WorldWideScience

Sample records for apple-snail pomacea canaliculata

  1. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  3. Lethal and non-lethal effects of multiple indigenous predators on the invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Nils; Kestrup, A; Mårtensson, M.; Nyström, Per

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the individual and combined effects of two predators (the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, and the wetland crab, Esanthelphusa nimoafi) indigenous to wetlands in Laos, on the behaviour and survival of the invasive South American golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). The snail is considered a pest, consuming large amounts of rice and other aquatic vegetation in the region. 2. Snail avoidance reactions to released predator chemical cues were investigated in aquaria wh...

  4. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  5. Characteristics of Feeding Preference and Nutrients Utilization of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata on Macrophytes in Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benliang Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail was a harmful invasive gastropod in Asian wetlands. In order to clarify the effect of Pomacea canaliculata on macrophytes in paddy fields, feeding preference and nutrients utilization of snail were studied. Feeding preference of snail was Alternanthera philoxenoides>Monochoria vaginalis>Oryza sativa L. Snail showed a higher approximate digestion coefficient on Oryza sativa L. than that on Monochoria vaginalis. Nitrogen utilization coefficient of snail on Alternanthera philoxenoides was significantly higher than that on Oryza sativa L. Snail exhibited a higher calcium utilization coefficient on Alternanthera philoxenoides and Monochoria vaginalis than that on Oryza sativa L. Oryza sativa L. was not preferred among three plants under the same available and exposure condition.

  6. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    OpenAIRE

    Shengzhang Dong; Guowan Zheng; Xiaoping Yu; Changhuan Fu

    2012-01-01

    The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field condi...

  7. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  8. Spatial variation in adult sex ratio across multiple scales in the invasive golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Fang, Miao; Yang, Yexin; Dick, Jaimie T A; Song, Hongmei; Luo, Du; Mu, Xidong; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-04-01

    Adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behavior and life history and has implications for population demography, including the invasiveness of introduced species. ASR exhibits immense variation in nature, yet the scale dependence of this variation is rarely analyzed. In this study, using the generalized multilevel models, we investigated the variation in ASR across multiple nested spatial scales and analyzed the underlying causes for an invasive species, the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. We partitioned the variance in ASR to describe the variations at different scales and then included the explanatory variables at the individual and group levels to analyze the potential causes driving the variation in ASR. We firstly determined there is a significant female-biased ASR for this species when accounting for the spatial and temporal autocorrelations of sampling. We found that, counter to nearly equal distributed variation at plot, habitat and region levels, ASR showed little variation at the town level. Temperature and precipitation at the region level were significantly positively associated with ASR, whereas the individual weight, the density characteristic, and sampling time were not significant factors influencing ASR. Our study suggests that offspring sex ratio of this species may shape the general pattern of ASR in the population level while the environmental variables at the region level translate the unbiased offspring sex ratio to the female-biased ASR. Future research should consider the implications of climate warming on the female-biased ASR of this invasive species and thus on invasion pattern. PMID:27069581

  9. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characteristics of the shell remains and spraints are described.

  10. New approaches to the management of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck): An invasive alien pest species of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Golden apple snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is native to South America. It was introduced to farmers in the Philippines in the 1980s from Argentina via Taiwan, and to other countries in Asia to increase their income and to enrich the protein intake in their diet, and also as an aquarium pet. The Global Invasive Species (IAS) FAO report that it causes 1.2 billion USD losses to aquatic crops particularly rice, taro and morning glory in Asian countries and the USA. Aside from being a serious agricultural pest, it is also an environmental pest. In an attempt to control GAS resource-poor-farmers resort to 'shot-gun approach' of using toxic and non specific agrochemicals thereby aggravating ecosystem pollution, risking their health and causing loss of aquatic biodiversity. GAS is expanding its distribution westwards in Asia and poses new threats of its invasion in Australia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. At the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), my team focuses on two approaches. First we have to understand the field ecology of the GAS and identify weak-links in their life cycle. Then we use this basic information to manage GAS at the village level within the community in an ecologically sustainable socially acceptable and economically viable ways. I shall discuss how this LAS in transplanted lowland irrigated rice ecologies can be managed using locally available attractants during the vulnerable stage(s) of rice crop growth. New approaches will highlight the innovative and applied techniques on how to prevent the rampant abuse/misuse of agrochemicals, as well as GAS utilisation in weed management in rice fields and as aqua feed. In future, it is necessary to develop collaborative exploratory research with the IAEA and the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to develop an effective area-wide management of GAS in direct-seeded rice systems that will capitalise on an integrated approach and environment-friendly technologies

  11. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  12. Acute toxic effect of calcium cyanamide on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).%石灰氮对福寿螺的急性毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵本良; 章家恩; 代魏; 罗明珠; 宋春秀

    2011-01-01

    福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)是世界自然保护联盟认定的世界100种恶性外来入侵物种之一,在华南地区已对水稻生产造成严重危害.本研究将福寿螺按照壳高(H)分为小螺(5 mm≤H<15 mm)、中螺(15 mm≤H<25 mm)、大螺(25 mm≤H<35 mm)和超大螺(35 mm≤H<45 mm),通过室内毒性试验,探讨了化学肥料石灰氮(氰氨化钙)对不同体型福寿螺的毒性效应.结果表明:石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺毒性效应显著,尤其是对中小福寿螺具有很强的抑制和杀灭作用;石灰氮处理7 d后,最低浓度0.2 g·L-1处理造成71%死亡率,其他处理死亡率均在95%以上,其中3.0和5.0 g·L-1处理中福寿螺全部死亡;石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺的半抑制浓度(24 h)和半致死浓度(96 h)大小顺序均为小螺<中螺<大螺<超大螺;石灰氮对福寿螺的抑制效应显著,其对福寿螺的平均半抑制浓度为0.08~0.39 g·L-1;1.0和5.0 g·L-1浓度的石灰氮处理24 h后,福寿螺鳃组织SOD酶活性呈极显著下降,分别为对照的41%和60%.本研究表明,石灰氮在入侵生物福寿螺的防治方面有一定应用潜力,有望成为一种新型的"杀螺肥料".%Golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species cognized by World Conservation Union, and has been resulting in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In this study, the snails according to their shell height ( H) were divided in to four groups, i. e. , small size (5 mm ≤ H<15 mm), medium size (15 mm ≤ H<25 mm), large size (25 mm≤H<35 mm) , and extra large size (35 mm≤ H<45 mm) , and a laboratory toxicity test was conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chemical fertilizer calcium cyanamide ( CaCN2) in controlling different sizes P. canaliculata. Calcium cyanamide had signifi cant molluscicidal effect on different sizes, especially small and medium sizes P. canaliculata. After treated one week, 0. 2 g

  13. 入侵生物金苹果螺在滇池流域的首次记录%A Record of the Invasive Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜; Jonathan Davies; 陈小勇; 崔桂华; 杨君兴

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月,中国科学院昆明动物研究所首次发现金苹果螺(Pomacea canaliculata)入侵重要的水源保护区嵩明白邑黑龙潭.金苹果螺起源于中南美洲,在亚洲,它通过有意或无意的传播而逐渐扩散到菲律宾、越南、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、马来西亚、印尼、巴布几内亚、韩国、日本和中国的南部.金苹果螺已成为水稻产区的最大害虫,给农业生产带来巨大的损失.为防止金苹果螺在云南扩散,目前已经实施了严格的预防、控制措施,同时开展了公众保护教育宣传活动.%The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the public of the dangers of this invasive snail.

  14. 剑麻提取物对福寿螺的毒理效应%Toxicological effect of Agave sisalana Perrine extract on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 徐武兵; 钟秋华; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良; 秦钟

    2012-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is an invasive alien species that is very harmful to the ecosystem and rice production in South China.To verify the toxicity and related mechanism of Agave sisalana Perrine to golden apple snail,the toxic effects of aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana were tested via the snail-immersed method.The effects of n-butanol (59 mg·L-1,96 mg·L-1) and ethanol (180 mg·L-1,325 mg·L-1) extracts on cholinesterase (ChE),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities in hepatic tissue of golden apple snails were also investigated.Based on the results,aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana had toxic effects on golden apple snail.Their semi-lethal concentrations (LC50) on golden apple snail for 72 h toxicity exposure were 35.3 g·L-1,93.3 mg·L-1 and 298.6 mg·L-1,respectively.The corresponding 95%confidence interval ranges were 32.9~37.7 g·L~1,87.6~99.7 mg·L~1 and 272.9~318.7 mg·L-1,respectively.When treated with n-butanol and ethanol extracts for 12 h,SOD activity in snail hepatic tissues showed no obvious change at low concentrations.SOD activity,however,increased significantly at high concentrations.After treatment for 48 h,SOD activity at high concentrations of n-butanol extract was significantly higher than that of the control.However,SOD activity did not show any obvious change in both low and high concentrations of ethanol extract.All A.Sisalana extracts somehow increased ChE activity,with n-butanol extract exhibiting higher effect on ChE activity.When treated with 96 mg·L-1 n-butanol extract for 48 h,ChE activity significantly exceededthat of the control (P < 0.05).Overall,n-butanol extract treatment enhanced ATPase activity at low concentrations and suppressed it at high concentrations.Irrespectively,no obvious pattern change was noted under ethanol extract treatment.In conclusion,A.Sisalana was somehow toxic to golden apple snail.A better mode of application was

  15. Influence of drying-wetting alternation on feed and growth of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)%干湿交替对福寿螺摄食和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 章家恩; 罗颢; 刘文; 彭莉; 梁开明

    2013-01-01

    Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the black list of World Conservation Union, and has resulted in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In order to develop water regulation method for controlling golden apple snails, we investigated the influences of drying-wetting alternation on the feed and growth of golden apple snails. Our results showed that weight growth rate, feeding rate, food conversion ratio and specific growth rate of the snails were significantly inhibited by the alternative drying-wetting treatments, sometimes with even negative effects. The shell height of the snails increased with water, but this increase is slow once the water disappear. The snail exhibited a compensation effect during the alternative drying-wetting process within a short-term, and this effect may result from the increase of feeding amount after a period starvation of the snails and would not appear when the drought stress on snails exceeded a certain extent. To recap, the snails would fail to grow normally under drought stress and the degree of influence would be enhanced with prolonged drought period. Moreover, the snails would come out again generally when their habitat becomes rewetting after drought within 180 minutes, so we can control them in this special period (opportunity) to avoid the injure of aquatic plants by snails. The research results may provide a theoretical reference for an integrated control of golden apple snail and water utilization and management.%  福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)被世界自然保护联盟列入世界100种恶性外来入侵物种黑名单,在我国南方已对水稻生产造成严重危害。为了探索通过水分调控来防治福寿螺的方法,本研究模拟福寿螺野外生存条件,探讨不同干湿交替条件下福寿螺摄食和生长的情况,来分析干旱胁迫对其体重增长率(Weight growth rate,WGR)、摄食率(Feeding rate

  16. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Yen-Tzu Fan; Tzu-Ting Wang

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feedin...

  17. Injury and Yield Loss by the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck in Rice%福寿螺对水稻的为害及其产量损失研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 林贤文; 祝增荣

    2015-01-01

    为了明确不同螺口密度和为害始期福寿螺为害与水稻产量损失的关系,于2007—2009年分别在早稻、单季晚稻和连作晚稻田通过人工定量投放福寿螺进行为害损失试验。结果表明:投放的时间越早,危害损失越大;投放的数量越多,危害损失越重。所有这些损失率与福寿螺密度之间的关系,均可采用幂函数方程来描述,以5%产量损失作为经济允许水平计算,秧苗移栽后早稻田福寿螺密度宜控制在1只/m2以下,晚稻宜在3.5只/m2以下。福寿螺在早稻田的存活率在低密度下较高,而在晚稻田的存活率都不高,但是低密度下产卵量明显增多。建议要特别加强对水稻移栽后小苗期田间福寿螺的防控,最好能在移栽前对本田进行必要的防治,另外一旦断垄发生后要及时补苗,减少损失。%To investigate the relationship among rice yield loss, the golden apple snail (GAS) (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) density and damage beginning time, the GAS was added to early rice field, late hybrid rice field and single late rice field artificially from 2007 to 2009. The results showed that, the earlier GAS was added to field, the more damage GAS caused. It was also identified that the more GAS added to the field, the more damage GAS caused. The power function equations could be used to describe the relationship between GAS density and yield loss. There should be less than 1 per m2 in early rice and field or 3.5 per m2 in late rice field if the yield loss was expected blow 5%. In early rice field, lower density was beneficial for higher survival rate. Although the survival rate was low in late rice field, the oviposition capacity would be higher with low density. It was important to control GAS after rice transplant. And preventing GAS before rice transplant would be better. To reduce yield loss, rice seedling should be added in time if seedlingless ridges happened.

  18. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  19. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  20. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  1. Occurrence and control technology of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in rice field in Sichuan%四川稻田福寿螺的发生与防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓娟; 何忠全; 郎冬梅; 汪世元; 毛建辉; 何树林

    2013-01-01

    采用问卷和实地调查相结合的方法调查了福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)在四川稻区的分布和危害,并就现有化学杀螺剂进行了药效评价和综合防控技术的效果评价.结果表明,福寿螺目前在四川省16个地区均有分布,以成都、乐山、泸州等地福寿螺的危害较为严重.田间药效试验发现,杀螺胺乙醇胺盐对稻田福寿螺防效最高,达86.74%,而杀螺胺、四聚乙醛等防效相对较差.综合防控措施的灭螺效果为89.73%~93.64%,保苗率56.13%~80.36%,每667m2挽回经济损失553.21元.福寿螺在四川省分布广,化学杀螺剂需交替使用,综合防治技术措施行之有效.

  2. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  3. Gender-based differences in Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-Darby, P. L.; Darby, P.C.; Percival, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Gastropod movements have been studied in the context of habitat selection, finding food and mates, and avoiding predation. Many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory, where constraints on spatial scale influence behavior. We conducted a field study of Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements using telemetry. We hypothesized that Florida apple snail movements were driven by reproductive activity, and that gender differences would be evident. We documented male and female directions and distances traveled. We also conducted a trapping study that included conspecific bait to test if the presence of females attracted more males as measured by M:F ratios in traps. The greatest distances traveled were by males, and males were more likely to maintain a consistent bearing compared to females. Male distances peaked in what typically corresponds to peak breeding season. M:F ratios in traps were positively associated with reproductive activity in the study population as measured by egg cluster counts. Conspecific bait had no effect on the number of males or females captured. However, if a female crawled into the trap, we observed greater numbers of males compared to those with no trapped females. Males may have tracked females to increase mating encounters, following slime trails, as seen in other aquatic (including other Pomacea) snails. The capacity for mate finding has implications for reproductive success in the relatively low density populations often seen for Pomacea paludosa.

  4. Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Stephen O. Moneva; Mark Anthony J. Torres; Takashi Wada; Ravindra Joshi; Cesar G. Demayo

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM) ana...

  5. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem : New Concept of Robot and Dynamics of a Golden Apple Snail in Paddy

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Nakaji, Kei

    2008-01-01

    A new concept of an intelligent robot for agriculture was discussed from the viewpoint of agricultural production ecosystem. In the case of the paddy field in temperate and subtropical zones, a mollusk named golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) often causes serious damage to the rice plant seedlings, however, the snail is very useful in the control of weeds that cause also detriment of the production of rice, especially in organic agriculture. After the golden apple snails in...

  6. Spatial distribution pattern of egg masses of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, and a sampling plan for their detection invaded in subtropical transplanted rice fields%入侵移栽稻田的福寿螺卵块空间分布型及其抽样技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符明龙; 谢淑玲; 祝增荣; 陈辉珍; 王华弟

    2008-01-01

    福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck是重要外来入侵有害生物,严重危害水稻苗期至分蘖期的秧苗植株.为明确福寿螺在水稻田的空间分布,以1、4丛水稻为取样单位(样方)调查了14块移栽稻、每块田300个样方的福寿螺卵块密度,并利用聚集度指标法、Taylor幂法则和Iwao的M-m回归法进行分析.结果表明,移栽稻田中的福寿螺卵块主要呈聚集分布,部分田块呈随机或均匀分布.根据福寿螺卵块的分布型,通过计算抽样时间和抽样准确率的关系、不同样方和误差条件下的理论抽样数,确定以准确估计田间卵块密度为目标的最佳抽样方法,以横(行)向平行线跳跃法间隔30~45行调查1行,共调查6行90个4丛水稻样方,即两人以常规速度按上述方法取样18min以上,可达85%以上的取样准确率.

  7. A Pilot Study Testing a Natural and a Synthetic Molluscicide for Controlling Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea maculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M; Jenkins, Jill A; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal(®), 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L). PMID:26687501

  8. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic Molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal®, 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  9. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  10. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  11. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  12. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Tham C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Rogevich, Emily C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Rand, Gary M. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)], E-mail: randg@fiu.edu; Gardinali, Piero R. [Florida International University, Department of Chemistry, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Frakes, Robert A.; Bargar, Timothy A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida Ecological Services Office, Vero Beach, FL 32960 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 {mu}g/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail.

  13. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 μg/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail

  14. Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Stephen O. Moneva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Apple Snail (GAS, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM analysis. Specifically, this study aimed to determine conchologicalvariation in populations of GAS in the Philippines and Japan. Three aspects of the shell shape were studied, which includes the ventral/aperture,dorsal and the top/whorl portion of the shell using correlation analysis based on distances (CORIANDIS. CORIANDIS was used in order tovisualize congruence of multivariate traits among P. canaliculata populations. The results showed that P. canaliculata shell varies in shape andvariability may signify distinctive genotypes or adaptation to varying environments exhibited by Japan and the Philippines.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the potential establishment of the apple snail in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available EFSA requested the PLH Panel to review the current state of the art of the biology and ecology of apple snails, reported in this opinion, and to perform an environmental risk assessment for validation of the Plant Health environment guidance document, which will be provided in a second opinion. The Panel presents in this opinion the current state of the art of the biology of apple snails, and develops and uses a population dynamics model to assess the potential establishment of apple snails in the EU. A thorough review of the literature on the biology of Pomacea canaliculata and P. maculata was performed to collect information and data on life history characteristics related to temperature, which was used in the population dynamics model. Although uncertainties on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Pomacea remain, it is now acknowledged that Pomacea insularum is a synonym of P. maculata and can be undoubtedly differentiated from P. canaliculata. Natural spread occurs via rivers and canals, in which the snails crawl, drift, float and raft. Flooding increases spread. In addition, attachment to animals (e.g. birds, cattle, horses, deer and aquatic invertebrates results in spread. Human assistance results in spread through cultivation transport of rice seedlings, aquaculture, aquaria, boats, and agricultural field machinery. The potential distribution of P. canaliculata in Europe was obtained by calculating with the population dynamics model, the average snail abundance per year in each node of a grid of 0.25 ×  0.25 degrees covering Europe, which resulted in the following conclusions: (1 the area of potential establishment comprises wetlands of southern Europe (i.e. Spain, southern France, most of Italy and Greece and the Balkans up to the latitude of the Danube river, (2 the potential area of establishment includes the rice production areas in Europe.

  16. Role of Golden Apple Snail in Organic Rice Cultivation and Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Joshi; Martin, E. C.; Wada, T.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), is a major pest of rice and other aquatic crops in many Asian farms. Farmers’ first line of defense is to use non-specific chemicals for “instant” kill of GAS, without considering its effect on their health, the environment, and non-target organisms. However, some organic rice farmers in Japan, Korea, and the Philippines do not kill GAS but manage them as bio-weeders in rice fields. We evaluated organic farmers’ innovation at the P...

  17. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana C. Thiengo; Carlos E. Borda; J. L. Barros Araújo

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822) collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, ...

  18. Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Byers

    Full Text Available Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5 are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas, which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

  19. Pengendalian Hama Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) Dengan Ekstrak Biji Pinang Pada Tanaman Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Yunidawati, Wiwik

    2012-01-01

    Wiwik Yunidawati, 2012. Pest Control of Golden Snails (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) by Areca Extract On Rice Plants. Application of Areca extract can be used to control Golden snail in rice planting. The purpose of this research is to obtain the suitable concentration of Areca extracts to control Golden snail. The research was conducted on December 2010 to April 2011 at the screen house of Observation Laboratory of Plant Disease and Biological Agents and “Balai Benih Induk Murni” Deli Se...

  20. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  1. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  2. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  3. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  4. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  5. Life History Variation in Invading Applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) May Pose Ecological Threats to Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfurt, R. K.; Boland, B. B.; Burks, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up to 8 ppt. Adult feeding on lettuce increased significantly at 8 ppt compared to 0 ppt (p = 0.002), while hatchling consumption of algae did not vary (p = 0.284). To see how these consumers responded to predators from the invaded ecosystem, we tested behavioural responses to predatory cues from fish, turtles, crayfish and adult applesnails. Results indicated that fish and crayfish prompted similar predator-avoidance behaviors in hatchlings (p's 0.05) between native (ramshorn) and exotic applesnails, whereas adult fish consumed more applesnails (x2, p < 0.001). Our current efforts focus on examining if predator presence or macrophyte choice alters applesnail feeding rates. Research providing insight into the basic ecology of applesnails can foster management efforts at the ecosystem scale.

  6. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  7. Controlling golden apple snail,Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck for no-tillage cultivation in rice%免耕稻福寿螺防除技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金旺; 周海; 卢曦

    2004-01-01

    田间调查发现,每年4~6月和8~10月是福寿螺产卵和孵化高峰期,也是成螺和高龄幼螺集中危害的盛期,主要是吞食小苗稻叶,造成少苗缺株.不同杀螺剂防除试验表明,最经济、安全的方法是在免耕稻抛栽前,每hm2用45~75kg茶麸饼浸出液喷施田面,防效达90.49%左右,hm2用2.25kg85%五氯酚钠杀螺颗粒剂、0.75kg 70%贝螺杀、0.75kg 45%百螺敌可湿性粉剂喷施田面,防效也较好.

  8. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Udomkan; S. Meejoo; P. Limsuwan; P. Winotai; Y. Chaimanee

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received.The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 ℃ resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  9. Variation in worm assemblages associated with Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) in sites near the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborenea, C; Brusa, E; Paola, A

    2006-12-01

    Pomacea canaliculata is a common gastropod in freshwater habitats from Central and Northern Argentina, extending northwards into the Amazon basin. Several Platyhelminthes have been reported associated to P. canaliculata, sharing an intimate relationship with this gastropod host. The objectives of this study were to describe the symbiotic species assemblages associated to P. canaliculata in the study area, and to disclose differences among them. Samples were taken in three typical small streams and one artificial lentic lagoon, all connected with the Rio de la Plata estuary. The 81.53% were infested with different symbiotic (sensu lato) species. Among the Platyhelminthes, the commensal Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was highly prevalent in all samples, always in the mantle cavity. Four trematode taxa were recognized: (a) metacercariae of Echinostoma parcespinosum Lutz, 1924 in the mantle cavity and sporocysts in the digestive gland; (b) metacercariae of Dietziella egregia (Dietz, 1909) in the pericardial cavity; (c) unidentified xiphidiocercariae and (d) unidentified sporocysts and furcocercariae in the digestive gland. Nematode larvae and oligochaetes were found in two localities in the mantle cavity. Among the Annelida, Helobdella ampullariae Ringuelet, 1945 was found in the mantle cavity and lung of snails only from one locality. Our results show that although some of the symbionts are present in all localities, others are restricted to some particular ones, whether in their absolute numbers or in their relative abundance. Thus, each hosting population at the studied localities may be defined by the particular combination of symbionts that bears. PMID:17375466

  10. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the pest risk analysis on Pomacea insularum, the island apple snail, prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2012-01-01

    the European Union have climatic conditions, that are very similar to those of the areas of native distribution of Pomacea spp. snails, and suitable host plants are available. The Panel agrees with the Spanish PRA on the following points with regard to the risk assessment area: (i) the potential...

  11. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.; Gilioli, G.; Grégoire, J.-C.; Jeger, M. J.; Karadjova, O. E.; Lövei, G.; Makowski, D.; Manceau, C.; Navajas, M.; Porta Puglia, A.; Rafoss, T.; Rossi, V.; Schans, J.; Schrader, G.; Urek, G.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Vloutoglou, I; Winter, S.; Zlotina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir...

  12. Control effects of garlic on Pomacea canaliculata and its influences on the growth of rice seedlings%大蒜对福寿螺的控制效果及其对水稻苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬静华; 马伟; 钟裕; 胡飞

    2016-01-01

    在实验室和盆栽条件下研究了大蒜植株、蒜瓣(鳞茎)和大蒜素对福寿螺和水稻苗生长的影响。结果表明,大蒜植株、蒜瓣中的大蒜素对福寿螺均具有致死效果,大蒜素只是大蒜植株和蒜瓣中致福寿螺死亡的物质之一。福寿螺在大蒜素溶液中出现逃逸现象,在0.025和0.0125 g/mL 浓度下全部逃逸,而在0.05 g/mL 浓度下逃逸率仅为60%,死亡率达40%。福寿螺在大蒜种植密度为9、14、18株/盆时,含有大蒜根分泌物的盆中均出现逃逸现象,密度越大逃逸越快,数量越多,而在大蒜植株混入土壤的盆中,密度为9株/盆中的福寿螺全部逃逸,密度为14、18株/盆中则只有部分逃逸,没有逃逸的福寿螺出现死亡或失去取食能力。试验浓度下的大蒜素溶液对水稻生长影响较小,0.0125 g/mL 的大蒜素溶液对水稻还有促进作用。在种植不同密度大蒜的盆中,仅混合大蒜植株,密度为18株/盆的处理中水稻的分蘖数有显著的减少(P<0.05),其他无论是含有根分泌物还是混合大蒜植株的盆中,水稻生长均未受到不利的影响。表明大蒜植株和蒜瓣中的大蒜素对福寿螺具有抑制取食为害、甚至毒杀的效果,在对福寿螺有效的浓度下对水稻苗的生长没有不利影响。%The control effects of garlic plants,its bulbs and allicin on Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail, GAS)and their influences on the growth of rice seedlings were studied in the laboratory and pot culture.The re-sults showed that allicin in garlic plants and its bulblets were the main effective components for killing GAS,but not one component alone.All GASs escaped from pots filled with allicin solutions at the concentrations of 0.025 g/mL and 0.012 5 g/mL,but only 60% GASs escaped at 0.05 g/mL,while 40% were killed.GASs escaped from the pots with garlic planted at the density of 9,14,18 plants

  13. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  14. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin H. KYLE; Alexis W. KROPF; Romi L. BURKS

    2011-01-01

    While difficult to prevent introductions,scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic,invasive species.South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread.Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats,female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large,bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects.To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches,we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e.material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial) amacted P.insularum females to lay clutches.In our fourth experiment,we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output.To further understand reproductive output,we quantified experimental clutch characteristics (height above water,dimensions,mass,approximate volume,number of eggs,hatching efficiency).Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material,chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures.In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US,Pontederia cordata,snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic,invasive plant (wild taro,Colocasia esculenta).Unexpectedly,smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails.Therefore,hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production.Collectively,our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P.insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5):630-641,2011].

  15. 不同浓度下四种除草剂对福寿螺和坑螺的生态毒理效应%Eco-toxicological effects of four herbicides on typical aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata and Crown conchs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰; 骆世明; 黎华寿; 贺鸿志; 陈桂葵; 秦俊豪

    2011-01-01

    以化学除草剂应用为前提的水稻免耕抛秧栽培技术是近年来推广的节本栽培新技术.为更好地评价除草剂的环境风险,为防治除草剂的负效应提供科学依据,采用室内静水模拟实验研究了4种免耕稻田除草剂丁草胺、苄嘧N磺隆、丁苄混剂和氯酸钾的3种浓度梯度下对典型水生动物福寿螺、坑螺的影响.结果表明,各除草剂对水生动物的代谢都有不同程度的影响,氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对2种水生动物的呼吸作用影响不大,而丁草胺和丁苄混剂对3种水生动物的呼吸作用的影响有显著的抑制作用,且呈现一定的剂量效应;在本实验染毒剂量下,丁草胺和丁苄混剂对2种水生动物的存活率影响很大,而氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对其存活率影响较小.丁草胺和丁苄混剂处理对福寿螺的氮代谢影响远远大于氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆处理,而从水体总氮和总磷含量的影响来看,4种除草剂对其影响都较大.总之,从4种除草剂对实验用螺存活率和主要代谢生理指标的综合影响大小来看,丁草胺>丁苄混剂>苄嘧磺隆>氯酸钾.%There has been an increase in the use of other herbicides for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. The use of herbicides in China also has increased faster than that of insecticides and fungicides since last 30 years. The new technique of rice seedling-broadcasting with no-tillage ( RSB-NT) is widely used and it was based on the applition of herbicides. The increasing pollution of herbicides in soil and water has been of concerns. The effect of four herbicides including butachlor, bensulfuron-methyl, the mixture of bensulfuron and butachlor, potassium chlorate on typical aquatic animals (Pomacea canaliculata Spix, Tunnel snail) in rice paddy wetland were studied in laboratory. In the immersion experiment, both of the aquatic animals divided into four groups with three concentrations. The results showed that the

  16. Life history studies and habitat requirements of the apple snail at Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study discusses habitat requirements and life history of the apple snail at Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge. A study was initiated during 1971 to gather...

  17. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  18. Scientific Opinion on the environmental risk assessment of the apple snail for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health, (PLH); Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    At EFSA’s request, the Plant Health Panel (PLH) performed an environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the apple snail for the EU and validated the ERA approach presented in the PLH ERA guidance document. Improvements and suggestions for simplification of the ERA are provided. One service-providing uni

  19. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried

  20. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments, aquatic plant and histopathological effects on the golden apple snail in Beung Boraphet reservoir, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummee, Vipawee; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the seasonal concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined in water, sediments, snails (Pomacea canaliculata) and aquatic plants (Ipomoea aquatica) in three selected tributaries of the Beung Boraphet reservoir, Nakhon Sawan Province, central Thailand. Only Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were detected by FAAS in all samples collected. The water quality of Beung Boraphet was medium clean with Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations well below internationally accepted limits. According to the criteria proposed for sediments by the EPA Region V, Zn and Mn concentrations were within the non-polluted range while Fe and Cu (wet season) concentrations fell into the class of severely polluted sediment. Both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica bioconcentrated more Mn in their tissues than were found in sediments, especially in the wet season. The results of Pearson correlation study and BCF values also indicated similar findings. Only Mn showed the importance of sediment-to-snail concentration and high BCF values in both snails and plants. P. canaliculata exposed to contaminated sediment for two months, showed higher accumulation of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in the digestive tracts and digestive glands than in the foot muscles. Histopathological changes included alterations in the epithelial lining of the digestive tracts, digestive glands and the gills. Loss of cilia and increase in mucous cells were observed in the digestive tracts and gills, while the digestive glands exhibited an increase of dark granules and basophilic cells, and dilation of digestive cells. The results indicated that both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica could be used as biomonitors of sedimentary metal contamination for the Beung Boraphet reservoir. PMID:23079739

  1. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem (V) : Experiments on Predation of Paddy by Golden Apple Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Nakaji, Kei

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in small lots at Kyushu University Farm in order to measure the parameters of predation and get models of the biomass of rice plants and weeds and population of golden apple snails over different phases of season of rice production ecosystem.

  2. Ranking Population Structure and Sex Ratio of Pomacea canaficulata (Lamarck)in Different Control Approaches%不同控螺方式下稻田福寿螺种群的螺级结构及性比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦钟; 方丽; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to research population structure of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) and to provide a scientific basis not only for grasping the dynamics and developmental tendency of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck), but also for evaluating the performance of snail control measures. [Method] Twelve experimental plots for four treatments with three replicates were set in double cropping rice area of Guangdong province, each plot covered an area of 100 m2. Three control measures including raising ducks in the rice field, application of molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake, together with blank control plot were arranged randomly in the plots, in which information on ranking population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) and sex ratio were collected and analyzed. [Result] Molluscicides application treatment was helpful for immature snails control but noneffective for mature ones. Camellia oleifera cake could be effectively used for control of immature snails, but not as effective as for medium and adult snails. Variation of population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) over the time in both molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments exhibited greater instability when compared with the rice-duck integrated farming treatment and blank control plot, especially during the growth period of early rice. P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) in the rice-duck farming plot was comprised primarily of mature snails, making a descent style group from a whole during early rice-growing period. Sex ratio of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) under the same treatment changed over time, while differed considerably among four treatments at the same time. For molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments, sex ratios (female to male) of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) were relatively high, with greater fluctuations as time passed. [ Conclusion ] Rice-duck farming could provide a sustainable controlling on population of golden apple snails especially to the young and

  3. Scientific Opinion on the environmental risk assessment of the apple snail for the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At EFSA’s request, the Plant Health Panel (PLH performed an environmental risk assessment (ERA of the apple snail for the EU and validated the ERA approach presented in the PLH ERA guidance document. Improvements and suggestions for simplification of the ERA are provided. One service-providing unit—shallow fresh water areas—was identified for this ERA. The effects of resistance, resilience and management on snail population dynamics in the short (5 years and the long term (30 years were estimated. In line with the PLH ERA guidance rating system, expert judgement was used to evaluate separately the impacts on (i ecosystem traits, (ii ecosystem services and (iii biodiversity components. Snail biomass values were predicted to be higher in the short term than in the long term. For ecosystem services, moderate risk was estimated for genetic resources, climate regulation, pest and disease regulation and pollination in both the short and long term; for food, risk was assessed as moderate in the short term and major in the long term; for water and erosion regulation, risk was assessed as major both in the short term and in the long term; for fresh water, risk was assessed as massive both in the short term and in the long term; and for nutrient cycling and photosynthesis and primary production of macrophytes, risk was assessed as massive in the short term and as major in the long term. For biodiversity components, risk for genetic diversity and native species diversity was estimated as major in both the short and the long term; risk for native habitats was assessed massive in the short term and major in the long term; and for threatened species and habitats of high conservation value, risk was determined as massive in both the short and the long term.

  4. 基于GIS的广东地区福寿螺的潜在时空分布及对稻田的危害风险%Potential Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Golden Apple Snail and the Harm Risk on Paddy Fields in Guangdong Based on GIS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何铭谦; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 宋春秀; 赵本良; 叶延琼; 严家跃

    2012-01-01

    The potential distribution and harm risk of golden apple snail, Pomacea canalicxdtaxa, on rice in Guangdong were identified and predicted based on GIS technology according to the temperature which was suitable for survival development of golden apple snails, and distribution in rice planting areas. The suitable habitat was widespread in summer and shrunk in winter, and it extended northward in summer and narrowed southward in winter. Golden apple snails could not survive in some north mountain areas of Guangdong during winter time, but both snails and their eggs could develop everywhere from May to October. As for the potential distribution, high and moderate occurrence region occupied 16.68% and 54. 25% of the total area of Guangdong, respectively. Take the harm of the snails on rice as an example, potential risk level of golden apple snail was evaluated in paddy fields in Guangdong. The results showed that regions with serious damage risk accounted for 21. 75% of the total area and mainly covered Zhan-jiang, Maoming, Yangjiang areas. Moderate risky region which was mainly in paddy fields in central part of Guangdong occupied 63. 16% , slight risky region occupied 14. 47% of the paddy fields.%利用GIS技术,结合福寿螺生长发育的特点和广东地区水稻的种植分布情况,预测福寿螺在广东地区的潜在时空分布及其危害风险.结果表明:广东地区存在5种福寿螺潜在生境,分别是:螺和卵都能存活且卵能孵化螺能发育;螺卵存活、螺能发育但卵不孵化;螺存活但不发育、卵不孵化;螺冬眠且不产卵;螺、卵均不能存活.5种生境从南到北依次排列,并且分布范围随着季节的变化而变化.福寿螺适宜生境夏季分布广、冬季分布窄,夏季向北扩展,冬季向南收缩.冬季粤北山区小部分地区福寿螺不能存活,5-10月全省均适宜螺及其卵的生长发育.就潜在分布区而言,全省16.68%地区处于高度发生区,中度发生区也占54.25

  5. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem (III) - Modeling of the Predation of Rice Plants and Weeds by Golden Apple Snail -

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Tuda, Midori; Nakaji, Kei

    2008-01-01

    Models of the predation of rice plants and weeds by golden apple snails based on the Lotka- Volterra equations and the equations of Holling are introduced in this researching. These prediction equations are useful to estimate the number of snails in different phases of the rice crop season; however they should be modified to fit better to the rice production ecosystem and then this information will be used for the agricultural production robot in order to make decisions about the appropriate ...

  6. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A. Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  7. Fermented Golden Apple Snails as an Alternative Protein Source in Sex-Reversed Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawan CHIMSUNG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to find out the possibility of using fermented golden apple snail (FGAS as an alternative protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mosambicus diets. FGAS was prepared by incubating minced golden apple snail (GAS with locally screened lactic acid bacteria and using molasses as carbon sources at ambient temperature for 10 days. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacing fishmeal with FGAS at level of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of fishmeal protein. Another diet with minced GAS was also included in the experiment. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish with an initial weight of 2.73 ± 0.09 g for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance and feed utilization of fish fed 75 % fishmeal replacement diet were significantly better (p < 0.05 than those fed the control diet. The fish fed 100 % replacement diet showed lower growth rates compared with the control diet but were not significantly different (p > 0.05. In addition, fish fed a diet containing minced GAS showed better growth performance and feed utilization than those of the control diet. The digestibility study indicated that fish utilized protein from snail meal either in a minced or fermented form much better than protein from fishmeal. It was concluded that snail meal is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diets. Replacement of fishmeal protein with minced snail meal could be at 50 % and FGAS could be up to 100 % but 75 % is recommended.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.26

  8. Investigation on Golden Apple Snails after Winter in Some Typical Regions of Guangdong%广东省典型地区福寿螺越冬后的种群密度调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何铭谦; 宋春秀; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 李宏哲; 彭莉; 李韵

    2011-01-01

    福寿螺作为一种入侵生物,已对广东地区农业生产造成极大的危害.为了了解广东省不同地区福寿螺种群的越冬及其恢复状况,在2010年3月底以前调查了广东省6个典型地区(汕头、韶关、肇庆、增城、茂名、湛江)3种不同生境(水田、旱地、水渠)下的福寿螺种群密度,研究不同土地利用类型、不同地区福寿螺密度差异情况.结果表明:3种不同土地利用方式福寿螺的密度差异显著,水渠最多,水田次之,旱地最少;不同地区之间水田和水渠中福寿螺密度存在一定差异,有些地区之间达显著水平;总体而言,汕头、肇庆、湛江、茂名、韶关、增城地区的单位面积福寿螺的种群数量依次增加;土地利用与管理方式可能是造成福寿螺在不同地区总体密度差异的主要原因;利用福寿螺作为饲料,发展养殖业,能实现变废为宝;实施水旱轮作,能减少福寿螺的暴发危害.%As an alien invasive species, golden apple snail has caused great harm to agricultural production in Guangdong Province.The density of snails was investigated after winter time for three habitats (paddy field, dry land, drainage and irrigation channel) in six regions including Shantou City, Shaoguan City, Zhaoqing City,Zengcheng City, Maoming City and Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province to see differences among different land use types and different regions, The results showed that the densities of apple snail were significantly different in three kinds of habitats with a change order: drainage and irrigation channels>paddy fields>dry lands.Densities of apple snails had some significant differences among paddy fields and drainage and irrigation channels of different regions, Overall, the density of apple snails changed with a trend of Shantou snails changed with an order of Shantou <Zhaoqing <Zhanjiang <Maoming <Shaoguan <Zengcheng.Land use and management might be one of key factors which resulted

  9. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  10. Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil. (Prosobranchia, Pilidae Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848. Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8% B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526 dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352; em 1977, 16,1% (377 e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87 do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG, adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956 - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827, P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822 e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae were

  11. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  12. 稻田养鸭防控福寿螺的效果及对水稻产量的影响%Effect of controlling the golden apple snail and of heightening rice-output by breeding ducks in paddy field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 谭济才; 黄新; 王卫国; 钟浪; 王志高

    2011-01-01

    为探寻稻田福寿螺的有效防控办法,研究了不同养鸭密度、不同放养时间和放养不同品种鸭对稻田福寿螺的防控效果及对水稻产量的影响.结果表明:当稻田养鸭时间为40 d时,对福寿螺的平均防治效果达到93.94%;当稻田养鸭密度在6~14只/(667m2)时,鸭子对稻田福寿螺的平均防效与养鸭密度和放养时间呈正相关,且平均水稻产量随着养鸭密度的增大而增大;当稻田养鸭密度为14只/(667m2)时,对稻田福寿螺的防控效果最佳,水稻平均产量也达到最大值;当稻田养鸭密度超过14只/(667m2)时,水稻平均产量随着稻田养鸭密度的增大而降低;采用金定鸭防控稻田福寿螺的效果和提高水稻产量的幅度都极显著优于本地麻鸭.%In order to explore the effect of controlling the golden apple snail and heightening rice-output by breeding ducks of different kinds in paddy field, density and time of breeding ducks were investigated.Results showed that: The effect of controlling the golden apple snail was 93.94% when the time was 40 d The effect on controlling the golden apple snail correlated positively with the density and time of breeding ducks when breeding density was 6-14/(667 m2) and average rice output increased with the increasing of breeding ducks, when the density reached 14/(667 m2), the controlling effect was the best.And the average rice-output attains tiptop.But when the density of breeding ducks was above 14/(667 m2), average rice output decreased with the increase of breeding ducks.The Jinding ducks exceled over the local sheldrakes distinct in controlling the golden apple snail and heightening riee-output.

  13. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  14. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  15. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod with a remarkable ability to withstand seasonal or unpredictable dry conditions by entering estivation. Studies of P. canaliculata using conventional biochemical and the individual gene approaches have revealed the expressional changes of several enzymes and antioxidative genes in response to estivation and arousal. In this study, we applied iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify the global protein expression during the estivation and arousal of P. canaliculata. A total of 1040 proteins were identified, among which 701 proteins were quantified and compared across four treatments (i.e., control, active snails; short-term estivation, 3 days of exposure to air; prolonged estivation, 30 days of exposure to air; and arousal, 6 h after resubmergence in water) revealing 53 differentially expressed proteins. A comparison of protein expression profiles across treatments indicated that the proteome of this species was very insensitive to initial estivation, with only 9 proteins differentially expressed as compared with the control. Among the 9 proteins, the up-regulations of two immune related proteins indicated the initial immune response to the detection of stress cues. Prolonged estivation resulted in many more differentially expressed proteins (47 compared with short-term estivation treatment), among which 16 were down-regulated and 31 were up-regulated. These differentially expressed proteins have provided the first global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater snail. From prolonged estivation to arousal, only 6 proteins changed their expression level, indicating that access to water and food alone is not a necessary condition to reactivate whole-sale protein expression. A

  16. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae), life history traits and aquaculture potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ana R. A. Coelho; Gonçalo J. P. Calado; Maria T. Dinis

    2012-01-01

    Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56...

  17. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck), plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa) en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA) con cuatro tratamientos ...

  18. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  19. Ús de la cianamida càlcica per al control del caragol poma (Pomacea sp.) en el cultiu de l'arròs al Delta de l'Ebre

    OpenAIRE

    Cugat Melich, Ignasi; Català Forner, Maria del Carme

    2014-01-01

    The apple snail is a freshwater aquatic gasteropod mollusc that belongs to the Ampullariidae family. It is considered one of the 100 more harmful invasive species in the world and it has caused ravage in numerous ricefields around the world. In 2009 the first individuals of the plague were starting to be seen was seen in the ricefields of Delta de l'Ebre, nowadays the plague has already colonized most of the part of the left hemidelta and a small part of the right hemidelta. The calcium cyana...

  20. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, life history traits and aquaculture potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. A. Coelho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62% and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates, and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

  1. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  2. PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica e aruá (Pomacea lineata. Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado: triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49. Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos, mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

  3. Algumas observações de laboratório sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Observações de laboratório sobre o pilideo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 competidor-predador de planorbineos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Machos e fêmeas atingem maturidade sexual após um ano de idade, copulando preferencialmente pela manhã e ovipondo à noite. O tempo gasto nestes atos é variável; no caso da oviposição ele depende do número de ovos a serem postos. Os ovos são arredondados, com diâmetro médio de 3mm e coloração rósea que vai se alterando à medida que os embriões se desenvolvem. Com um período de incubaçãod e 15 a 23 dias, condicionado pela temperatura ambiente, eles resistem até 5 a 6 dias imersos em água sem danos aos embriões; independem de luz para eclodir. Os exemplares recém-eclodido têm, em média, 2,4 por 1,7mm de altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Criados em isolamento crescem e sobrevivem mais que quando criados em grupo. Resistem pelo menos 90 dias fora d'água, mantendo-se neste período dentro das conchas, com o opérculo hermeticamente fechado, em anidrobiose. Nesta fase, podem morrer por ataque de larvas de dípteros.Laboratory observation on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, competitor and predator of Manson's schistosomiasis intermediate hosts, have shown that: Males and females reach sexual maturity after one year, copulating preferably in the morning and laying eggs at night. The time spent in these acts is variable; in the case of egglaying it depends on the number of eggs to be laid. The eggs are round, about 3mm in diameter, and have a pink color that changes with the development of the embryos. With an average incubation time of 15 to 23 days and conditioned by the temperature of the environment, they resist for 5 to 6 days immersed in water without damage to th embryos and they do not need light to hatch. The newly-hatched specimens have about 2.4 x 1,7 mm of height and diameter, respectively. The specimens bred alone grow more

  4. A Comparative Study of Distribution of Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Pomacea insularum Collected from Polluted and Unpolluted Sites of the Freshwater Ecosystem in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Franklin Berandah Edward; Bin Huan Pang

    2009-01-01

    The snails (Pomacea insularum) were collected from polluted and unpolluted sites at Juru River and the Universiti Putra Malaysia Lake, respectively. Besides the shells, the soft tissues of snails were dissected into 6 different parts: intestine, operculum, foot, pennial sac, lung sac and the remainder. They were analyzed for the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe. The present study found 6 interesting points. First, all the metal levels found in the different parts of P. insularum collected from Juru River were significantly (p0.05) between the different sizes (small sizes: 30.5-33.2 mm; large sizes: 37.7-40.4 mm) of P. insularum. The first 5 points supported the use of different soft tissues of P. insularum as biomonitoring organs of heavy metal pollution in the freshwater ecosystem in Malaysia although further validation is required.

  5. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    María V. López van Oosterom; Carolina S. Ocón; Florencia Brancolini; Maroñas, Miriam E.; Eduardo D. Sendra; Alberto Rodrigues Capítulo

    2013-01-01

    The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata), Chironomidae (Diptera), Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919) (Bivalvia: Hyriidae), and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae) and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae) and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887) (Characidae) in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the ba...

  6. Efecto de la depuración en la biomasa del caracol Pomacea patula [Baker, 1922] usando el índice de condición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Ulloa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La depuración de organismos acuáticos en cultivo es una práctica común. El tiempo de exposición de los animales al agua tratada es uno de los factores más importantes para su eficiencia, pudiendo afectar su biomasa. Se evaluó el efecto de la depuración en adultos de Pomacea patula mediante la aplicación del índice de condición (IC, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Caracoles adultos obtenidos en cultivo se mantuvieron en peceras (Grupo 1 expuestos a un flujo de agua constante, tratada con radiación ultravioleta y limpieza diaria y en condiciones normales de mantenimiento (Grupo 2, con 5 réplicas por grupo. Se obtuvo el peso húmedo y longitud total individualmente, al inicio y después de una depuración de 10 días. El valor promedio del coeficiente de correlación (animales iniciales y de los Grupos 1 y 2 fue mayor a 0.90. El IC entre el valor inicial (771.81 ± 40.41 y los Grupos 1 y 2 (763.527 ± 25.24 y 765.465 ± 38.59, respectivamente, no mostró diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 al final del experimento. Los resultados sugieren que el proceso de depuración usado no afectó la biomasa de adultos de P. patula. El IC se mostró como una herramienta práctica de evaluación sin considerar la diferencia inicial de tallas de caracoles adultos

  7. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation ofCoxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani; Abbas Doosti; Asghar Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence ofCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted ofLymnaea palustris (L. palustris) andPomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nestedPCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods:A total of160 snail samples consisted of 100L. palustris and 60P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails'DNA was extracted by a genomicDNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence ofC. burnetii'sDNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1)-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37%) samples were found positive forC. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from theL. palustris and there were no positive samples fromP. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also,C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  8. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  9. The expulsive and attractive effects of 16 species of plants on Golden Apple Snails(Ampullaria gigas Spix)%16种植物对福寿螺的趋避效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐武兵; 钟秋华; 李林峰; 郭荣荣; 章家恩; 罗明珠

    2010-01-01

    于实验室内通过自制的八边形分室趋避试验装置观察研究了16种植物对福寿螺(A mpullaria gigas Spix)的趋避效果.结果表明:福寿螺具有沿壁爬行的偏好性,沿壁爬行的福寿螺数量平均为非沿壁爬行福寿螺数的3.77倍.同时发现,在所选的16种植物中,白千层(Melaleuca leucadendra L)、扶桑(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.)2种植物对福寿螺有较大的吸引作用;金叶假连翘(Duranta repens cv.Dwarf Yellow)、木麻黄(Casuarina equisetifolia L)、红龙草(A lternanthera dentata cv.Ruliginosa)、鸭脚木[Schefflera octophylla(Lour.)Harms]、剑麻(Agave Sisalana Perrine)5种植物对福寿螺有一定的驱赶作用.

  10. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  11. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Vectors and Spatial Patterns of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Selected Rice-Farming Villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tujan, Ma. Angelica A.; Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C.; Paller, Vachel Gay V.

    2016-01-01

    In the Philippines, rats and snails abound in agricultural areas as pests and source of food for some of the local people which poses risks of parasite transmission to humans such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This study was conducted to determine the extent of A. cantonensis infection among rats and snails collected from rice-farming villages of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija. A total of 209 rats, 781 freshwater snails, and 120 terrestrial snails were collected for the study. Heart and lungs of rats and snail tissues were examined and subjected to artificial digestion for parasite collection. Adult worms from rats were identified using SSU rDNA gene. Seven nematode sequences obtained matched A. cantonensis. Results revealed that 31% of the rats examined were positive with A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi showed prevalence of 46% and 29%, respectively. Furthermore, only Pomacea canaliculata (2%) and Melanoides maculata (1%) were found to be positive for A. cantonensis among the snails collected. Analysis of host distribution showed overlapping habitats of rats and snails as well as residential and agricultural areas indicating risks to public health. This study presents a possible route of human infection for A. cantonensis through handling and consumption of P. canaliculata and M. maculata or crops contaminated by these snails. PMID:27313865

  13. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  14. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites. PMID:26981686

  15. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que

  16. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  17. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  18. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  19. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques. PMID:26766580

  20. Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fallas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina.

  1. On-farm feed resources for catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Phonekhampheng, Oudom

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to collected information African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production systems, and the chemical composition and nutritive value of potentially available feedstuffs. Moreover, the apparent digestibility (AD) of nutrient and amino acids (AA) in raw, sun-dried and ensiled Golden Apple snails (GAS) was evaluated, as well as the potential of GAS to replace fish meal in the diet for growing African catfish fingerlings. The farmers used traditional feedstuffs such as mai...

  2. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and several alternative halogenated flame retardants in a small herbivorous food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the bioaccumulation behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in plants and in herbivores. In the present study, PBDEs and several alternative HFRs (AHFRs) were examined in a small herbivorous food chain (paddy soils–rice plant–apple snails) from an electronic waste recycling site in South China. Mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 40.5, 1.81, and 5.54 ng/g dry weight in the soils, rice plant, and apple snails, respectively. Levels of total AHFRs in the samples were comparable to or even higher than those of PBDEs. The calculated plant to soil concentration ratios for most AHFRs (0.05–3.40) were higher than those for PBDEs (0.02–0.23), indicating the greater bioavailability of the AHFRs in the rice plant. All PBDE congeners and Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were biomagnified from the rice plant to apple snails, with mean biomagnification factors (BMFs) of 1.1–5.0. -- Highlights: ► The paddy field ecosystem at the e-waste site has been contaminated by HFRs. ► Concentrations of total AHFRs were comparable to those of PBDEs. ► The AHFRs may have greater bioavailability compared with PBDEs. ► PBDEs and DP biomagnified in the herbivorous food chain. ► First report on bioaccumulation of the AHFRs in a herbivorous food chain. -- A modest biomagnification of PBDEs and DP occurred from rice plant to apple snails

  3. Influence of Nitrogen Containing Wastes Addition on Natural Aerobic Composting of Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Suchinun Kiepukdee; Prawit Towatana

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Rice straw is an agricultural residue. Typically, the rice straw can be burn in the rice field after the harvesting process. The burning can cause air pollution. Another alternative rice straw management method is animal feed. The amount of rice straw is enormus in Thailand. Another sustainable way to manage rice straw is required. Rice straw is used as main waste to compost with nitrogen containing wastes such as golden apple snail, cattle dung and urea in natural aerobic ...

  4. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem (IV) : Experiments on Growth and Competition of Rice Plants against Weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Nakaji, Kei

    2009-01-01

    This researching addressed to develop an agricultural production ecosystem robot, we carried out experiments in lots of the rice production ecosystem at Kyushu University Farm in order to get the Lotka-Volterra's parameters for the competition between of rice plants, small umbrella sedge well knew in Japan as Tamagayatsuri (Cyperus difformis L..) and non superior weeds without predation by golden apple snails for different stages of the growing season. A Verhulst logistic model was successful...

  5. Novel Animal Defenses against Predation: A Snail Egg Neurotoxin Combining Lectin and Pore-Forming Chains That Resembles Plant Defense and Bacteria Attack Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceolín, Marcelo; Ituarte, Santiago; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jin; Fernández, Patricia E.; Heras, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning) coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator. Capacity to resist digestion was assayed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectroscopy and simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. PcPV2 oligomer is antinutritive, withstanding proteinase digestion and displaying structural stability between pH 4.0–10.0. cDNA sequencing and protein domain search showed that its two subunits share homology with membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF)-like toxins and tachylectin-like lectins, a previously unknown structure that resembles plant Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and bacterial botulinum toxins. The protomer has therefore a novel AB toxin combination of a MACPF-like chain linked by disulfide bonds to a lectin-like chain, indicating a delivery system for the former. This was further supported by observing PcPV2 binding to glycocalix of enterocytes in vivo and in culture, and by its hemaggutinating, but not hemolytic activity, which suggested an interaction with surface oligosaccharides. PcPV2 is able to get into predator’s body as evidenced in rats and mice by the presence of circulating antibodies in response to sublethal oral doses. To our knowledge, a lectin-pore-forming toxin has not been reported before, providing the first evidence of a neurotoxic lectin in animals, and a novel function for ancient and widely distributed proteins. The acquisition of this unique neurotoxic/antinutritive/storage protein may confer the eggs a survival advantage, opening new

  6. Comparative study between the effects of hyaluronic acid and acid galactan purified from eggs of the mollusk Pomacea sp in wound healing Estudo comparativo entre os efeitos do ácido hialurônico e do galactano acídico purificado dos ovos do molusco Pomacea sp na cicatrização de feridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katarina Menezes da Cruz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA and of AG on the healing of intestine wounds. METHODS: The semi-purified extract of the eggs of the mollusc was obtained by fractionation with ammonium sulfate and purification for ion-exchange chromatography. The obtained galactans were eluted in water (neutral galactan and in 0.1 and 0.2M NaCl (acidic galactans. The in vivo study was performed with 45 "Wistar" rats, separated in three groups (n=15. Solutions containing HA 1%, GA 1% or saline solution 0,9%, was placed topically on the sutures of wounds in the small intestine of the rats. After 05, 10 and 21 days the animals were sacrificed and biopsy of the healing tissue was done. RESULTS: The hystologic grading was more significant for HA and AG groups when compared to the group C. AG stimulated the appearance of macrophages, giant cells and increase in the concentration of collagen in the area of the wound when compared to HA. CONCLUSION: The topical use of GA in intestinal wounds promoted the anticipation of events that are important in the wound healing.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito de ácido hialurônico (AH e do GA na cicatrização de feridas intestinais. MÉTODOS: O extrato semipurificado dos ovos do molusco foi obtido por fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e purificação por cromatografia de troca-iônica. Os galactanos obtidos foram eluídos em água (galactano neutro e em 0.1 e 0.2M NaCl (galactanos acídicos. O estudo em vivo foi executado com 45 ratos Wistar, separados em três grupos (n=15. Soluções contendo AH 1%, GA 1% ou solução salina 0,9%, foram aplicadas topicamente nas suturas das feridas longitudinais localizadas no intestino delgado dos ratos. Depois de 05, 10 e 21 dias os animais foram sacrificados e biópsias dos tecidos cicatrizados foram realizadas. RESULTADOS: A graduação histológica foi mais significante para os grupos do AH e GA quando comparado ao grupo C. O GA estimulou o aparecimento de macrófagos, células gigantes e aumentou a concentração de colágeno na área da ferida quando comparado ao AH. CONCLUSÃO: O uso tópico de GA em feridas intestinais promoveu a antecipação de eventos que são importantes na cicatrização de feridas.

  7. Influence of Nitrogen Containing Wastes Addition on Natural Aerobic Composting of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rice straw is an agricultural residue. Typically, the rice straw can be burn in the rice field after the harvesting process. The burning can cause air pollution. Another alternative rice straw management method is animal feed. The amount of rice straw is enormus in Thailand. Another sustainable way to manage rice straw is required. Rice straw is used as main waste to compost with nitrogen containing wastes such as golden apple snail, cattle dung and urea in natural aerobic composting reactors. The golden apple snail is a pesticide and cattle dung is an animal waste. Both materials are all waste of low values. The main purpose of this study was to determine the influence of nitrogen containing wastes addition to rice straw on the performance of natural aerobic composting process in terms of the following parameters: pH, temperature, organic matter, C/N ratio, electrical conductivity and GI. The impact of this study is to reuse agriculture residue by composting. Approach: The experiments was consisted of three reactors. The reactor 1 contains the rice straws and golden apple snails while the reactor 2 contains the rice straws, golden apple snails and urea. The reactor 3 contains the rice straws, cattle dung and urea. The experiments were carried out in designed natural aerobic reactors (60 L under controlled laboratory conditions over 60 days. The analysis was done every 5 days however the temperature was measured daily. Results: The experimental results showed that the initial C/N ratio was 30.7, 30.3 and 31.8 in the reactor 1, 2 and 3, respectively. After the 60-day period, the final C/N ratio was reduced to 17.9, 16.9 and 18.4 in the reactor 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The main nutrients (N: P: K from all reactors achieved the standard level for Thai compost standard. The rice straw as agricultural residue was suitable for co-composting with golden apple snails and cattle dung as the nitrogen containing wastes. Conclusion: The

  8. RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá com um grupo controle (escargot, animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e 25g (considerados pela Escargoteria animais padrão de abate. De interesse industrial, o rendimento em carne observado no lote de escargot de peso inferior (14,08 a 19,98g ao lote controle, mostra que podemos aproveitá-los para a comercialização, pois podem ser abatidos antes dos 4 meses de idade, pelo menor custo de produção. Já os lotes de aruá (espécie selvagem apresentaram discrepâncias quando comparado ao lote controle o que sugerem estudos zootécnicos para melhorar o rendimento em carne. Na composição centesimal da carne 02 lotes de escargot (1 e 2 e 02 lotes de aruá (4 e 5 são estatisticamente igual ao lote controle indicando o potencial nutricional da espécie aruá.

  9. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem (VI) : Counting of Snails in Laboratory and Paddy by using Developed Programs of Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Nakaji, Kei

    2009-01-01

    An image processing analysis to segment and count the golden apple snails in paddy field was done in order to develop an intelligent robot for a rice production ecosystem. The Simulink models for counting snails were constructed for three different condition of the paddy and for the case they are mating. It was found useful to use the color of the reflection of the sunshine on the shells of the snails in the daytime and the color of the snail itself after raining at night in order to count th...

  10. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem (Ⅷ) : Improvement of Predator-Prey Model and Analysis of the Activity of Snail in Paddy by Image Processing-

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Nakaji, Kei

    2010-01-01

    The predator (Golden apple snail)―prey(rice or weeds) model developed in a previous research (Luna et al., 2008c) and the Simulink model constructed for image processing analysis were improved in order to observe and measure the activity of snails by calculating of speed of them using the AVI (Audio Video Interleave) files reported in earlier paper (Yamaguchi et al., 2008). The improved Predator ―Prey Model are thought to be more realistic and the improved Simulink model is able to calculate...

  11. Polonium-210 activity concentration, transfer and dose to certain invertebrates found in the vicinity of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invertebrates are significant reference organisms, and some of them tend to accumulate certain radionuclides in increased levels. It is imperative that the levels of radionuclides are measured in certain organism in the vicinity of any major nuclear power project before its commissioning; hence, this study was carried out in the surroundings of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site. The natural radionuclide polonium-210 having affinity to the organic matter in the soil and to the protein content of the animals, is very significant as it delivers a high internal dose to the organisms. The activity concentration of this radionuclide, its transfer and dose were assessed in two terrestrial (earthworm, Pheretima posthuma and land snail, Trachea vittata) and two aquatic (apple snail, Pila globosa and bivalve mollusc, Lamellidens marginalis) invertebrates. The activity concentration of 210Po was found to be the highest in the earthworm and the lowest in the land snail. The per-animal dose due to 210Po was the highest for the apple snail and the lowest for the earthworm. The results indicate that 210Po does not constitute a significant radiological threat to the organisms. (author)

  12. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exigidas pela Legislação (6.198, de 26/12/74, e o Decreto 76.986, de 06/01/76 do Ministério da Agricultura e Abastecimento para a comercialização de produtos destinados à alimentação animal. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as farinhas de vísceras de ambas espécies podem ser utilizadas como matérias primas, constituindo ótimas fontes de nutrientes para a incorporação em rações animais.

  13. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis...

  14. Using scenario planning to evaluate the impacts of climate change on wildlife populations and communities in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, Christopher P.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Beerens, James M.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Brandt, Laura A.; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2015-01-01

    It is uncertain how climate change will impact hydrologic drivers of wildlife population dynamics in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades, or how to accommodate this uncertainty in restoration decisions. Using projections of climate scenarios for the year 2060, we evaluated how several possible futures could affect wildlife populations (wading birds, fish, alligators, native apple snails, amphibians, threatened and invasive species) across the Everglades landscape and inform planning already underway. We used data collected from prior research and monitoring to parameterize our wildlife population models. Hydrologic data were simulated using a spatially explicit, regional-scale model. Our scenario evaluations show that expected changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level could significantly alter important ecological functions. All of our wildlife indicators were negatively affected by scenarios with less rainfall and more evapotranspiration. Under such scenarios, habitat suitability was substantially reduced for iconic animals such as wading birds and alligators. Conversely, the increased rainfall scenario benefited aquatic prey productivity and apex predators. Cascading impacts on non-native species is speculative, but increasing temperatures could increase the time between cold events that currently limit expansion and abundance of non-native fishes, amphibians, and reptiles with natural ranges in the tropics. This scenario planning framework underscored the benefits of proceeding with Everglades restoration plans that capture and clean more freshwater with the potential to mitigate rainfall loss and postpone impacts of sea level rise.

  15. Using Scenario Planning to Evaluate the Impacts of Climate Change on Wildlife Populations and Communities in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, Christopher P.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Beerens, James M.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Brandt, Laura A.; Hart, Kristen M.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2015-04-01

    It is uncertain how climate change will impact hydrologic drivers of wildlife population dynamics in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades, or how to accommodate this uncertainty in restoration decisions. Using projections of climate scenarios for the year 2060, we evaluated how several possible futures could affect wildlife populations (wading birds, fish, alligators, native apple snails, amphibians, threatened and invasive species) across the Everglades landscape and inform planning already underway. We used data collected from prior research and monitoring to parameterize our wildlife population models. Hydrologic data were simulated using a spatially explicit, regional-scale model. Our scenario evaluations show that expected changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level could significantly alter important ecological functions. All of our wildlife indicators were negatively affected by scenarios with less rainfall and more evapotranspiration. Under such scenarios, habitat suitability was substantially reduced for iconic animals such as wading birds and alligators. Conversely, the increased rainfall scenario benefited aquatic prey productivity and apex predators. Cascading impacts on non-native species is speculative, but increasing temperatures could increase the time between cold events that currently limit expansion and abundance of non-native fishes, amphibians, and reptiles with natural ranges in the tropics. This scenario planning framework underscored the benefits of proceeding with Everglades restoration plans that capture and clean more freshwater with the potential to mitigate rainfall loss and postpone impacts of sea level rise.

  16. Using scenario planning to evaluate the impacts of climate change on wildlife populations and communities in the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, Christopher P; Romañach, Stephanie S; Beerens, James M; Pearlstine, Leonard G; Brandt, Laura A; Hart, Kristen M; Mazzotti, Frank J; Trexler, Joel C

    2015-04-01

    It is uncertain how climate change will impact hydrologic drivers of wildlife population dynamics in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades, or how to accommodate this uncertainty in restoration decisions. Using projections of climate scenarios for the year 2060, we evaluated how several possible futures could affect wildlife populations (wading birds, fish, alligators, native apple snails, amphibians, threatened and invasive species) across the Everglades landscape and inform planning already underway. We used data collected from prior research and monitoring to parameterize our wildlife population models. Hydrologic data were simulated using a spatially explicit, regional-scale model. Our scenario evaluations show that expected changes in temperature, precipitation, and sea level could significantly alter important ecological functions. All of our wildlife indicators were negatively affected by scenarios with less rainfall and more evapotranspiration. Under such scenarios, habitat suitability was substantially reduced for iconic animals such as wading birds and alligators. Conversely, the increased rainfall scenario benefited aquatic prey productivity and apex predators. Cascading impacts on non-native species is speculative, but increasing temperatures could increase the time between cold events that currently limit expansion and abundance of non-native fishes, amphibians, and reptiles with natural ranges in the tropics. This scenario planning framework underscored the benefits of proceeding with Everglades restoration plans that capture and clean more freshwater with the potential to mitigate rainfall loss and postpone impacts of sea level rise. PMID:25371194

  17. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b.) (Euphorbiaceae) - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes; Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; Maurício Carvalho Vasconcellos; Virgínia Torres Schall

    1992-01-01

    The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  18. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b. (Euphorbiaceae - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  19. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  20. Usefulness of the insect food in the long-term space stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    2016-07-01

    The meal is important in life in the space. The importance of space foods is not only health maintenance. The space foods are one of the Life-support system for a space trip. Time for meal is time of the relaxation of home life of the astronaut. However, the breeding of the large animal is still impossible in the spaceship now narrowly. If it is fish and an insect, the breeding in the spaceship is possible. We recognize an insect as ingredients on the earth. As for the insect, possibility to save a food shortage of the earth is expected in future. We suggested the space foods using the insect for 12 years. The cultivation of the insect is pushed forward now in Europe. We suggest a menu to have you know the space foods which took in an insect more. The insect which we used for this menu is silkworm-pupa, a grasshopper, a larva of a wasp and apple snail. The Japanese foods were registered with world's cultural heritage. Therefore we used an insect to make our Japanese foods. Space foods must be universal food. This is because the astronauts are recruited from the whole world. Space foods that a world astronaut eats and thinks to be delicious are necessary. We want to take in an insect in world cooking in future. The insect food includes essential amino acids and essential fatty acid. The insect is superior nutritionally. We will think that insect food is necessary more and more on both the space and the earth in future. The insect is precious ingredients relieving a food shortage for the human.

  1. Evaluation of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens var. Hispolii (N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae: 2. Investigation in lotic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Baptista

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hispolii in 12 ppm concentration (12 mg/l caused 100% mortality for a Biomphalaria tenagophila population in a lotic habitat after 9 hr of dripfeed application. For sentinel snails, in cages placed at the water surface and buried under 0.10 m, the mortality rates varied with the distance from the application point and were: 100% (0 m; 92.6% (50 m and 94.7% (100. No lethal effects were observed for the other living species in this habitat (Pomacea haustrum and Poecilia reticulata.

  2. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL CON CÉLULAS INMOVILIZADAS DE Zymomonas mobilis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Matiz, Adriana; Torres, Claudia; Potou, Raul

    2002-01-01

    La producción de etanol en Colombia representa uno de los renglones económicos más importantes, producido como alcohol antiséptico, solvente y aditivo para la gasolina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aumentar la eficiencia en la producción de etanol y encontrar microorganismos que representen una alternativa en producción frente a Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cepas de Zymomonas mobilis, var. mobilis (Zmm1 y Zmm2) y pomaceae (Zmp1 y Zmp2), fueron aisladas de muestras de melazas de caña con ...

  3. Levantamento malacológico da Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, (Minas Gerais, Brasil Malacological survey at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco (Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney Elias da Silva

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo malacológico realizado na Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, MG, no período de setembro de 1986 a março de 1991, foram coletados 46.579 moluscos, representados por 07 espécies de 05 famílias. Foram coletados 39.176 exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, 1.296 de B. glabrata, sete exemplares de Drepanotrema cimex, 2.527 de Physa sp, 417 de Lymnaea sp, 92 de Pomacea haustrum e, a partir de março/1990, 3.064 exemplares de Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae = Thiaridae. Dos moluscos que apresentaram positividade para diversas larvas de trematódeos, quatro exemplares de B. tenagophila estavam positivos para S. mansoni.A malacological survey was carried out at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco, State of Minas Gerais, for the period 1986-1991. A total amount of 46,579 mollusks was collected, and among them seven species corresponding to five families could be found, as follows: 39,176 specimens of Biomphalaria tenagophila; 1,296 B. glabrata; 7 Drepanotrema cimex; 2,527 Physa sp; 417 Lymnaea sp; 92 Pomacea hastrum, and 3,064 specimens of Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae=Thiaridae were collected from March/1990 onwards. Four specimens of B. tenagophila were found to be positive for Schistosoma mansoni.

  4. Contaminação por mercúrio em sedimento e em moluscos do Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil Mercury contamination in sediment and in molluscs of Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz M. Vieira

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The total level of mercury detected in the sediment and in the tissues of molluscs from the Bento Gomes basin, although low, have shown that the mercury used in the gold mining activities in the Poconé wetlands has contaminated those aquatic habitats in Pantanal. From 69 sediment samples analyzed, 26 % (N = 18 have shown levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.25µg.g-1 of mercury (moist weight. Mercury levels analyzed in 54 samples of mollusc tissues (Ampullaria scalaris Orbigny, 1835; A. canaliculata Lamarck, 1819 and Marisa planogyra Pilsbry, 1933 have shown that 30% (N = 16 were contaminated with levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.16µg.g-1 moist weight. This study shows that the mercury used in digs for gold mining and released into the environment has reached the habitats of Pantanal spread from the sediment into the molluscs living in the region.

  5. Effects of body size on the diet of Rivulus haraldsiolii (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of body size on the feeding habits of the little-known killifi sh Rivulus haraldsiolii, collected in a coastal Atlantic Rainforest island stream, was investigated. Samples were collected during a study trip on 13 July 2009 in a brackish stream located in the northern part of Ilha do Mel Island, one of the most important southern Atlantic Forest areas in southern Brazil. The diet included aquatic immature insects (Diptera pupae and Chironomidae, aquatic insects (Hemiptera – Vellidae, microcrustaceans (Cladocera, aquatic ticks (Acarina, gastropods (Pomacea sp., terrestrial insects (Coleoptera, Formicidae and Isoptera, insect fragments, and plant fragments. The species presented an omnivorous feeding habit, and differences in diet could be related to variations in body sizes. Adults (large individuals feed mainly on Formicidae, plant fragments and aquatic ticks, whereas juveniles (small individuals feed basically on aquatic immature insects (Chironomidae and aquatic ticks.

  6. Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, E C; Paumgartten, F J

    2000-07-01

    The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC(50), mg/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (Daphnia similis, 0.38; C. dubia, 1.07; Artemia sp., 0.93), and fishes (Danio rerio, 0.96; Poecilia reticulata, 1. 39), and considerably less toxic to Ampullariidae snails (Pomacea sp. , 10.55) and frog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana, 7.50). Latex (up to 100 mg/L) was not toxic to bacteria (P. putida and V. fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris), and mosquito larvae (Anopheles albitarsis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis). NCL was very toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to Planorbidae snails (B. glabrata, 0.15, B. tenagophila, 0.13; H. duryi, 0.10), T. tubifex (0.11), crustacea (D. similis, 0.19; Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.47; Artemia sp. 0.18), fishes (D. rerio, 0.25; P. reticulata, 0.29), R. catesbeiana (0.16), and Pomacea sp. (0.76). NCL was toxic to bacteria, algae (96-h IC(50), mg/L: S. capricornutum, 0.34; C. vulgaris, 1.23) and slightly toxic to mosquito larvae. In conclusion, E. milii latex, as compared with the reference molluscicide niclosamide, presents a higher degree of selectivity toward snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. PMID:10903832

  7. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  8. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

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    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  9. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  10. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  11. Where are the South American freshwater turtle blood flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae)? The first morphological and molecular analysis of spirorchiid cercariae from freshwater snails in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Spirorchiidae are blood parasites mainly of turtles with a worldwide distribution. These flukes were recently reported in some marine turtles from South America, where the occurrence of spirorchiids in freshwater definitive and intermediate hosts is so far unknown. In the present study, three morphotypes of brevifurcate apharyngeate distome cercariae found in freshwater molluscs from an urban reservoir in Brazil were used for morphological and molecular (nuclear 28S rDNA) evaluation. Two morphotypes of cercariae, probably congeneric species, were found in 12/17,465 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. and differ from each other by body size and sequences (0.1%). They present morphology similar to North American freshwater spirorchiids (Spirorchis spp.), however surprisingly molecular data reveals that these lineages are more closely related to marine spirorchiids. A third species found in 2/777 Pomacea sp. differs morphologically from all previously described spirorchiid cercariae and genetically from spirorchiids with available sequences (16-19%), grouping in the phylogenetic tree with freshwater North American species. This is the first report of freshwater spirorchiids in South America and the first molecular confirmation of the involvement of a caenogastropod in the life cycle of spirorchiids. PMID:26253761

  12. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g-1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  13. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  14. Progresses and perspective on research and practice of rice-duck farming in China%近10多年来我国鸭稻共作生态农业技术的研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章家恩

    2013-01-01

    A significant progress had been made in the theory and practice of rice-duck farming in China in recent decades. Attained theoretic achievements included effects of rice-duck farming on: 1) nutrient cycle, matter and energy flow characteristics in paddy fields; 2) pest and disease control and the dynamic relationship between pests and natural enemies; 3) weed communities and control in paddy fields; 4) water environment and aquatic biodiversity in paddy fields; 5) soil fertility and soil biodiversity; 6) rice growth and canopy structure; 7) emission of greenhouse gases and global climate change; 8) rice quality, yield, ecosystem services and comprehensive benefits; and 9) control of golden apple snails. Practical innovations had included: 1) technical procedures and regulations of rice-duck farming; 2) rice-duck farming with direct seeding method; 3) rice-duck farming with zero-tillage; and 4) other new development techniques such as two-batch duckling co-culture with rice in a growth season, rice intercropping with other water plants and duck co-culture, etc. Based on the above progress, present situation and future development trends and demand, key research perspectives were put forward as follows: 1) effect, mechanism and long-term research on rice-duck fanning; 2) innovation, integration and demonstration of key technologies of rice-duck fanning; 3) standardization and industrialization of rice-duck farming; and 4) rice-duck fanning study in the context of low-carbon agriculture and global change demand.%近10多年来,我国在鸭稻共作生态农业技术的理论研究和生产实践等方面均取得了长足进步,因此有必要加以总结.其中,在理论研究层面,主要涉及鸭稻共作对稻田养分循环与能、物流特征的影响,对病虫害的防控和天敌-害虫动态的影响,对杂草群落结构的影响及其防控,对水体环境与水体生物多样性的影响,对土壤肥力特征及土壤生物多样性的影响,对水稻生

  15. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  16. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  17. Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Patricia Diniz Cantanhede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. This paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species, which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1% from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study.

  18. Modeling and simulation of an aquatic habitat for bioregenerative life support research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Gregorio E.; Howard, Ayanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration human spaceflight poses challenges for spacecraft autonomy and the regeneration of life support consumables, such as oxygen and water. Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), which make use of biological processes to transform biological byproducts back into consumables, have the ability to recycle organic byproducts and are the preferred option for food production. A limitation in BLSS research is in the non-availability of small-scale experimental capacities that may help to better understand the challenges in system closure, integration, and control. Ground-based aquatic habitats are an option for small-scale research relevant to bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), given that they can operate as self-contained systems enclosing a habitat composed of various species in a single volume of water. The purpose of this paper is to present the modeling and simulation of a reconfigurable aquatic habitat for experiments in regenerative life support automation; it supports the use of aquatic habitats as a small-scale approach to experiments relevant to larger-scale regenerative life support systems. It presents ground-based aquatic habitats as an option for small-scale BLSS research focusing on the process of respiration, and elaborates on the description of biological processes by introducing models of ecophysiological phenomena for consumers and producers: higher plants of the species Bacopa monnieri produce O2 for snails of the genus Pomacea; the snails consume O2 and generate CO2, which is used by the plants in combination with radiant energy to generate O2 through the process of photosynthesis. Feedback controllers are designed to regulate the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water. This paper expands the description of biological processes by introducing models of ecophysiological phenomena of the organisms involved. The model of the plants includes a description of the rate of CO2 assimilation as a function of irradiance

  19. Preliminary examination of food web structure of Nicola Lake (Taim Hydrological System, south Brazil using dual C and N stable isotope analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Taim Ecological Reserve is located within the Taim Hydrological System and was created to protect a heterogeneous and productive landscape harboring exceptional biological diversity in southern Brazil. Using stable isotope ratio analyses of carbon (delta13C and nitrogen (delta15N, we provide a preliminary description of the food web structure, including estimates of production sources supporting fish populations and vertical trophic structure, within a representative lake of this system. A total of 21 organisms (5 macrophytes, 3 mollusks and 13 adult fishes representing 16 species were collected for isotope analysis. Fishes had delta13C values ranging from -24.30º/oo to -28.31º/oo , showing concordance with the range of values observed for macrophytes (-25.49 to -27.10º/oo, and suggesting that these plants could be a major carbon source supporting these fishes. delta13C signatures of Corbicula (-30.81º/oo and Pomacea (-24.26º/oo indirectly suggest that phytoplankton and benthic algae could be alternative carbon sources for some consumers. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated approximately three consumer trophic levels. The pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis was a primary consumer. Two catfishes (Trachelyopterus lucenai and Loricariichthys anus were secondary consumers. Two congeneric pike cichclids (Crenicichla lepidota and C. punctata, a catfish (Pimelodus maculatus and the characids Astyanax fasciatus and Oligosarcus robustus were tertiary consumers. Further studies including additional primary producers and consumers and greater sample numbers should be conducted to provide a more complete and detailed description of food web structure and dynamics within the reserve.A Estação Ecológica do Taim está inserida dentro do Sistema Hidrológico do Taim e foi criada para proteger uma região heterogênea e produtiva no sul do Brasil, abrigando uma diversidade biológica excepcional. A partir da análise de isótopos estáveis do carbono