni, Jim J; Rudell, David R; Hertog, Maarten LATM; Nicolai, Bart M

    2014-01-01

    Background Postharvest ripening of apple (Malus x domestica) can be slowed down by low temperatures, and a combination of low O2 and high CO2 levels. While this maintains the quality of most fruit, occasionally storage disorders such as flesh browning can occur. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with a flesh browning disorder related to controlled atmosphere storage using RNA-sequencing techniques. Samples from a browning-susceptible cultivar (‘Braeburn...

  7. Ionic gelation of low-esterification degree pectins from immature thinned apples

    OpenAIRE

    Rascón-Chu, Agustín; Martínez-López, Ana-Luisa; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Martínez-Robinson, Karla G.; Campa-Mada, Alma C.

    2016-01-01

    Fruit thinning is a regular practice in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) orchards to increase fruit size and to promote blooming. This practice generates immature, small (10 to 40 mm diameter) fruits, which are occasionally used as cattle feed. The use of thinned apples for pectin extraction could increase orchards profitability and promote development of new transformation processes. Pectin is a polysaccharide located on the cell wall of plant tissues. Commercial pectins are extracted from d...

  8. [Evaluation of Molecular Genetic Diversity of Wild Apple Malus sieversii Populations from Zailiysky Alatau by Microsatellite Markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasheva, M E; Chekalin, S V; Galiakparov, N N

    2015-07-01

    The territory of Kazakhstan is part of the distribution range of Malus sieversii, which is one of the ancestors of cultivated apple tree varieties. The collected samples of Sievers apple leaves from five populations growing in the Zailiysky Alatau region served as a source not only for the creation of a bank of genomic DNA but also for determination ofthe wild apple genetic polymorphism. The seven microsatellite markers used in this study revealed 86 alleles with different frequencies, as well as the characteristic pools of rare alleles for each of the populations. Molecular genetic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.704; PIC = 0.752; I = 1.617). Moreover, interpopulation variability accounted only for 7.5% of total variability, confirming the genetic closeness of the populations examined. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was demonstrated that the Bel'bulak and Almaty Reserve populations were closest to each other, while the most distant were the Ketmen and Great Almaty gorge populations, which suggests the dependence of genetic distance on the geographical.

  9. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  10. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A; Giraud, T; Bellard, C; Tellier, A; Le Cam, B; Smulders, M J M; Kleinschmit, J; Roldan-Ruiz, I; Gladieux, P

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination of genetic data and ecological niche models to investigate the historical patterns of biogeographic range expansion of a wild fruit tree, the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple. Both climatic predictions for the last glacial maximum and analyses of microsatellite variation indicated that M. sylvestris experienced range contraction and fragmentation. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed a clear pattern of genetic structure, with one genetic cluster spanning a large area in Western Europe and two other genetic clusters with a more limited distribution range in Eastern Europe, one around the Carpathian Mountains and the other restricted to the Balkan Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian computation appeared to be a powerful technique for inferring the history of these clusters, supporting a scenario of simultaneous differentiation of three separate glacial refugia. Admixture between these three populations was found in their suture zones. A weak isolation by distance pattern was detected within each population, indicating a high extent of historical gene flow for the European crabapple. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Pemanfaatan buah apel (Malus sylvestris Mill. lewat matang sebagai substrat nata de apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Gazali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malang and Batu are territories for the apel production in Indonesia. overripe and rejected apples become trash only. So, it’s needed to make a solution for raising value. The reseach was conducted in Mei-Juli 2016, having an object to utilize the overripe apel for making substrates of nata de apple. Apples were gotten from malang apple shop. Samples were washed and mixed with water until 50%:50% of ratio (cider A, after that, filtering cider with a gause. Cider was deluted by watering again until achieving 75%:25% (cider B and 87,5%:12,5% (cider C of ratio. All ciders were heated to avoid a bacteria contaminant. 100ml each of cider is put into specific bottles and added with 10-20 ml of Gluconobacter xylinus. The ciders were incubated at room temperature. The result of this study showed that the growth of nata de apple on cider A (1.27 ± 0,9cm is thicker than B (1.27 ± 0,9cm and nata on cider B was thicker than C (0.13 ± 0,1 cm. The nata weight was 66.7gr for A, 43gr for B and 4.2gr for C. The residual liquid fermentation test showed that the total acid 0.4 mg/ml for A, 0.3 mg/ml for B and 0.1 mg/ml for C. The sugar reduction degree was 17,15 mg/ml of 32.4 mg/ml for A, 8 mg/ml of 26.4 mg/ml for B, and no sugar reduction of 6.3 mg/ml for C. It could be concluded that the cider A resulting the best subrate of nata de apple..

  12. Harvest Date Influences Superficial Scald Development in Granny Smith Apples During Long Term Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Mustafa; PEKMEZCİ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of harvest dates on superficial scald development and postharvest quality in 'Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were investigated. Apples were harvested at 15-day intervals during 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) and stored at 0 °C with 90% relative humidity for 8 months. At the end of the 8 - month storage period plus an additional 1 week at 20 °C the percentage of superficial scald was lower (24.4%) in late harvested (November 15) apples than in ap...

  13. Fractional composition of water in leaves of apple varieties (Malus Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Галашева

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In connection to the climate changing and draught frequency increasing in the spring-summer period the fractional composition of water (combined and uncombined water in leaves of apple from May to August 2011, 2012 were studies. Combined and uncombined waters have different functionality for the life of plants. An uncombined water in leaves determines intensity of physiologic processes while the combined is responsible for plants resistance to unfavorable conditions. The fractional composition of water was studied in apple leaves of varieties bred by All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding of RAAS, Bolotovskoye, Irmus, Orlik, Orlovim, Orlovskoye Polosatoye, Sinap Orlovskiy, Yubiliar in comparision to widespread varieties – Antonovka, Melba and Welsi. The study established that the varieties examined were well-adapted to drought in May, at the beginning of summer, as well as at the end of August and in September. At the beginning of July and in June higher indices of drought resistance were registered for Orlovim and Yubiliar, with the highest indices of combined water content. The completion of shoots growth and development of leaves system in all apple varieties was associated with increase of combined water amount in the leaves in August. In September, the number of combined water remained higher that suggested high adaptivity of the varieties being studied. The highest content of combined water in autumn was registered for Sinap Orlovskiy, Antonovka, Boltovskoie, Irmus.

  14. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill..common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb Lindl. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill., common pear (Pyrus communis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb. Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm layer completely surrounding the embryo which has large cotyledons and a thick rootlet.

  15. Salinity-Induced Callus Browning and Re-Differentiation, Root Formation by Plantlets and Anatomical Structures of Plantlet Leaves in Two Malus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zheng, P.; Zheng, P.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Akram, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica L.) is widely grown in northern China. However, soil salinization has become one of the most severe factors limiting apple productivity in some regions including the Loess Plateau. In our study, the regeneration system of both rootstock Rehd (Malus robusta Rehd) and scion Fuji (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) was established In vitro. The two Malus species were cultured on the MS medium containing 0 or 150 mM NaCl to examine salt-induced effects on callus browning and re-differentiation, root formation of plantlets and anatomical structures of plantlet leaves at 15 days old callus and plantlet stages. Salt stress caused a marked increase in callus browning rate, while a decrease in re-differentiation rate, rooting rate, root number and length in both species. Additionally, anatomical structures of plantlet leave showed salt-induced damage such as reduced palisade tissue and intracellular chloroplast, incomplete development of xylem and severe damage of the phloem tissue. Salt stress also caused a few adaptive structural features in leaves including increased thickness of upper and lower epidermis, elevated proportion of spongy tissue and formation of lignified vessels. The responses of the two Malus species did not differ significantly at the differentiation stage. However, they were more sensitive to salinity at the callus stage than those at the plantlet stage in each species. Therefore, callus stage has been found to be more suitable for evaluating responses of the two apple species to salt stress. The Fuji and Rehd could be treated as a good scion/rootstock combination of apple to adapt to soil salinity based on their similar degree of salt stress-tolerance. (author)

  16. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  17. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  18. Polyphenol oxidase activity and antioxidant properties of Yomra apple (Malus communis L.) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zehra; Dincer, Barbaros; Sahin, Huseyin; Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, firstly, antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) properties of Yomra apple were investigated. Seventeen phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities were performed to measure antioxidant capacity. Some kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), and inhibition behaviors against five different substrates were measured in the crude extract. Catechin and chlorogenic acid were found as the major components in the methanolic extract, while ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were small quantities. Km values ranged from 0.70 to 10.10 mM in the substrates, and also 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) and L-DOPA showed the highest affinity. The inhibition constant of Ki were ranged from 0.05 to 14.90 mM against sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid, sodium azide and benzoic acid, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite were the best inhibitors.

  19. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanaviciute, Laima; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Jansen, Johannes; Banchi, Elisa; Evans, Katherine M; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Dunwell, Jim M; Troggio, Michela; Sargent, Daniel J

    2012-05-25

    A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2%) were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8%) were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers) mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been

  20. Genes responding to water deficit in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Carole Leavel; Baldo, Angela M; Moore, Jacob T; Jenkins, Ryan M; Soffe, Doug S; Wisniewski, Michael E; Norelli, John L; Farrell, Robert E

    2014-07-08

    Individual plants adapt to their immediate environment using a combination of biochemical, morphological and life cycle strategies. Because woody plants are long-lived perennials, they cannot rely on annual life cycle strategies alone to survive abiotic stresses. In this study we used suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genes both up- and down-regulated in roots during water deficit treatment and recovery. In addition we followed the expression of select genes in the roots, leaves, bark and xylem of 'Royal Gala' apple subjected to a simulated drought and subsequent recovery. In agreement with studies from both herbaceous and woody plants, a number of common drought-responsive genes were identified, as well as a few not previously reported. Three genes were selected for more in depth analysis: a high affinity nitrate transporter (MdNRT2.4), a mitochondrial outer membrane translocase (MdTOM7.1), and a gene encoding an NPR1 homolog (MpNPR1-2). Quantitative expression of these genes in apple roots, bark and leaves was consistent with their roles in nutrition and defense. Additional genes from apple roots responding to drought were identified using suppression subtraction hybridization compared to a previous EST analysis from the same organ. Genes up- and down-regulated during drought recovery in roots were also identified. Elevated levels of a high affinity nitrate transporter were found in roots suggesting that nitrogen uptake shifted from low affinity transport due to the predicted reduction in nitrate concentration in drought-treated roots. Suppression of a NPR1 gene in leaves of drought-treated apple trees may explain in part the increased disease susceptibility of trees subjected to dehydrative conditions.

  1. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740

  2. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cornille

    Full Text Available The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica, on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  3. Influence of processing on the quality of pomaceas juice (Pyrus communis and Malus domestica) - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15360

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Andressa Schaia; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Ávila, Suelen; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Nogueira, Alessandro; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa

    2012-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis), which is intensively cultivated in subtropical and temperate climates, has recently attained the 3rd position in the world fruit ranking, just after apple and peach. This fruit exhibits certain similarities to apple with respect to the pulp, but pear is used as a raw material only when apple is no longer available, which suggests that the same technology line may be utilized. Both fruits do have processing compatibilities, and it is permissible to add pear juice to appl...

  4. Role of abscisic acid (aba) in modulating the responses of two apple rootstocks to drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Li, X.; Li, B.; Han, M.; Liu, F.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100 mol/L and 50 mol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress. (author)

  5. Effect of Different Calcium Sources Application on Antioxidant, Enzymatic Activity and Qualitative Characteristics of Apple (Malus domestic)

    OpenAIRE

    MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani; Mohammad Moghaddas Gerani; Sanaz Ashrafi Saeidlou; Ebrahim Sepehr

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of different Ca sources, in improving enzymatic activity and some qualitative properties of red apple (Malusdomestica) an experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. Apple trees were sprayed 5 times with CaCl2, CaO, Ca-EDTA and Ca(NO3)2 salts with an interval of 20 days from late June until early October. After harvesting fruits were kept in cold storage at standard condition for 150 days. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ...

  6. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, Henk J; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2016-03-01

    The expression of the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors. All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple cultivars were bred to express the resistance gene Vf from the wild apple genotype Malus floribunda 821. Positional cloning of the Vf locus allowed the identification of the Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) scab resistance gene that was subsequently used to generate cisgenic apple lines. It is important to understand and compare how this resistance gene is transcribed and modulated during infection in conventionally bred cultivars and in cisgenic lines. The aim of this work was to study the transcription pattern of Rvi6 in three classically bred apple cultivars and six lines of 'Gala' genetically modified to express Rvi6. Rvi6 transcription was analyzed at two time points using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) following inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia or water. Rvi6 transcription was assessed in relation to five reference genes. β-Actin, RNAPol, and UBC were the most suited to performing RT-qPCR experiments on Malus × domestica. Inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia under conditions conducive to scab infection failed to produce any significant changes to the transcription level of Rvi6. Rvi6 expression levels were inconsistent in response to external treatments in the different apple cultivars, and transgenic, intragenic or cisgenic lines.

  7. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris , the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative , Malus domestica . With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of NBS-encoding genes in Malus x domestica and expansion of NBS genes family in Rosaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Arya

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins play an important role in plant defense against pathogen attack. A number of recent studies have been carried out to identify and characterize NBS-LRR gene families in many important plant species. In this study, we identified NBS-LRR gene family comprising of 1015 NBS-LRRs using highly stringent computational methods. These NBS-LRRs were characterized on the basis of conserved protein motifs, gene duplication events, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, equal distribution of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and coiled coil (CC (1 ∶ 1 was detected in apple while the unequal distribution was reported in majority of all other known plant genome studies. Prediction of gene duplication events intriguingly revealed that not only tandem duplication but also segmental duplication may equally be responsible for the expansion of the apple NBS-LRR gene family. Gene expression profiling using expressed sequence tags database of apple and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed the expression of these genes in wide range of tissues and disease conditions, respectively. Taken together, this study will provide a blueprint for future efforts towards improvement of disease resistance in apple.

  9. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of NBS-encoding genes in Malus x domestica and expansion of NBS genes family in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Kumar, Gulshan; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) disease resistance proteins play an important role in plant defense against pathogen attack. A number of recent studies have been carried out to identify and characterize NBS-LRR gene families in many important plant species. In this study, we identified NBS-LRR gene family comprising of 1015 NBS-LRRs using highly stringent computational methods. These NBS-LRRs were characterized on the basis of conserved protein motifs, gene duplication events, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, equal distribution of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled coil (CC) (1 ∶ 1) was detected in apple while the unequal distribution was reported in majority of all other known plant genome studies. Prediction of gene duplication events intriguingly revealed that not only tandem duplication but also segmental duplication may equally be responsible for the expansion of the apple NBS-LRR gene family. Gene expression profiling using expressed sequence tags database of apple and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed the expression of these genes in wide range of tissues and disease conditions, respectively. Taken together, this study will provide a blueprint for future efforts towards improvement of disease resistance in apple.

  10. First report of Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot and Elsinoe pyri on apple in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Schiller, Michaela; Lund, Ole Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    . The associated pathogen has not previously been identi- fied, but symptoms are identical to those described for el- sinoe leaf and fruit spot (ELFS) caused by the ascomycete, Elsinoe pyri (Scheper et al., 2013). In 2012, DNA from fruit skin of apples was purified from two cultivars, Pigeon fra Juellinge...... (Scheper et al., 2013) were recovered by inoculating Topaz- spot infected fruit skin onto potato dextrose agar. Sequenc- ing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region revealed two identical 628 bp sequences (GenBank KC928079, KC928080) with 99% sequence identity to the previously published sequences of E. pyri. Our......An apple disease, known as “Topaz spot” in northern Europe (Trapman and Jansonius, 2008) has since year 2000 become widespread in Danish organic apple orchards (Malus domestica). Characteristic symptoms are small spots (black on fruits, brown on leaves) having a silvery-grey cen- tre...

  11. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  12. Evolution of the population structure of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab fungus, associated with the domestication of its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.

  13. Advances in Apple Transformation Technology to Confer Resistance to Fungal Diseases in Apple Crops: A Chilean Perspective Avances de la Tecnología de Transformación del Manzano para Conferir Resistencia a Enfermedades Fungosas en su Cultivo: Una Perspectiva Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Polanco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. is one of the most consumed fruit in the world. Genetic transformation is a key process to sustain this demand by permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as the development of new cultivars resistant to pests, diseases, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. This review summarizes the advances of genetic engineering applied to the development of resistant apple cultivars to fungus disease, with particular attention in the generation of apples resistant to Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, the main phytosanitary problem that affects apple crops in Chile.La manzana (Malus domestica Borkh. es una de las frutas más consumidas en el mundo. La transformación genética es un proceso clave para sustentar esta demanda, permitiendo el mejoramiento potencial de los cultivares existentes, así como el desarrollo de nuevas variedades resistentes a plagas, enfermedades y problemas de almacenamiento que se originan en las zonas de producción más importantes. Esta revisión resume los avances de la ingeniería genética aplicada al desarrollo de variedades de manzana resistentes a enfermedades fungosas, con especial atención en la generación de manzanas resistentes a Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, el principal problema fitosanitario que afecta a los cultivos de manzana en Chile.

  14. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  15. BAC-end sequence-based SNPs and Bin mapping for rapid integration of physical and genetic maps in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuepeng; Chagné, David; Gasic, Ksenija; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Beever, Jonathan E; Gardiner, Susan E; Korban, Schuyler S

    2009-03-01

    A genome-wide BAC physical map of the apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., has been recently developed. Here, we report on integrating the physical and genetic maps of the apple using a SNP-based approach in conjunction with bin mapping. Briefly, BAC clones located at ends of BAC contigs were selected, and sequenced at both ends. The BAC end sequences (BESs) were used to identify candidate SNPs. Subsequently, these candidate SNPs were genetically mapped using a bin mapping strategy for the purpose of mapping the physical onto the genetic map. Using this approach, 52 (23%) out of 228 BESs tested were successfully exploited to develop SNPs. These SNPs anchored 51 contigs, spanning approximately 37 Mb in cumulative physical length, onto 14 linkage groups. The reliability of the integration of the physical and genetic maps using this SNP-based strategy is described, and the results confirm the feasibility of this approach to construct an integrated physical and genetic maps for apple.

  16. Malus spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... differences in cultivars and plant materials, technology steps such as preventing the explants contamination, selecting culture medium, regulating hormone proportion and exercising seedlings outdoor have been the difficulties in the establishment of regeneration system for. Malus plant, especially for ...

  17. McMYB12 Transcription Factors Co-regulate Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Malus Crabapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji; Zhang, Jie; Han, Zhen-Yun; Song, Ting-Ting; Li, Jin-Yan; Wang, Ya-Ru; Yao, Yun-Cong

    2017-03-03

    The flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins (PAs), protect plants from biotic stresses, contribute to the taste of many fruits, and are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. In this study, we functionally characterized two Malus crabapple R2R3-MYB transcription factors, McMYB12a and McMYB12b, which co-regulate PAs and anthocyanin biosynthesis. McMYB12a was shown to be mainly responsible for upregulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by binding to their promoters, but to be only partially responsible for regulating PAs biosynthetic genes. In contrast, McMYB12b showed preferential binding to the promoters of PAs biosynthetic genes. Overexpression of McMYB12a and McMYB12b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) altered the expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and promoted the accumulation of PAs and anthocyanins in tobacco petals. Conversely, transient silencing their expression in crabapple plants, using a conserved gene region, resulted in reduced PAs and anthocyanin production a green leaf phenotype. Meanwhile, transient overexpression of the two genes and silenced McMYB12s in apple (Malus domestica) fruit had a similar effect as overexpression in tobacco and silenced in crabapple. This study reveals a new mechanism for the coordinated regulation of PAs and anthocyanin accumulation in crabapple leaves, which depends on an auto-regulatory balance involving McMYB12a and McMYB12b expression.

  18. Nitrogen availability in an apple orchard with weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Weed management in apple orchards (Malus domestica can affect the leaching of nitrogen (N in soil. The study aimed to evaluate the potential leaching of N forms in soil of an apple orchard with different weed management treatments. The experiment was conducted in an apple orchard implanted in 2008. In October 2011, 80 plants were selected and the following treatments were implemented: no weed management (NM, desiccation of weeds on the tree row with herbicide use (DR and mechanical mowing of weeds on the tree row (MR. Yield was evaluated in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop seasons. In May 2012 porous cup lysimeters were installed in the NM, DR and MR treatments. In the solution collected at 0.20m, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed sixteen times and mineral N concentration was calculated. The highest concentrations of NO3 --N and mineral N occurred in soil solution with DR, which increases availability of the nutrient to apple trees, but also enhances the potential losses. Weed management and N flow in the solution did not affect apple yield.

  19. Genome Wide Identification and Characterization of Apple bHLH Transcription Factors and Expression Analysis in Response to Drought and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ke; Dong, Qinglong; Li, Chao; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-01-01

    The bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor family is the second largest in plants. It occurs in all three eukaryotic kingdoms, and plays important roles in regulating growth and development. However, family members have not previously been studied in apple. Here, we identified 188 MdbHLH proteins in apple "Golden Delicious" ( Malus × domestica Borkh.), which could be classified into 18 groups. We also investigated the gene structures and 12 conserved motifs in these MdbHLH s. Coupled with expression analysis and protein interaction network prediction, we identified several genes that might be responsible for abiotic stress responses. This study provides insight and rich resources for subsequent investigations of such proteins in apple.

  20. evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of quercetin derived of natural extract from red onion ocañera (allilium strain l and red apple (pyrus malus l var. red delicius in palm oil refined industrial type continuous warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golda Meyer Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the assessment of the quercetin antioxidant capacity existing in red apple (Pyrus malus L var. red delicious and ocañera red onion (Allilium cepa L. Then, antioxidant concentration was calculated by a standard curve of commercial quercetin (HPLC concentration ≥98% using spectrophotometry at 415 nm and dropped concentrations of 0.0955 mg/g in onion extract and 0.0144mg/g in apple extract. The antioxidant capacity of each extract was evaluated over industrial samples of industrial RDB (Refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil without antioxidant in order to observe the effect they had over peroxide creation. Actually, samples were treated in continuous heating for two, four and six hours and recording variables performance like acidity, iodine and peroxide index. Also, a sample of oil without antioxidant was evaluated adding pure commercial quercetin at 0.18 mg/g and a control sample of RBD palm oil added with commercial antioxidant (TBHQ, BHT. Finally, the outcome got by ANOVA analysis (Pvalue= 0.028, significance level of 5% on peroxide index formation calculated in mequivO2/kg highlighted the time of exposition than quercetin concentration in 0.0144 mg/g, hence a result alike the sample of oil added with commercial antioxidant.

  1. Fine-tuning of the flavonoid and monolignol pathways during apple early fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; Moser, Mirko; Brilli, Matteo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pindo, Massimo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine

    2017-05-01

    A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing. We identified and characterized genes induced and repressed during fruit development in the apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. Our results showed an opposite regulation of genes coding for enzymes belonging to flavonoid and monolignol pathways, with a strong induction of the former and a simultaneous repression of the latter. Two isoforms of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, key enzymes located at the branching point between flavonoid and monolignol pathways, showed opposite expression patterns during the period in analysis, suggesting a possible regulation mechanism. A targeted metabolomic analysis supported the SSH results and revealed an accumulation of the monomers catechin and epicatechin as well as several forms of procyanidin oligomers in apple fruitlets starting early after anthesis, together with a decreased production of other classes of flavonoids such as some flavonols and the dihydrochalcone phlorizin. Moreover, gene expression and metabolites accumulation of 'Golden Delicious' were compared to a wild apple genotype of Manchurian crabapple (Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom.). Significant differences in both gene expression and metabolites accumulation were found between the two genotypes.

  2. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Emanuela; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-05-01

    Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Predisposição de macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh.) com infecções virais a Cryptosporiopsis perennans (Zeller & Childs) Wollenweber em frutos e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penzig. & Sacc. em folhas

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Salvati Guerra

    2007-01-01

    A cultura da macieira no Brasil ocupa cerca de 35 mil hectares com uma produção que chega, em alguns anos, a 1 milhão de toneladas. Dentre os principais vírus que infectam as plantas estão os chamados latentes Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) e Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) como também o Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Atualmente, entre as doenças fúngicas mais importantes estão à podridão de olho de boi causadas por Cryptosporiopsis perennans e a mancha ...

  5. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriccione, M.; Raffone, E.; Rega, P.

    2004-01-01

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it [it

  6. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  7. Genome-wide identification and characterization of WRKY transcriptional factor family in apple and analysis of their responses to waterlogging and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Li, Yuanyuan; Bai, Yang; Li, Mingjun; Cheng, Lailiang

    2016-06-01

    As one of the largest transcriptional factor families in plants, WRKY genes play significant roles in various biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although the WRKY gene family has been characterized in a few plant species, the details remain largely unknown in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). In this study, we identified a total of 127 MdWRKYs from the apple genome, which were divided into four subgroups according to the WRKY domains and zinc finger motif. Most of them were mapped onto the apple's 17 chromosomes and were expressed in more than one tissue, including shoot tips, mature leaves, fruit and apple calli. We then contrasted WRKY expression patterns between calli grown in solid medium (control) and liquid medium (representing waterlogging stress) and found that 34 WRKY genes were differentially expressed between the two growing conditions. Finally, we determined the expression patterns of 10 selected WRKY genes in an apple rootstock, G41, in response to waterlogging and drought stress, which identified candidate genes involved in responses to water stress for functional analysis. Our data provide interesting candidate MdWRKYs for future functional analysis and demonstrate that apple callus is a useful system for characterizing gene expression and function in apple. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and validation of the Axiom(®) Apple480K SNP genotyping array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luca; Cestaro, Alessandro; Linsmith, Gareth; Muranty, Hélène; Denancé, Caroline; Théron, Anthony; Poncet, Charles; Micheletti, Diego; Kerschbamer, Emanuela; Di Pierro, Erica A; Larger, Simone; Pindo, Massimo; Van de Weg, Eric; Davassi, Alessandro; Laurens, François; Velasco, Riccardo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Troggio, Michela

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions, and has great economic and cultural value. The apple genome is highly heterozygous and has undergone a recent duplication which, combined with a rapid linkage disequilibrium decay, makes it difficult to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays offer highly multiplexed assays at a relatively low cost per data point and can be a valid tool for the identification of the markers associated with traits of interest. Here, we describe the development and validation of a 487K SNP Affymetrix Axiom(®) genotyping array for apple and discuss its potential applications. The array has been built from the high-depth resequencing of 63 different cultivars covering most of the genetic diversity in cultivated apple. The SNPs were chosen by applying a focal points approach to enrich genic regions, but also to reach a uniform coverage of non-genic regions. A total of 1324 apple accessions, including the 92 progenies of two mapping populations, have been genotyped with the Axiom(®) Apple480K to assess the effectiveness of the array. A large majority of SNPs (359 994 or 74%) fell in the stringent class of poly high resolution polymorphisms. We also devised a filtering procedure to identify a subset of 275K very robust markers that can be safely used for germplasm surveys in apple. The Axiom(®) Apple480K has now been commercially released both for public and proprietary use and will likely be a reference tool for GWA studies in apple. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  10. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  11. Respiratory quotient: innovative method for monitoring ‘Royal Gala’ apple storage in a dynamic controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Weber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica, Borkh. which are not stored at low temperature or in a properly controlled atmosphere (CA may have a high metabolic rate during the postharvest stage resulting in losses in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruit stored in accordance with a new method of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA.The respiratory quotient (RQ was monitored at two temperatures which were then compared using a commercially available technology based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF and static CA. Ethylene production and respiration rates were lower in apples stored in DCA than in CA, as a result of lower 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase activity, especially in apples stored in DCA-RQ2. Flesh firmness of apples stored in DCA did not differ from those stored in CA. Apples stored at 1 °C had less flesh breakdown occurrence and a high percentage of healthy fruit. ‘Royal Gala’ stored at DCA-RQ2 had less flesh breakdown than apples stored in CA; however, the apples stored in DCA-CF did not differ from those stored in DCA-RQ2 and CA. Apples stored at the highest RQ value (6 and 4, especially at 0.5 °C, had low O2 injury occurrence after storage. However the increase in temperature to 1.0 °C, reduced the occurrence of this disorder. Therefore, storage in DCA-RQ2 at 1 °C or DCA-CF at 0.5 °C are the recommendations of preference for ensuring maintenance of quality in ‘Royal Gala’ apples after eight months of storage.

  12. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of MpCYS4, a phytocystatin gene from Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh., delays natural and stress-induced leaf senescence in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Yang, Yingli; Li, Chao; Liang, Bowen; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-06-01

    Phytocystatins are a well-characterized class of naturally occurring protease inhibitors that prevent the catalysis of papain-like cysteine proteases. The action of cystatins in stress tolerance has been studied intensively, but relatively little is known about their functions in plants during leaf senescence. Here, we examined the potential roles of the apple cystatin, MpCYS4, in leaf photosynthesis as well as the concentrations and composition of leaf proteins when plants encounter natural or stress-induced senescence. Overexpression of this gene in apple rootstock M26 effectively slowed the senescence-related declines in photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll concentrations and prevented the action of cysteine proteinases during the process of degrading proteins (e.g., Rubisco) in senescing leaves. Moreover, MpCYS4 alleviated the associated oxidative damage and enhanced the capacity of plants to eliminate reactive oxygen species by activating antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and catalase. Consequently, plant cells were protected against damage from free radicals during leaf senescence. Based on these results, we conclude that MpCYS4 functions in delaying natural and stress-induced senescence of apple leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  15. An effector of apple proliferation phytoplasma targets TCP transcription factors-a generalized virulence strategy of phytoplasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Katrin; Mithöfer, Axel; Raffeiner, Margot; Stellmach, Hagen; Hause, Bettina; Schlink, Katja

    2017-04-01

    The plant pathogen Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (P. mali) is the causative agent of apple proliferation, a disease of increasing importance in apple-growing areas within Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation within apple trees. In this study, we identified two TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR) transcription factors of Malus x domestica as binding partners of the P. mali SAP11-like effector ATP_00189. Phytohormone analyses revealed an effect of P. mali infection on jasmonates, salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels, showing that P. mali affects phytohormonal levels in apple trees, which is in line with the functions of the effector assumed from its binding to TCP transcription factors. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the molecular targets of a P. mali effector and thus provides the basis to better understand symptom development and disease progress during apple proliferation. As SAP11 homologues are found in several Phytoplasma species infecting a broad range of different plants, SAP11-like proteins seem to be key players in phytoplasmal infection. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Impact of applied ultrasonic power on the low temperature drying of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, J V; Contreras, M; Simal, S; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature drying (LTD) allows high-quality dried products to be obtained, preserving the nutritional properties of fresh foods better than conventional drying, but it is a time-consuming operation. Power ultrasound (US) could be used to intensify LTD, but it should be taken into account that process variables, such as the level of applied power, have an influence on the magnitude and extension of the ultrasonic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of the level of applied ultrasonic power on the LTD of apple, analyzing the drying kinetics and the quality of the dried product. For that purpose, apple (Malus domestica cv. Granny Smith) cubes (8.8mm side) were dried (2m/s) at two different temperatures (10 and -10°C), without and with (25, 50 and 75 W) US application. In the dried apple, the rehydration kinetics, hardness, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and microstructure were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the level of applied ultrasonic power. At both temperatures, 10 and -10°C, the higher the ultrasonic power level, the shorter the drying time; the maximum shortening of the drying time achieved was 80.3% (at -10°C and 75 W). The ultrasonic power level did not significantly (pfruits, like apple, with only a mild impact on the quality of the dried product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide identification of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and the role of exogenous polyamines in Malus hupehensis Rehd. under alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqing; Dou, Fangfang; Cheng, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2018-08-30

    Polyamines (PAs) in plants are growth substrates with functions similar to phytohormones. Although they contribute to diverse processes, little is known about their role in stress responses, especially for perennial woody plants. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of 18 sequences involved in PA biosynthesis in the genome of apple (Malus domestica). Further analysis was performed to construct a phylogenetic tree, analyze their protein motifs and gene structures. In addition, we developed their expression profiles in response to stressed conditions. Both MDP0000171041 (MdSAMDC1) and MDP0000198590 (MdSPDS1) were induced by alkaline, salt, ABA, cold, and dehydration stress treatments, suggesting that these genes are the main contributors to activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50) and spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) in apple. Changes in PA biosynthesis under stress conditions indicated that spermidine and spermine are more essential than putrescine for apple, especially when responding to alkaline or salt stress. When seedlings of M. hupehensis Rehd. were supplied with exogenous PAs, their leaves showed less chlorosis under alkaline stress when compared with untreated plants. This application also inhibited the decline in SPAD levels and reduced relative electrolyte leakage in those stressed seedlings, while increasing their concentration of active iron. These results suggest that the alteration in PA biosynthesis confers enhanced tolerance to alkaline stress in M. hupehensis Rehd. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Efeito de substratos porosos no enraizamento in vitro do porta-enxerto de macieira M-9 (Malus pumilla Effect of porous substrates in vitro rooting of M-9 apple rootstock (Malus pumilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luíz Vieira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de substratos no enraizamento in vitro do porta-enxerto de macieira M-9. Foram testados três substratos: ágar, vermiculita (nº 2, granulometria média e cinza vegetal, como suporte físico no enraizamento das miniestacas. Para os tratamento com vermiculita e cinza vegetal, meio nutritivo MS, reduzido à metade da concentração, foi adicionado em frascos de vidro de 250 mL contendo 15 g dos respectivos substratos. Brotações de 2,5 a 3,0 cm de comprimento, com dois pares de folhas, foram transferidas para os frascos, os quais foram mantidos durante 35 dias em sala de crescimento com temperatura de 25 ±1,5ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 75 µmol.m-2.s-1. As maiores percentagens de enraizamento (88,4 e 87,9% foram observadas nos tratamentos com vermiculita e cinza vegetal, respectivamente. Após a avaliação do enraizamento, as plantas foram transferidas para bandejas de isopor alveoladas com 128 células e mantidas por 40 dias em casa de vegetação. A maior taxa de sobrevivência de plantas aclimatizadas (93,5% foi obtida com as miniestacas produzidas em meio contendo vermiculita.the present work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effect of substrates in the rooting in vitro of the M-9 apple rootstock. Three substrates were tested: ágar, vermiculite (number 2, medium granulometry and vegetal ash as physical support in the rooting of the shoots. For the treatment with vermiculite and vegetal ash, MS medium nutritive, with half of the concentration, was added in glass bottles of 250 mL with 15g of respective substrates. The shoots of 2,5 to 3,0 cm of length and two pair of leaves had been transferred to the bottles. After the inoculation the bottles were kept during 35 days in a growing chamber, at 25 ±1ºC, for a 16 hour photoperiod with light intensity of 75 µmol.m-2.s-1. The higher percentages of rooting (88,4 and 87,9% were

  19. Enhanced acetic acid production from manalagi apple (Malus sylvestris mill) by mixed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter aceti in submerged fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosada, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    The production of acetic acid from Manalagi apple was studied using a mixed culture of S. cerevisiae and A. aceti by submerged fermentation technique. Determination of the best conditions for producing acetic acid was performed by stratified optimization with variations that were made on the concentration of the initial sugar addition to the medium (0%, 10%, 20% w/v), the ratio of the number of inocula S. cerevisiae and A. aceti (7:3, 1:1, 3:7), and agitation rate (80 and 160 rpm). All experiments were done by using the initial pH medium of 4.5 and incubated at room temperature (28±2oC) for 14 days. The concentration of reducing sugar, alcohol, acetic acid, and the pH were measured every 48 hours. The efficiency of sugar conversion to acetic acid with the addition of initial sugar 0%, 10%, and20%were 233%, 46.6%, and 6.4% respectively after ten days of incubation. Overall, the result showed that the highest acetic acid was produced from Manalagi apple juice when no sugar was added, using seven parts of S. cerevisiae to three parts of A. aceti and agitation rate of 160 rpm on the tenth day of fermentation. Under these conditions, glucose conversion efficiency to acetic acid increased to 362%.

  20. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  1. Viabilidade do pólen e desenvolvimento do tubo polínico em macieira (Malus spp. Germination of pollen and the development of pollen tubes in apple (Malus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudaram-se características associadas à germinação in vitro e ao desenvolvimento in vivo do tubo polínico em seis variedades-copa e de porta-enxertos de macieira como subsídios para o estabelecimento de programas de melhoramento genético. Utilizou-se de pólen de seis cultivares de macieira inoculado em meio de cultura com ágar (10 g.L-1 em água destilada, combinados com concentrações de sacarose (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50% e ácido bórico (0 e 40 mg.L-1. Para o estudo do desenvolvimento do tubo polínico, realizou-se coleta das flores em quatro períodos (6; 12; 24 e 48 horas após as polinizações em M9 x Marubakaido e a autofecundação em M9, sendo os tubos polínicos analisados em coloração de azul de anilina acidificada/carmim acético e em fluorescência. A sacarose, em concentrações entre 15% a 25%, pode ser empregada com sucesso para a germinação in vitro de grãos de pólen da macieira. O ácido bórico não teve efeito positivo para esta característica. Na ausência do ácido bórico e na presença de 15% de sacarose, observaram-se os maiores percentuais de germinação: Fuji (51,1%, Imperatriz (31,7%, M.9 (20,8%, Catarina (19,2%, Gala (13,7% e Marubakaido (6,1%. Quanto ao desenvolvimento do tubo polínico, com 12 horas da polinização, iniciou-se a germinação no pólen, no estigma, no cruzamento M.9 x Marubakaido, e após 24 horas da polinização observou-se 83% de germinação. As técnicas de coloração com azul de anilina acidificada com carmim acético e de visualização em fluorescência foram eficientes na visualização e coloração dos grãos de pólen e do desenvolvimento dos tubos polínicos.In the present work it was studied features associated to the germination of pollen and the development of pollen tubes in six apple varieties as subsidies for the establishment of genetic improvement programs. Pollen grains were inoculated in culture medium with distilled water, agar (10

  2. Apple hypanthium firmness: New insights from comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2012-06-26

    Fruit firmness constitutes an important textural property and is one of the key parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life, which has a major impact on commercialization. In order to decipher the mechanisms related to firmness of apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to compare the total proteome of high and low firmness phenotypes from apple hypanthia of a \\'Golden Delicious\\' × \\'Dietrich\\' population. A total of 36 differentially regulated protein spots were positively identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and then validated against the Malus expressed sequence tags (EST) database. The findings of this study indicated a lower expression of ethylene biosynthesis related proteins in the high firmness phenotype, which could be linked to the slowing down of the ripening and softening processes. The reduced accumulation of proteins involved in ethylene biosynthesis juxtaposed to the upregulation of a transposase and a GTP-binding protein in the high firmness phenotype. The results also showed higher expression of cytoskeleton proteins in the high firmness phenotype compared to the low firmness phenotype, which play a role in maintaining cell structure and possibly fruit integrity. Finally, a number of proteins involved in detoxification and defense were expressed in fruit hypanthium. This proteomic study provides a contribution towards a better understanding of regulatory networks involved in fruit hypanthium firmness and/or softening, which could be instrumental in the development of improved fruit quality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Genome-Wide SNP Detection, Validation, and Development of an 8K SNP Array for Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagné, David; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Troggio, Michela; Davey, Mark W.; Gilmore, Barbara; Lawley, Cindy; Vanderzande, Stijn; Hellens, Roger P.; Kumar, Satish; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Main, Dorrie; Rees, Jasper D.; Iezzoni, Amy; Mockler, Todd; Wilhelm, Larry; Van de Weg, Eric; Gardiner, Susan E.; Bassil, Nahla; Peace, Cameron

    2012-01-01

    As high-throughput genetic marker screening systems are essential for a range of genetics studies and plant breeding applications, the International RosBREED SNP Consortium (IRSC) has utilized the Illumina Infinium® II system to develop a medium- to high-throughput SNP screening tool for genome-wide evaluation of allelic variation in apple (Malus×domestica) breeding germplasm. For genome-wide SNP discovery, 27 apple cultivars were chosen to represent worldwide breeding germplasm and re-sequenced at low coverage with the Illumina Genome Analyzer II. Following alignment of these sequences to the whole genome sequence of ‘Golden Delicious’, SNPs were identified using SoapSNP. A total of 2,113,120 SNPs were detected, corresponding to one SNP to every 288 bp of the genome. The Illumina GoldenGate® assay was then used to validate a subset of 144 SNPs with a range of characteristics, using a set of 160 apple accessions. This validation assay enabled fine-tuning of the final subset of SNPs for the Illumina Infinium® II system. The set of stringent filtering criteria developed allowed choice of a set of SNPs that not only exhibited an even distribution across the apple genome and a range of minor allele frequencies to ensure utility across germplasm, but also were located in putative exonic regions to maximize genotyping success rate. A total of 7867 apple SNPs was established for the IRSC apple 8K SNP array v1, of which 5554 were polymorphic after evaluation in segregating families and a germplasm collection. This publicly available genomics resource will provide an unprecedented resolution of SNP haplotypes, which will enable marker-locus-trait association discovery, description of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, investigation of genetic variation (neutral and functional), and genomic selection in apple. PMID:22363718

  4. Genome-wide SNP detection, validation, and development of an 8K SNP array for apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chagné

    Full Text Available As high-throughput genetic marker screening systems are essential for a range of genetics studies and plant breeding applications, the International RosBREED SNP Consortium (IRSC has utilized the Illumina Infinium® II system to develop a medium- to high-throughput SNP screening tool for genome-wide evaluation of allelic variation in apple (Malus×domestica breeding germplasm. For genome-wide SNP discovery, 27 apple cultivars were chosen to represent worldwide breeding germplasm and re-sequenced at low coverage with the Illumina Genome Analyzer II. Following alignment of these sequences to the whole genome sequence of 'Golden Delicious', SNPs were identified using SoapSNP. A total of 2,113,120 SNPs were detected, corresponding to one SNP to every 288 bp of the genome. The Illumina GoldenGate® assay was then used to validate a subset of 144 SNPs with a range of characteristics, using a set of 160 apple accessions. This validation assay enabled fine-tuning of the final subset of SNPs for the Illumina Infinium® II system. The set of stringent filtering criteria developed allowed choice of a set of SNPs that not only exhibited an even distribution across the apple genome and a range of minor allele frequencies to ensure utility across germplasm, but also were located in putative exonic regions to maximize genotyping success rate. A total of 7867 apple SNPs was established for the IRSC apple 8K SNP array v1, of which 5554 were polymorphic after evaluation in segregating families and a germplasm collection. This publicly available genomics resource will provide an unprecedented resolution of SNP haplotypes, which will enable marker-locus-trait association discovery, description of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, investigation of genetic variation (neutral and functional, and genomic selection in apple.

  5. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple, Prunus persica (peach, and Fragaria vesca (strawberry, respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry.

  6. Chemical constituents of gold-red apple and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian-Qian; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Ten compounds were isolated and purified from the peels of gold-red apple (Malus domestica) for the 1st time. The identified compounds are 3β, 20β-dihydroxyursan-28-oic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyoleanolic acid (2), euscaphic acid (3), 3-O-p-coumaroyl tormentic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (6), oleanolic acid (7), betulinic acid (8), linolic acid (9), and α-linolenic acid (10). Their structures were determined by interpreting their nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, and by comparison with literature data. Compound 1 is new, and compound 2 is herein reported for the 1st time for the genus Malus. α-Glucosidase inhibition assay revealed 6 of the triterpenoid isolates as remarkable α-glucosidase inhibitors, with betulinic acid showing the strongest inhibition (IC50 = 15.19 μM). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS analysis of the fruit peels, pomace, flesh, and juice revealed that the peels and pomace contained high levels of triterpenes, suggesting that wastes from the fruit juice industry could serve as rich sources of bioactive triterpenes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. UPLC-PDA quantification of chemical constituents of two different varieties (golden and royal) of apple leaves and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Kumar, Shiv; Agnihotri, Vijai K

    2016-03-30

    Malus domestica is the most widely cultivated fruit tree and is well known for its therapeutic value. Apple leaves are known to contain phenolic compounds but the nature of these has not been explored to the same extent as in apple fruit. A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) quantification method has been developed. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of golden and royal apple leaves were evaluated. Four compounds, namely rutin, 3-hydroxyphloridzin, phloridzin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside were identified by UPLC. The separation was achieved in less than 7 min. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were found to be slightly higher in apple golden variety than royal variety. The IC50 values determined by the DPPH assay were 49.94 µg mL(-1) for golden apple leaves and 43.89 µg mL(-1) for royal apple leaves. IC50 values determined by the ABTS assay were 47.10 and 66.53 µg mL(-1) for golden and royal apple leaves, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined as 24.45 and 21.15 mg ascorbic acid g(-1) for golden and royal apple leaves, respectively, by using the FRAP assay. This study showed that apple leaves (both varieties) contain considerable amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids and are also a promising source of phloridzin. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Guo, Rongrong; Guo, Chunlei; Hou, Hongmin; Wang, Xiping; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu) zipper (bZIP) TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling, and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes). Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in 10 different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones. PMID:27066030

  9. Calcium dips enhance volatile emission of cold-stored 'Fuji Kiku-8' apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abel; Echeverría, Gemma; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2009-06-10

    Despite the relevance of volatile production for overall quality of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit, only a few studies have focused on the effects of calcium treatments on this quality attribute. In this work, 'Fuji Kiku-8' apples were harvested at commercial maturity, dipped in calcium chloride (2%, w/v), stored at 1 degrees C and 92% relative humidity for 4 or 7 months under either air or ultralow oxygen (ULO; 1 kPa of O(2)/2 kPa of CO(2)), and placed subsequently at 20 degrees C. Ethylene production, standard quality parameters, emission of volatile compounds, and the activities of some related enzymes were assessed 7 days thereafter. Calcium concentration was higher in CaCl(2)-treated than in untreated fruit, suggesting that the treatment was effective in introducing calcium into the tissues. Higher calcium contents were concomitant with higher flesh firmness and titratable acidity after storage. Furthermore, calcium treatment led to increased production of volatiles in middle-term stored apples, probably arising from enhanced supply of precursors for ester production as a consequence of increased pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities. After long-term storage, higher volatile emission might have arisen also from the enhancement of alcohol o-acyltransferase (AAT) activity, which was increased as a result of calcium treatment. In addition to storage period, the effects of calcium treatment were also partially dependent on storage atmosphere and more noticeable for fruit stored in air.

  10. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu zipper (bZIP TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes. Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in ten different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones.

  11. Phenolic Profiles and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Apple Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2016-05-01

    Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  13. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, W.J.; Cooley, D.R.; Tuttle, A.F.; Frenkel, M.A.; Bergweiler, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  14. A xyloglucan from seeds of the native Brazilian species Hymenaea courbaril for micropropagation of Marubakaido and Jonagored apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Nishimura, N; Quoirin, M; Naddaf, Y G; Wilhelm, H M; Ribas, L L F; Sierakowski, M-R

    2003-01-01

    Xyloglucan was extracted from seeds of Hymenaea courbaril and mixed with agar to prepare a solid culture medium used for micropropagation of the Marubakaido apple rootstock (Malus prunifolia Borkh) and cv. Jonagored (Malus domestica). The performance on gels created from a blend of 0.4%agar and 0.2% xyloglucan (w/v) was compared with that on media gelled with a standard concentration 0.6% (w/v) of agar. The growth of shoots and the multiplication rate were higher on the modified culture medium than on the agar-gelled medium. The occurrence of hyperhydric shoots was lower on the modified medium. In the absence of auxin, shoot rooting reached 70% (Marubakaido) and 66% (Jonagored) on the agar-xyloglucan medium and 6.7% and 10.4%, respectively, on the agar medium. When 0.25 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was added to both media, the modified medium gave better results in terms of rooting percentage and quality of roots than the agar-gelled medium.

  15. Re-analysis of RNA-Sequencing Data on Apple Stem Grooving Virus infected Apple reveals more significant differentially expressed genes

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    Bipin Balan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology has enabled the researchers to investigate the host global gene expression changes in plant-virus interactions which helped to understand the molecular basis of virus diseases. The re-analysis of RNA-Seq studies using most updated genome version and the available best analysis pipeline will produce most accurate results. In this study, we re-analysed the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV infected apple shoots in comparison with that of virus-free in vitro shoots [1] using the most updated Malus x domestica genome downloaded from Phytozome database. The re-analysis was done by using HISAT2 software and Cufflinks program was used to mine the differentially expressed genes. We found that ~20% more reads was mapped to the latest genome using the updated pipeline, which proved the significance of such re-analysis. The comparison of the updated results with that of previous was done. In addition, we performed protein-protein interaction (PPI to investigate the proteins affected by ASGV infection.

  16. Apple proliferation phytoplasma influences the pattern of plant volatiles emitted depending on pathogen virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit eRid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple proliferation (AP and pear decline (PD are the most severe diseases in pome fruit growing areas. AP-infected trees show typical symptoms such as witches’ broom, enlarged stipules, tasteless and dwarf fruits. PD-infected pears show a progressive weakening, reduced terminal growth, smaller fruits and die within weeks (quick decline or years (slow decline. The diseases are caused by the cell-wall lacking bacteria Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (AP phytoplasma and Ca. P. pyri (PD phytoplasma, respectively. In previous studies it has been shown that AP-infected apple trees emitted higher amounts of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene, an attractant of the insect vector Cacopsylla picta (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, thereby facilitating the dispersal of AP phytoplasma. In the present study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs occurring in the headspace of plants infected with Ca. P. mali strains causing different severity of symptoms in apple plants were collected, analyzed and identified. Headspace samples from healthy and AP-infected model plant tobacco (Nicotiana occidentalis and apple (Malus domestica as well as from healthy and PD-infected pear (Pyrus communis were investigated via thermodesorption and GC-MS analysis. Significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate were produced in all phytoplasma-infected plants compared to healthy ones and an as yet unidentified sesquiterpene differed between the odor bouquets of healthy and by Ca. P. mali infected tobacco plants. Additionally, statistically significant higher amounts of both compounds were measured in the headspace of plants infected by the virulent AP strain. In apple, significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate and methyl salicylate were observed for trees infected with strains of Ca. P. mali. Ethyl benzoate was also detected in the headspace of pear trees infected with Ca. P. pyri.

  17. 'Scarlett Spur Red Delicious' apple volatile production accompanying physiological disorder development during low pO2 controlled atmosphere storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Christie; Fellman, John K; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James

    2014-02-19

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit volatile production is regulated by a variety of factors including low oxygen storage conditions. This study examined the impact of low pO2 controlled atmospheres on 'Scarlett Spur Red Delicious' apple volatile production and disorder development. Accumulation of apple volatile compounds was characterized during long-term cold storage at 0.5 °C in air or low pO2 (0.3, 0.8, or 1.5 kPa) with 1 kPa CO2. Volatile accumulation differed quantitatively with pO2 as acetaldehyde, ethanol, and ethyl ester accumulation increased with decreased pO2 during the first weeks in storage. Differences in volatile accumulation among atmospheres were evident through 6 months. The rate of ethanol accumulation increased with decreased pO2 and could potentially be used to monitor low O2 stress. Incidence of low oxygen disorders after 9 months was highest in fruit held at the lowest pO2. The sesquiterpene α-farnesene was not detected throughout the storage period.

  18. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine: isolated and combined with other growth regulators on quality of ‘Brookfield’ apples after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth regulators are used in the production of apples worldwide, especially to extend the harvest period and maintain postharvest quality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in isolation as well as in combination with other growth regulators and postharvest techniques on the harvest quality and storage potential of ‘Brookfield’ apples (Malus domestica, a ‘Gala’ strain. Fruit receiving AVG only had the highest starch content and the highest titratable acidity at harvest. After 8 months of storage, the AVG + 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene and AVG + ABS (ethylene absorption conserved higher flesh firmness than to all the other treatments. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA application induced ACC oxidase enzyme activity at harvest, but not after storage. AVG application, with or without the aid of another technique, did not decrease the red skin color of ‘Brookfield’ apples. Low mealiness and a high healthy fruit percentage was obtained when the fruits were submitted to pre-harvest AVG application combined with NAA, 1-MCP and ABS. Internal carbon dioxide had an inverse correlation with the quantity of healthy fruit and was directly correlated with mealiness.

  19. Genome-wide analysis and identification of stress-responsive genes of the NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2 transcription factor family in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongyan; Zhang, Shizhong; Yuan, Xiaowei; Chen, Changtian; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-10-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, and CUC2) proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors. To date, little is known about the NAC genes in the apple (Malus domestica). In this study, a total of 180 NAC genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six groups (I-VI) with the NAC genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple NAC genes were distributed across all of 17 chromosomes at various densities. Additionally, the gene structure and motif compositions of the apple NAC genes were analyzed. Moreover, the expression of 29 selected apple NAC genes was analyzed in different tissues and under different abiotic stress conditions. All of the selected genes, with the exception of four genes, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the NAC genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. Encouragingly, 17 of the selected genes were found to respond to one or more of the abiotic stress treatments, and these 17 genes included not only the expected 7 genes that were clustered with the well-known stress-related marker genes in group IV but also 10 genes located in other subgroups, none of which contains members that have been reported to be stress-related. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple NAC gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of this family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Transgenic Suppression of AGAMOUS Genes in Apple Reduces Fertility and Increases Floral Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L.; Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Brunner, Amy M.; Shevchenko, Olga; Aldwinckle, Herb; Strauss, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of RNA interference (RNAi) directed against two co-orthologs of AGAMOUS (AG) from Malus domestica (domestic apple, MdAG) to reduce the risks of invasiveness and provide genetic containment of transgenes, while also promoting the attractiveness of flowers for ornamental usage. Suppression of two MdAG-like genes, MdMADS15 and MdMADS22, led to the production of trees with highly showy, polypetalous flowers. These “double-flowers” had strongly reduced expression of both MdAG-like genes. Members of the two other clades within in the MdAG subfamily showed mild to moderate differences in gene expression, or were unchanged, with the level of suppression approximately proportional to the level of sequence identity between the gene analyzed and the RNAi fragment. The double-flowers also exhibited reduced male and female fertility, had few viable pollen grains, a decreased number of stigmas, and produced few viable seeds after cross-pollination. Despite these floral alterations, RNAi-AG trees with double-flowers set full-sized fruit. Suppression or mutation of apple AG-like genes appears to be a promising method for combining genetic containment with improved floral attractiveness. PMID:27500731

  2. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L -1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L -1 ammonium. Observed YAN values ranged from nine to 249 mg N L -1 , with a mean value of 59 mg N L -1 . Ninety-four percent of all samples analyzed in this study contained yeast to fully utilize all of the fermentable sugars. FAN concentration was correlated with total YAN concentration, but ammonium concentration was not. Likewise, there was no correlation between FAN and ammonium concentration.

  3. Cuticle of 'Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples cultivars under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Andréia Tessmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the cuticle thickness and pattern of epicuticular wax deposition in 'Gala' and 'Galaxy' apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh, from three Brazilian producing areas: Vacaria (RS, Fraiburgo (SC and São Joaquim (SC with altitudes of 971, 1,048 and 1,353m, respectively. Harvested fruit were kept under two storage conditions: regular atmosphere (RA (0 ºC and 90% RH and controlled atmosphere (CA (1.5% O2, 2.5% CO2, 0ºC and 90% RH. Cuticle thickness measurements were made using LM and the deposition pattern of epicuticular wax observed with a SEM. Altitude among the apple producing areas was not a factor in deposition pattern of waxes between the cultivars but at higher altitudes, the cuticle was thicker in both the cultivars. In the freshly-harvested fruits, waxes deposition in the form of platelets and the mechanism of “tear and repair” were observed. Severity of microcracks in the cuticle was more evident on the fruits from CA.

  4. MdCOP1 Ubiquitin E3 Ligases Interact with MdMYB1 to Regulate Light-Induced Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Red Fruit Coloration in Apple1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-01-01

    MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936

  5. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of ‘Fuji’ apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds. - Highlights: ► We analyzed the volatile organic compounds of electron beam irradiated Fuji apples. ► The major compounds of samples were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol. ► The contents of major flavor compounds of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were similar.

  7. Characterization of an Autophagy-related Gene MdATG8i from apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient deficiencies restrict apple (Malus sp. tree growth and productivity in Northwest China. The process of autophagy, a conserved degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells, has important roles in nutrient-recycling and helps improve plant performance during periods of nutrient-starvation. Little is known about the functioning of autophagy-related genes (ATGs in apple. In this study, one of the ATG8 gene family members MdATG8i was isolated from M. domestica. MdATG8i has conserved putative tubulin binding sites and ATG7 interaction domains. A 1865-bp promoter region cloned from apple genome DNA was predicated to have cis-regulatory elements responsive to light, environmental stresses and hormones. MdATG8i transcriptions were induced in response to leaf senescence, nitrogen depletion, and oxidative stress. At cellular level, MdATG8i protein was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Yeast two-hybrid tests showed that MdATG8i could interact with MdATG7a and MdATG7b. In Arabidopsis, its heterologous expression was associated with enhanced vegetative growth, leaf senescence, and tolerance to nitrogen- and carbon-starvation. MdATG8i-overexpressing ‘Orin’ apple callus lines also displayed improved tolerance to nutrient-limited conditions. Our results demonstrate that MdATG8i protein could function in autophagy in a conserved way, as a positive regulator in the response to nutrient-starvation.

  8. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.

    2005-01-01

    in a wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar...

  9. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  10. Effect of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols on chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in apple fruit: signature analysis, assessment, modelling, and relevance to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Melø, Thor Bernt; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    Whole apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) widely differing in pigment content and composition has been examined by recording its chlorophyll fluorescence excitation and diffuse reflection spectra in the visible and near UV regions. Spectral bands sensitive to the pigment concentration have been identified, and linear models for non-destructive assessment of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols via chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are put forward. The adaptation of apple fruit to high light stress involves accumulation of these protective pigments, which absorb solar radiation in broad spectral ranges extending from UV to the green and, in anthocyanin-containing cultivars, to the red regions of the spectrum. In ripening apples the protective effect in the blue region could be attributed to extrathylakoid carotenoids. A simple model, which allows the simulation of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in the visible range and a quantitative evaluation of competitive absorption by anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols, is described. Evidence is presented to support the view that anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols play, in fruit with low-to-moderate pigment content, the role of internal traps (insofar as they compete with chlorophylls for the absorption of incident light in specific spectral bands), affecting thereby the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum.

  11. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

  12. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from Rosaceae family by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-qMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2009-06-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample amount, dilution factor, ionic strength, and desorption time, were optimized and discussed. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 50 degrees C for 30 min with constant magnetic stirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds among pulp (46, 45, and 39), peel (64, 60, and 64), and entire fruit (65, 43, and 50) in PP, PS, and SS apples, respectively. Ethyl esters, terpenes, and higher alcohols were found to be the most representative volatiles. Alpha-farnesene, hexan-1-ol and hexyl 2-methylbutyrate were the compounds found in the volatile profile of studied apples with the largest GC area, representing, on average, 24.71, 14.06, and 10.80% of the total volatile fraction from PP, PS, and SS apples. In PP entire apple, the most abundant compounds identified were alpha-farnesene (30.49%), the unknown compound m/z (69, 101, 157) (21.82%) and hexyl acetate (6.57%). Regarding PS entire apple the major compounds were alpha-farnesene (16.87%), estragole (15.43%), hexan-1-ol (10.94), and E-2-hexenal (10.67). Alpha-farnesene (30.3%), hexan-1-ol (18.90%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (4.7%), and pentan-1-ol (4.6%) were also found as SS entire apple volatiles present in a higher relative content. Principal

  13. Effect of the number of calcium chloride sprays on 'Jonagold' apple quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effect of frequency of calcium chloride (CaCl2 sprays on 'Jonagold' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. quality. The experiment was carried out in 1996-1998 in the Experimental Orchard of the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice. Apple trees were grafied on M.26 rootstock and planted in 1992 at a distance of 4 x 2 m on a sandy loam soil with high available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents. Four experimental treatments were applied: (i three sprays with CaCl2 solutions at 2, 10 and 18 weeks after full bloom, (ii six sprays with CaCl2 at 2, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after full bloom, (iii nine sprays with CaCl2 at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after full bloom and (iv control plot - trees unsprayed with CaCl2. The results showed that fruit Ca concentration increased with the number of CaCl2 sprays during the growing season. Apples nine-times sprayed with CaCl2 solutions were smaller, less mature at harvest and after storage, had lower titratable acidity and soluble solids contents after storage and were less sensitive to bitter pit, internal breakdown and Gloeosporium-rot compared to other treatments; however these effects were influenced by the growing season. Six CaCl2 sprays only in one year of the study increased fruit firmness after storage, fruit resistance to bitter pit and internal breakdown. Three CaCl2 sprays decreased bitter pit incidence; however this effect was found only in one investigated year.

  14. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Considine

    Full Text Available Polyploidization results in genome duplication and is an important step in evolution and speciation. The Malus genome confirmed that this genus was derived through auto-polyploidization, yet the genetic and meiotic mechanisms for polyploidization, particularly for aneuploidization, are unclear in this genus or other woody perennials. In fact the contribution of aneuploidization remains poorly understood throughout Plantae. We add to this knowledge by characterization of eupolyploidization and aneuploidization in 27,542 F₁ seedlings from seven diploid Malus populations using cytology and microsatellite markers. We provide the first evidence that aneuploidy exceeds eupolyploidy in the diploid crosses, suggesting aneuploidization is a leading cause of genome duplication. Gametes from diploid Malus had a unique combinational pattern; ova preserved euploidy exclusively, while spermatozoa presented both euploidy and aneuploidy. All non-reduced gametes were genetically heterozygous, indicating first-division restitution was the exclusive mode for Malus eupolyploidization and aneuploidization. Chromosome segregation pattern among aneuploids was non-uniform, however, certain chromosomes were associated for aneuploidization. This study is the first to provide molecular evidence for the contribution of heterozygous non-reduced gametes to fitness in polyploids and aneuploids. Aneuploidization can increase, while eupolyploidization may decrease genetic diversity in their newly established populations. Auto-triploidization is important for speciation in the extant Malus. The features of Malus polyploidization confer genetic stability and diversity, and present heterozygosity, heterosis and adaptability for evolutionary selection. A protocol using co-dominant markers was proposed for accelerating apple triploid breeding program. A path was postulated for evolution of numerically odd basic chromosomes. The model for Malus derivation was considerably revised

  15. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Wan, Yizhen; D'Antuono, Mario F; Zhou, Qian; Han, Mingyu; Gao, Hua; Wang, Man

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization results in genome duplication and is an important step in evolution and speciation. The Malus genome confirmed that this genus was derived through auto-polyploidization, yet the genetic and meiotic mechanisms for polyploidization, particularly for aneuploidization, are unclear in this genus or other woody perennials. In fact the contribution of aneuploidization remains poorly understood throughout Plantae. We add to this knowledge by characterization of eupolyploidization and aneuploidization in 27,542 F₁ seedlings from seven diploid Malus populations using cytology and microsatellite markers. We provide the first evidence that aneuploidy exceeds eupolyploidy in the diploid crosses, suggesting aneuploidization is a leading cause of genome duplication. Gametes from diploid Malus had a unique combinational pattern; ova preserved euploidy exclusively, while spermatozoa presented both euploidy and aneuploidy. All non-reduced gametes were genetically heterozygous, indicating first-division restitution was the exclusive mode for Malus eupolyploidization and aneuploidization. Chromosome segregation pattern among aneuploids was non-uniform, however, certain chromosomes were associated for aneuploidization. This study is the first to provide molecular evidence for the contribution of heterozygous non-reduced gametes to fitness in polyploids and aneuploids. Aneuploidization can increase, while eupolyploidization may decrease genetic diversity in their newly established populations. Auto-triploidization is important for speciation in the extant Malus. The features of Malus polyploidization confer genetic stability and diversity, and present heterozygosity, heterosis and adaptability for evolutionary selection. A protocol using co-dominant markers was proposed for accelerating apple triploid breeding program. A path was postulated for evolution of numerically odd basic chromosomes. The model for Malus derivation was considerably revised. Impacts of

  16. Efficient sampling to determine distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, D.; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...... ‘fractionator’ tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica ‘Fuji Raku Raku’) in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... of yield. Estimated marketable yield was 295.8±50.2 t. Field and packinghouse records indicated that of 348.2 t sent to packing (52.4 t or 15% higher than our estimate), 263.0 t was packed for export (32.8 t less or -12% error compared to our estimate). The estimated distribution of caliber compared very...

  17. Efficient sampling to determine the distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...... 'fractionator' tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica 'Fuji Raku Raku') in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... of yield. Estimated marketable yield was 295.8±50.2 t. Field and packinghouse records indicated that of 348.2 t sent to packing (52.4 t or 15% higher than our estimate), 263.0 t was packed for export (32.8 t less or -12% error compared to our estimate). The estimated distribution of caliber compared very...

  18. Effects of Exogenous Melatonin on Methyl Viologen-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Apple Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a major source of damage of plants exposed to adverse environments. We examined the effect of exogenous melatonin (MT in limiting of oxidative stress caused by methyl viologen (MV; paraquatin in apple leaves (Malus domestica Borkh.. When detached leaves were pre-treated with melatonin, their level of stress tolerance increased. Under MV treatment, melatonin effectively alleviated the decrease in chlorophyll concentrations and maximum potential Photosystem II efficiency while also mitigating membrane damage and lipid peroxidation when compared with control leaves that were sprayed only with water prior to the stress experiment. The melatonin-treated leaves also showed higher activities and transcripts of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. In addition, the expression of genes for those enzymes was upregulated. Melatonin-synthesis genes MdTDC1, MdT5H4, MdAANAT2, and MdASMT1 were also upregulated under oxidative stress in leaves but that expression was suppressed in response to 1 mM melatonin pretreatment during the MV treatments. Therefore, we conclude that exogenous melatonin mitigates the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, perhaps by slowing the decline in chlorophyll concentrations, moderating membrane damage and lipid peroxidation, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and changing the expression of genes for melatonin synthesis.

  19. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.

  20. Effect of temperature and cultivar on polyphenol retention and mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Emilie; Guyot, Sylvain; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Bonazzi, Catherine

    2010-01-13

    Several cultivars of apples (Malus domestica) were chosen for their variable concentrations and compositions in phenolic compounds. Cubed samples (1 cm3) were subjected to osmotic dehydration, and the effect of temperature was studied at 45 and 60 degrees C. Water loss, sucrose impregnation, and the evolution of some natural components of the product were followed to quantify mass transfer. Ascorbic acid and polyphenols were quantified by HPLC for several osmotic dehydration times and regardless of the quantity of impregnated sugar. Changes in antioxidant components differed as a function of the nature of molecules. Their concentrations decreased in line with temperature, and few differences were observed between cultivars. Processing at a lower temperature (45 degrees C) caused a total loss in ascorbic acid but allowed the retention of between 74 and 85% of initial polyphenols, depending on the cultivar. Cultivars containing highly polymerized procyanidins (such as Guillevic) experienced less loss. Hydroxycinnamic acids and monomeric catechins displayed the most marked changes. Leaching with water into the soaking solution was the principal mechanism retained to explain these losses.

  1. Simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in the leaf and fruit peel of different apple cultivars by the HPLC-RI optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Miuţa; Vlassa, Mihaela; Coman, Virginia; Halmagyi, Adela

    2016-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI), for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in leaf and/or apple peel samples from nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and rootstocks, originating from a germplasm collection, has been developed and validated. Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the method optimization. The Carbosep Coregel 87H3 column was used under the optimum conditions predicted: mobile phase of H2SO4 0.005 mol L(-1) solution, flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) and column temperature of 35°C. The method was validated for linearity (R(2)>0.99), limits of detection (2.67-4.83 μg mL(-1)) and quantification (8.9-16.1 μg mL(-1)), precision (%RSD<5.05) and recovery (93.94-103.06%) and satisfactory results obtained. The sugars content varied across micropropagated plants in vitro, plants regenerated after cryostorage, growing trees in vivo, and fruit peel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  3. Generation of advanced fire blight-resistant apple (Malus × domestica) selections of the fifth generation within 7 years of applying the early flowering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlathölter, Ina; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Patocchi, Andrea

    2018-03-14

    The approach presented here can be applied to reduce the time needed to introduce traits from wild apples into null segregant advanced selections by one-fourth. Interesting traits like resistances to pathogens are often found within the wild apple gene pool. However, the long juvenile phase of apple seedlings hampers the rapid introduction of these traits into new cultivars. The rapid crop cycle breeding approach used in this paper is based on the overexpression of the birch (Betula pendula) MADS4 transcription factor in apple. Using the early flowering line T1190 and 'Evereste' as source of the fire blight resistance (Fb_E locus), we successfully established 18 advanced selections of the fifth generation in the greenhouse within 7 years. Fifteen individuals showed the habitus expected of a regular apple seedling, while three showed very short internodes. The null segregants possessing a regular habitus maintained the high level of fire blight resistance typical for 'Evereste'. Using SSR markers, we estimated the percentage of genetic drag from 'Evereste' still associated with Fb_E on linkage group 12 (LG12). Eight out of the 18 selections had only 4% of 'Evereste' genome left. Since genotypes carrying the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 and the fire blight resistance QTL Fb_F7 were used as parents in the course of the experiments, these resistances were also identified in some of the null segregants. One seedling is particularly interesting as, beside Fb_E, it also carries Fb_F7 heterozygously and Rvi6 homozygously. If null segregants obtained using this method will be considered as not genetically modified in Europe, as is already the case in the USA, this genotype could be a very promising parent for breeding new fire blight and scab-resistant apple cultivars in European apple breeding programs.

  4. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT90901 Malus x domestica Rosaceae ... Tensile testing of apple peels_Maximum force Maximum force..., one of the parameters measured during the tensile testing of apple peels. Highest force value

  5. Evolutionary diversification of galactinol synthases in Rosaceae: adaptive roles of galactinol and raffinose during apple bud dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Vítor da Silveira; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Miotto, Yohanna Evelyn; Santos, Henrique Pessoa Dos; Oliveira, Paulo Ricardo Dias de; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2018-01-24

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which play roles in carbon storage, signal transduction, and osmoprotection. The present work assessed the evolutionary history of GolS genes across the Rosaceae using several bioinformatic tools. Apple (Malus × domestica) GolS genes were transcriptionally characterized during bud dormancy, in parallel with galactinol and raffinose measurements. Additionally, MdGolS2, a candidate to regulate seasonal galactinol and RFO content during apple bud dormancy, was functionally characterized in Arabidopsis. Evolutionary analyses revealed that whole genome duplications have driven GolS gene evolution and diversification in Rosaceae speciation. The strong purifying selection identified in duplicated GolS genes suggests that differential gene expression might define gene function better than protein structure. Interestingly, MdGolS2 was differentially expressed during bud dormancy, concomitantly with the highest galactinol and raffinose levels. One of the intrinsic adaptive features of bud dormancy is limited availability of free water; therefore, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MdGolS2. They showed higher galactinol and raffinose contents and increased tolerance to water deficit. Our results suggest that MdGolS2 is the major GolS responsible for RFO accumulation during apple dormancy, and these carbohydrates help to protect dormant buds against limited water supply. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A smartphone-based apple yield estimation application using imaging features and the ANN method in mature period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Qian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Apple yield estimation using a smartphone with image processing technology offers advantages such as low cost, quick access and simple operation. This article proposes distribution framework consisting of the acquisition of fruit tree images, yield prediction in smarphone client, data processing and model calculation in server client for estimating the potential fruit yield. An image processing method was designed including the core steps of image segmentation with R/B value combined with V value and circle-fitting using curvature analysis. This method enabled four parameters to be obtained, namely, total identified pixel area (TP, fitting circle amount (FC, average radius of the fitting circle (RC and small polygon pixel area (SP. A individual tree yield estimation model on an ANN (Artificial Neural Network was developed with three layers, four input parameters, 14 hidden neurons, and one output parameter. The system was used on an experimental Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji orchard. Twenty-six tree samples were selected from a total of 80 trees according to the multiples of the number three for the establishment model, whereby 21 groups of data were trained and 5 groups o data were validated. The R2 value for the training datasets was 0.996 and the relative root mean squared error (RRMSE value 0.063. The RRMSE value for the validation dataset was 0.284 Furthermore, a yield map with 80 apple trees was generated, and the space distribution o the yield was identified. It provided appreciable decision support for site-specific management.

  7. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A sampling approach for predicting the eating quality of apples using visible-near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V; Sharifzadeh, Sara; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Skov, Thomas; Clemmensen, Line Harder; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B

    2013-12-01

    Visible-near infrared spectroscopy remains a method of increasing interest as a fast alternative for the evaluation of fruit quality. The success of the method is assumed to be achieved by using large sets of samples to produce robust calibration models. In this study we used representative samples of an early and a late season apple cultivar to evaluate model robustness (in terms of prediction ability and error) on the soluble solids content (SSC) and acidity prediction, in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm. A total of 196 middle-early season and 219 late season apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) cvs 'Aroma' and 'Holsteiner Cox' samples were used to construct spectral models for SSC and acidity. Partial least squares (PLS), ridge regression (RR) and elastic net (EN) models were used to build prediction models. Furthermore, we compared three sub-sample arrangements for forming training and test sets ('smooth fractionator', by date of measurement after harvest and random). Using the 'smooth fractionator' sampling method, fewer spectral bands (26) and elastic net resulted in improved performance for SSC models of 'Aroma' apples, with a coefficient of variation CVSSC = 13%. The model showed consistently low errors and bias (PLS/EN: R(2) cal = 0.60/0.60; SEC = 0.88/0.88°Brix; Biascal = 0.00/0.00; R(2) val = 0.33/0.44; SEP = 1.14/1.03; Biasval = 0.04/0.03). However, the prediction acidity and for SSC (CV = 5%) of the late cultivar 'Holsteiner Cox' produced inferior results as compared with 'Aroma'. It was possible to construct local SSC and acidity calibration models for early season apple cultivars with CVs of SSC and acidity around 10%. The overall model performance of these data sets also depend on the proper selection of training and test sets. The 'smooth fractionator' protocol provided an objective method for obtaining training and test sets that capture the existing variability of the fruit samples for construction of visible-NIR prediction models. The implication

  9. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  10. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fruit self-thinning: a trait to consider for genetic improvement of apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Martinez, Sébastien; Bechti, Abdel; Khelifi Touhami, Amina; James, Marie José; Durel, Charles-Eric; Laurens, François; Costes, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    In apple (Malus×domestica Borkh), as in many fruiting crops, fruit maintenance vs abscission is a major criteria for production profitability. Growers routinely make use of chemical thinning agents to control total fruit load. However, serious threats for the environment lead to the demand for new apple cultivars with self-thinning properties. In this project, we studied the genetic determinism of this trait using a F1 progeny derived from the cross between the hybrid INRA X3263, assumed to possess the self-thinning trait, and the cultivar 'Belrène'. Both counting and percentage variables were considered to capture the fruiting behaviour on different shoot types and over three consecutive years. Besides low to moderate but significant genetic effects, mixed models showed considerable effects of the year and the shoot type, as well as an interaction effect. Year effect resulted mainly from biennial fruiting. Eight Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) were detected on several linkage groups (LG), either independent or specific of the year of observation or the shoot type. The QTL with highest LOD value was located on the top third of LG10. The screening of three QTL zones for candidate genes revealed a list of transcription factors and genes involved in fruit nutrition, xylem differentiation, plant responses to starvation and organ abscission that open new avenues for further molecular investigations. The detailed phenotyping performed revealed the dependency between the self-thinning trait and the fruiting status of the trees. Despite a moderate genetic control of the self-thinning trait, QTL and candidate genes were identified which will need further analyses involving other progenies and molecular investigations.

  12. Comprehensive Genomic Identification and Expression Analysis of the Phosphate Transporter (PHT) Gene Family in Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tingting; Li, Mingjun; Shao, Yun; Yu, Lingyan; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-01-01

    Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple ( Malus domestica ), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three. Our overview of this gene family focused on structure, chromosomal distribution and localization, phylogenies, and motifs. These genes displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues. For example, expression was high for MdPHT1;12, MdPHT3;6 , and MdPHT3;7 in the roots, and was also increased in response to low-phosphorus conditions. In contrast, MdPHT4;1, MdPHT4;4 , and MdPHT4;10 were expressed only in the leaves while transcript levels of MdPHT1;4, MdPHT1;12 , and MdPHT5;3 were highest in flowers. In general, these 37 genes were regulated significantly in either roots or leaves in response to the imposition of phosphorus and/or drought stress. The results suggest that members of the PHT family function in plant adaptations to adverse growing environments. Our study will lay a foundation for better understanding the PHT family evolution and exploring genes of interest for genetic improvement in apple.

  13. Contrasting responses of soil respiration and temperature sensitivity to land use types: Cropland vs. apple orchard on the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Qiqi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Yao, Lunguang; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2018-04-15

    Land use plays an essential role in regional carbon cycling, potentially influencing the exchange rates of CO 2 flux between soil and the atmosphere in terrestrial ecosystems. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q 10 ), as an efficient parameter to reflect the possible feedback between the global carbon cycle and climate change, has been extensively studied. However, very few reports have assessed the difference in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under different land use types. In this study, a three-year field experiment was conducted in cropland (winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) and apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh) on the semi-arid Loess Plateau from 2011 to 2013. Soil respiration (measured using Li-Cor 8100), bacterial community structure (represented by 16S rRNA), soil enzyme activities, and soil physicochemical properties of surface soil were monitored. The average annual soil respiration rate in the apple orchard was 12% greater than that in the cropland (2.01 vs. 1.80μmolm -2 s -1 ), despite that the average Q 10 values in the apple orchard was 15% lower than that in the cropland (ranging from 1.63 to 1.41). As to the differences among predominant phyla, Proteobacteria was 26% higher in the apple orchard than that in the cropland, whereas Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were 18% and 36% lower in the apple orchard. The β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activity were 15% (44.92 vs. 39.09nmolh -1 g -1 ) and 22% greater (21.39 vs. 17.50nmolh -1 g -1 ) in the apple orchard than that in the cropland. Compared to the cropland, the lower Q 10 values in the apple orchard resulted from the variations of bacterial community structure and β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activity. In addition, the lower C: N ratios in the apple orchard (6.50 vs. 8.40) possibly also contributed to its lower Q 10 values. Our findings call for further studies to include the varying effects of land use types into consideration when applying Q 10 values

  14. Oriented Growth of α-MnO₂ Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Botero, Lina; Herrera, Adriana P; Hinestroza, Juan P

    2017-05-22

    We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO₂) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica 'Cortland' apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO₂ nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO₄ in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO₂ nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO₂ nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  15. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Y.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl 2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl 2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45 Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45 CaCl 2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  16. Oriented Growth of α-MnO2 Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sanchez-Botero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO2 nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica ‘Cortland’ apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods: (1 reduction of KMnO4 in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2 a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO2 nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO2 nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  17. Biological relevance of volatile organic compounds emitted during the pathogenic interactions between apple plants and Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Antonio; Buriani, Giampaolo; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Rondelli, Elena; Savioli, Stefano; Rodriguez Estrada, Maria T; Cristescu, Simona M; Costa, Guglielmo; Spinelli, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted during the infection of apple (Malus pumila var. domestica) plants by Erwinia amylovora or Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and used to treat uninfected plants. Infected plants showed a disease-specific emission of volatile organic compounds, including several bio-active compounds, such as hexenal isomers and 2,3-butanediol. Leaf growth promotion and a higher resistance to the pathogen, expressed as a lower bacterial growth and migration in plant tissues, were detected in plants exposed to volatile compounds from E. amylovora-infected plants. Transcriptional analysis revealed the activation of salicylic acid synthesis and signal transduction in healthy plants exposed to volatiles produced by E. amylovora-infected neighbour plants. In contrast, in the same plants, salicylic acid-dependent responses were repressed after infection, whereas oxylipin metabolism was activated. These results clarify some metabolic and ecological aspects of the pathogenic adaptation of E. amylovora to its host. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Wild apple growth and climate change in southeast Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina P. Panyushkina; Nurjan S. Mukhamadiev; Ann M. Lynch; Nursagim A. Ashikbaev; Alexis H. Arizpe; Christopher D. O' Connor; Danyar Abjanbaev; Gulnaz Z. Mengdbayeva; Abay O. Sagitov

    2017-01-01

    Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand...

  19. How young trees cope with removal of whole or parts of shoots: an analysis of local and distant responses to pruning in 1-year-old apple (Malus xdomestica; Rosaceae) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumey, Damien; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Guédon, Yann; Godin, Christophe; Costes, Evelyne

    2011-11-01

    Manipulation of tree architecture by pruning provides an experimental context to analyze architectural plasticity resulting from competition between developing organs. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the removal of all or part of shoots through pruning on the redistribution of growth and flowering at spatial and temporal levels. Two types of pruning cuts were applied: (1) heading cuts of either the main stem or laterals and (2) thinning cuts (i.e., complete removal) of laterals. These two types of cuts were applied in summer and winter on 1-yr-old cultivars of Fuji and Braeburn apple trees. Tree topology and geometry were described over 3 years, and responses were analyzed for both local and distant scales. Heading cuts induced quasi-deterministic local responses on pruned axes, whereas responses to thinning cuts were more variable. For the main stem and laterals, responses over greater spatial and temporal scales were highlighted with (1) stronger growth the year after summer pruning and (2) modification of branching and flowering along the unpruned parts after winter pruning. Pruning typically induced growth redistribution toward traumatic reiterations and enhanced growth of the remaining unpruned axes with a concomitant decrease of flowering and cambial growth. Although results could be interpreted in relation to the root-shoot balance, tree responses appeared highly cultivar-specific.

  20. Genotyping-by-sequencing markers facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Norelli

    Full Text Available Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. There are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple. However, resistance has been described in wild Malus sieversii accessions, including plant introduction (PI613981. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic loci controlling resistance to blue mold in this accession. We describe the first quantitative trait loci (QTL reported in the Rosaceae tribe Maleae conditioning resistance to P. expansum on genetic linkage group 3 (qM-Pe3.1 and linkage group 10 (qM-Pe10.1. These loci were identified in a M.× domestica 'Royal Gala' X M. sieversii PI613981 family (GMAL4593 based on blue mold lesion diameter seven days post-inoculation in mature, wounded apple fruit inoculated with P. expansum. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in 169 progeny over a four year period. PI613981 was the source of the resistance allele for qM-Pe3.1, a QTL with a major effect on blue mold resistance, accounting for 27.5% of the experimental variability. The QTL mapped from 67.3 to 74 cM on linkage group 3 of the GMAL4593 genetic linkage map. qM-Pe10.1 mapped from 73.6 to 81.8 cM on linkage group 10. It had less of an effect on resistance, accounting for 14% of the experimental variation. 'Royal Gala' was the primary contributor to the resistance effect of this QTL. However, resistance-associated alleles in both parents appeared to contribute to the least square mean blue mold lesion diameter in an additive manner at qM-Pe10.1. A GMAL4593 genetic linkage map composed of simple sequence repeats and 'Golden Delicious' single nucleotide polymorphism markers was able to detect qM-Pe10.1, but failed to detect qM-Pe3.1. The subsequent addition of genotyping-by-sequencing markers to the linkage map provided better coverage of the PI613981 genome on linkage group 3 and facilitated discovery of q

  1. Oggetti e memoria domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Brancato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo è un ideale viaggio nella memoria attraverso le stanze che compongono le nostre case. Un itinerario fra gli oggetti che fanno da sfondo quotidiano alla nostra scenografia domestica. Nello specifico indagheremo album fotografici, souvenir, ninnoli (mnemoteche domestiche. Sin dall’inizio abbiamo considerato gli ambienti domestici veri e propri serbatoi di memorie individuali e collettive. In tali serbatoi i soggetti depositano tracce delle proprie biografie, esprimendo e confermando progetti identitari.

  2. Failure to launch: the self-regulating Md-MYB10 R6 gene from apple is active in flowers but not leaves of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boase, Murray R; Brendolise, Cyril; Wang, Lei; Ngo, Hahn; Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Schwinn, Kathy E; Davies, Kevin M; Albert, Nick W

    2015-10-01

    The Md - MYB10 R6 gene from apple is capable of self-regulating in heterologous host species and enhancing anthocyanin pigmentation, but the activity of MYB10 is dependent on endogenous protein partners. Coloured foliage due to anthocyanin pigments (bronze/red/black) is an attractive trait that is often lacking in many bedding, ornamental and horticultural plants. Apples (Malus × domestica) containing an allelic variant of the anthocyanin regulator, Md-MYB10 R6 , are highly pigmented throughout the plant, due to autoregulation by MYB10 upon its own promoter. We investigated whether Md-MYB10 R6 from apple is capable of functioning within the heterologous host Petunia hybrida to generate plants with novel pigmentation patterns. The Md-MYB10 R6 transgene (MYB10-R6 pro :MYB10:MYB10 term ) activated anthocyanin synthesis when transiently expressed in Antirrhinum rosea (dorsea) petals and petunia leaf discs. Stable transgenic petunias containing Md-MYB10 R6 lacked foliar pigmentation but had coloured flowers, complementing the an2 phenotype of 'Mitchell' petunia. The absence of foliar pigmentation was due to the failure of the Md-MYB10 R6 gene to self-activate in vegetative tissues, suggesting that additional protein partners are required for Md-MYB10 to activate target genes in this heterologous system. In petunia flowers, where endogenous components including MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) proteins were present, expression of the Md-MYB10 R6 promoter was initiated, allowing auto-regulation to occur and activating anthocyanin production. Md-MYB10 is capable of operating within the petunia MBW gene regulation network that controls the expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, AN1 (bHLH) and MYBx (R3-MYB repressor) in petals.

  3. Superação in vitro da dormência de embriões do porta-enxerto de macieira M9 (Malus pumilla Mill. Suppression of in vitro dormancy in embryos of rootstock of apple M9 (Malus pumilla Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A dormência em sementes de macieira é um dos fatores limitantes para o avanço nos programas de melhoramento genético nesta espécie. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou estudar a germinação in vitro de embriões dormentes do porta-enxerto de macieira M9, oriundos da EE São Joaquim da EPAGRI/SC. Os embriões foram excisados de sementes maduras e inoculados em meio basal MS, adicionado de sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (6 g.L-1, água de coco (15%, caseína hidrolisada (CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (0 e 14 µM; AG3 (0 e 1,5 µM, Kin (5 µM, 2-iP (12 µM; BAP (4 µM. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro por 10 dias e transferidas para sala de crescimento sob regime de luz de 16 horas, temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e 40 µmol de radiação luminosa. A maior percentagem de germinação (75% foi obtida em meio MS suplementado com CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e Kin (5 µM. Quando a Kin foi substituída por BAP (4µM, observou-se a formação de calo, sobre o qual se originaram gemas e brotações, cujos valores médios foram de 2,3 brotos por embrião e 12,3 gemas por brotação. Em relação ao comprimento das brotações, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. A maior percentagem de indução de calos ocorreu em meio de cultura suplementado com AIA, Kin e 2-iP. O meio de cultura MS/2 suplementado com CH e água de coco e isento de fitorreguladores, resultou em 25% de germinação. Já, o número de raízes foi maior no meio de cultura MS suplementado com AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e CH. O comprimento médio das raízes (4,0 cm não foi afetado por nenhum tratamento em particular. Desta forma, esta técnica é uma alternativa eficiente ao uso de tratamentos de frio para a superação da dormência.The embryo dormancy in apple is a limiting factor in breeding programs with this species. Thus the present work was carried out in order to study the in vitro germination of M9 apple dormant embryos, originated from the Experimental

  4. MdHB1 down-regulation activates anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white-fleshed apple cultivar 'Granny Smith'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Liu, Cuihua; Yan, Dan; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yanli; Wang, Haojie; Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Ren, Xiaolin

    2017-02-01

    Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple). Moreover, flowers of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC89') overexpressing MdHB1 showed a remarkable reduction in pigmentation. Transient promoter activation assays and yeast one-hybrid results indicated that MdHB1 indirectly inhibited expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation determined that MdHB1 acted as a homodimer and could interact with MYB, bHLH, and WD40 in the cytoplasm, consistent with its cytoplasmic localization by green fluorescent protein fluorescence observations. Together, these results suggest that MdHB1 constrains MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, and MdTTG1 to the cytoplasm, and then represses the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT indirectly. When MdHB1 is silenced, these TFs are released to activate the expression of MdDFR and MdUFGT and also anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in red flesh in 'Granny Smith'. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  6. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  7. Widespread anti-sense transcription in apple is correlated with siRNA production and indicates a large potential for transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Gaillard, Sylvain; Bruneau, Maryline; Pelletier, Sandra; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Navarro, Lionel; Laurens, François; Renou, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Characterizing the transcriptome of eukaryotic organisms is essential for studying gene regulation and its impact on phenotype. The realization that anti-sense (AS) and noncoding RNA transcription is pervasive in many genomes has emphasized our limited understanding of gene transcription and post-transcriptional regulation. Numerous mechanisms including convergent transcription, anti-correlated expression of sense and AS transcripts, and RNAi remain ill-defined. Here, we have combined microarray analysis and high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) to unravel the complexity of transcriptional and potential post-transcriptional regulation in eight organs of apple (Malus × domestica). The percentage of AS transcript expression is higher than that identified in annual plants such as rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, we show that a majority of AS transcripts are transcribed beyond 3'UTR regions, and may cover a significant portion of the predicted sense transcripts. Finally we demonstrate at a genome-wide scale that anti-sense transcript expression is correlated with the presence of both short (21-23 nt) and long (> 30 nt) siRNAs, and that the sRNA coverage depth varies with the level of AS transcript expression. Our study provides a new insight on the functional role of anti-sense transcripts at the genome-wide level, and a new basis for the understanding of sRNA biogenesis in plants. © 2014 INRA. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 130362 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Malus domestica MEDKLSIVAKSIAPSPIQELSHLARRCNAINLAEGFPDFPAPSHIKHAAISAIHSDFNQYRHVQGICDHLANIMKQMHGLDVNPLTDMA...ICCGQSEALAAAAFAIIDKGDEVILFDPCYETYEGCIKMAGGVSVYVPLDPPHWTLDPNRFINAFNERTKALVLNSPHNPTGK

  9. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  10. Estudos histológicos preliminares da microenxertia de plantas micropropagadas de macieira Preliminaries histological studies from the micrografting of tissue cultured apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monita Fiori de Abreu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura moderna necessita implantar tecnologias que possibilitem a produção de frutos de alta qualidade, com custos cada vez menores. A micropropagação associada à microenxertia possibilita altas taxas de multiplicação de plantas com alta qualidade fitossanitária, além de possibilitar a realização de estudos sobre compatibilidade de enxertia em diferentes clones. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o processo de soldadura entre genótipos de macieira (Malus domestica. Borkh multiplicadas in vitro após a microenxertia. Esta técnica foi realizada em fenda simples, sob condições assépticas. Os estudos histológicos foram realizados através de cortes longitudinais seriados de segmentos de 8 mm do ponto de enxertia. O processo de soldadura foi caracterizado pelo desenvolvimento de tecido meristemático, originando células parenquimáticas na interface do microenxerto, com a proliferação do tecido cambial da cultivar copa. Isso possibilita a ligação do sistema vascular da copa com o do porta-enxerto, resultando na sobrevivência do microenxerto.The modern fruitculture needs to introduce techniques that allow a less expensive production of high quality fruits. The micropropagation associate to micrografting provides high average of plant multiplication and disease free material. In addition it provides studies of grafting compatibilities. The present work aim to study the process of the micrografting union of tissue cultured apple (Malus domestica. Borkh. The scions were cleft-grafted on the rootstocks, under aseptic conditions. For histological studies specimens were trimmed down to 4mm above and below the graft union (longitudinal cuts. The graft union development resulted in the generation of meristem tissue, originating parenchymatous cells at the graft interface, and a cambial tissue proliferation from the scion. This procedure allows the vascular system connection between the scion and the rootstock

  11. Abscisic (ABA)-aldehyde is a precursor to, and 1',4'-trans-ABA-diol a catabolite of, ABA in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous 18 O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of [ 18 O]ABA with the label incorporated in the 1'-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of 18 O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1'-4'-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from 18 O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of 18 O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. 18 O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of 18 O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of 18 O from the side chain of [ 18 O]ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde → ABA → ABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to β-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed

  12. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves

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    Yanfen Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT. The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH, jasmonate (JA and salicylic acid (SA were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1, respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  13. The small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase MdSIZ1 promotes anthocyanin accumulation by sumoylating MdMYB1 under low-temperature conditions in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jie; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Xie, Xing-Bin; Zhao, Cheng; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-10-01

    MdMYB1 acts as a crucial component of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-skinned apples (Malus domestica), but little is known about its post-translational regulation. Here, a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase MdSIZ1 was screened out as an MdMYB1-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybridization approach. The interaction between MdSIZ1 and MdMYB1 was further verified with pull-down and CoIP assays. Furthermore, it was found that MdSIZ1 directly sumoylated MdMYB1 proteins in vivo and in vitro, especially under moderately low temperature (17 °C) conditions, and that this sumoylation was required for MdMYB1 protein stability. Moreover, the transcription level of MdSIZ1 gene was remarkably induced by low temperature and phosphorus deficiency, and MdSIZ1 overexpression exerted a large positive influence on anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration, suggesting its important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis under stress conditions. Our findings reveal an important role for a small ubiquitin-like modifier modification of MYB transcription factors in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differentiation of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in European fruit trees by PCR using specific primers derived from the sequence of a chromosomal fragment of the apple proliferation MLO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarausch, W; Saillard, C; Dosba, F; Bové, J M

    1994-01-01

    A 1.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment of the mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) associated with apple proliferation was sequenced. Three putative open reading frames were observed on this fragment. The protein encoded by open reading frame 2 shows significant homologies with bacterial nitroreductases. From the nucleotide sequence four primer pairs for PCR were chosen to specifically amplify DNA from MLOs associated with European diseases of fruit trees. Primer pairs specific for (i) Malus-affecting MLOs, (ii) Malus- and Prunus-affecting MLOs, and (iii) Malus-, Prunus-, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs were obtained. Restriction enzyme analysis of the amplification products revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms between Malus-, Prunus, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs as well as between different isolates of the apple proliferation MLO. No amplification with either primer pair could be obtained with DNA from 12 different MLOs experimentally maintained in periwinkle. Images PMID:7916180

  15. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  16. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Apel ( Pyrus malus, L Terhadap

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    Suparmia, Khusnul Khotimah Amal Fadho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Pyrus malus, L is a fruit having much uses for health containing phytochemical and flavonoid substances. One of the substances contained in apple rind is quercetin. Quercetin capable to reduce vascular permeability (Mochizuki et al., 2004. The recent study has an aim to know activity of ethanol extract on apple rind to the reducing of vascular permeability thus it can used as therapies for plasma leakage in curing Dengue Blood Fever. The vascular permeability test it was done an induction method using acetate acid. Testing done on white male mice of the BALB/c strain where the mice were divided into 5 groups. The first and second groups were control groups that are a positive control were given 0.2 mg/20 g standard quersetin suspension and the negative one was given 0.5% Na CMC suspension. The third, fourth and fifth groups were treatment groups where each testing animals were given ethanol extract suspension of apple rind by dosages 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/20 g of Body Weight mice per oral. Taking data was done by measuring pigment intensities from abdominal cavity liquid had been washed with acetate saline. From percentages of vascular permeability reducing each group then analyzed using statistic analyses those were the one-way anova. If there was found any significant difference then it was continued a Tukey test and bivariate-correlation. From results in the study it was known that percentages of vascular permeability reduces of ethanol extract that were made from apple rind having dosages 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg in sequences as big as 42.15%, 63.28% and 84.19%.Keywords: Pyrus malus, L, kuersetin, vascular permeability

  17. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content and Mineral Composition of Different Fruit Tissue of Five Apple Cultivars Grown in Chile Determinación de la Capacidad Antioxidante, contenido de Fenoles totales y Composición Mineral de Diferentes Tejidos de Frutos de Cinco Variedades de Manzana cultivadas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henríquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica Borkh. have been identified as one of the main dietary sources of antioxidants, mainly phenolic compounds. These compounds vary in their composition and concentration, among cultivars and fruit tissues. In this research, the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau assay, antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, FRAP assay and mineral composition in three fruit tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit, of apple cultivars commonly used for dried apple production in Chile, were studied. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics (dry weight, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids content and color were also evaluated. The results indicated that the total phenolic content, the antioxidant capacity, and the mineral composition, of peel were substantially higher than those of whole fruit, and pulp for all the cultivars studied. Among cultivars, ‘Red Delicious’ apple peels have a significantly much higher content of total phenolic (11.6 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1 FW and a higher FRAP (209.9 µmol Fe+2 g-1 FW. Additionally, a high correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in all the cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed, except in the apple pulp. On the other hand, the physical and chemical composition differed among cultivars and fruit tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, mineral composition, and physical and chemical characteristics vary considerably depending on the apple cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed.Las manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. han sido identificadas como una de las principales fuentes de antioxidantes en la dieta, principalmente de compuestos fenólicos. Estos compuestos varían en su composición y concentración según el cultivar y el tejido del fruto. En esta investigación se determinó: el contenido de fenoles totales (ensayo de Folin-Ciocalteau, la capacidad

  18. Effect of DPA and 1-MCP on chemical compounds related to superficial scald of Granny Smith apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, C.; Moya-Leon, M. A.; Pereira, M.; Yuri, J. A.; Lobos, G. A.

    2010-07-01

    Research was carried out to study the mode of action of diphenylamine (DPA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on control of superficial scald of Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and its relation with chemical compounds. Fruit was harvested from a commercial orchard in Chile, 182 and 189 days after full bloom and received the following treatments: DPA (2,000 ppm); 1-MCP (1.2 ppm) and control (no treatment). All fruit was stored for 4 or 6 months at 0 degree centigrade. A completely randomized factorial design was used (2 harvest dates by 3 post harvest treatments). Monthly measurements were made on maturity indices, ethylene production rate (EPR), scald related compounds [a-farnesene (AF), conjugated trienes (CT), total anti-oxidants (AO)], and cell membrane stability. Following 4 and 6 months of storage, plus 7 days at 20 degree centigrade, scald was evaluated. After 6 months, DPA-treated fruit, from both harvests, showed similar firmness, EPR and AO, compared to the control. However, AF and CT were lower, and cell membrane stability higher. Conversely, 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a noticeable EPR suppression and AF inhibition, along with higher firmness, lower CT and AO, compared to the control and DPA. Furthermore, cell membrane stability was superior to that of the control and similar to that of the DPA. Treated fruit (DPA and 1-MCP) showed an important reduction in scald compared to the control. The effect of 1-MCP on the investigated compounds and the reduction in scald, confirms that ethylene plays a major role on its development. (Author) 50 refs.

  19. First report of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Boekhoudt, L.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, about 30% of the organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production consists of apple scab resistant cultivars, such as Topaz and Santana. However, organic ‘Topaz’ apples show a high incidence of fungal rot after storage. Hot-water treatment (HWT) of freshly harvested apple

  20. Exploring the Potential use of Photo-Selective Nets for Fruit Growth Regulation in Apple Explorando el uso Potencial de Mallas Foto-Selectivas para la Regulación del Crecimiento de Fruto en Manzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Bastías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of shading (i.e. reduction of sunlight availability on fruit growth physiology has been widely studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., but little knowledge exist about fruit growth responses to changes in the light spectrum. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of use of colored nets with differential sunlight transmission in the blue (B, 400-500 nm, red (R, 600-700 nm and far-red (FR, 700-800 nm spectra on apple fruit growth and physiological associated responses. Three year old 'Fuji' apple trees were covered with 40% photo-selective blue and red shade nets, 40% neutral grey shade net, and 20% neutral white net as control. Red and blue net reduced in the same proportion (27% the photosynthetically active radiation with respect to control. However, blue net increased by 30% and reduced by 10% the B:R and R:FR the light relations, respectively. Maximal fruit growth rate under blue and grey nets was 15-20% greater than control. Fruit weight under blue net was 17% greater than control, but no significant differences in fruit weight were found among red net and control. Leaf photosynthesis and total leaf area under blue net were 28% and 30% higher than control, respectively; with ensuing positive effect on tree net C assimilation rate and total dry matter production. Results suggest that shifting the B, R, and FR light composition with photo-selective nets could be a useful tool to manipulate the photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulating the carbohydrate availability for apple fruit growth.El efecto del sombreado (i.e. reducción de la cantidad de luz solar sobre la fisiología de crecimiento de fruto ha sido ampliamente estudiado en manzano (Malus domestica Borkh., pero existe poco conocimiento sobre respuestas de crecimiento del fruto a cambios en el espectro de la luz. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar el efecto del uso de mallas de color con transmisión diferencial de la luz en el

  1. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  2. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  3. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  4. Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 Target WRKY Transcription Factors to Influence Apple Resistance to Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiulei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Chuanbao; Wang, Shengnan; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengyuan; Li, Tianzhong

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression that post-transcriptionally regulate transcription factors involved in plant physiological activities. Little is known about the effects of miRNAs in disease resistance in apple ( Malus × domestica ). We globally profiled miRNAs in the apple cultivar Golden Delicious (GD) infected or not with the apple leaf spot fungus Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1), and identified 58 miRNAs that exhibited more than a 2-fold upregulation upon ALT1 infection. We identified a pair of miRNAs that target protein-coding genes involved in the defense response against fungal pathogens; Md-miR156ab targets a novel WRKY transcription factor, MdWRKYN1, which harbors a TIR and a WRKY domain. Md-miR395 targets another transcription factor, MdWRKY26, which contains two WRKY domains. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 levels increased, while MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression decreased in ALT1-inoculated GD leaves; furthermore, the overexpression of Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 resulted in a significant reduction in MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression. To investigate whether these miRNAs and their targets play a crucial role in plant defense, we overexpressed MdWRKYN1 or knocked down Md-miR156ab activity, which in both cases enhanced the disease resistance of the plants by upregulating the expression of the WRKY-regulated pathogenesis-related (PR) protein-encoding genes MdPR3-1, MdPR3-2, MdPR4, MdPR5, MdPR10-1 , and MdPR10-2 . In a similar analysis, we overexpressed MdWRKY26 or suppressed Md-miR395 activity, and found that many PR protein-encoding genes were also regulated by MdWRKY26 . In GD, ALT-induced Md-miR156ab and Md-miR395 suppress MdWRKYN1 and MdWRKY26 expression, thereby decreasing the expression of some PR genes, and resulting in susceptibility to ALT1.

  5. The molecular mechanism underlying anthocyanin metabolism in apple using the MdMYB16 and MdbHLH33 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Wang, Nan; Liu, Jingxuan; Qu, Changzhi; Wang, Yicheng; Jiang, Shenghui; Lu, Ninglin; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2017-05-01

    MdMYB16 forms homodimers and directly inhibits anthocyanin synthesis via its C-terminal EAR repressor. It weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis when overexpressing MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16. MdMYB16 could interact with MdbHLH33. Anthocyanins are strong antioxidants that play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The germplasm of Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana is important for the study of anthocyanin metabolism. To date, only limited studies have examined the negative regulatory mechanisms underlying anthocyanin synthesis in apple. Here, we analyzed the relationship between anthocyanin levels and MdMYB16 expression in mature Red Crisp 1-5 apple (M. domestica) fruit, generated an evolutionary tree, and identified an EAR suppression sequence and a bHLH binding motif of the MdMYB16 protein using protein sequence analyses. Overexpression of MdMYB16 or MdMYB16 without bHLH binding sequence (LBSMdMYB16) in red-fleshed callus inhibited MdUFGT and MdANS expression and anthocyanin synthesis. However, overexpression of MdMYB16 without the EAR sequence (LESMdMYB16) in red-fleshed callus had no inhibitory effect on anthocyanin. The yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdMYB16 and LESMdMYB16 interacted the promoters of MdANS and MdUFGT, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that MdMYB16 formed homodimers and interacted with MdbHLH33, however, the LBSMdMYB16 could not interact with MdbHLH33. We overexpressed MdbHLH33 in callus overexpressing MdMYB16 and found that it weakened the inhibitory effect of MdMYB16 on anthocyanin synthesis. Together, these results suggested that MdMYB16 and MdbHLH33 may be important part of the regulatory network controlling the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

  6. INHIBITION OF Malus sylvestris Mill. PEELEXTRACT USING ETANOL SOLVENT ON THE GROWTH OF Streptococcus agalactiae AND Escherichia coli CAUSING MASTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzul Kamal Putra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find the resistibility of Manalagi apple peel extract, using etanol, to the growth of was to determine the antibacterial activity of Manalagi apple peel (Malus sylvestris Mill extract in various solvent using ethanol concentration against the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli bacteria that causing mastitis.The research methodwas experimental using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 6 replication. The treatments consisted of P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (50% concentrations and P0 (10% iodips as the control. The variable measured was diameter of inhibition zone. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT test if there was significantly difference result. The result of the inhibition zone of Manalagi apple peel extract using etanol in preventing the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli bacteria was different (P<0,01. In P2 (30% concentration, the extract resistibility to the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria was equivalent to P0 (iodips and in P3 (50% concentration, the extract resistibility to Escherichia coli bacteria was greater than P0 (iodips. Manalagi apple peel extract using etanol can be used as a natural antiseptic solution for teat dipping on dairy cows. The recommendation from the research was using extract Manalagi apple peel with etanol solvent concentration of 30% as a solution of teat dipping.   Keywords : Manalagi apple peel, Teat dipping, Mastitis, Streptococcus agalactiaeand Escherichia coli

  7. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Half-size ABCG Genes in Malus × domestica

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    Juanjuan MA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Half-size adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter subgroup G (ABCG genes play crucial roles in regulating the movements of a variety of substrates and have been well studied in several plants. However, half-size ABCGs have not been characterized in detail in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. Here, we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the half-size ABCG gene family in apple. A total of 46 apple half-size ABCGs were identified and divided into six clusters according to the phylogenetic analysis. A gene structural analysis showed that most half-size ABCGs in the same cluster shared a similar exon–intron organization. A gene duplication analysis showed that segmental, tandem and whole-genome duplications could account for the expansion of half-size ABCG transporters in M. domestica. Moreover, a promoter scan, digital expression analysis and RNA-seq revealed that MdABCG21 may be involved in root's cytokinin transport and that ABCG17 may be involved in the lateral bud development of M. spectabilis ‘Bly114’ by mediating cytokinin transport. The data presented here lay the foundation for further investigations into the biological and physiological processes and functions of half-size ABCG genes in apple. Keywords: apple, ABCG gene, duplication, gene expression

  8. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on pear and apple flowers are not limiting factors for Erwinia amylovora growth when these chemicals are considered in relation to cultivar and flower age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas PATERNOSTER

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of pear (Pyrus communis and apple (Malus × domestica in many areas of the world. The disease is often initiated by epiphytic populations that multiply on flowers and colonize the hypanthia. In vitro, E. amylovora requires nicotinic acid (NicAc and/or nicotinamide (NicNH2 as essential growth factors. The amount of NicAc on pear hypanthia was positively correlated with the altitude of the growing site and was inversely correlated with the sum of the maximum temperatures in the 30 days before flowering. The sum of the amounts of NicAc and NicNH2 on the hypanthia was about 6 to 23 times higher in pear, and about 1.2 to 3.5 times higher in apple, than the amounts of NicAc or NicNH2 necessary to support maximum E. amylovora growth  in vitro. No correlation was found between the amounts of NicAc and NicNH2 on the hypanthia of different pear and apple cultivars and at different growth stages and the growth of E. amylovora after experimental inoculation. In conclusion, NicAc and NicNH2 are essential for E. amylovora growth but the amounts of these chemicals on pear and apple flowers do not limit the establishment of the pathogen when competing bacteria

  9. Characterization of the MLO gene family in Rosaceae and gene expression analysis in Malus domestica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessina, S.; Pavan, S.N.C.; Catalano, D.; Gallotta, A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.; Malnoy, M.; Schouten, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew (PM) is a major fungal disease of thousands of plant species, including many cultivated Rosaceae. PM pathogenesis is associated with up-regulation of MLO genes during early stages of infection, causing down-regulation of plant defense pathways. Specific members of the MLO

  10. Tècniques de maneig de pomera (Malus domestica Borkhausen) en agricultura ecològica

    OpenAIRE

    Alins Valls, Georgina

    2009-01-01

    En la darrera dècada, la superfície en agricultura ecològica a Europa ha experimentat unfort augment, però la producció de fruita dolça encara no arriba a l'1% de la producció totaldegut a les dificultats tècniques que comporta. La producció de pomes en agricultura ecològica planteja tota una sèrie de reptes com l'elecció de la varietat, el control de plagues, malalties i flora arvense i l'aclarida, entre altres. El treball realitzat en aquesta tesi ha tingut com a objectiu incrementar el con...

  11. Genes and quality trait loci (QTLs) associated with firmness in Malus x domestica

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine

    2013-01-01

    , crunchiness and crispness. Fruit firmness is affected by the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci and their possible interactions with the environment. Identification of these loci is key for the determination of genetic candidate markers that can

  12. 21 CFR 145.110 - Canned applesauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients. The following safe and suitable optional ingredients may be used: (i) Water. (ii) Apple juice... apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen), which may or may not be peeled and cored, and which may have added thereto one or more of the optional ingredients specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The apple...

  13. Patterns of low temperature induced accumulation of dehydrins in Rosaceae crops-Evidence for post-translational modification in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimi, Perttu; Vinskienė, Jurgita; Stepulaitienė, Inga; Baniulis, Danas; Stanienė, Gražina; Šikšnianienė, Jūratė Bronė; Rugienius, Rytis

    2017-11-01

    Important crop plants of Rosaceae family are often damaged during winter due to the lack of acclimation and cold hardiness. One of the cellular responses of plants to cold stress is the accumulation of dehydrin proteins. We studied the expression of dehydrins in several Rosaceae species during low temperature treatment in vitro. Microshoots of Pyrus communis, Malus×domestica, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria×ananassa, Prunus cerasus and Prunus avium cultivars were grown in low temperature conditions. Genotype -specific accumulation of dehydrins was detected by immunoblot analysis of the extracted proteins. Untargeted difference gel electrophoresis of Malus x domestica microshoots revealed an extensive accumulation of three dehydrins. In a protein phosphatase assay, MdDHN2 and MdDHN4, but not MdDHN6 proteins were found to be extensively phosphorylated. In terms of the amount of protein synthesized, dehydrins are a major protein-level adaptation mechanism to low temperature in M. x domestica. In addition to dehydrins, the induction of proteins involved in the response for oxidative stress were observed. Additionally, a Xero2 -like dehydrin of F. vesca was detected by difference gel electrophoresis and identified by nano LC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowing Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Shannon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.

  15. Characteristics of blooming, floral nectaries and nectar of Malus sargentii Rehd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2007-2008, the flowering biology of Malus sargentii, an ornamental apple tree native to Japan, was studied in the conditions of Lublin (Poland. The daily rate of flower opening, flowering duration and flower visitation by insects were determined. The amount of nectar produced per flower and sugar content in the nectar were investigated. The size of nectaries and the micromorphology of their surface were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the greatest amount of flowers opened between 11.00 and 13.00. During this time, the largest number of insects was observed in the flowers. Bees (90% were predominant among the insects, with a much smaller number of bumblebees (6% and butterflies (4%. The flower life span was 5 days. Over this period, the flower produced, on the average, 0.71 mg of nectar with an average sugar content of 32%. The nectaries of Malus sargentii are orange-yellow coloured and they represent the hypanthial type. Due to the protrusion of the nectariferous tissue, they are classified as automorphic nectaries. The surface of the epidermal cells of the nectary was distinguished by distinct cuticle folds. A small number of stomata were located only in the basal part of the nectary. At the beginning of flowering, all stomata were closed, but secretion traces were observed near well-developed outer cuticular ledges.

  16. Alterações na cutícula de maçãs ‘Fuji’ e ‘Gala’ em função do tratamento térmico e da armazenagem refrigerada = Changes on ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ apple cuticle as a result of heat treatment and cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Raquel Scherrer Montero

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As doenças de pós-colheita são fatores limitantes para estocagem de produtos colhidos. É crescente o interesse por métodos alternativos para o controle de podridão em póscolheita. A termoterapia pré-estocagem parece ser um método promissor podendo ser aliado aoutros métodos alternativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos do tratamento térmico por aspersão e imersão na cutícula de maçãs (Malus domestica Borkh. Fuji e Gala após tratamento e período curto de armazenagem. Foram realizados seis tratamentos, com três repetições de três frutos: testemunha, imersão em água quente a 58ºC-30 s, 1 e 2 min., aspersão em água quente a 58ºC-30 s; imersão em clorofórmio 30 segundos. Foram retiradas amostras para visualização em microscopia eletrônica de varredura na instalação e três semanas de armazenamento a 0ºC. Durante a armazenagem, as rachaduras da cutícula aumentam em largura, sendo esta uma característica importante na pós-colheita, pois estas propiciam maior perda de água e podem tornar-se sítios de penetração de patógenos. O calor derrete os cristaloides de cera da cutícula para formar um padrão de recobrimento mais homogêneo na superfície e a oclusão defraturas, podendo atuar como barreira física para evitar a entrada de patógenos nas maçãs bem como reduzir a perda de massa fresca.Postharvest diseases are limiting factors to the storage of many crops. There is a growing interest in alternative methods to control postharvest diseases. Pre-storage heat treatment seems to be one of the most promising rot control methods, associated with other alternative methods. The objective of this work was to verify the effects of immersion and spraying heat treatment on the cuticle of Fuji and Gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh. right after treatment and a short storage period. This experiment consisted of six treatments, three replications of three fruits each: no treatment; hot water

  17. Efeito de auxinas sintéticas no enraizamento in vitro da macieira Effects of synthetic auxins on the in vitro rooting of apple tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Quezada Centellas

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Brotações de macieira (Malus domestica, Borkh, cv. Fred Hough, oriundas do processo de multiplicação in vitro, foram inoculadas em meio MS e MS/2, testando-se os reguladores de crescimento: ácido indol-3-acético (AIA; ácido indolbutírico (AIB e ácido naftaleno acético (ANA, nas concentrações de 0, 1, 3 e 5 miM com o objetivo de observar o efeito dessas auxinas sobre o enraizamento da cultivar. Foram acrescentadas aos meios as vitaminas MS mio-inositol (100 mg/L e sacarose (30 g/L em meio de ágar (6 g/L. O pH do meio foi ajustado para 5,8 e a cultura foi incubada a 25 ± 2º C e 16 horas de fotoperíodo a 2.000 lux, permanecendo por 30 dias. Os tratamentos foram repetidos cinco vezes e cada repetição constou de cinco explantes inoculados em frasco de 250 mL contendo 40 mL do meio. O meio MS/2 em todas as concentrações testadas foi melhor que o MS. O ANA e o AIB, ambos na concentração de 3 miM, em meio MS/2, tiveram comportamento semelhante na porcentagem de enraizamento e no número de raízes produzidas; no entanto, o ANA provocou efeitos indesejáveis na qualidade destas, havendo formação de calo na base das brotações e raízes grossas. O AIA obteve melhor resposta nas altas concentrações, mas não foi melhor que o AIB e ANA.Apple shoots (Malus domestica, Borkh, cv. Fred Hough derived from in vitro multiplication process were inoculated in MS and MS/2 basal media added by growth substances indol acetic acid (IAA; indol butiric acid (IBA and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA at 0, 1, 3 and 5 µM. The media also included: MS vitamins, myo-inositol (100.0 mg/L; sucrose (30.0 g/L; agar (6.0 g/L. The pH was adjusted to 5.8 before autoclaving. The treatments were incubated in a growth room at 25±2ºC, 16 hours photoperiod under light intensity of 2,000 lux during 30 days. The treatments were replicated five times. Each replicate was composed by a 250 mL flask containing 40 mL medium with five explants. The medium MS/2 in all the

  18. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Shuiming; Illa, Eudald; Song, Lijuan; Wu, Shandong; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere; Weg, Eric van de; Chen, Kunsong; Gao, Zhongshan

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica). Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach/almond allergen genes have

  19. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weg Eric

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4 have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica, these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcisPru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica. Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1. Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03 containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02 were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach

  20. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  1. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  2. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  3. Potential hosts for Lambertella corni-maris and Phacidium lacerum within the family Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two fungi were described in 2015 and 2016 as pathogens of pome fruit in the Pacific Northwest USA: Lambertella corni-maris on apple (Malus domestica), and Phacidium lacerum (synonym, Ceuthospora pinastri) on apple and d’Anjou pear (Pyrus communis). We documented pathogenicity of L. corni-maris to d...

  4. Interactive use of disease models using a smartphone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, A.J.; Boshuizen, P.C.; Jong, de P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit tree canker (Neonectria ditissima syn. Nectria galligena Bres.) is an important fungal disease in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Leaf fall is the predominant infection period for this disease. However, in The Netherlands and Belgium, no historical data on leaf fall of apple are available.

  5. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Auxin response factors (ARF) are transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in plants. Although the genomewide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding ARF genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 31 putative apple ARF genes have been identified and located ...

  6. Development and validation of the Axiom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianco, Luca; Cestaro, Alessandro; Linsmith, Gareth; Muranty, Hélène; Denancé, Caroline; Théron, Anthony; Poncet, Charles; Micheletti, Diego; Kerschbamer, Emanuela; Pierro, Di Erica A.; Larger, Simone; Pindo, Massimo; De Weg, Van Eric; Davassi, Alessandro; Laurens, François; Velasco, Riccardo; Durel, Charles Eric; Troggio, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions, and has great economic and cultural value. The apple genome is highly heterozygous and has undergone a recent duplication which, combined with a rapid linkage disequilibrium decay, makes it

  7. Regional somatic embryogenesis from in vitro apple leaf and artificial seed of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Kedong; Li Yazhi; Shu Huairui; Wang Bin

    1998-01-01

    First three open leaves of in vitro apple (Malus domastica Borkh.) shoots were used as explants. Each leaf was divided into three regions (upper, middle and lower) from tip to base and each region was composed of two sub-regions (leaf and right) along the main vain. Every explant was pricked with a dissector at the center of one sub-region before inoculated on MS + BA 1 mg/L + NAA 4 mg/L + 2,4-D 0.5 mg/L medium and incubated in darkness for 7 days, then transferred to MS + BA 1 mg/L medium. 85% of the explants regenerated somatic embryos directly around the prick after 40 days. The embryos were encapsulated in 4% sodium alginate and 2% CaCl 2 as artificial seeds, which could germinate and grow into plantlets under aseptic condition

  8. Residual Effect of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production on Chrysoperlaexterna (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Larvae Efecto Residual de los Pesticidas utilizados en la Producción integrada de Manzanas en las Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperate fruit crops are an important economic activity for growers in southern Brazil. However, several pest species are associated to apple (Malus domestica Borkh. crops in Brazil. Pesticides are largely used to control them and one way to change this is to combine selective pesticides and predator insects. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of the abamectin, carbaryl, fenitrothion, methidathion, sulfur, and trichlorfon pesticides on the survival and stage length of larvae and pupae, adult oviposition from treated larvae, and hatched eggs of two Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae populations. The compounds were sprayed on glass plates in accordance with the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC recommendations. First- and second-instar larvae were exposed to pesticide residues. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of first- and second-instar larvae. Changes in the number of eggs laid by females from first- and second-instar larvae exposed to residues of abamectin and sulfur, or abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon, respectively, were not observed. Only abamectin reduced the number of hatched eggs laid by females in Bento Gonçalves from treated first-instar larvae. Sulfur reduced the viability of C. externa eggs in Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria females from treated second-instar larvae, whereas trichlorfon and abamectin reduced the viability of eggs in Vacaria females. In conclusion, carbaryl, fenitrothion and methidathion were harmful to C. externa. Trichlorfon was harmful to first-instar larvae and slightly harmful to second-instar larvae. Abamectin and sulfur were slightly harmful to first-instar larvae and harmless to second-instar larvae.El cultivo de frutas de clima templado es una actividad económica importante para agricultores del Sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, varias especies de plagas están asociadas al cultivo de la manzana (Malus domestica Borkh. en

  9. Thidiazuron effects on shoot growth, return bloom, fruit set and nutrition of apples Efeito do thidiazuron no crescimento, no florescimento, na frutificação e na nutrição em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g ha-1 of a.i. in order to evaluate its effects on plant growth and development, return bloom, fruit set, nutrition, and fruit yield. Fruit set increased with TDZ dose in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ did not affect fruit yield in any cultivar. In 'Gala', the return bloom was reduced in about 50% at TDZ doses of 10 or 20 g ha-1. TDZ increased shoot growth in both cultivars. In leaves, TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and Mg in 'Gala' and of Mg in 'Fuji', but did not affect the chlorophyll content, leaf area, length, width, and dry mass per cm² regardless of cultivar. In fruits, the effect of TDZ varied according to the portion evaluated. Highest doses of TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and K in 'Gala' and of K in 'Fuji' in the entire fruits (flesh + skin; in the skin, highest doses of TDZ reduced the levels of N, Ca, and Mg in both cultivars, in addition to the level of K in 'Fuji'.Macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh., cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas na plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ nas doses de 0, 5, 10 e 20 g ha-1 de ingrediente ativo com o objetivo de serem avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, florescimento, nutrição, frutificação e rendimento de frutos. A frutificação efetiva aumentou com a dose de TDZ na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. Os tratamentos não afetaram o rendimento de frutos em nenhuma cultivar. Na cultivar Gala o florescimento no ano posterior ao da aplicação de TDZ foi reduzido em cerca de 50% nas doses de 10 e 20 g ha-1. O TDZ promoveu aumento no crescimento dos ramos do ano em ambas as cultivares. Nas folhas, o aumento nas doses de TDZ reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na cultivar Gala, e de Mg na cultivar Fuji mas não afetou o conteúdo de clorofila, área, comprimento, diâmetro e massa seca cm-2 da folha, em ambas as cultivares. Em frutos inteiros

  10. Influência da época de colheita e do armazenamento em atmosfera controlada na qualidade da maçã 'Braeburn' Influence of harvest maturity and controlled atmosphere conditions on the quality of 'Braeburn' apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da época de colheita e das condições de armazenamento em atmosfera controlada sobre a firmeza da polpa, acidez titulável, ºBrix e, principalmente, sobre a ocorrência de degenerescência da polpa em maçãs (Malus domestica cv. Braeburn. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação da data de colheita (27/3/1997 e 9/4/1997 com condição de armazenamento (temperatura de 0,5°C com: 1 kPa de O2/4,0 kPa de CO2; 1 kPa de O2/3,0 kPa de CO2; 1 kPa de O2/2,0 kPa de CO2; 21 kPa de O2/0,0 kPa de CO2, e temperatura de -0,5°C com: 1kPa de O2/3,0 kPa de CO2; 1 kPa de O2/2,0 kPa de CO2. Após oito meses de armazenamento, não foi observada suscetibilidade da maçã cv. Braeburn à baixa temperatura de armazenamento (-0,5ºC e os frutos armazenados em ambiente refrigerado apresentaram baixa qualidade para o consumo. As condições de atmosfera controlada de 1 kPa de O2 associadas com 2 e 3 kPa de CO2 e a -0,5ºC apresentaram menor incidência de podridões, rachaduras e degenerescência senescente. Os frutos colhidos tardiamente, em 9/4/1997, apresentaram maior incidência de podridões, polpa farinhenta, degenerescência com cortiça e rachaduras. Nos parâmetros firmeza da polpa, acidez titulável e teor de sólidos solúveis totais não se observaram diferenças entre as condições de atmosfera controlada, após sete dias de exposição à temperatura de 25ºC.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of harvest maturity and controlled atmosphere on the quality and internal breakdown incidence in apples (Malus domestica cv. Braeburn. The treatments consisted in the combination of harvest maturity (March 27, 1997 and April 9, 1997 with storage conditions (0.5°C with: 1 kPa O2/4 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2/3 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2/2 kPa CO2; 21 kPa O2/0 kPa CO2-cold storage and; -0.5°C with: 1 kPa O2/3 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2/2 kPa CO2. After eight months of storage, there was no low temperature injury on fruits stored at -0.5ºC, and the

  11. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  12. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  13. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Theresia; Mittelberger, Cecilia; Vergeiner, Clemens; Scherzer, Gerhard; Holzner, Barbara; Robatscher, Peter; Oberhuber, Michael; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica), six colorless non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd-NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd-NCC-32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 3 2 -position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18-position. In the polar Pd-NCC-32, the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 18 2 -position. Four other major Pd-NCCs and one minor Pd-NCC were identified with five NCCs from higher plants known to belong to the 'epi'-series. In addition, tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites, which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd-NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. © 2016 The Authors. Chemistry & Biodiversity Published by Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Apple : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab

  15. Columnar apple primary roots share some features of the columnar-specific gene expression profile of aerial plant parts as evidenced by RNA-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Djozgic, Haris; Rieger, Benjamin; Rapp, Steffen; Schmidt, Erwin Robert

    2015-02-04

    Primary roots (radicles) represent the first visible developmental stages of the plant and are crucial for nutrient supply and the integration of environmental signals. Few studies have analyzed primary roots at a molecular level, and were mostly limited to Arabidopsis. Here we study the primary root transcriptomes of standard type, heterozygous columnar and homozygous columnar apple (Malus x domestica) by RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR. The columnar growth habit is characterized by a stunted main axis and the development of short fruit spurs instead of long lateral branches. This compact growth possesses economic potential because it allows high density planting and mechanical harvesting of the trees. Its molecular basis has been identified as a nested Gypsy-44 retrotransposon insertion; however the link between the insertion and the phenotype as well as the timing of the phenotype emergence are as yet unclear. We extend the transcriptomic studies of columnar tissues to the radicles, which are the earliest developmental stage and investigate whether homozygous columnar seedlings are viable. Radicles mainly express genes associated with primary metabolism, growth and development. About 200 genes show differential regulation in a comparison of heterozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles, whereas the comparison of homozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles yields about 300 differentially regulated genes. Genes involved in cellulose and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cell wall modification, transcription and translation, ethylene and jasmonate biosynthesis are upregulated in columnar radicles. Genes in the vicinity of the columnar-specific Gypsy-44 insertion experience an especially strong differential regulation: the direct downstream neighbor, dmr6-like, is downregulated in heterozygous columnar radicles, but strongly upregulated in columnar shoot apical meristems. The transcriptomic profile of primary roots reflects their pivotal

  16. Pertumbuhan dan Reproduksi Lalat Musca domestica pada Berbagai Media Perkembangbiakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Musca domestica was insect that disturbing human and other animal. Intensity M. Domestica with human living includes public healthy. The aim of research is to observe succeed of Mdomestica in breeding wether difJerent place. Larva growth in each stadia was different, 2-4 days average. Its contributed by humidity. On dry container, pupae that succes eksklosi only 50%. Presentation offood show difJerences oflarvae development. 3rd stage of larvae that has enough food is 17mm in length and 12mm in length for larvae with less food. Salty water make larvae growing faster than water without salto Development of Musca domestica in laboratory injluenced by high humidity, preset of food and adaptation of Musca domestica its self.Keywords : Musca domestica, rearing, development, humidity, food, salt - water

  17. Intracellular localization of Na + /H + antiporter from Malus zumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined the intracellular localization of the product of Na+/H+ antiporter gene (MzNHX1) cloned from Malus zumi. Analysis using yeast cells expressing a fusion protein of MzNHX1 and green fluorescent protein confirmed the localization of MzNHX1 on the tonoplast.

  18. The Polarization of Light and Malus' Law Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    Originally an empirical law, nowadays Malus' law is seen as a key experiment to demonstrate the transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, as well as the intrinsic connection between optics and electromagnetism. In this work, a simple and inexpensive setup is proposed to quantitatively verify the nature of polarized light. A flat computer screen…

  19. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures Estimativa da taxa de respiração e das mudanças físico-químicas de maçãs minimamente processadas e estocadas sob diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.Neste estudo, a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e da embalagem com atmosfera modificada passiva (AMP na taxa respiratória e nas propriedades físico-químicas de maçãs da variedade Gala (Malus domestica, B. minimamente processadas foi investigada. As amostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens flexíveis e armazenados a 2 °C, 5 °C e 7 °C, durante 11 dias. A taxa de respiração foi gerada para diferentes concentrações de O2 e CO2, obtidas por cromatografia gasosa. Os parâmetros de inibição foram estimados por um modelo matemático baseado na equação de Michaelis-Menten. Foram avaliadas as seguintes propriedades físico-químicas: sólidos solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável e açúcares redutores. A 2 °C, a taxa de respiração máxima foi

  20. Wild Apple Growth and Climate Change in Southeast Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Panyushkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand the potential of a changing climate to influence apple radial growth. Ring-width chronologies spanning 48 to 129 years were developed from 12 plots in the Trans-Ili Alatau and Jungar Alatau ranges of Tian Shan Mountains, southeastern Kazakhstan. Cluster analysis of the plot-level chronologies suggests different temporal patterns of growth variability over the last century in the two mountain ranges studied. Changes in the periodicity of annual ring-width variability occurred ca. 1970 at both mountain ranges, with decadal-scale variability supplanted by quasi-biennial variation. Seascorr correlation analysis of primary and secondary weather variables identified negative growth associations with spring precipitation and positive associations with cooler fall-winter temperatures, but the relative importance of these relationships varied spatially and temporally, with a shift in the relative importance of spring precipitation ca. 1970 at Trans-Ili Alatau. Altered apple tree radial growth patterns correspond to altered climatology in the Lake Balkhash Basin driven by unprecedented intensified Arctic Oscillations after the late 1970s.

  1. DAILY STEM GROWTH PATTERN IN IRRIGATED APPLE ORCHARDS FROM ARGES COUNTY IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chitu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of climate change manifested in the last 30 years in Romania (1982-2011, average data for 29 localities and characterized by a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperatures, especially in the summer months and increased rainfall deficit, fruit trees farm efficiency is becoming increasingly dependent on strict control of water management through irrigation systems. Thus, the maximum air temperatures experienced average growth trend per decade of 0.88°C, 0.82°C and 0.70°C in June, July and August, respectively, and minimum of 0.61°C, 0.67°C and 0.75°C, in the same months. In this context, ensuring continuous easily accessible soil water content to the root system of the trees, in correlation with plant consumption, has become the most widely used measure to mitigate the negative effects of rising temperatures and rainfall deficits. One of the most accurate methods of water stress early diagnosis and monitoring in a very short step of the fruit trees growth processes is the measurement of trunk diameter variations (SDV with electronic dendrometers. To highlight the advantages of applying the method to irrigated apple (Malus domestica Borkh. plantations from the southern Romania, we have organized two experiences with Redix and Braeburn cvs. grafted on M9 in 2009-2012 period. For measurements were used DEX 100 (Dynamax dendrometers and GP1 dataloggers (Delta-T Devices. It was found that all SDV-derived indices (maximum daily shrinkage (MDS, daily recovery (DR and daily growth (DG of the trees trunk between two successive days may be used for early diagnosis of water and temperature stress. DG was significantly negatively influenced by MDS in both cultivars and in all months of the year, except in September. The Redix cv. DG was inhibited only by the MDS values greater than 0.36 mm. DG is a much less sensitive indicator of water and heat trees stress than MDS. Emergence of water stress was highlighted by two indicators: soil

  2. Quebra da dormência da maciera (Malus domestica Borkh em São Joaquim-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IUCHI VERA LÚCIA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A macieira é uma fruteira de clima temperado que se caracteriza pelo fenômeno de dormência das gemas, necessitando de determinado número de horas de frio (< 7,2ºC para abertura de gemas. No Brasil, São Joaquim-SC, é o local que apresenta as melhores condições climáticas para o cultivo desta espécie. Entretanto, não é correto afirmar que sempre apresenta horas de frio suficientes para satisfazer as exigências das cultivares. Foram desenvolvidos experimentos no ano 1998 e 1999, em microclimas específicos, que vão de 900 a 1400 metros de altitude, no município de São Joaquim -- SC, permitindo afirmar que apenas para a cultivar Gala, nos locais mais altos, acima de 1300 m, em anos acima de 2.300 unidades de frio, é dispensada a superação de dormência artificial.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of alcohols from Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Przybysz, Elżbieta; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-10-01

    Information on the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cuticular alcohols on growth and virulence of insecticidal fungi is unavailable. Therefore, we set out to describe the content of cuticular and internal alcohols in the body of housefly larvae, pupae, males and females. The total cuticular alcohols in larvae, males and females of Musca domestica were detected in comparable amounts (4.59, 3.95 and 4.03 μg g(-1) insect body, respectively), but occurred in smaller quantities in pupae (2.16 μg g(-1)). The major free alcohol in M. domestica larvae was C(12:0) (70.4%). Internal alcohols of M. domestica larvae were not found. Among cuticular pupae alcohols, C(12:0) (31.0%) was the most abundant. In the internal lipids of pupae, only five alcohols were identified in trace amounts. The most abundant alcohol in males was C(24:0) (57.5%). The percentage content of cuticular C(24:0) in males and females (57.5 and 36.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of cuticular lipids in larvae and pupae (0.9 and 5.6%, respectively). Only two alcohols were present in the internal lipids of males in trace amounts (C(18:0) and C(20:0)). The most abundant cuticular alcohols in females were C(24:0) (36.5%) and C(12:0) (26.8%); only two alcohols (C(18:0) and C(20:0)) were detected in comparable amounts in internal lipids (3.61±0.32 and 5.01±0.42 μg g(-1), respectively). For isolated alcohols, antimicrobial activity against 10 reference strains of bacteria and fungi was determined. Individual alcohols showed approximately equal activity against fungal strains. C(14:0) was effective against gram-positive bacteria, whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all tested alcohols. Mixtures of alcohols found in cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of M. domestica generally presented higher antimicrobial activity than individual alcohols. In contrast, crude extracts containing both cuticular and internal lipids showed no antifungal activity against the

  4. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  5. Estudio comparativo entre metodologías para el diseño de Sistemas Bonus-Malus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez del Prado, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar un método para hacer comparaciones entre Sistemas Bonus Malus. Se comparan Sistemas Bonus Malus obtenidos mediante la metodología GPBM, basada en Programación por Metas y Sistemas Bonus Malus obtenidos mediante la metodología clásica, conocida como Escala de Bayes.

  6. R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53 / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53. National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain / Christopher Seaman. Pickwick IMP Classics CD PCD 1080; Selected comparisons: SNO, Järvi (3/88) Chandos CHAN 8572"

  7. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT90902 Malus x domestica Rosaceae ... Tensile testing of apple peels_Max force distance Max force... the x-axis corresponding to the maximum force value. 1 ... Chr15 30.7 4.41 ... 10.1093/jxb/erv366 26220084

  8. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  10. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  11. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  12. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  13. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey ... success of those programs depends on specific and sensitive ..... Applied Biostatistics Inc. Rott ME ...

  14. SEBARAN STASIONER PADA SISTEM BONUS-MALUS SWISS SERTA MODIFIKASINYA (Stationary Distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System and its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonus-Malus System is a system in actuary that introduce the premium class (state partition, where the state is influenced by the number of annual claims reported by the policy holder. We could base the determination of the state on the stationary distribution that represent the number of policy holders in any state. Swiss Bonus-Malus System has 22 state. The number of state that involved in this system result in the difficulty of stationary distribution determination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study a method to obtain stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System by recursive formula, with this recursive formula, the stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System can be determined easier. Modification of this system with infinite state result in the changes of recursive formula to obtain the stationary. This changes including the determining of base value of the recursive formula. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem Bonus-Malus merupakan sistem dalam aktuaria yang memperkenalkan pembagian kelas premi (state yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah klaim yang diajukan oleh pemegang polis tiap tahunnya. Penetapan state dalam sistem ini didasarkan pada pencarian sebaran stasioner yang menyatakan banyaknya pemegang polis dalam tiap state. Sistem Bonus-Malus Swiss (BMS memiliki 22 state. Banyaknya state yang terlibat dalam sistem ini mengakibatkan sulitnya penentuan sebaran stasioner pada sistem BMS tersebut. Karena itu dalam tulisan ini dipelajari suatu metode penentuan sebaran stasioner dari sistem BMS tersebut, yaitu dengan menggunakan formula rekursif. Dengan formula rekursif ini, sebaran stasioner sistem BMS dapat ditentukan dengan mudah. Modifikasi sistem BMS untuk jumlah state yang tak hingga mengakibatkan perubahan pada formula rekursif untuk mencari sebaran stasionernya. Perubahan ini meliputi penetapan nilai awal dari formula rekursif tersebut. Kata kunci: sebaran stasioner, formula rekursif, sistem Monus-Malus Swiss.

  15. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  16. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  17. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  18. Evaluation of SNP Data from the Malus Infinium Array Identifies Challenges for Genetic Analysis of Complex Genomes of Polyploid Origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Troggio

    Full Text Available High throughput arrays for the simultaneous genotyping of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have made the rapid genetic characterisation of plant genomes and the development of saturated linkage maps a realistic prospect for many plant species of agronomic importance. However, the correct calling of SNP genotypes in divergent polyploid genomes using array technology can be problematic due to paralogy, and to divergence in probe sequences causing changes in probe binding efficiencies. An Illumina Infinium II whole-genome genotyping array was recently developed for the cultivated apple and used to develop a molecular linkage map for an apple rootstock progeny (M432, but a large proportion of segregating SNPs were not mapped in the progeny, due to unexpected genotype clustering patterns. To investigate the causes of this unexpected clustering we performed BLAST analysis of all probe sequences against the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence and discovered evidence for paralogous annealing sites and probe sequence divergence for a high proportion of probes contained on the array. Following visual re-evaluation of the genotyping data generated for 8,788 SNPs for the M432 progeny using the array, we manually re-scored genotypes at 818 loci and mapped a further 797 markers to the M432 linkage map. The newly mapped markers included the majority of those that could not be mapped previously, as well as loci that were previously scored as monomorphic, but which segregated due to divergence leading to heterozygosity in probe annealing sites. An evaluation of the 8,788 probes in a diverse collection of Malus germplasm showed that more than half the probes returned genotype clustering patterns that were difficult or impossible to interpret reliably, highlighting implications for the use of the array in genome-wide association studies.

  19. Effect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizas on rooting, weaning and subsequent growth of micropropagated Malus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjatta Uosukainen

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of different rooting methods and the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF inoculation on the rooting rate, weaning survival and subsequent growth of microcuttings of Malus rootstock YP and the Finnish crab apple cultivars Hanna and Marjatta were studied in four experiments conducted at the Laukaa Research and Elite Plant Unit, Finland. Sucrose in the in vitro rooting medium gave the best support to weaning survival in comparision with glucose and fructose. Directly rooted microcuttings had a higher survival rate than in vitro rooted microcuttings. AMF inoculation did not improve the rooting rate in direct rooting. However, the Glomus hoi strain V98 caused severe rotting of microcuttings and thus lowered the rooting rate of cv. Hanna, AMF inoculation increased the mean shoot height of established plants, particularly inoculation with G. hoi V98, G. claroideum V43a or G. fistulosum V128. This effect, however, varied considerably in different host-fungus combinations. Some AMF strains, e.g. G. hoi V1O4, caused strong growth retardation. After the rooting and weaning stage, many uninoculated plants lapsed into arrest of growth. This phenomenon was less frequent in AMF inoculated plants. Optimal timing of AMF inoculation and nutritional level of rooting and weaning substrate are discussed.

  20. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  1. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  2. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  3. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...

  4. Fatal attraction. Control of the housefly (Musca domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Despite its long association with man, the housefly (Musea domestica Linnaeus) remains one of the most difficult pests to control. It is a ubiquitous insect that can be found in houses, stables, food processing factories and other domesticated areas and buildings. Reliance on insecticides for fly

  5. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  6. Prospects of fatty acid profile and bioactive composition from lipid seeds for the discrimination of apple varieties with the application of chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, S.; Sherazzi, S. T. H.; Bhanger, M. I.; Memon, N.; Mahesar, S. A.; Rajput, M. T.

    2012-11-01

    The extracted oils from four apple seed varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Pyrus Malus and Golden Delicious) from Pakistan were investigated for their fatty acid profiles and lipid biactives by GC-MS. The oil contents in the seeds of the apple varieties ranged from 26.8-28.7%. The results revealed that linoleic acid (40.5-49.6%) was the main fatty acid in the Royal Gala, Red Delicious and Pyrus Malus seeds, and oleic acid (38.7-45.5%) was the main fatty acid in the Golden Delicious seeds. Palmitic acid (6.1-7.4%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.1%) were the dominant saturated fatty acids, besides the small amount of palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, linolenic, archidic, eicosanoic, and behenic acids. Sterols, tocopherols, hydrocarbons and some other minor components were also identified from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The variation among the results of both fatty acids and lipid bio actives for the four different varieties was assessed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cluster analyses. The results conclude that both oil fractions could be applied as a useful tool to discriminate among the apple seed varieties. (Author) 42 refs.

  7. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  8. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  9. A sampling approach for predicting the eating quality of apples using visible–near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Mabel V Martínez; Sharifzadeh, Sara; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Visible–near infrared spectroscopy remains a method of increasing interest as a fast alternative for the evaluation of fruit quality. The success of the method is assumed to be achieved by using large sets of samples to produce robust calibration models. In this study we used represent......BACKGROUND Visible–near infrared spectroscopy remains a method of increasing interest as a fast alternative for the evaluation of fruit quality. The success of the method is assumed to be achieved by using large sets of samples to produce robust calibration models. In this study we used...... representative samples of an early and a late season apple cultivar to evaluate model robustness (in terms of prediction ability and error) on the soluble solids content (SSC) and acidity prediction, in the wavelength range 400–1100 nm. RESULTS A total of 196 middle–early season and 219 late season apples (Malus...... training and test sets (‘smooth fractionator’, by date of measurement after harvest and random). Using the ‘smooth fractionator’ sampling method, fewer spectral bands (26) and elastic net resulted in improved performance for SSC models of ‘Aroma’ apples, with a coefficient of variation CVSSC = 13...

  10. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  11. Apple As A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...

  12. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  13. Recovery patterns, histological observations and genetic integrity in Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using droplet vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A droplet-vitrification procedure is described for cryopreservation of Malus shoot tips. Survival patterns, recovery types, histological observations, and genetic integrity were compared for Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using this droplet-vitrification procedure and an encapsulation-dehydration pr...

  14. A new alkaloid from the fruit of Nandina domestica Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cai-Ying; Liu, Jian-Qun; Zhang, Rui; Shu, Ji-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A new steroidal alkaloid, (20S,22R,24R)-24-ethyl-3-oxocholest-4-en-22-amino, named as nandsterine (1), together with 10 known alkaloids, palmatine (2), O-methylbulbocapnine (3), nantenine (4), dehydronantenine (5), glaucine (6), didehydroglaucine (7), dehydrocorydaline (8), jatrorrhizine (9), magnoflorine (10) and berberine (11), was isolated from the fruit of Nandina domestica Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparing with the published data. Compound 1 was a new class of steroidal alkaloid isolated from the family Berberidaceae, meanwhile compounds 2, 3, 6-8 and 10 were obtained from N. domestica for the first time. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (human leukaemia) with IC50 values of 52.1 μM.

  15. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  16. Circadian rhytm in the house fly (Musca domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    BAZALOVÁ, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the expression pattern of five circadian clock genes (cwo, pdp 1{$\\varepsilon$}, ck 1{$\\varepsilon$}, ck 2{$\\beta$} and pdh) was studied in the housefly (Musca domestica). The influence of temperature on the expression pattern of these five genes and of two others genes, per and tim, was examined. The locomotor activity of flies exposed to three different temperature conditions was studied.

  17. Fire blight resistance in wild accessions of Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a devastating bacterial disease in apple that results in severe economic losses. Epidemics are becoming more common as susceptible cultivars and rootstocks are being planted, and control is becoming more difficult as antibiotic-resistant strains develop. Resistan...

  18. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  19. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  20. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  1. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  2. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  3. Dopamine alleviates nutrient deficiency-induced stress in Malus hupehensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bowen; Li, Cuiying; Ma, Changqing; Wei, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Huang, Dong; Chen, Qi; Li, Chao; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-10-01

    Dopamine mediates many physiological processes in plants. We investigated its role in regulating growth, root system architecture, nutrient uptake, and responses to nutrient deficiencies in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Under a nutrient deficiency, plants showed significant reductions in growth, chlorophyll concentrations, and net photosynthesis, along with disruptions in nutrient uptake, transport, and distribution. However, pretreatment with 100 μM dopamine markedly alleviated such inhibitions. Supplementation with that compound enabled plants to maintain their photosynthetic capacity and development of the root system while promoting the uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, altering the way in which those nutrients were partitioned throughout the plant. The addition of dopamine up-regulated genes for antioxidant enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (MdcAPX, MdcGR, MdMDHAR, MdDHAR-1, and MdDHAR-2) but down-regulated genes for senescence (SAG12, PAO, and MdHXK). These results indicate that exogenous dopamine has an important antioxidant and anti-senescence effect that might be helpful for improving nutrient uptake. Our findings demonstrate that dopamine offers new opportunities for its use in agriculture, especially when addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Forested landscapes promote richness and abundance of native bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in Wisconsin apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J C; Wolf, A T; Ascher, J S

    2011-06-01

    Wild bees provide vital pollination services for many native and agricultural plant species, yet the landscape conditions needed to support wild bee populations are not well understood or appreciated. We assessed the influence of landscape composition on bee abundance and species richness in apple (Malus spp.) orchards of northeastern Wisconsin during the spring flowering period. A diverse community of bee species occurs in these apple orchards, dominated by wild bees in the families Andrenidae and Halictidae and the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Proportion of forest area in the surrounding landscape was a significant positive predictor of wild bee abundance in orchards, with strongest effects at a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) buffer distance of 1,000 m or greater. Forest area also was positively associated with species richness, showing strongest effects at a buffer distance of 2,000 m. Nonagricultural developed land (homes, lawns, etcetera) was significantly negatively associated with species richness at buffer distances >750 m and wild bee abundance in bowl traps at all distances. Other landscape variables statistically associated with species richness or abundance of wild bees included proportion area of pasture (positive) and proportion area of roads (negative). Forest area was not associated with honey bee abundance at any buffer distance. These results provide clear evidence that the landscape surrounding apple orchards, especially the proportion of forest area, affects richness and abundance of wild bees during the spring flowering period and should be a part of sustainable land management strategies in agro-ecosystems of northeastern Wisconsin and other apple growing regions.

  5. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  6. 6-BA和GA_4+7喷施处理及其他措施促进长富2号苹果幼苗分枝的效果%Effects of 6-BA and GA_4+7 as well as other manual measures on branches formation of apple nursery stock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆伟; 宋春晖; 邢利博; 韩明玉; 赵彩平; 李高潮

    2011-01-01

    以八楞海棠+M26+长富2号苹果苗为试材研究了6-BA单独喷施、6-BA和GA_4+7等量混合物喷施、摘心、摘叶和刻芽等处理促进苹果幼苗分枝的效果。结果表明,6-BA及6-BA和GA_4+7等量混合物喷施处理能够有效地促进苹果幼苗产生分枝;相同施用浓度下,6-BA和GA_4+7等量混合物喷施处理的效果要优于单独使用6-BA,其适宜的质量浓度为1500mg·L^-1。摘叶和刻芽不能促进幼苗分枝产生;摘心可促使幼苗产生少量的长枝,但存在分枝数量少、新生主枝细弱和分枝角度较小等问题。摘叶结合6-BA或6-BA和GA_4+7等量混合物的施用在低质量浓度(500mg·L^-1)下可以显著提高促分枝效果,高质量浓度(1000~2000mg·L^-1)时提高作用表现的不显著。综合实验结果,建议生产中采用1500mg·L^-16-BA和GA_4+7等量混合物喷施的方式培育带分枝苹果苗木。%The appleMalus domestica Borth.) cultivar Fuji Nagafu No.2 was used to study the effects of 6-BA, equal mixture of 6-BA and GA4+7, leaf removing, pinching and bud notching on improving branching of nursery stock with M26 as interstock and M. robusta Rehd. as rootstock. The results showed that spraying treatments of 6-BA and the equal mixture of 6-BA and GA_4+7 were effective for improving seedlings branching situation. When applying same concentration the mixture treatment' s effect was better than 6-BA alone and the most appropriate concentration was 1 500 mg· L^-1. Leaf removing and bud notching could not make nursery stock produce any lateral branches;though pinching treatment could produce a small number of long shoots, it could not meet requirement because of its narrow branching angle and thin new-built leader. The treatment combining leaf removing with 6-BA or the mixture spraying gained better effect than 6-BA or the mixture spraying alone when applying lower spraying concentration (500 mg· L^-1) ; but

  7. Modeling and performance of Bonus-Malus Systems: Stationarity versus age-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren

    In a bonus-malus system in car insurance, the bonus class of a customer is updated from a year to the next as a function of the current class and the number of claims in the year (assumed Poisson). Thus the sequence of classes of a customer in consecutive years forms a Markov chain, and most of t...

  8. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Bellard, C.; Tellier, A.; Cam, le B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Kleinschmit, J.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past

  9. Expression Analysis of the MdCIbHLH1 Gene in Apple Flower Buds and Seeds in the Process of Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A bHLH transcription factor that is induced by low temperature was found in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. To understand the sequence characteristics of the gene, bioinformatics analysis was performed. Furthermore, gene expression patterns of the laminated apple seeds and lateral flower buds were analyzed during the period of dormancy release with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Based on secondary structure predictions, the results showed that the MdCIbHLH1 protein structure mainly included α-helix and random coil, while β-sheet and extended strand content was less. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of MdCIbHLH1 were similar in laminated apple seeds and lateral flower buds during the period of dormancy release. Before dormancy release, expression levels of MdCIbHLH1 were high and gradually decreased during the period of dormancy release. These results indicated that MdCIbHLH1 might play an important role during dormancy release in apple seeds and apple buds.

  10. Aceitação e preferência de frutos para oviposição em duas populações de Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim-Bravo,Iara Sordi; Silva-Neto,Alberto Moreira da

    2004-01-01

    The influence of four host fruits, orange (Citrus sinensis L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh) on oviposition behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out on two C. capitata laboratory-reared populations: one with artificial diet for 10 years with periodic introduction of wild flies and other reared with artificial diet for 20 years without wild flies introduction. In acceptance experimen...

  11. Acceptance and preference of fruits for oviposition in two Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim-Bravo, Iara Sordi; Silva-Neto, Alberto Moreira da

    2004-01-01

    The influence of four host fruits, orange (Citrus sinensis L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh) on oviposition behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out on two C. capitata laboratory-reared populations: one with artificial diet for 10 years with periodic introduction of wild flies and other reared with artificial diet for 20 years without wild flies introduction. In acceptance experimen...

  12. Influência de formas de aplicação de boro na qualidade e no rendimento de maçãs (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aparecida de Sá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O boro (B é aplicado na maioria dos pomares brasileiros de maçã, porém sem fundamentação experimental regional. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de formas, doses e épocas de aplicação de B no rendimento e na qualidade de maçãs. O experimento foi instalado em São Joaquim-SC, em 2002, com as cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema conduzidas em áreas diferentes, cujas avaliações foram realizadas nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os tratamentos consistiram em um fatorial envolvendo doses de B aplicadas ao solo, a cada dois anos, e épocas de pulverização na planta, feitas anualmente. Utilizou-se de delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, cujos tratamentos foram arranjados em parcelas subdividas: na parcela principal, foram alocadas as épocas de aplicação foliar de ácido bórico (sem pulverização, 0,3% pulverizado na fase de botão rosado e 0,6% em pós-colheita e nas subparcelas, as doses de bórax no solo (0; 2,5 e 5,0 kg ha-1 de B. A aplicação de B no solo foi mais eficiente do que a pulverização foliar para aumentar o teor de B na polpa, na folha e no solo; no entanto, não afetou nenhum dos atributos relacionados com a qualidade dos frutos, nas duas cultivares. A pulverização com B diminuiu o teor de amido e a acidez titulável, e não afetou o teor de sólidos solúveis e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos. A pulverização na floração diminuiu a germinação de grãos de pólen na cultivar Imperial Gala e a frutificação efetiva na cultivar Fuji Suprema. O rendimento de frutos não foi afetado pela adição de B, independentemente da época, da forma de aplicação ou dose, nas duas cultivares. Assim, não há necessidade de aplicar B nessas cultivares em pomares cultivados em solos com altos teores de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de incrementar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos.

  13. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  15. Novel cycloartane-type triterpenoid from the fruits of Nandina domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodai, Tetsuya; Horiuchi, Yoshinori; Nishioka, Yasuhiro; Noda, Naoki

    2010-04-01

    A novel cycloartane-type triterpenoid was isolated from the fruits of Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae). The structure was characterized as 24-methylene-3-oxocycloartane 13-carboxylic acid on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data.

  16. Feeding Behavior-Related Toxicity due to Nandina domestica in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of Cedar Waxwings were found dead in Thomas County, Georgia, USA, in April 2009. Five of these were examined grossly and microscopically. Grossly, all the examined birds had pulmonary, mediastinal, and tracheal hemorrhages. Microscopically, several tissues and organs were diffusely congested and hemorrhagic. Congestion and hemorrhage were marked in the lungs. Intact and partly digested berries of Nandina domestica Thunb. were the only ingesta found in the gastrointestinal tract of these birds. Due to their voracious feeding behavior, the birds had eaten toxic doses of N. domestica berries. N. domestica contains cyanide and is one of the few berries readily available at this time of the year in the region. The gross and microscopic findings are consistent with lesions associated with cyanide toxicity. This paper for the first time documents toxicity associated with N. domestica in Cedar Waxwings.

  17. Determination of patulin producing activity and radiation sensitivity of fungisolated from Korean apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Min Ho [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, especially within genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys growing on various fruits. In this study, patulin producing activities and the effects of a gamma irradiation on the control and/or sterilization of fungal strains isolated from Korean apples, Malus pumila var. dulcissima, were evaluated. Nine fungal strains; five strains of genus Penicillium and one strains of genus Glomerella, Giberella, Alternaria and Galactomyces were isolated and identified by the similarity analysis based on the nucleotide sequence of the ITS5-5.8S-ITS4 region. Among the isolated strains, four Penicillium strains and a Glomerella showed patulin producing activities. The maximal patulin-producing activity of P. griseofulvum ATCC 46037, a standard strain of patulin-producing fungi, was 1,211.5 ppm in a 5-GYEP broth medium, while those of the isolated fungi reached to 27.4⁓134.2 ppm. Patulin-producing levels were dependent on the carbon sources and maximal production of the patulin by P. griseofulvum, P. crustosum, I-3, I-6, I-7 and I-8 was observed in a broth media containing glycerol, fructose, glycerol, glucose, lactose and fructose, respectively. The D10-values of the conidia of tested strains in an aqueous suspension were calculated in the range of 0.25⁓0.64 kGy. In conclusion, although the patulin producing activities of the isolated fungi were significantly lower than those of standard strains, it cannot deny the possibility of an patulin contamination of the Korean apples. Therefore, gamma ray irradiation (1.0 kGy) after harvest of apples could be applied to prevent the growth of a patulin producing molds for a safe distribution.

  18. Determination of patulin producing activity and radiation sensitivity of fungisolated from Korean apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, especially within genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys growing on various fruits. In this study, patulin producing activities and the effects of a gamma irradiation on the control and/or sterilization of fungal strains isolated from Korean apples, Malus pumila var. dulcissima, were evaluated. Nine fungal strains; five strains of genus Penicillium and one strains of genus Glomerella, Giberella, Alternaria and Galactomyces were isolated and identified by the similarity analysis based on the nucleotide sequence of the ITS5-5.8S-ITS4 region. Among the isolated strains, four Penicillium strains and a Glomerella showed patulin producing activities. The maximal patulin-producing activity of P. griseofulvum ATCC 46037, a standard strain of patulin-producing fungi, was 1,211.5 ppm in a 5-GYEP broth medium, while those of the isolated fungi reached to 27.4⁓134.2 ppm. Patulin-producing levels were dependent on the carbon sources and maximal production of the patulin by P. griseofulvum, P. crustosum, I-3, I-6, I-7 and I-8 was observed in a broth media containing glycerol, fructose, glycerol, glucose, lactose and fructose, respectively. The D10-values of the conidia of tested strains in an aqueous suspension were calculated in the range of 0.25⁓0.64 kGy. In conclusion, although the patulin producing activities of the isolated fungi were significantly lower than those of standard strains, it cannot deny the possibility of an patulin contamination of the Korean apples. Therefore, gamma ray irradiation (1.0 kGy) after harvest of apples could be applied to prevent the growth of a patulin producing molds for a safe distribution

  19. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  20. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  1. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  2. Growth, Flowering Time and Quality of Twelve Apple Varieties under Urmia Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezaee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple is a major commercial fruit crop grown in Iran. The country produces approximately 1.6 - 2.7 million tonnes of apples and was one of the top 10 apple producing countries in the world during the last decade. West Azerbaijan province, with more than 50,000 hectare of apple orchards and by producing of approximately one million tonne of fresh apple, is one of the main regions of apple production in Iran. In this region, two common apple cultivars Red Delicious and Golden Delicious are dominant (>90%, which needs to be updated by new apple cultivars to satisfy different technical/management as well as worldwide marketing requirements. Apple cultivars evaluations was started in Iran since 1953 and a lot of apple collection were established, but and until new apple cultivar was not introduced to farmers, As a first step for introduction of alternative cultivars, in this study, vegetative growth, flowering time, fruit ripening time as well as fruit quality of 12 apple (Malus pumilla Mill cultivars were evaluated under Urmia climatic conditions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate vegetative growth, quality and compatibility of some apple cultivars to allow selection of alternative cultivars for commercial apple production in the northwest province of Iran. Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted at the Kahriz Horticultural Research Station located in Urmia-Iran (latitude 44°07' E; 37º 53' N.; altitude, 1325 m above sea level. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with 12 treatments (cultivars and three replications. The apple cultivars including Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Red Spur, Fuji, Delbar Stival, Golden Smothee, Jonagold, Gholab-Kohanz, Golab-Kermanshah, Mahali Shikhi and Shafie Abadi were grafted on MM 111 rootstock. Trees were 10-year-old with a planting distance of 3 x 4 m and were trained as modified leader system. Data collected for annual shoot growth, time

  3. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Hexokinase Gene, MdHXK1 in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A hexokinase gene named MdHXK1 (MDP0000309677 was cloned from ‘Gala’ apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. Sequence analysis showed that the MdHXK1 gene was 1 497 bp long and encoded 499 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass of this protein was 54.05 kD, and the pI was 5.76. A phylogenetic tree indicated apple MdHXK1 exhibited the highest sequence similarity to Pyrus bretschneideri PbHXK1. Analysis of the functional domain showed that the MdHXK1 protein included two conserved kinase domains. The prediction of subcellular localization suggested that the MdHXK1 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. There was an indication that MdHXK1 existed as one copy in the apple genome by Southern blotting. Silico analysis suggested that the promoter sequence contained several typical cis-acting elements, including defense, sugar signaling and phytohormone responsive elements. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the MdHXK1 gene was mainly expressed in stem and flower tissues. During the development of apple fruits, the expression of the MdHXK1 gene initially increased and then decreased. The changes on Glc phosphorylation relative activity and glucose concentration showed the same trend. In addition, the expression of this gene was induced by salt stress, low temperature, and abscisic acid (ABA. Finally, we obtained and purified the fused MdHXK1 protein by recombinant prokaryotic expression. Studies have demonstrated that MdHXK1 may participate in sugar metabolism in apple fruits. Enzyme encoded by MdHXK1 is a key factor in the mediation of sugar accumulation. Recently, researchers on hexokinase at home and abroad mainly focused on model plants, such as Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice, but orchard fruit like apple were underresearched. Our research established the foundation for the further study of the functions of MdHXK1.

  4. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple

  5. Information Security of Apple Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...

  6. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's an Adam's Apple? Print You're at the high school baseball ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  7. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  8. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of coat protein gene for Turkish ApMV isolates. Apple mosaic virus isolates were collected in 2007 to 2010 and the presence of the pathogen was detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR tests.

  9. Características de qualidade de cultivares de maçã: avaliação físico-química e sensorial de quinze cultivares Quality profile of 15 apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Wosiacki

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados aspectos de qualidade de interesse industrial de 15 cultivares de maçãs. A análise sensorial das frutas in natura discriminou as amostras de Melrose, Fred Housh, M 51/90 e Malus 71/90 como capazes de promover o processo de compra e de instalação do hábito de consumo. A análise sensorial dos sucos de frutas discrimina apenas a cultivar comercial Belgolden como interessante. Os sucos feitos com as amostras de maçãs apresentaram uma variação de 12 a 16ºBRIX e o valor médio de ácido málico foi de 0,362g/100mL. Os teores de compostos fenólicos apresentaram uma média de 316mg/L e um desvio padrão de 70mg/L (C.V.= 22%. Os indicadores industriais são elevados demais para serem comparados com aqueles necessários, abaixo de 20/25; os valores médios encontrados neste conjunto de maçãs foram de 45 (índice BRIX/acidez e 40,2 (índice ART/acidez. As amostras codificadas foram categorizadas como amargas, com um grupo de doces-amargas (as comerciais Fred Housh, Marquesa, Sansa e Romu, e as experimentais M 51/90 e todas as Malus e outro de ácidas-amargas (as demais cultivares estudadas. As amostras mais interessantes para o processamento industrial de suco clarificado são a Belgolden, as Coop 25 e 26, a Melrose e a Malus 67/90. A Sansa desponta como portadora de maior teor de frutose e potencialmente como matéria-prima para a elaboração de bebidas com apelo funcional.The article shows some figures concerning industrial aplications of samples from apple cultivars. Sensorial evaluation of the apples in natura indicated Melrose, Fred Housh, M 51/90 and Malus 71/90 as able to satisfy the consumer. Sensorial evaluation of the apple juice shows only one interesting variety, Belgolden. The juices showed 12 to 16ºBRX and a mean value of malic acid of 0,362g/100mL. Total phenol compounds showed a mean of 316mg/l (C.V.= 22%. Ratios concerning total sugar or total soluble solids: malic acid were too high as

  10. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  11. Kei Apple Plant Thorn Synovitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We noted 2 visible pieces of broken thorn within the joint space (Figure. 1). The pieces were retrieved and upon examination found to be thorns of Kei apple plant .The child was allowed home on the 3rd post operative day on antibiotics for 6 weeks. He has been reviewed 2 weeks post operatively with better range of motion.

  12. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  13. Apples for Teachers Pay Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Irving, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)

  14. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  15. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  16. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  17. Techniques for cold hardiness research for apple rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Privé, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Three reliable methods are explained for estimating different types of cold hardiness in Malus. They include: 1) a whole plant controlled freezing experiment for the assessment of low mid-winter injury, 2) electrical impedance spectroscopy (Z), for the estimation of multiple freeze-thaw cycling injury and 3) a controlled freezing protocol to facilitate the rapid screening of large populations of Malus seedlings. The aim of this manuscript is not the results of these three methods but rather t...

  18. Methionine metabolism in apple tissue: implications of S-adenosylmethionine as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.O.; Yang, S.F.

    1977-01-01

    If S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is the direct precursor of ethylene as previously proposed, it is expected that 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) would be the fragment nucleoside. When [Me- 14 C] or ( 35 S)methionine was fed to climacteric apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) tissue, radioactive 5-S-methyl-5-thioribose (MTR) was identified as the predominant product and MTA as a minor one. When the conversion of methionine into ethylene was inhibited by L-2-amino-4-(2'-amino-ethoxy)-trans-3-butenoic acid, the conversion of ( 35 S) or (Me- 14 C)methionine into MTR was similarly inhibited. Furthermore, the formation of MTA and MTR from ( 35 S)methionine was observed only in climacteric tissue which produced ethylene and actively converted methionine to ethylene but not in preclimacteric tissue which did not produce ethylene or convert methionine to ethylene. These observations suggest that the conversion of methionine into MTA and MTR is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and provide indirect evidence that SAM may be an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. When ( 35 S)MTA was fed to climacteric or preclimacteric apple tissue, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into MTR and methionine. However, when ( 35 S)MTR was administered, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into methionine but not MTA. A scheme is presented for the production of ethylene from methionine

  19. Induced mutation in dwarf growth habits of apple trees by gamma rays and its evaluation in practical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Fukio

    1979-01-01

    A series of mutation breeding experiments on apple has been made. The dwarf type mutants having dwarfing rootstock effects on top varieties were developed in the gamma field. In this paper, the induction efficiency that the desirable spur type mutants for top, and the effective dwarf type mutants for rootstocks are produced in a gamma field in comparison with acute irradiation, and some evaluation of the induced mutants for practical purposes are described. A large number of the spur type mutants of apple trees having dwarf growth habit and a desirable tree form for high density planting have been induced by chronic or acute irradiation of gamma-ray since 1962. The mutation with dwarf growth habit including spur types was detected in the grafts on the clonal rootstocks of Marubakaido Malus prunifolia. No useful mutation toward the trees with dwarf growth habit and favorable fruit quality was recognized in the mutants derived from acute irradiation. Chronic treatment has been conducted in the uninjurious area in the gamma field on settled trees. High mutability in the dwarf growth of aged resting buds of settled trees was examined by twice-repeated cutting back treatments. In conclusion, for the induction of useful mutants or effective dwarfing mutants as clonal rootstocks, the artificial mutation breeding with gamma-ray should be conducted under chronic conditions and by planned cutting back treatments, in order to avoid various chromosomal aberrations and intrasomatic selection. (Kato, T.)

  20. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  1. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To

  2. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple

  3. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  4. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1

  5. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  6. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High miR156 Expression Is Required for Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via MxSPL26 Independent of PINs and ARFs in Malus xiaojinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhao Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156, the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J and rejuvenated (Mx-R Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1, PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A trees. However, the expression of SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE26 (SPL26 and some auxin response factor (ARF gene family members were substantially higher in Mx-A than in Mx-R cuttings. The expression of NbRTCS-like but not NbPINs and NbARFs varied with miR156 expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with 35S:MdMIR156a6 or 35S:MIM156 constructs. Overexpressing the miR156-resistant MxrSPL genes in tobacco confirmed the involvement of MxSPL20, MxSPL21&22, and MxSPL26 in adventitious root formation. Together, high expression of miR156 was necessary for auxin-induced adventitious root formation via MxSPL26, but independent of MxPINs and MxARFs expression in M. xiaojinensis leafy cuttings.

  8. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  9. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin

  10. Analýza akcie Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Kereibayev, Alisher

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is dedicated to the analysis of Apple stock title. Analysis of stock title is provided on the basis of methods of fundamental and technical analysis, taking into account sectoral and fundamental analysis. The main objective of this thesis is to derive investment recommendations in relation to the stock Apple title, based on the evaluation of the related fundamental and technical factors on the price of the shares it operates. The hypothesis is the following statement: Apple sh...

  11. Apples in the Alps aid atomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of 2 Apple microcomputers by the radiation protection group working with CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is described. The first Apple is used primarily to process the data from the radiation monitoring system around the ring before the maintenance engineers can commence work on the SPS. The second Apple is being developed to help in the calibration of the ring's 1,100 monitors. (U.K.)

  12. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  13. Evolution of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica L., are a significant pest because of the numerous diseases they transmit. Control of housefly populations, particularly at animal production facilities, is frequently done using pyrethroid insecticides which kill insects by prolonging the open time of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). Houseflies have evolved resistance to pyrethroids owing to mutations in Vssc and by cytochrome-P450-mediated detoxification. Three Vssc mutations are known: kdr (L1014F), kdr-his (L1014H) and super-kdr (M918T + L1014F). Generally, the levels of resistance conferred by these mutations are kdr-his resistance than kdr. P450-mediated resistance can result from overexpression of CYP6D1 or another P450 (unidentified) whose overexpression is linked to autosomes II or V. The initial use of field-stable pyrethroids resulted in different patterns of evolution across the globe, but with time these mutations have become more widespread in their distribution. What is known about the fitness costs of the resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide is discussed, particularly with respect to the current and future utility of pyrethroid insecticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianlong; Zhang, Kezhong; Yang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits. PMID:29073205

  15. Absorption, distribution and utilization of soil-applied 10B in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Futian; He Chengshun; Gu Manru

    1998-01-01

    10 B utilization rate was 7.0% and 10 B distribution rate in roots, trunks and newly emerged organs of pot cultured apple tree (cv. 'liao fu'/Malus ptunifolia Borkh.) was 24.4%, 46.6% and 29.0%, respectively, in one month after soil-application of 10 B during shoot rapid growth period. As the aerial newly emerged organs were concerned, Bdff% in long shoots and its leaves were higher than that in other shoots and leaves, suggesting that long shoots and its leaves had stronger ability of up taking 10 B. At beginning of boron application, total boron amount and Bdff% in leaves increased fast, but 10 B accumulating speed in shoot, particularly in its cortex, was higher than that in leaves in the later growing season, indicating that distribution center changed with growing period. The reserved boron in root and trunk played a mediative role in boron supply to newly emerged organs, a part of reserved mobile boron could transport to newly emerged organs when roots could not absorb any boron. With soil-applied 10 B of 2μg·g -1 in autumn, Bdff% in soil was found less than 5% in the spring of the third year, but Bdff% in newly emerged organs was still 20%∼30%, which suggested that a part of reserved 10 B could be reused

  16. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... cashew apples, drying kinetics, and product quality were investigated. It was found ..... Cashew apple residues from fruit juice industry as dehydrated fruit ... surface tension of both media (Rocha et al., 2006). Cashew apple ...

  17. The effect of bonus/malus systems on the sales of new vehicles; Wirkung von Bonus-Malus-Systemen beim Neuwagenkauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, P. de

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Peter de Haan from the Institute for Environmental Decisions at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the effects of bonus/malus systems on the sales of new vehicles. The author notes that in spite of technological progress made, increasing car size, weight and mileage along with increased motor power has eaten up two-thirds of energy-efficiency progress made. The effect of the long lifetime of modern vehicles is commented on. The results of a survey made are presented and discussed, as are the results of simulations. Further aspects discussed include effects on the motor trade and road safety and the indirect effects of bonuses. Finally, trends in the area are noted.

  18. McMYB12 Transcription Factors Co-regulate Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Malus Crabapple

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Ji; Zhang, Jie; Han, Zhen-yun; Song, Ting-ting; Li, Jin-yan; Wang, Ya-ru; Yao, Yun-cong

    2017-01-01

    The flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins (PAs), protect plants from biotic stresses, contribute to the taste of many fruits, and are beneficial to human health in the form of dietary antioxidants. In this study, we functionally characterized two Malus crabapple R2R3-MYB transcription factors, McMYB12a and McMYB12b, which co-regulate PAs and anthocyanin biosynthesis. McMYB12a was shown to be mainly responsible for upregulating the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by binding to th...

  19. Optimal Claiming Strategies in Bonus Malus Systems and Implied Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Charpentier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of the accident reporting strategy of drivers, within a Bonus-Malus system. We exhibit the induced modification of the corresponding class level transition matrix and derive the optimal reporting strategy for rational drivers. The hunger for bonuses induces optimal thresholds under which, drivers do not claim their losses. Mathematical properties of the induced level class process are studied. A convergent numerical algorithm is provided for computing such thresholds and realistic numerical applications are discussed.

  20. What would Apple do? how you can learn from Apple and make money

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y

  1. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  2. Effect of apple varieties and irradiation on the quality of explosion puffed apple slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Jinfeng; Ding Yuanyuan; Wang Pei; Bai Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Many factors affect the quality of explosion puffed apple slices. Apple varieties of Guoguang, Fuji, Hongxiangjiao and Huangxiangjiao were used as materal, the quality of fresh apple and explosion puffed products were analyzed based on the data of their physical and chemical characteristics and flavor. The results showed that Guoguang apple had the optimal flavor and Huangxiangjiao apple had the optimal product quality. So the Guoguang apple was selected as the material for the following results showed that irradiation could soften apple tissue, improve the pre-drying rate, increase products crispness, and also reduce the products hardness, but the irradiation of 2 and 5 kGy could turn products brown seriously, which reduced the product quality. (authors)

  3. Apple Configurator 2 (version 2.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Lasner-Frater

    2018-01-01

    Apple Configurator 2 (AC2) is a free mass-deployment utility that allows you to update multiple iPads, iPhones, iPod Touch devices, and Apple TVs at the same time, including apps, website links, iBooks, and software updates.

  4. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  5. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 –

  6. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  7. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  8. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an i