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Sample records for apple malus domestica

  1. Metabolic and gene expression analysis of apple (Malus × domestica) carotenogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Dejnoprat, Supinya; Lewis, David; Sutherland, Paul; Volz, Richard K; Andrew C. Allan

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid accumulation confers distinct colouration to plant tissues, with effects on plant response to light and as well as health benefits for consumers of plant products. The carotenoid pathway is controlled by flux of metabolites, rate-limiting enzyme steps, feed-back inhibition, and the strength of sink organelles, the plastids, in the cell. In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh), fruit carotenoid concentrations are low in comparison with those in other fruit species. The apple fruit flesh,...

  2. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Francini; Luca Sebastiani

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice.

  3. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.: Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

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    Alessandra Francini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice.

  4. Selection of low-variance expressed Malus x domestica (apple) genes for use as quantitative PCR reference genes (housekeepers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To accurately measure gene expression using PCR-based approaches, there is the need for reference genes that have low variance in expression (housekeeping genes) to normalise the data for RNA quantity and quality. For non-model species such as Malus x domestica (apples), previously, the selection of...

  5. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these metabolites. At these genetic loci candidate genes were identified, using the whole genome sequence of apple, and it was investigated whether the expression of these candidate genes in the F1 progeny ...

  6. Optimizing dehydration of apples Malus Domestica with fructo-oligosaccharide incorporation

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    Mariana Buranelo Egea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to study the effect of the variables of the osmotic dehydration process on sliced Fuji apples (Malus domestica using a 2 x 3² factorial design. The variables studied in the apple slices were the pretreatment (blanching or acidification, the temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC and the FOS concentration (40%, 50% and 60% m/v of the osmotic solution. There was no difference among the pretreatments for the water activity and titratable acidity. The slices pre-treated by the acidification presented less enzymatic browning (greatest luminosity L* value combined with a greater soluble solid contents (thus, this treatment was selected. Treatments T4 (45ºC and 40% m/v and T7 (60ºC and 40%m/v, using the acidification presented responses within the recommended standards and FOS were validated by the repetition.

  7. Metabolic and gene expression analysis of apple (Malus x domestica) carotenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Dejnoprat, Supinya; Lewis, David; Sutherland, Paul; Volz, Richard K; Allan, Andrew C

    2012-07-01

    Carotenoid accumulation confers distinct colouration to plant tissues, with effects on plant response to light and as well as health benefits for consumers of plant products. The carotenoid pathway is controlled by flux of metabolites, rate-limiting enzyme steps, feed-back inhibition, and the strength of sink organelles, the plastids, in the cell. In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh), fruit carotenoid concentrations are low in comparison with those in other fruit species. The apple fruit flesh, in particular, begins development with high amounts of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but in all commercial cultivars a large proportion of this is lost by fruit maturity. To understand the control of carotenoid concentrations in apple fruit, metabolic and gene expression analysis of the carotenoid pathway were measured in genotypes with varying flesh and skin colour. Considerable variation in both carotenoid concentrations and compound profile was observed between tissues and genotypes, with carotenes and xanthophylls being found only in fruit accumulating high carotenoid concentrations. The study identified potential rate-limiting steps in carotenogenesis, which suggested that the expression of ZISO, CRTISO, and LCY-ε, in particular, were significant in predicting final carotenoid accumulation in mature apple fruit. PMID:22717407

  8. Composition of pectic polysaccharides in a Portuguese apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe

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    Ana S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe is a typical Portuguese apple cultivar classified as Protected Designation and Origin (PDO. It is a traditional product produced under strict conditions and labelled with a specific law protected designation. This cultivar presents quite good sweetness and flavor. The monosaccharide composition of the pectic polysaccharides from this traditional apple is herein reported for the first time. Based on the molar ratios obtained from the sugar composition, the presumable pectin structure could be inferred. The cell-wall polysaccharides present in the alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR of unpeeled BE apple were sequentially fractionated. In addition, pectic material was also extracted by citric acid treatment prior to heat extraction at acidic pH. The water soluble pectin, imidazole soluble pectin and sodium carbonate soluble pectin account for 44, 16 and 40 % of the AIR, respectively. The pectic polysaccharides extracted in the presence of citric acid had lower galacturonic acid content and higher neutral sugars content. The homogalacturonan (HG and less-substituted rhamnogalacturonan (RG domains are extracted first. Pectin treated with citric acid has been shown to contain more substituted polymers, especially RG-I. In addition, the relatively higher Xylose/Galacturonic acid ratio found in the citric acid extract demonstrates that the xylogalacturonan (XG domain presumably is present in the pectic material of the unpeeled BE apple.

  9. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala' vascular tissue and phloem sap

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    Varkonyi-Gasic Erika

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Results Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'. We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. Conclusions This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  10. Shoot bending promotes flower bud formation by miRNA‐mediated regulation in apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; LI, YOUMEI; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Flower induction in apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) trees plays an important life cycle role, but young trees produce fewer and inferior quality flower buds. Therefore, shoot bending has become an important cultural practice, significantly promoting the capacity to develop more flower buds during the growing seasons. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant growth, flower induction and stress responses. In this study, we identified miRNAs potentially involved in ...

  11. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson Ross G; Sutherland Paul W; Johnston Sarah L; Gunaseelan Kularajathevan; Hallett Ian C; Mitra Deepali; Brummell David A; Schröder Roswitha; Johnston Jason W; Schaffer Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from mu...

  12. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH (APPLE AND PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (GREEN BEANS

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    A.Doss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity as well as total phenol (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC in two fruits, apple (Malus domestica and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The antioxidant activities were examined by two different methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power scavenging activity. The results showed that considerable amount of TPC and TFC was present in these fruit extracts as well as these vegetables contain a vast array of different phytochemicals in their dry form. Apple showed higher antioxidant activity than green beans. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates & glycosides in all the extracts. Overall, the present results provided basic data for choosing these fruits with high antioxidant capacity for consumption or for the development of antioxidant based medicines as value-added products.

  14. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  15. Expression of a Barley Peroxidase in Transgenic Apple (Malus domestica L.) Results in Altered Growth, Xylem Formation and Tolerance to Heat Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Vicuna Requesens, Deborah; Malone, Renee P.; Dix, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous expression of peroxidase genes has been shown to influence morphology and stress responses of several crop plants but little is known about the effect in woody species. In this study, a barley cell-wall peroxidase gene (prx8), peviously shown to influence growth and stress tolerance in tobacco, was introduced into the genome of apple (Malus domestica cv. Greensleeves) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the presence of the transgene confirmed by PCR and Southern blot an...

  16. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  17. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  18. F1 hybrid of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) and European pear (Pyrus communis) with fertile F2 offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.C.; Malnoy, M.; Hofmann, T.; Schwab, W.; Palmieri, L.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Schuch, L.A.; Müller, M.; Schimmelpfeng, H.; Velasco, R.; Martens, S.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of intergeneric hybrids for horticultural and agricultural crops is still a demanding task for breeding programmes. The aim of such approaches is to introduce new quality and resistance traits and to enlarge the gene pool. Recently, an F1 hybrid between Malus × domestica and Pyrus

  19. Nutrition Comparison Between Genus of Apple (Malus Sylvestris and Malus Domestica) To Show Which Cultivar is Best for the Province of Balochistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aziz; Anwar, M; Zaheer Uddin; Hiba Amanat; Huma Ayub; Saima Jadoon

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming cultivation is expanding in Balochistan. But there is no scientific study present on this subject which apple genus is beneficial according to nutritional point of view. This is the main object of this study to evaluate the nutritive composition of different Genus of apples. Keeping this objective in mind two different genus of apples were selected i.e. Malus Sylvestris and Malusdomestica. To know the percentage composition of Moisture, Ash, Brix, Fat, Pectin, Fiber, Protein, To...

  20. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder;

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared to...... 374.9 t of fruit packed for export. Distributions of starch (S), soluble solids content (SSC) and flesh firmness (F) were also estimated from the sample. The distribution of starch (S) and fruit mass (M) showed high variability (CVS = SD/mean = 0.32 and CVM = 0.23), whereas SSC and flesh firmness....... Variations in starch, SSC and flesh firmness could not be explained by position of the fruit in the canopy. The methods used in this paper are proposed as tools for studies aimed at understanding sources of quality variability as well as for management purposes. Further research is needed to determine...

  1. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-01-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant ‘Blondee’ (BLO) and its red-skin parent ‘Kidd’s D-8’ (KID), the original name of ‘Gala’, to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) o...

  2. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for...... the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol......-47% by weight of the skins (dry matter), the rest mainly being lignin. The predicted relative molar levels of the polysaccharide elements in the apple skins, which made up similar to 49-64% by weight of the skins (dry matter), appeared to be similar to those of the grape skins. The apple skins were...

  3. Transcriptional regulation of auxin metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis activation during apple (Malus × domestica) fruit maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at13 harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale 14 transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crossta...

  4. Effect of boron fertilization of apple trees (Malus domestica Borth. on yield and fruit quality

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    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to examine effect of boron fertilization on yield of apple trees and fruit quality. The experiment was carried out during 1994-1996 in Dąbrowice Experimental Orchard belonging to Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skiemiewice, on Š a m p i o n cultivar, grafted on M26 rootstock. Trees were planted in the autumn of 1991 at the distance 4 x 2,5 m, on sandy-loam soil. Before starting and during carrying out the study there were not visual symptoms of boron deficiency. In the experiment applied boron fertilization to the soil at the dose 2 g B per tree or three times boron sprays before or after bloom at the dose 0,67 g B per tree. Apple trees without any boron fertilization were served as a control. Results of experiment showed that only boron sprays after bloom increased fruit set and yield. There were no significant differences between treatments in fruit maturity at harvest, fruit weight losses dunng storage, apple number infected by Penicillium, Monilina and Botrytis cinerea. Boron sprays after bloom increased firmness of apples after storage and decreased sensibility to bitter pit, internal breakdown and Gloeosporium-rot. All boron treatments increased boron concentration in apples in comparison with control ones. However, the highest increase of boron concentration in apples was observed when boron sprays were done after bloom and soil boron application. Only boron sprays applied after bloom increased calcium concentration in apples.

  5. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

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    Braide Wesley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

  6. Produção de patulina em maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen, cultivares Gala e Fuji inoculadas com Penicillium spp. Production of patulin in apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen Gala and Fuji cultivars inoculated with Penicillium spp.

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    G.U. ROSS

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen é uma excelente fonte nutricional e de interesse econômico, sendo que a Região Sul do Brasil contribue com 90% da produção Nacional deste fruto com destaque aos cultivares Gala e Fuji. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de patulina nestes cultivares inoculados com Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 e Penicillium variabile toxigênico, isolado de maçãs regionais. As frutas contaminadas foram mantidas em condições de tempo de armazenamento e temperatura que variaram respectivamente de 15 a 90 dias e de 0 a 25°C. A produção de patulina ocorreu em todas as combinações de armazenagem e temperaturas empregadas para o ensaio, independentemente dos cultivares. A produção de patulina foi negativa no 30º dia nas maçãs estocadas a 0°C inoculadas com P.expansum, mas o aumento de temperatura para 4°C restringiu a margem de segurança, causando positividade na produção da toxina para ambos os cultivares inoculados com as duas linhagens fúngicas, no mesmo período. Nas maçãs inoculadas com P. variabile ocorreu maior concentração de patulina (F=68,05 do que as contaminadas com P. expansum NRRL 1172 (F=26,0. O risco freqüente de produção de patulina nas temperaturas de refrigeração, indicaram a necessidade de melhor controle nos estágios de colheita e armazenagem de maçãs, a fim de evitar constante ingestão de toxina.The apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen is an excellent nutritional source of economical interest, with emphasis to the Brazilian Southern Region which comprises 90% of national apple production, mainly Gala and Fuji cultivars.The aim of this research was to evaluate patulin production in both cultivars, inoculated with Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 and a toxigenic P. variabile strain isolated from commercialized apples. Samples for analysis were taken from apples stored under combined conditions of time and temperature, which ranged from 15 to 90 days period and 0 to

  7. Changes in quality of apple (Malus domestica) cultivars due to γ-irradiation and storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambri, Golden Delicious and Royal Delicious apple varieties were γ-irradiated (0.1-0.5 kGy) and stored under ambient (15 ±2 degC, 80%RH) and refrigerated (3±1 degC, 90%RH) conditions. They were evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids, acidity, juice yield, physiological loss in weight, overall acceptability and yeast and mold counts. The γ-irradiation doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy proved beneficial in maintaining the overall quality of all the 3 varieties of apple under both the storage conditions. γ-irradiation significantly reduced the yeast and mold counts of apples under storage. (author)

  8. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could

  9. Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Three Apple Cultivars (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Skendrović Babojelić; Krešimir Ivančić; Jasmina Družić; Ana Kovač; Sandra Voća

    2007-01-01

    Chemical and sensory characteristics of three apple cultivars ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Pink Lady’ were investigated. Cultivar Idared is predominant in cultivation and on the market in Republic of Croatia, while ‘Pink Lady’ is only present in certain regions of Croatia because of specific growing requirements; however in the world market it achieves very good results. Fruit of analyzed cultivars was grown in Neretva Valley, and harvested in optimal maturity time. Differences in fruit firm...

  10. A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Toshi; JOHNSTON, ROBYN; SELEZNYOVA, ALLA

    2003-01-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized....

  11. Evaluation of Iranian Native Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) Germplasm using Biochemical and Morphological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Farrokhi; Reza Darvishzadeh; Hamid Hatami Maleki; Lotfali Naseri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fifty six native apple genotypes from different geographical regions of Iran were evaluated based on 16 different biochemical and morphological characters using augment design. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between studied genotypes. Considering descriptive statistics, there was high level of genetic variation in this plant material. Regarding simple correlation between studied characters, fruit weight as one of the most important item, was positive...

  12. Dynamic Transcription profiles of Qinguan apple (Malus × domestica leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junke eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant’s response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of ‘Qinguan’ (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-inoculation (hpi with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of apples (Malus Domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of the two main apple varieties, Golden Delicious and Starking, in Syria. The experiments were performed in 1995 and 1996. Fruits were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1,5 kGy. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 Centigrade and 80 to 90% Rh. Weight loss and spoilage due to physiological disorders and fungal diseases were evaluated throughout the different storage periods. firmness, coloration and Ph values were estimated immediately after irradiation. The results showed that, in both varieties, gamma irradiation increased the weight loss after 45 days of storage in apples gathered in 1995 but not in the 1996 season. After 180 days of storage, gamma irradiation had different effects on weight loss depending on the growing year and variety, and increased fungal spoilage. Application of gamma irradiation prevented the growth of Aspergillus niger and the formation of skin scald in 'Golden Delicious' fruits. Immediately after treatment, gamma irradiation increased the softening of fruits, changed their color from green to yellow and decreased the Ph value of the juice. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Iranian Native Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh Germplasm using Biochemical and Morphological Characteristics

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    Javad Farrokhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In this study, fifty six native apple genotypes from different geographical regions of Iran were evaluated based on 16 different biochemical and morphological characters using augment design. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between studied genotypes. Considering descriptive statistics, there was high level of genetic variation in this plant material. Regarding simple correlation between studied characters, fruit weight as one of the most important item, was positively and significantly correlated with fruit volume, leaf size and canopy axile. Principle component analysis revealed that the first seven principle components (PCs were accounted 74.7% of the total variation. Cluster analysis using Ward method classified the 56 genotypes into four groups. As regards to clustering pattern, distribution of the cultivars was independent from their geographical distribution. The present study shows that Iranian apple genotypes possess high level of genetic variation that is useful for breeding. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  15. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLY ON FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE (Malus domestica BORKH.

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    József RACSKÓ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations were carried out in the eastern part of Hungary. In this experiment we studied the nutrient supplyreaction of four apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Idared and Jonathan Csány under different Nand NPK-doses. The following fruit quality parameters were detected: fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight, fl esh fi rmness, colour-cover and we studied the thicket of foliage of trees. The research results showed, that N-fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This appears in the cases of increase of fruit largeness. The increase is proportional to N-levels. Moderate N-doses plus PK-addition had also positive effects. The nutrient supply increased vegetative area in addition to the generative parts, in particular pure N fertilizer. But the thicked foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-cover, also decreased the fruit quality. And decreased the fl esh fi rmness of cultivars, that has a negative effect on storageability.

  16. A morphological and quantitative characterization of early floral development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Toshi; Johnston, Robyn; Seleznyova, Alla

    2003-08-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized. Vegetative meristems were flat, and either narrow (stage 0) or broad (stage 1). Pronounced doming of the apex marked stage 2. During stage 3, the domed meristem initiated four to six lateral floral meristems and subtending bracts before converting to a terminal floral meristem (stage 4). The terminal floral meristem proceeded directly with bractlet and sepal initiation, while lateral floral meristems initiated bractlets (stage 5). Sepal initiation began on the basal lateral flower (stage 6) and continued in an acropetal direction until all floral meristems had completed sepal initiation (stage 7). In this study, only stage 0 and stage 7 apices were observed in dormant buds, indicating that stages 1-6 are transient. The results suggest that broadening of the apex (stage 1) is the first morphological sign of commitment to flowering. PMID:12805080

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of apples (Malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on storability of two main apple varieties in Syria, Golden Delicious and Starking, were investigated. Fruits were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 kGy and combined irradiation with 1 kGy after packaging the fruits with polyethylene or paper bags. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 C deg and 80 to 90% Rh. Weight loss and spoilage were evaluated throughout the different storage periods. Firmness, coloration and pH values were estimated immediately after irradiation. The results showed that in both varieties, gamma irradiation increased the weight loss after 45 days of storage in the 1995, but not in the 1996 season. After 180 days of storage gamma irradiation had different effects on weight loss depending on the season and variety, and increased the fungal spoilage. Application of gamma irradiation prevented the growth of Aspergillus niger and the formation of skin scald in Golden Delicious fruits. Immediately after treatment, gamma irradiation increased the softening of fruits, changed their colour from green to yellow and decreased the pH value of the juice. Combined treatments decreased the rate of weight loss and skin scald in Golden Delicious fruits and increased the fungal spoilage. (author)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  19. Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Three Apple Cultivars (Malus x domestica Borkh.

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    Martina Skendrović Babojelić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and sensory characteristics of three apple cultivars ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Pink Lady’ were investigated. Cultivar Idared is predominant in cultivation and on the market in Republic of Croatia, while ‘Pink Lady’ is only present in certain regions of Croatia because of specific growing requirements; however in the world market it achieves very good results. Fruit of analyzed cultivars was grown in Neretva Valley, and harvested in optimal maturity time. Differences in fruit firmness, total acids and soluble solids were determined. Cultivar Pink Lady had significantly highest firmness (7.3 kg cm-2, in comparison to ‘Granny Smith’ (6.4 kg cm-2 and ‘Idared’ (4.5 kg cm-2. Total acids were highest in ‘Granny Smith’ (0.69 %, expressed as malic acid, somewhat lower in ‘Pink Lady’ (0.54 % and significantly lower in cultivar Idared (0.45 %. Values obtained for soluble solids (oBrix ranged from 16.4 for Pink Lady, 15.4 for ‘Idared’ and 12.5 for cultivar ‘Granny Smith’. Characteristics of firmness, juiciness, relation between sugars and acids, aroma and general impression were valued by sensory test. Cultivar Idared received lowest grades for most characteristics, except for juiciness, which is its predominant characteristic. Cultivar Granny Smith got good grades for firmness, juiciness, aroma and general impression, while relationship between sugars and acids got low grades. Cultivar Pink Lady got the highest grades from testers, which is in agreement with chemical analysis and cultivar Idared had the lowest grades, while cultivar Granny Smith was well accepted because of its freshness. Result of this research will be used for recommendation of cultivars when planting new orchards.

  20. Compositional Characteristics of Fruits of several Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. Cultivars

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    Violeta NOUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen apple cultivars grown in Valcea Research Station, Romania were evaluated in terms of fruit quality. Some selected compositional characteristics such as dry matter, total soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, malic, citric and ascorbic acids and minerals content were investigated. Malic, citric and ascorbic acids were determined by a reversed-phase HPLC method. Sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, copper, aluminium, chromium, zinc and strontium contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a microwave digestion while potassium content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Large differences between cultivars were found for the contents of particular biochemical and mineral compounds. The dry matter content ranged between 12.49% (Prima and 20.09% (Red Boskoop while the total sugar content varied between 9.5% (Cadel and 15.03% (Red Boskoop. The highest titratable acidity was found in Red Boskoop (0.771%, while in Starkrimson the titratable acidity was only 0.101%. The respective ranges of malic and citric acid contents of the tested samples were: 522.2-1993.7 mg/100 g and 3.5-49.1 mg/100 g. The ascorbic acid content was on average 6.18 mg/100 g. Potassium was the most accumulated nutrient in fruits. The potassium content was comprised between 82.25 mg/100 g (Mutzu and 160.85 mg/100 g (Florina. Calcium follows, with variation limits between 1.70 mg/100 g (Starkrimson and 8.74 mg/100g (Prima while iron content varied between 0.19 mg/100 g (Ionagold and 0.40 mg/100 g (Cadel and Early Red. The observed differences in composition are of such magnitude that they may affect both nutritional and sensory properties.

  1. Response of apple (malus domestica borkh.) cultivars grafted on two rootstocks under sub-humid temperate climate of azad jammu and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars grafted on two rootstocks were assessed on morphological and biochemical basis under sub-humid temperate region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Starking Delicious, Kala Kulu, Fuji, Red Chief, Royal Gala, Red Labnani, Red Delicious, Star Crimson and Sky Spur grafted on local Crab apple and MM.111 were studied for various growth characteristics. Red Chief exhibited maximum (415.8 cm) plant height on crab apple whereas, more flower (1866) tree-1, higher number (967.0) of fruit set tree/sup -1/, fruits matured (490.0) tree/sup -1/ and maximum (46.33 kg) weight of fruits tree/sup -1/ were recorded on MM.111. Minimum duration (5 days) of flowering was presented by Sky Spur on local crab apple while minimum (92.0) days for fruit maturation were required by Royal Gala on MM.111. Maximum (112.5 g) fruit weight, total soluble solids (13.95%), total sugars (10.9 %) and reducing sugars (7.94%) were recorded for Starking Delicious on MM.111. On the other hand more pH (3.51) and ascorbic acid (9.2 %) content were recorded for Kala Kulu on crab apple. Red Chief found to be high yielding cultivar on MM.111 than crab apple while total sugars, TSS and average fruit weight were better for Starking Delicious. It was concluded that performance of apple cultivars were variable on both rootstocks. However, MM.111 proved better than local crab apple under prevailing conditions. (author)

  2. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae. PMID:27186637

  3. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  4. Conservação da maçã (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Braeburn Storage in controlled atmosphere of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica, Borkh. apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2000-04-01

    objective of evaluating the effect of the temperature and of different controlled atmosphere (CA storage regimes on the fruit qualities, and occurrence of physiological disorders of 'Braeburn' apples. The experimental design was the completely randomized with two replication. Fruits were stored in cold storage at 0 and 1ºC and in the following CA conditions: at temperature of 1ºC with 1,5kPaO2/4,0KkPaCO2, 1,5kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/ 1,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/2,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2 and at temperature of 0ºC with 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2. The relative humidity was maintained around 96%. The evaluation was done after eight months of storage, at the opening of the chambers and after seven days shelf life (31ºC. At chambers openning, there was no significant difference in the flesh firmness, titratable acidity and total soluble solids (TSS among the CA conditions. However, after seven days in shelf life, the treatment with 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2 in the temperature of 0ºC maintained higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and TSS, and did not exhibiting flesh breakdown. The CA storage, with 4,0kPa CO2 and cold storage caused flesh breakdown. Already the cork breakdown, was induced by 3,0 and 4,0kPa of CO2 associated with 1,5kPa of O2. The occurrence of rot was significantly higher in cold storage than in CA and more frequent al low CO2 (1kPa. The incidence of mealiness and scald could not be associated with any storage condition. Cold storage fruits presented unsatisfactory quality for marketing and consumption after 8 months of storage.

  5. Produção de patulina em maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen), cultivares Gala e Fuji inoculadas com Penicillium spp. Production of patulin in apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) Gala and Fuji cultivars inoculated with Penicillium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    G.U. ROSS; M. H. Taniwaki; M. SABINO; T. VIZONI; E.Y. HIROOKA

    1998-01-01

    A maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen) é uma excelente fonte nutricional e de interesse econômico, sendo que a Região Sul do Brasil contribue com 90% da produção Nacional deste fruto com destaque aos cultivares Gala e Fuji. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de patulina nestes cultivares inoculados com Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 e Penicillium variabile toxigênico, isolado de maçãs regionais. As frutas contaminadas foram mantidas em condições de tempo de armazenamento e temperatur...

  6. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus × domestica with Erwinia amylovora

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    Aldwinckle Herb S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB disease in many Rosaceaespecies, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-plant interaction. No resistance mechanism to E. amylovora in host plants has yet been characterized, recent work has identified some molecular events which occur in resistant and/or susceptible host interaction with E. amylovora: In order to understand the mechanisms that characterize responses to FB, differentially expressed genes were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis in resistant and susceptible apple genotypes after inoculation with E. amylovora. Results cDNA were isolated from M.26 (susceptible and G.41 (resistant apple tissues collected 2 h and 48 h after challenge with a virulent E. amylovora strain or mock (buffer inoculated. To identify differentially expressed transcripts, electrophoretic banding patterns were obtained from cDNAs. In the AFLP experiments, M.26 and G.41 showed different patterns of expression, including genes specifically induced, not induced, or repressed by E. amylovora. In total, 190 ESTs differentially expressed between M.26 and G.41 were identified using 42 pairs of AFLP primers. cDNA-AFLP analysis of global EST expression in a resistant and a susceptible apple genotype identified different major classes of genes. EST sequencing data showed that genes linked to resistance, encoding proteins involved in recognition, signaling, defense and apoptosis, were modulated by E. amylovora in its host plant. The expression time course of some of these ESTs selected via a bioinformatic analysis has been characterized. Conclusion These data are being used to develop hypotheses of resistance or susceptibility mechanisms in Malus to E. amylovora and provide an initial categorization of genes possibly involved in

  7. Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songwen; Zhang, Dong; Fan, Sheng; Du, Lisha; Shen, Yawen; Xing, Libo; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation. PMID:27295342

  8. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-12-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant 'Blondee' (BLO) and its red-skin parent 'Kidd's D-8' (KID), the original name of 'Gala', to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10(-13)) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation. PMID:26417021

  9. Development and validation of a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP whole genome genotyping array for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bianco

    Full Text Available High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus. A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs. Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.

  10. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fengjuan Feng; Mingjun Li; Fengwang Ma; Lailiang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)—‘McIntosh’, ‘Gala’ and ‘Mutsu’—were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the ...

  11. Slow softening of Kanzi apples (Malus×domestica L.) is associated with preservation of pectin integrity in middle lamella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Verlinden, Bert E; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2016-11-15

    Kanzi is a recently developed apple cultivar that has an extremely low ethylene production, and maintains its crispiness during ripening. To identify key determinants of the slow softening behaviour of Kanzi apples, a comparative analysis of pectin biochemistry and tissue fracture pattern during different ripening stages of Kanzi apples was performed against Golden Delicious, a rapid softening cultivar. While substantial pectin depolymerisation and solubilisation was observed during softening in Golden Delicious apples, no depolymerisation or increased solubilisation was observed in Kanzi apples. Moreover, tissue failure during ripening was mainly by cell breakage in Kanzi apples and, in contrast, by cell separation in Golden Delicious apples. Kanzi apples had lower activity of beta-galactosidase, with no decline in the extent of branching of the pectin chain. A sudden decrease in firmness observed during senescence in Kanzi apples was not due to middle lamella dissolution, as tissue failure still occurred by cell breakage. PMID:27283709

  12. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  13. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period. PMID:26140475

  14. A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica fruit size control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devoghalaere Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxin is an important phytohormone for fleshy fruit development, having been shown to be involved in the initial signal for fertilisation, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and ripening related events. There is considerable knowledge of auxin-related genes, mostly from work in model species. With the apple genome now available, it is possible to carry out genomics studies on auxin-related genes to identify genes that may play roles in specific stages of apple fruit development. Results High amounts of auxin in the seed compared with the fruit cortex were observed in 'Royal Gala' apples, with amounts increasing through fruit development. Injection of exogenous auxin into developing apples at the start of cell expansion caused an increase in cell size. An expression analysis screen of auxin-related genes involved in auxin reception, homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation showed complex patterns of expression in each class of gene. Two mapping populations were phenotyped for fruit size over multiple seasons, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs were observed. One QTL mapped to a region containing an Auxin Response Factor (ARF106. This gene is expressed during cell division and cell expansion stages, consistent with a potential role in the control of fruit size. Conclusions The application of exogenous auxin to apples increased cell expansion, suggesting that endogenous auxin concentrations are at least one of the limiting factors controlling fruit size. The expression analysis of ARF106 linked to a strong QTL for fruit weight suggests that the auxin signal regulating fruit size could partially be modulated through the function of this gene. One class of gene (GH3 removes free auxin by conjugation to amino acids. The lower expression of these GH3 genes during rapid fruit expansion is consistent with the apple maximising auxin concentrations at this point.

  15. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease in many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-...

  16. The Phytoene synthase gene family of apple (Malus x domestica) and its role in controlling fruit carotenoid content

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah-Dwamena, C.; Driedonks, N.J.W.; Lewis, D; Shumskaya, M.; Chen, X Y; Wurtzel, E.T.; Espley, R.V.; Allan, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genom...

  17. Remobilization and uptake of N by newly planted apple (Malus domestica) trees in response to irrigation method and timing of N application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, D; Millard, P; Herbert, L C; Neilsen, G H; Hogue, E J; Parchomchuk, P; Zebarth, B J

    2001-05-01

    Environmentally sound management of N in apple orchards requires that N supply meets demand. In 1997, newly planted apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Golden Delicious on M.9 rootstock) received daily applications of N for six weeks as Ca(15NO3)(2) through a drip irrigation system at a concentration of 112 mg l(-1) at 2-8, 5-11 or 8-14 weeks after planting. Irrigation water was applied either to meet estimated evaporative demand or at a fixed rate. In 1997, trees were harvested at 5, 8, 11 and 14 weeks after planting; and in 1998 at 3 weeks after full bloom. The amount of fertilizer N recovered was similar in trees in both irrigation treatments, but efficiency of fertilizer use was greater for trees receiving demand-controlled irrigation than fixed-rate irrigation. This was attributed to lower N inputs, greater retention time in the root zone and less N leaching in the demand-controlled irrigation treatments compared with fixed-rate irrigation treatments. Less fertilizer N was recovered by trees receiving an early application of N than a later application of N and this was related to the timing of N supply with respect to tree demand. Demand for root-supplied N was low until 11 weeks after planting, because early shoot and root growth was supported by N remobilized from woody tissue, which involved 55% of the total tree N content at planting. Rapid development of roots > 1 mm in diameter occurred between 11 and 14 weeks after planting, after remobilization ended, and was greater for trees receiving an early application of N than for trees receiving a later application of N. Late-season tree N demand was supplied by native soil N, and uptake and background soil solution N concentrations were higher for trees receiving demand-supplied irrigation compared with fixed-rate irrigation. Total annual N uptake by roots was unaffected by treatments and averaged 6-8 g tree(-1). Nitrogen applications in 1997 affected growth and N partitioning in 1998. Trees receiving

  18. Dating and functional characterization of duplicated genes in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh. by analyzing EST data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzol Javier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is central to genome evolution. In plants, genes can be duplicated through small-scale events and large-scale duplications often involving polyploidy. The apple belongs to the subtribe Pyrinae (Rosaceae, a diverse lineage that originated via allopolyploidization. Both small-scale duplications and polyploidy may have been important mechanisms shaping the genome of this species. Results This study evaluates the gene duplication and polyploidy history of the apple by characterizing duplicated genes in this species using EST data. Overall, 68% of the apple genes were clustered into families with a mean copy-number of 4.6. Analysis of the age distribution of gene duplications supported a continuous mode of small-scale duplications, plus two episodes of large-scale duplicates of vastly different ages. The youngest was consistent with the polyploid origin of the Pyrinae 37-48 MYBP, whereas the older may be related to γ-triplication; an ancient hexapolyploidization previously characterized in the four sequenced eurosid genomes and basal to the eurosid-asterid divergence. Duplicated genes were studied for functional diversification with an emphasis on young paralogs; those originated during or after the formation of the Pyrinae lineage. Unequal assignment of single-copy genes and gene families to Gene Ontology categories suggested functional bias in the pattern of gene retention of paralogs. Young paralogs related to signal transduction, metabolism, and energy pathways have been preferentially retained. Non-random retention of duplicated genes seems to have mediated the expansion of gene families, some of which may have substantially increased their members after the origin of the Pyrinae. The joint analysis of over-duplicated functional categories and phylogenies, allowed evaluation of the role of both polyploidy and small-scale duplications during this process. Finally, gene expression analysis indicated that 82

  19. Evaluation of the 14C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  20. Gamma radiation and thermal treatment effects on the conservation of natural apple (Malus domestica) juice, cv. gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the apple juice preservation without chemicals. The samples were exposed to the following treatments: heating (control, 600 C/20 min and 800 C/20 min); irradiation (control; 2, 4 and 6 kGy); heating plus irradiation. The quality control was carried out by physical and chemical analyses (soluble solids; titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and color), microbiological and sensorial analyses. The samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 30 C) for 180 days. The results showed few variations in the soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid for all treatments. However, the 6 kGy dose kept the chemical characteristics of the juice, providing a clear juice, with better appearance and microorganisms free. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Identification of SFBB-containing canonical and noncanonical SCF complexes in pollen of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Mai F; Koyano, Ruriko; Kikuchi, Shinji; Koba, Takato; Sassa, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic S locus. The S locus contains at least two genes, S-RNase and F-box protein encoding gene SLF/SFB/SFBB that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. Generally, the F-box protein forms an E3 ligase complex, SCF complex with Skp1, Cullin1 (CUL1) and Rbx1, however, in Petunia inflata, SBP1 (S-RNase binding protein1) was reported to play the role of Skp1 and Rbx1, and form an SCFSLF-like complex for ubiquitination of non-self S-RNases. On the other hand, in Petunia hybrida and Petunia inflata of Solanaceae, Prunus avium and Pyrus bretschneideri of Rosaceae, SSK1 (SLF-interacting Skp1-like protein1) is considered to form the SCFSLF/SFB complex. Here, we isolated pollen-expressed apple homologs of SSK1 and CUL1, and named MdSSK1, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B. MdSSK1 was preferentially expressed in pollen, but weakly in other organs analyzed, while, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B were almost equally expressed in all the organs analyzed. MdSSK1 transcript abundance was significantly (>100 times) higher than that of MdSBP1. In vitro binding assays showed that MdSSK1 and MdSBP1 interacted with MdSFBB1-S9 and MdCUL1, and MdSFBB1-S9 interacted more strongly with MdSSK1 than with MdSBP1. The results suggest that both MdSSK1-containing SCFSFBB1 and MdSBP1-containing SCFSFBB1-like complexes function in pollen of apple, and the former plays a major role. PMID:24847858

  2. Identification of SFBB-containing canonical and noncanonical SCF complexes in pollen of apple (Malus × domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai F Minamikawa

    Full Text Available Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI of Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic S locus. The S locus contains at least two genes, S-RNase and F-box protein encoding gene SLF/SFB/SFBB that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. Generally, the F-box protein forms an E3 ligase complex, SCF complex with Skp1, Cullin1 (CUL1 and Rbx1, however, in Petunia inflata, SBP1 (S-RNase binding protein1 was reported to play the role of Skp1 and Rbx1, and form an SCFSLF-like complex for ubiquitination of non-self S-RNases. On the other hand, in Petunia hybrida and Petunia inflata of Solanaceae, Prunus avium and Pyrus bretschneideri of Rosaceae, SSK1 (SLF-interacting Skp1-like protein1 is considered to form the SCFSLF/SFB complex. Here, we isolated pollen-expressed apple homologs of SSK1 and CUL1, and named MdSSK1, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B. MdSSK1 was preferentially expressed in pollen, but weakly in other organs analyzed, while, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B were almost equally expressed in all the organs analyzed. MdSSK1 transcript abundance was significantly (>100 times higher than that of MdSBP1. In vitro binding assays showed that MdSSK1 and MdSBP1 interacted with MdSFBB1-S9 and MdCUL1, and MdSFBB1-S9 interacted more strongly with MdSSK1 than with MdSBP1. The results suggest that both MdSSK1-containing SCFSFBB1 and MdSBP1-containing SCFSFBB1-like complexes function in pollen of apple, and the former plays a major role.

  3. Genomic structure and sequence polymorphism of E,E-alphafarnesene synthase gene in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Primer pairs were designed to amplify the genomic DNA sequence of the alpha-farnesene synthase (AFS) gene by PCR.The PCR products were sequenced,spliced and compared to Cdna sequences in the GenBank (accession No.AY182241).The genomic sequence and intron-exon organization of the AFS gene were thus obtained.The AFS genomic sequence has been registered in the GenBank (accession No.DQ901739).It has 6 introns and 7 exons,encoding a protein of 576 amino acids.The sizes of the 6 introns were 108 bp,113 bp,>1000 bp,125 bp,220 bp and 88 bp,and their phases were 0,1,2,2,0,0,respectively.The sizes of the deduced amino acids of the 7 exons were 57,89,127,73,48,83 and 99,respectively.The AFS protein contained three motifs:the RR(X8)W motif encoded by a sequence in exon 1,and the RxR motif and DDxxD motif encoded by two sequences in exon 4.After comparing the AFS genomic sequence (accession No.DQ901739) to the Cdna sequence (accession No.AY523409) in the GenBank,it was found that there were 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms between the two sequences,four of which caused mutations at the amino acid level.Interestingly,one amino acid mutation (291R→G) was found in the RxR motif,and further investigation is needed to determine whether the alpha-farnesene synthesis ability and superficial scald susceptibility of apples are influenced by this amino acid mutation and other mutations.

  4. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies. PMID:22399441

  5. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)-'McIntosh', 'Gala' and 'Mutsu'-were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of 'McIntosh' and the flesh of 'Mutsu'. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  6. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  7. Temperature-dependent responses of the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes of apple (Malus domestica) leaves during a sustained high temperature event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to follow changes in the temperature-dependent responses of photosynthesis and photosystem II performance in leaves of field-grown trees of Malus domestica (Borkh.) cv. 'Red Gala' before and after exposure to a long-term heat event occurring late in the growing season. Light-saturated photosynthesis was optimal at 25 °C before the heat event. The high temperatures caused a reduction in rates at low temperatures (15-20 °C) but increased rates at high temperatures (30-40 °C) and a shift in optimum to 30 °C. Rates at all temperatures increased after the heat event and the optimum shifted to 33 °C, indicative of some acclimation to the high temperatures occurring. Photosystem II attributes were all highly temperature-dependent. The operating quantum efficiency of PSII during the heat event declined, but mostly at high temperatures, partly because of decreased photochemical quenching but also from increased non-photochemical quenching. However, a further reduction in PSII operating efficiency occurred after the heat event subsided. Non-photochemical quenching had subsided, whereas photochemical quenching had increased in the post-heat event period and consistent with a greater fraction of open PSII reaction centres. What remained uncertain was why these effects on PSII performance appeared to have no effect on the process of light-saturated photosynthesis. However, the results provide an enhanced understanding of the impacts of sustained high temperatures on the photosynthetic process and its underlying reactions, notably photochemistry. PMID:26465670

  8. Effect of gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh on lipidemia of hyperlipidemic rats Efeito da maçã gala (Malus domestica Borkh na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A healthy life style and a balanced diet, associated with a high fruit and vegetable intake, are linked to good health and the prevention of diseases. Apples contain bioactive compounds that help in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia. One of the Public Health concerns in Brazil is to reduce cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of Gala apples and to study the effect of their consumption on weight gain, food intake, serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol and fecal cholesterol in male albino Wistar rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Six animals were utilized for each treatment (control, 5, 15 and 25% apple diet, during 30 and 60 days. This study showed that one apple (200 g can provide 14.5% of recommended total fiber and 55% of recommended vitamin C, besides supplying considerable quantities of phenolic compounds (0.38 g.100 g-1 and tannins (0.16 g.100 g-1. All animals showed a non-significant reduction in their weight gain and food intake with an increase in the concentration of apple in the diets. At the end of 30 days, all of the diets provided a significant reduction in the levels of triglycerides compared to the control group. The 15 and 25% apple diets showed significant reductions in the serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and an increase in the level of fecal cholesterol in relation to the control group. The 25% apple diet provided a significant reduction in the hepatic cholesterol levels compared to the control group. After 60 days, the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides in rats fed with 5, 15 and 25% apple diets were similar to the control group. This probably happened due to a revertion of the process. These results show the importance of Gala apples in the control of hyperlipidemia in rats. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits, including apples, associated to a healthy life

  9. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  10. COMPORTAMENTO DA CULTIVAR DE MACIEIRA FUJI (Malus domestica, Borkh. SOBRE TRÊS DIFERENTES PORTA-ENXERTOS BEHAVIOUR OF THE APPLE CULTIVAR FUJI (Malus domestica, Borkh. ONTO THREE DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICO DENARDI

    2001-12-01

    ,2 g, para o M-9, o M-7 e o MM-111, respectivamente. Em termos de distribuição por categoria de tamanho, o M-9 produziu 90,8% de frutos maiores que 62 mm, o M-7 produziu 79,5% e o MM-111, 70,9%, indicando que o M-9, além de mais precoce e mais produtivo, também produz frutos de maior calibre.There is a worldwide tendency for planting apples at high density system onto the so called dwarf apple rootstocks, which have a strong effect on controlling the vigor of the trees. The most used is the M-9 due to its efficiency on vigor control, precocity of flowering, high productivity and also good fruit quality it induces to the scion varieties. In South of Brazil more vigorous rootstocks, as MM-106, M-7 and MM-111, have been widely used because worldwide tradition, lower initial cost as they require less trees/ha, and their facility of propagation The objective of this work was to compare the dwarf M-9 with the semi-dwarf M-7 and the semi-vigorous MM-111 concerned to vigor control, precocity of flowering, productivity and fruit quality of the apple cultivar Fuji. The statistical design was on completely randomized blocks, with 4 replications of three trees on each plot. The main cultivar was Fuji, pollinated by cv. Gala. The experiment was established in 1996 in Fraiburgo, the main apple producer area in the country. The layout of planting was 2,0 m within row by 5,0 m between rows. The study was carried out for four years. The parameters evaluated were precocity (n0 of flower buds per cm² of trunk cross sectional area, production (kg/tree, productivity (t/ha, fruit weigh (g and distribution of fruit size (%. The results obtained on the 3rd season showed that M-9 was the most precocious, producing 1.94 times more flower buds per cm² of trunk cross sectional area than on M-7 and 2.7 times more than on MM-111. Concerned to production on 3rd season, M-9 produced 2.5 times more than M-7 and 2.7 times more than MM-111. On the 4th season M-9 produced 1.28 times more than M-7

  11. Heat shock transcriptional factors in Malus domestica: identification, classification and expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorno Filomena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock transcriptional factors (Hsfs play a crucial role in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions and in plant growth and development. Apple (Malus domestica Borkh is an economically important fruit tree whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for this crop plant. Results A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Malus domestica to identify heat shock transcriptional factor (Hsf genes, named MdHsfs. Twenty five MdHsfs were identified and classified in three main groups (class A, B and C according to the structural characteristics and to the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. Chromosomal duplications were analyzed and segmental duplications were shown to have occurred more frequently in the expansion of Hsf genes in the apple genome. Furthermore, MdHsfs transcripts were detected in several apple organs, and expression changes were observed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis in developing flowers and fruits as well as in leaves, harvested from trees grown in the field and exposed to the naturally increased temperatures. Conclusions The apple genome comprises 25 full length Hsf genes. The data obtained from this investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Hsf gene family in apple, and provide the basis for further studies to dissect Hsf function during development as well as in response to environmental stimuli.

  12. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus x domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychrotrophic yeasts isolated from soils collected in Antarctica and selected by its capacity of growing in apple juice at low temperatures were evaluated for their potential as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, ...

  13. Linkage map positions and allelic diversity of two Mal d 3 (non-specific lipid transfer protein) genes in the cultivated apple (Malus domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. S.; Weg, van de, H; Schaart, J.G.; Meer, van der, D; Kodde, L.P.; Laimer, M; Breiteneder, H; K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) of Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apricot, cherry, plum and apple, represent major allergens for Mediterranean atopic populations. As a first step in elucidating the genetics of nsLTPs, we directed the research reported here towards identifying the number and location of nsLTP (Mal d 3) genes in the apple genome and determining their allelic diversity. PCR cloning was initially performed on two cultivars, Prima and Fiesta, parents of a core apple...

  14. Phenolic profile, antioxidant property, and anti-influenza viral activity of Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis Schneid.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and apple (Malus domestica Mill.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamauzu, Yasunori; Yasui, Hisako; Inno, Takanori; Kume, Chihiro; Omanyuda, Midori

    2005-02-23

    To evaluate the phenolic extracts of Chinese quince, quince, and apple fruits, their phenolic profiles, antioxidant properties, and anti-influenza viral activities were investigated. Chinese quince had the largest amount of phenolics consisting mainly of high polymeric procyanidins. Quince had considerable amounts of hydroxycinnamic derivatives mainly composed of 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid and polymeric procyanidins. Apple (cv. Fuji) had the lowest amount of phenolics, mainly 5-caffeoylquinic acid and monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins. The antioxidant functions of Chinese quince and quince phenolic extracts were superior to that of chlorogenic acid standard or ascorbic acid evaluated in both the linoleic acid peroxidation system and the DPPH radical scavenging system. However, those extracts were less effective than apple phenolics or (-)-epicatechin in linoleic acid peroxidation system. On the other hand, Chinese quince phenolics showed the strongest anti-influenza viral activity on the hemagglutination inhibition test. PMID:15713000

  15. In vitro morphogenetic response of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. and pear (Pyrus communis L. to the elevated levels of copper and myo-inositol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail S. Toma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated levels of copper and myo-inositol in the MS medium were demonstrated to enhance culture growth and morphogenetic response of apple and pear explants. The results revealed that the highest number of branches per explant (2.80 for apple was obtained from the levels of 0.0+ 100 and 0.050+400 mg/l of both copper and myo-inositol, respectively (C1M2 and C4M4, while for pear 3.40 branches per explant were achieved from the same treatment. The mean length of branches was significantly lower in the case of the control treatment (the absence of copper and inositol. The highest number of leaves per explant (29.73 and 29.80 for both apple and pear, respectively, was recorded for treatment C4M4 (0.050+ 400 mg/l of both copper and myo-inositol, respectively. At the rooting stage, the elevated levels of copper and myo-inositol were very effective in stimulating root formation in both apple and pear shoots. The highest number of roots in apple (2.00 roots/ explant was achieved while using 0.100+ 800 (C5M5 of both copper and myo-inositol, whereas the highest number of roots for pear (3.17 roots/ explant was recorded for C6M6 (0.200+ 1600. The highest mean length of roots for apple reached 1.23 cm in treatment C3M3 and 1.10 cm for pear in treatment C6M6. These data suggest that the higher levels of copper and myo-inositol enabled shoot and root formation in the explants, and it might be necessary to use higher levels of these two medium components in order to enhance morphogenetic potential of explants.

  16. Transcript profiles of auxin efflux carrier and IAA-amido synthetase genes suggest the role of auxin on apple (Malus x domestica) fruit maturation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth regulators are known to regulate fruit development at various stages including flowering, fruit growth, maturation and ripening. Recent transcriptome studies indicated that auxin might play an essential role in regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening beside the well-defined role...

  17. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. PMID:27542479

  18. Leaf micro-environment influence the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    phenotype of the leaves in the leaf clusters that subtend the fruits of CATs, compared to their standard counterparts. This initial investigation considers standard and columnar trees at different levels of genetic relatedness and records significant increases in leaf area, leaf mass per unit area...... cultivars is altered in terms of incident light by their open architecture and this influences the growth and development of the leaves in the fruiting leaf clusters. Interaction with their modified genetic condition produces a foliar phenotype characteristic of CATs.......Columnar apple trees (CATs) have radically-altered architecture (significantly shorter internodes and lateral branches) when compared to standard apple trees, attributed to a mutation of the Co gene involved in apical dominance. These changes in architecture have been associated with changes in the...

  19. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  20. Lower cell wall pectin solubilisation and galactose loss during early fruit development in apple (Malus x domestica) cultivar 'Scifresh' are associated with slower softening rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Brummell, David A; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2015-03-15

    Substantial differences in softening behaviour can exist between fruit even within the same species. Apple cultivars 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh' soften at different rates despite having a similar genetic background and producing similar amounts of ethylene during ripening. An examination of cell wall metabolism from the fruitlet to the ripe stages showed that in both cultivars pectin solubilisation increased during cell expansion, declined at the mature stage and then increased again during ripening. This process was much less pronounced in the slower softening 'Scifresh' than in 'Royal Gala' at every developmental stage examined, consistent with less cell separation and softening in this cultivar. Both cultivars also exhibited a progressive loss of pectic galactan and arabinan side chains during development. The cell wall content of arabinose residues was similar in both cultivars, but the galactose residue content in 'Scifresh' remained higher than that of 'Royal Gala' at every developmental stage. The higher content of cell wall galactose residue in 'Scifresh' cell walls correlated with a lower β-galactosidase activity and more intense immunolabelling of RG-I galactan side chains in both microscopy sections and glycan microarrays. A high cell wall galactan content has been associated with reduced cell wall porosity, which may restrict access of cell wall-modifying enzymes and thus maintain better structural integrity later in development. The data suggest that the composition and structure of the cell wall at very early development stages may influence subsequent cell wall loosening, and may even predispose the wall's ensuing properties. PMID:25602611

  1. Characterization of the polyphenol composition of 20 cultivars of cider, processing, and dessert apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) grown in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Witrick, Katherine A; Goodrich, Katheryn M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hurley, E Kenneth; Peck, Gregory M; Stewart, Amanda C

    2014-10-15

    Polyphenols and maturity parameters were determined in 20 apple cultivars with potential for hard cider production grown in Virginia, U.S.A. Concentrations of five classes of polyphenols were significantly different across cultivar for both peel and flesh. Total polyphenol concentration ranged from 0.9 μg/g wwb in flesh of Newtown Pippin to 453 μg/g wwb in peel of Red Delicious. Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig cultivars contained the highest concentration of total flavan-3-ols in flesh, indicating potential to impart desired astringency and bitterness to cider under processing conditions where extraction of polyphenols from peel is minimal. These results can inform selection of fruit juice, extracts, and byproducts for investigations of bioactivity and bioavailability of polyphenols, and provide baseline data for horticultural and processing research supporting the growing hard cider industry in Virginia. Based on these data, cultivars Harrison, Granny Smith, Rome, Winesap, and Black Twig show high potential for cider production in Virginia. PMID:25228269

  2. Penetapan Kadar Vitamin C dari Jus Buah Apel (Malus domestica Borkh.) yang Berwarna Merah dan Hijau secara Titrasi dengan 2,6-Diklorofenol Indofenol pada Beberapa Interval Waktu

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Novaria Sari Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is one of the most popular fruit and most consumed by the society for drinking by blended or juiced. Beside of its interesting colour, apple also has good function for health because it contents high levels of nutrition. This research was intended to find out about the content of vitamin C in red and green apple juice and to find out about the decreasing of vitamin C level in red and green apple juice on several time intervals, which is 0 to 5 hours. Red and ...

  3. Genomewide analysis of TCP transcription factor gene family in Malus domestica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruirui Xu; Peng Sun; Fengjuan Jia; Longtao Lu; Yuanyuan Li; Shizhong Zhang; Jinguang Huang

    2014-12-01

    Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1 (TCP) proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in angiosperms. They are involved in various biological processes, including development and plant metabolism pathways. In this study, a total of 52 TCP genes were identified in apple (Malus domestica) genome. Bioinformatic methods were employed to predicate and analyse their relevant gene classification, gene structure, chromosome location, sequence alignment and conserved domains of MdTCP proteins. Expression analysis from microarray data showed that the expression levels of 28 and 51 MdTCP genes changed during the ripening and rootstock–scion interaction processes, respectively. The expression patterns of 12 selected MdTCP genes were analysed in different tissues and in response to abiotic stresses. All of the selected genes were detected in at least one of the tissues tested, and most of them were modulated by adverse treatments indicating that the MdTCPs were involved in various developmental and physiological processes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of a genomewide analysis of apple TCP gene family. These results provide valuable information for studies on functions of the TCP transcription factor genes in apple.

  4. Genomewide analysis of ABCBs with a focus on ABCB1 and ABCB19 in Malus domestica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Juan Juan Ma; Mingyu Han

    2016-03-01

    The B subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins (ABCB) plays a vital role in auxin efflux. However, no systematic study has been done in apple. In this study, we performed genomewide identification and expression analyses of the ABCB family in Malus domestica for the first time. We identified a total of 25 apple ABCBs that were divided into three clusters based on the phylogenetic analysis. Most ABCBs within the same cluster demonstrated a similar exon–intron organization. Additionally, the digital expression profiles of ABCB genes shed light on their functional divergence. ABCB1 and ABCB19 are two well-studied auxin efflux carrier genes, and we found that their expression levels are higher in young shoots of M106 than in young shoots of M9. Since young shoots are the main source of auxin synthesis and auxin efflux involves in tree height control. This suggests that ABCB1 and ABCB19 may also take a part in the auxin efflux and tree height control in apple.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Malus domestica fruit extract from Kashan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jelodarian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidants are considered as the main factors in the inhibition of unwanted oxidation reactions. Materials and Methods: In this research the antioxidant potential of the fresh fruits of 4 cultivars (A to D of Malus domestica (M. domestica cultivated in the Kashan, Qamsar area was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples were evaluated using two complementary antioxidant assays: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests and the results were compared with the synthetic standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Results: Total phenolic contents of the samples are also estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol test. In both DPPH β-carotene/linoleic acid tests in the concentration of 2 mg/ml, only samples from cultivar A showed moderate antioxidant activity with 63.92±0.42 and 6.02±0.03 inhibition percentages, respectively and other samples were weakly active. Conclusion: The Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol test was also showed very little phenolic compounds for the fruits. In conclusion, weak antioxidant activity was estimated for the studied apple cultivars.

  6. Chloroplast heterogeneity and historical admixture within the genus Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: We examined chloroplast DNA sequence variation in 412 samples representing 30 Malus species (including Malus x domestica Borkh.). Malus wild species are of particular interest for providing novel alleles and traits in apple breeding programs, yet the taxonomic status of these s...

  7. Avaliação de diferentes métodos de sobre-enxertia na substituição da cultivar de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh. Gala por Princesa = Evaluation of different over-grafting techniques to replace 'Gala' for 'Princesa' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Simões

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados quatro métodos de enxertia: garfagem em inglês complicado (GIC; borbulhia lenhosa (BL; garfagem de topo (GT e garfagem meia-fenda esvaziada (GMFE, com o objetivo de avaliar o melhor método para execução da sobre-enxertia na substituição da cultivar de macieira Gala por Princesa. O experimento foi conduzido em São José dos Pinhais – PR, em seis macieiras localizadas em pomar com três anos de idade. As características avaliadas foram: porcentagem de pegamento dos enxertos, porcentagem de enxertos brotados, porcentagem de enxertos dormentes e porcentagem de enxertos mortos. O experimento foi finalizado após 62 dias da instalação. Após esse período conclui-se que a GIC apresentou maiores porcentagens de pegamento e brotação. Esta não se diferenciou da GT em relação à variável pegamento. A BL não é recomendada para a sobre-enxertia em macieiras.Four grafting methods were compared: whip graft, budding graft, cleft graft and the side graft, aiming at evaluating the best techniqueto replace ‘Gala’ for ‘Princesa’ apple trees. The experiment was held in São José dos Pinhais – PR in a 3-year old apple tree yard fruit. Six apple trees were selected for the experiment. The assessed characteristics were carried out by the percentage of grafting success (sprouted, sleeping grafts (no sprouts and dead ones. The experiment was concluded after 62 days of grafting. Results indicated that the budding graft showed to be more effective with a higher index of sprouting. This technique showed no difference concerning the sprouting percentage compared to the whip graft. The budding graft is not recommended to over–graft apple trees.

  8. Identificação de compostos voláteis de maçãs (Malus domestica cultivar Fuji, por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas Identification of the volatile compounds of Fuji apples (Malus domestica by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália S. JANZANNTTI

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos voláteis da maçã cultivar Fuji foram estudados durante 2 anos consecutivos (1994 e 1995. O isolamento dos compostos voláteis da maçã Fuji foi feito utilizando-se uma técnica de enriquecimento dos voláteis do "headspace" em Porapak Q e eluição com hexano. Foram detectados 84 componentes voláteis na maçã Fuji, por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução, dos quais trinta foram identificados por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas, aliada aos índices de Kovats. Os compostos majoritários foram os ésteres acetato de butila, acetato de 2-metil butila, acetato de hexila e o terpeno µ-farneseno. A classe química predominante, entre compostos voláteis na maçã Fuji, foi a dos ésteres.Volatile compounds from the Fuji cultivar of apples were studied during two consecutive years (1994 and 1995. Headspace volatile compounds of Fuji apple were captured on Porapak Q traps and eluted with hexane. Eighty-four volatile compounds were detected in the Fuji apple by high resolution gas chromatography, of which thirty compounds were identified by CG-MS and Kovats indices. Butyl acetate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, hexyl acetate and µ-farnesene were the major volatiles in the fresh fruit. The predominant class of compounds was that of the esters.

  9. Effects of promalin (6BA+GA4+7 on growth and development of apple fruits (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala/ Efeito da promalina (6BA+GA4+7 no crescimento e no desenvolvimento de frutos de macieira (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current manuscript was to analyze the effect of application of Promalinâ(GA4,7 + BA on yield parameters of apple crop in a trial carried out at Porto Amazonas, Southern region of Paraná State. The trees were three year old grafted onto Maruba rootstock spaced 4 m x 1.4 m. The variables evaluated were length, fresh mass and diameters of the fruit, soluble solids (SS and flesh firmness. For all the variables no significant changes had been observed. The lack of weight increase and without changes in fruit shape do not allow to validate Promalin use for Parana Central Southern conditions.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de Promalina(GA4,7 + BA sobre variáveis de rendimento em macieira conduziu-se um experimento no município de Porto Amazonas, na região sul do Paraná, na safra 2003/04. A área experimental constituiu-se da cultivar Gala, com três anos de idade, enxertada em Maruba com filtro M9 no espaçamento 4 m x 1,4 m. Foram avaliadas as variáveis: comprimento, massa fresca e diâmetro do fruto, sólido solúveis (SS e firmeza da polpa. Para as variáveis estudadas não foram observadas variações significativas. A falta de ganho de peso e de modificação da forma do fruto não permite validar o uso da Promalina para as condições do centro sul do Paraná.

  10. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under... of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to...

  11. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Results Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ, sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. Conclusions This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible

  12. 低温诱导下苹果花药差异表达基因分析%Differentially expressed gene analysis of apple (Malus domestica) anther under low temperature induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧珍; 邓舒; 张春芬; 肖蓉; 王卉; 孟玉平; 曹秋芬

    2016-01-01

    低温处理是苹果花药培养诱导胚状体形成的关键步骤,花药中的小孢子在经过一定时间的低温诱导后才能获得胚性潜能。本文通过转录组测序的方法对低温处理前和低温处理30 d的苹果花药进行研究,分析低温诱导条件下花药中的差异表达基因。结果表明:转录组测序共得到10.90 Gb的Clean Data。基因表达分析结果显示,共有4105个基因发生差异表达,包括表达上调基因1849个,表达下调基因2256个。注释到GO、COG、KEGG、Swiss-Prot和nr数据库的差异表达基因分别有3325个、1504个、733个、2993个和3758个。差异表达基因主要富集在与糖类代谢和激素信号转导有关的过程中,其中在淀粉和蔗糖代谢、植物激素信号转导这两个代谢通路中富集的差异表达基因最多。筛选出的差异表达基因中控制蔗糖合成、细胞分裂素、脱落酸和油菜素内酯信号转导的相关基因表达量上调,控制淀粉合成、生长素信号转导的相关基因表达量下调。差异表达基因的荧光定量PCR结果显示测序结果和实际结果变化趋势完全一致。由此可见,苹果花药经低温诱导后,影响蔗糖、淀粉生物合成和生长素、细胞分裂素、脱落酸、赤霉素和油菜素内酯信号转导相关基因的表达变化是影响小孢子获得胚性潜能的关键。%Low temperature treatment is the key step in the induction of the formation of embryoid during apple anther culture, and pollen in anthers can acquire the embryogenic potential after a certain period of low tem-perature induction. In this study, the research on the two group apple anther that one was treated by 30 days low temperature and the other untreated were carried out by the method of RNA-Seq, and the DEG (differentially expressed genes) in the process of embryoid formation was analyzed. The results showed that: A total of 10.90 Gb clean data was generated using the

  13. Avoidance of harvesting and sampling artefacts in hydraulic analyses: a protocol tested on Malus domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable hydraulic measurements is an accurate collection of the plant material. Thereby, the native hydraulic state of the sample has to be preserved during harvesting (i.e., cutting the plant or plant parts) and preparation (i.e., excising the target section). This is particularly difficult when harvesting has to be done under transpiring conditions. In this article, we present a harvesting and sampling protocol designed for hydraulic measurements on Malus domestica Borkh. and checked for possible sampling artefacts. To test for artefacts, we analysed the percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity, maximum specific conductivity and water contents of bark and wood of branches, taking into account conduit length, time of day of harvesting, different shoot ages and seasonal effects. Our results prove that use of appropriate protocols can avoid artefactual embolization or refilling even when the xylem is under tension at harvest. The presented protocol was developed for Malus but may also be applied for other angiosperms with similar anatomy and refilling characteristics. PMID:26705311

  14. Cloning and Expression Analysis of GlutathioneS-Transferase GeneMdGSTF3 from Apple (Malus domestica)%苹果谷胱甘肽S-转移酶基因MdGSTF3的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊连梅; 刘更森; 李思琪; 原永兵

    2015-01-01

    A full-length glutathioneS-transferase gene namedMdGSTF3 was cloned with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR fromMalus domestica cv. ‘Fuji’ peel. The GenBank accession number was KP234026.MdGSTF3was 868 bp in length including 49 bp of 5' untranslated region, 151 bp of 3' untranslated region and 26 bp polyA. It had a coding sequence (CDS) of 642 bp, encoding 213 amino acid residues. This predicted polypeptide includ-ed 19 kinds of amino acids except for cysteine, with the molecular mass of 23.993 kDa, isoelectric point of 6.17. Real-time lfuorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level ofMdGSTF3 in stems, leaves, lfowers of striped-red ‘Fuji’ was higher than that of the mutant blushed-red ‘Fuji’, but the expression level of MdGSTF3 in peel and pulp of blushed-red ‘Fuji’ was higher than that of striped-red ‘Fuji’. The most relative expression quantity ofMdGSTF3 from peel and pulp of blushed-red ‘Fuji’ were 46.6% and 22.1% higher than that of striped-red ‘Fuji’ respectively. The results indicated that the expression level ofMdGSTF3was closely related with anthocyanin accumulation and distribution of apple peel.%以‘富士’苹果果皮为试材,利用RT-PCR和RACE-PCR克隆得到1个全长为868 bp的苹果谷胱甘肽S-转移酶基因MdGSTF3全长cDNA序列, GenBank的登录号为KP234026,该基因5'非翻译区49 bp,3'非翻译区151 bp,含有26 bp的PolyA尾,编码区为642 bp,编码213个氨基酸,编码的蛋白质含有19种氨基酸,不含有半胱氨酸Cys,相对分子质量为23.993 kDa,等电点为6.17。氨基酸多重序列比对分析结果表明MdGST与梅的PmGST蛋白(XP_008235026)遗传相似性为83%。实时荧光定量PCR结果表明, MdGSTF3在条红‘富士’的茎、叶和花中表达量高于其突变体片红‘富士’;而在果皮和果肉中,片红‘富士’该基因的表达量高于条红‘富士’;在表达量达到最大值时,片红‘富士’比条红‘富士’分别高出46.6%和22

  15. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Bikram Singh; Vijai K. Agnihotri; Dharmesh Kumar; Mann, Tavleen S.; Mayanka Walia

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as euca...

  16. Addition of Phenylboronic Acid to Malus domestica Pollen Tubes Alters Calcium Dynamics, Disrupts Actin Filaments and Affects Cell Wall Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Gao, Sai; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A key role of boron in plants is to cross-link the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) through borate diester linkages. Phenylboronic acid (PBA) can form the same reversible ester bonds but cannot cross-link two molecules, so can be used as an antagonist to study the function of boron. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PBA on apple (Malus domestica) pollen tube growth and the underlying regulatory mechanism. We observed that PBA caused an inhibition of pollen germination, tube growth and led to pollen tube morphological abnormalities. Fluorescent labeling, coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique, revealed that PBA induced an increase in extracellular Ca2+ influx, thereby elevating the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]c and disrupting the [Ca2+]c gradient, which is critical for pollen tube growth. Moreover the organization of actin filaments was severely perturbed by the PBA treatment. Immunolocalization studies and fluorescent labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR) suggested that PBA caused an increase in the abundance of callose, de-esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) at the tip. However, it had no effect on the deposition of the wall polymers cellulose. These effects are similar to those of boron deficiency in roots and other organs, indicating that PBA can induce boron deficiency symptoms. The results provide new insights into the roles of boron in pollen tube development, which likely include regulating [Ca2+]c and the formation of the actin cytoskeleton, in addition to the synthesis and assembly of cell wall components. PMID:26886907

  17. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  18. Effect of irradiance and spectral composition of radiation on in vitro shoot proliferation in Malus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four clones of Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious - namely Smoothee, Crielaard, Reinders and Golden B - were cultured in vitro from single-node microcuttings placed on solid medium under irradiance (PPFD) of 50 micromol m-2 s-1. After 9 months an average shoot proliferation of 5.3 was achieved; Crielaard showed the highest rate (7.1), followed Golden B (5.4), Smoothee and Reinders (4.4). Proliferating shoots were then exposed to higher PPFD (80 micromol m-2 s-1) and different spectral composition of radiation using PMMA-B and PMMA-R/FR filters. High PPFD decreased the average proliferation rate to 4.5, in particular in Crielaard and Golden B, while it increased proliferation in Reinders. When a PMMA-R/FR filter was interposed, the mean proliferation rate slightly increased. PMMA-B filters decreased the overall proliferation rate to 3.0; only in Crielaard it was increased, but shoots were very small. Thus PPFD and spectral composition influenced in vitro shoot proliferation and growth and the responses were different among the clones. (author)

  19. Future bloom and blossom frost risk for Malus domestica considering climate model and impact model uncertainties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The future bloom and risk of blossom frosts for Malus domestica were projected using regional climate realizations and phenological ( = impact models. As climate impact projections are susceptible to uncertainties of climate and impact models and model concatenation, the significant horizon of the climate impact signal was analyzed by applying 7 impact models, including two new developments, on 13 climate realizations of the IPCC emission scenario A1B. Advancement of phenophases and a decrease in blossom frost risk for Lower Saxony (Germany for early and late ripeners was determined by six out of seven phenological models. Single model/single grid point time series of bloom showed significant trends by 2021-2050 compared to 1971-2000, whereas the joint signal of all climate and impact models did not stabilize until 2043. Regarding blossom frost risk, joint projection variability exceeded the projected signal. Thus, blossom frost risk cannot be stated to be lower by the end of the 21st century despite a negative trend. As a consequence it is however unlikely to increase. Uncertainty of temperature, blooming date and blossom frost risk projection reached a minimum at 2078-2087. The projected phenophases advanced by 5.5 d K(-1, showing partial compensation of delayed fulfillment of the winter chill requirement and faster completion of the following forcing phase in spring. Finally, phenological model performance was improved by considering the length of day.

  20. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple product

  1. Evaluation of phenotypic diversity of apple (Malus sp. germplasm through the principle component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mratinić Evica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of apple cultivars representing Malus sp. germplasm were collected from southern part of Serbia, where this specie has been in cultivation for a long time. Data for twelve traits were collected for 18 cultivars for three consecutive years. Cultivars differed in phenology, fruit weight, yield and chemical composition were evaluated. Correlations were identified among phenological and compositional traits. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to study correlation among variables in set of apple cultivars evaluated and to interpret relationships among genotypes as a tool for germplasm characterization. Dulabija, intended for table consumption, and Stambolka, suitable for the processing, were identified as promising. Because of the large diversity identified, data should be collected for additional local apple cultivars.

  2. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes:Endopolygalacturonase,ACC oxidase and ACC synthase from apple(Malus x domestica) in an apple rootstock A106(Malus sieboldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER; 等

    1995-01-01

    The apple rootstock,A106(Malus sieboldii),had 17 bivalents in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase 1,and 17 chromosomes in a haploid pollen cell.Karyotypes were prepared from root-tip cells with 2n=34 chromosomes,Seven out of 82 karyotypes(8.5%) showed one pari of satellites at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3.C-bands were shown on 6 pairs of chromosomes 2,4,6,8,14,and 16 near the telomeric regions of short arms.Probes for three ripening-related genes from Malus x domestica:endopolygalacturonase(EPG,0.6kb),ACC oxidase(1.2kb),and ACC synthase(2kb)were hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of A106.Hybridization sites for the EPG gene were observed on the long arm of chromosome 14 in 15 out of 16 replicate spreads and proximal to the centromere of chromosomes 6 and 11.For the ACC oxidase gene,hylridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosomes 5 and 11 in 87% and 81% of 16 spreads respectively,proxiaml to the centromere of chromosome 1 in 81% of the spreads,and on the long arm of chromosome 13 in 50% of the spreads. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes in an apple rootstock A106.Twenty five spreads were studied for the ACC synthase gene and hybridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 12 in 96% of the spreads.chromosomes 9 and 10 in 76% of the spreads,and chromosome 17 in 56% of the spreads.

  3. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  4. Penetapan Kadar Fosfor Dalam Buah Apel (Malus domestica Borkh.) Secara Spectrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Sitompul, Katarin

    2010-01-01

    Apples have various colors, so there is a possibility that the colors affect the chemical content. In the literatures, there is no statement yet that apples with different colors will have different chemical contents. The desicion value fosfor are in the dark red, pink and green apple. The examine sample was dark red apple which bought in Berastagi Supermarket, pink apple which bought Berastagi Supermarket and green apple which bought in Hypermart Sun Plaza. The examination of fosfor did q...

  5. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization. PMID:26711894

  6. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies such as cont...

  7. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that grow...

  8. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. PMID:24618178

  9. A global conservation strategy for apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple (Malus x domestica) production is #17 for agricultural products both in the U.S. and world with a value of more than $31 billion worldwide. This important perennial crop is expensive to produce, with high costs for land, labor and inputs. The industry is dominated by a relatively few number of...

  10. First report of Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot and Elsinoe pyri on apple in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Schiller, Michaela; Lund, Ole Søgaard;

    2013-01-01

    An apple disease, known as “Topaz spot” in northern Europe (Trapman and Jansonius, 2008) has since year 2000 become widespread in Danish organic apple orchards (Malus domestica). Characteristic symptoms are small spots (black on fruits, brown on leaves) having a silvery-grey cen- tre. The associa...

  11. First report of Sphaeropsis rot of apple caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2012, decayed ‘Empire’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were sampled from apples stored in bins for 6 months under controlled atmosphere at a commercial packinghouse in Orleans County in New York State. The fruit were completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown. The incidence o...

  12. The Effect of Ozone Oxydans in Plastic of Polyethylene used for The Storage of Apple Manalagi (malus Sylvestris M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ozone oxydans in plastic of polyethylene used for the storage of apple Manalagi (malus sylvestris M) have been done. Firstly, apple selected according to form and size then packed into storage of plastic polyethylene 3 and 5 mm in thickness and ozonization process is done from 0, 20, 40 and 60 seconds. The sample is monitored every 7, 14 and 21 days. Parameter perceived is texture of fruit, colour, smell and panelist option to this research. The result is thickly of plastic 3 mm and ozonization time 60 seconds. (author)

  13. Are apple and hawthorn fruit volatiles more attractive than ammonium carbonate to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. In the eastern U.S. where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonel...

  14. Shoot growth and fruit cracking in 'Stayman' apple treated with prohexadione-calcium and GA4/7

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ‘Stayman’ apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a high quality apple with good fresh fruit and processing characteristics. ‘Stayman’ is grown in large numbers in the Mid-Atlantic region where trees are of moderate to high vigor. ‘Stayman’, however is prone to skin cracking which in some seasons ...

  15. Differences in acidity of apples are probably mainly caused by a malic acid transporter gene on LG16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Beekwilder, J.; Schaart, J.G.; Mumm, R.; Soriano, J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Acidity has profound effects on the taste of apples (Malus × domestica). Malic acid is the predominant organic acid in apples. Differences in malic acid content are caused by differences in accumulation of malic acid in the vacuole. This accumulation may be caused by a gene that is responsible for t

  16. Genes and quality trait loci (QTLs) associated with firmness in Malus x domestica

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-03-31

    Fruit firmness, a quality quantitative trait, has long been established as a key textural property and one of the essential parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life of apples. Loss of firmness, also referred to as fruit softening, is undesirable in apples and represents a serious problem for growers in many countries. This results in the reduction of apple shelf life and in turn influences its commercialization. Low firmness impacts negatively on the sensory values of juiciness, crunchiness and crispness. Fruit firmness is affected by the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci and their possible interactions with the environment. Identification of these loci is key for the determination of genetic candidate markers that can be implemented in marker assisted selection and breeding for trees and/or cultivars that can yield firmer fruits with economic value. In turn, this technique can help reduce the time needed to evaluate plants and new cultivars could become available faster. This review provides an overview of quantitative trait loci (QTL), including additional putative QTLs that we have identified, and genes associated with firmness and their importance to biotechnology, the breeding industry and eventually the consumers.

  17. Involvement of Auxin and Brassinosteroid in Dwarfism of Autotetraploid Apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Xue, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Ou, Chunqing; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    The plant height is an important trait in fruit tree. However, the molecular mechanism on dwarfism is still poorly understood. We found that colchicine-induced autotetraploid apple plants (Malus × domestica) exhibited a dwarf phenotype. The vertical length of cortical parenchyma cells was shorter in autotetraploids than in diploids, by observing paraffin sections. Hormone levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroid (BR) were significantly decreased in 3- and 5-year-old autotetraploid plants. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in IAA and BR pathways. microRNA390 was significantly upregulated according to microarray analysis. Exogenous application of IAA and BR promoted stem elongation of both apple plants grown in medium. The results show that dwarfing in autotetraploid apple plants is most likely regulated by IAA and BR. The dwarf phenotype of autotetraploid apple plants could be due to accumulation of miR390 after genome doubling, leading to upregulation of apple trans-acting short-interfering RNA 3 (MdTAS3) expression, which in turn downregulates the expression of MdARF3. Overall, this leads to partial interruption of the IAA and BR signal transduction pathway. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dwarfism in autopolyploid apple plants. PMID:27216878

  18. Ultrastructure study of apple meristem cells during cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  19. Elma Bitkisi (Malus domestica L.’nde Foliar Uygulanan Salisilik Asitin Donmaya Karşı Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Türkyılmaz Ünal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye ve dünya ekonomisinde önemli bir yeri olan elma’nın donma zararına direncini artırmayı, verim ve kalitesini yükseltmeyi amaçladığımız çalışmamızda elma (Malus domestica L. bitkilerinde fenolojik ve morfolojik gözlemler ile fizyolojik ve biyokimyasal analizler yapılmıştır. Bu bitkinin donma stresine karşı gösterdiği adaptasyon ile kalite ve verimi üzerine foliar salisilik asitin (0, 500 ppm/bitki ve 1000 ppm/bitki etkileri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Yaprakta fotosentetik pigment içerikleri, total protein miktarı, prolin miktarı ile süperoksit dismutaz ve peroksidaz enzim aktiviteleri ölçülmüştür. Çalışma tesadüfi deneme desenine göre planlanmış ve verilerin istatistik analizleri SPSS paket programıyla (LSD testi yapılmıştır. Elma bitkilerinin sürgün ve meyve sayılarının 500 ppm salisilik asit uygulamalarında, meyve ağırlıklarının ise 500 ppm ve 1000 ppm salisilik asit uygulamalarında kontrol grubuna göre artış gösterdiği, aynı zamanda uygulama gruplarında elma renklerinin de koyulaştığı tespit edilmiştir. Kla, klb, toplam kl, prolin, süperoksit dismutaz ve peroksidaz miktarları uygulama gruplarında kontrol grubuna göre istatistiki açıdan önemli derecede artmıştır. Karotenoid ve protein miktarlarında meydana gelen artışlar ise istatistiki açıdan önemli değildir. Elde edilen veriler ışığında foliar salisilik asit uygulamalarının elma bitkisinde donma stresinin etkilerini azalttığı, verim ve kaliteyi artırdığı saptanmıştır.

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  1. Effect of root application of 6-benzylamine purine on auxin transport in Malus domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutte, G.

    1987-04-01

    The effect of 6-benzylamine purine (BA) on movement of napthalene acetic acid (NAA) applied to the shoot was investigated. Three-month-old York apple seedlings in sand culture were placed under mercury halide lamps (285 ..mu..mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/) at 22/sup 0/C for 24 hours; then 13.8, 27.5 or 55 ..mu..Mol of BA was applied as a soil drench. (/sup 14/C)-NAA was injected into the shoot at petiole base of 4th mature leaf. After 24 hours plants were harvested and movement of label acropetally to new shoot growth and basipetally to old shoot growth or roots determined. Seventeen (S.E. 3.3) percent of applied label was recovered away from application site. In controls, 67% of /sup 14/C that moved was recovered from new shoot growth, 9% in roots and 24% in old shoot tissue. The 13.8 ..mu..Mol treatment resulted in 37% of label being recovered in root tissue and 48% in new growth. The 27.5 and 55 ..mu..Mol applications increased the amount recovered in old shoot tissue but did not increase labelling of root tissues.

  2. Description et modélisation de la croissance et du développement du pommier (Malus x domestica Borkh.. II. Caractéristiques et distribution spatiale et temporelle des sites de floraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planchon V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Description and modelisation of growth and development of apple tree (Malus x domestica Borkh . . I I . Characteristics and space and temporal distribution of sites of flowering. Young growing apple trees, cvs. Cox's Orange Pippin and Jonagold, have been observed during five years and their flowering sites were recorded. By using a previously established codification, the precise location in space and time of the flowering shoots was made possible. Two phases are described during the development of the tree. During the building of the frame (trunk and two first tiers of branches, a first phase is characterized by a strict alternate bearing regime in the terminal buds of the successive shoots of second and third order. Their eventually marked and prolonged elongation does not hinder their floral initiation, in spite of its late starting. A second phase beginning in third order shoots and later displays repeated flowering on mainly short shoots (""bourse on bourse"", while growth is slackening under joint influence of increase in number of functional apices and fruit load. Both studied varieties behave differently in their way of branching and in its consequences on flowering. Cox's Orange Pippin spreads its branches by numerous sympods upon terminal flowering: two to three bourse shoots sprout from one inflorescence, with an earlier transition to repeated flowering and maintained vigour. On the contrary, Jonagold extends its branches mainly through axillary shoots and, without renewal pruning to sustain vigour, alternate bearing continues until the flowering rate decreases. The exposed method allows thus to characterize varietal behaviors and to predict how to manage them.

  3. Effects of water extracts of apple and pomegranate peel on the quality of orange squash

    OpenAIRE

    Salah-ud Din; Kashif Akram; Umar Farooq; Afshan Shafi; Farkhandah Sarfraz; Hafeez ur Rehman; Muhammad Asim Ijaz Sidhu

    2015-01-01

    Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Malus domestica (apple) are rich source of bioactive compounds i.e. phenolics components, anthocyanins and tannins that can be potential preservative agents. The aim of the present research plan was to evaluate the quality characteristics of orange squash after addition of aqueous extracts of apple and pomegranate peels. For this purpose aqueous extracts of pomegranate and apple peels were added in orange squash and then the final product was examined for phy...

  4. First report of black rot of apple caused by Diplodia seriata in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2014, decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were observed and sampled from commercial orchards in Mattawa (Grant County) in Washington State. Fruit rot symptoms appeared to originate mainly from infections at either the calyx-end (floral parts) of the fruit or wounds on the f...

  5. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON APPLE TREE PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...

  6. Sequence analysis of three CBF-like genes from apple (Malus x domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CBF/DREB family of transcription factors has been demonstrated to have an integral role in the response of plants to low temperatures and water deficit, binding to a cis-acting regulatory element called the C-repeat/dehydration response element (CRT/ DRE) in genes induced by those stresses. CBF...

  7. Genus Malus Mill. in Arboretum collection of Peter the Great Botanic Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Firsov Gennadiy; Vasiliev Nikolay; Tkachenko Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Genus Apples (Malus Mill.) have been known at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences since the end of the XVIII century, the first exotic species was M. pumila Mill. (M. domestica Borkh.). It is here M. floribunda Siebold ex van Houtte, M. sachalinensis (Kom.) Juz. and M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. apparently were firstly introduced into general cultivation. The hardiest is M. baccata (L.) Borkh. which is represented here constantly since 18...

  8. CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOID PIGMENTS IN THE PEEL AND FLESH OF COMMERCIAL APPLE FRUITS VARIETIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2014-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) has always been considered a fruit with low chlorophyll and carotenoid contents; however these pigments contribute also to the external (peel) and internal (flesh) fruit colouration, as well as to the health benefits associated with the regular consumption of this fruit. In the present work we studied the chlorophyll and carotenoid composition of the peel and flesh of thirteen marketed apple varieties presenting different external colouration (gr...

  9. Development of stem-end internal browning and cracking in cold stored ‘Gala’ apples is related to fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Gala’ apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit can be susceptible to the development of stem-end browning and cracking (splitting) disorders during cold storage. Previous work indicated fruit stem-end browning incidence increases with fruit size. The objective of this...

  10. RESGATE DE EMBRIÕES IMATUROS IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus spp. RESCUE OF IMMATURE EMBRYOS IN VITRO OF ROOTSTOCK OF APPLE (Malus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura in vitro de embriões permite desenvolver estudos nas áreas de fisiologia e melhoramento, possibilitando o resgate de embriões imaturos, oriundos de cruzamentos que podem ser incompatíveis. Em macieira, geralmente, os embriões imaturos apresentam dormência e baixa germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar concentrações de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina em diferentes períodos de imersão para superação da dormência e germinação de embriões imaturos de macieira. Os embriões foram extraídos de sementes retiradas de frutos oriundos do cruzamento entre os porta-enxertos de macieira Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia x M9 (Malus pumilla, realizado em plantas matrizes cultivadas na Epagri -- São Joaquim (SC. Os 50 frutos colhidos ao acaso foram submetidos a uma esterilização com etanol 96º por 10 min e após com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2% por 20 min. As sementes foram submetidas a uma desinfestação, utilizando-se etanol 70% por 30 s e solução de hipoclorito de sódio 1,25% por 15 min, seguindo-se três lavagens com água esterilizada e autoclavada. Os embriões foram inoculados em 10 ml de meio MS/2, suplementado com 100 mg.L-1 de mio-inositol, 30 g.L-1 de sacarose e com BAP (0, 6 e 12 mg.L-1 e 6 g.L-1 de agar, com pH ajustado para 5,8. Os embriões foram mantidos por 24 ou 48 horas neste meio e depois transferidos para um meio MS/2 sem regulador vegetal. Não ocorreu contaminação nem oxidação em nenhum embrião. A concentração de BAP que promoveu maior crescimento dos embriões foi de 6 mg.L-1, mas o melhor aspecto quanto à intensidade de coloração e formação de brotos foi obtido utilizando-se 12 mg.L-1.The embryos culture in vitro allows studies in the physiology breeding areas, facilitating the rescue of immature embryos, originated from incompatible crossings. In apple, the immature embryos generally present dormancy and lower germination. The objective of this work was to test concentrations

  11. Effet du génotype, de l'alimentation hydrique et azotée sur interactions pommier-puceron cendré (Malus domestica-Dysaphis plantaginea)

    OpenAIRE

    Sghaier, Ahlem

    2015-01-01

    Le pommier (Malus domestica) est aujourd’hui affecté par de nombreux insectes phytophages parmi lesquels le puceron cendré (Dysaphis plantaginea), le deuxième plus important en termes de dégâts. En raison du changement climatique, leur population augmente. Pour faire face à cette augmentation les traitements aphicides ne cessent d’accroitre. Dans l’optique d’une diminution des pesticides tant pour la santé humaine que l’environnement des solutions alternatives sont étudiées. Parmi elles, l’é...

  12. Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10

    OpenAIRE

    Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Putterill, Jo; Stevenson, David E; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Andrew C. Allan

    2007-01-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is an important determinant of the colour of many fruits. In apple (Malus × domestica), centuries of breeding have produced numerous varieties in which levels of anthocyanin pigment vary widely and change in response to environmental and developmental stimuli. The apple fruit cortex is usually colourless, although germplasm does exist where the cortex is highly pigmented due to the accumulation of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. From studies in a diverse array of...

  13. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine: isolated and combined with other growth regulators on quality of ‘Brookfield’ apples after storage

    OpenAIRE

    Auri Brackmann; Fabio Rodrigo Thewes; Rogerio de Oliveira Anese; Vanderlei Both; Wanderlei Linke Junior; Erani Eliseu Schultz

    2015-01-01

    Growth regulators are used in the production of apples worldwide, especially to extend the harvest period and maintain postharvest quality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) in isolation as well as in combination with other growth regulators and postharvest techniques on the harvest quality and storage potential of ‘Brookfield’ apples (Malus domestica), a ‘Gala’ strain. Fruit receiving AVG only had the highest starch content and the highest ...

  14. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content and Mineral Composition of Different Fruit Tissue of Five Apple Cultivars Grown in Chile Determinación de la Capacidad Antioxidante, contenido de Fenoles totales y Composición Mineral de Diferentes Tejidos de Frutos de Cinco Variedades de Manzana cultivadas en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Henríquez; Sergio Almonacid; Italo Chiffelle; Tania Valenzuela; Manuel Araya; Lorena Cabezas; Ricardo Simpson; Hernán Speisky

    2010-01-01

    Apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) have been identified as one of the main dietary sources of antioxidants, mainly phenolic compounds. These compounds vary in their composition and concentration, among cultivars and fruit tissues. In this research, the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau assay), antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, FRAP assay) and mineral composition in three fruit tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit), of apple cultivars commonly used for dried apple pro...

  15. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill..common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb Lindl. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill., common pear (Pyrus communis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb. Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm layer completely surrounding the embryo which has large cotyledons and a thick rootlet.

  16. Dehydration of apple tissue: Intercomparison of neutron tomography with numerical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Aregawi, Wondwosen; Defraeye, Thijs; Saneinejad, Saba; Vontobel, Peter; Lehmann, Eberhard; Carmeliet, Jan; Derome, Dominique; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

    2013-01-01

    A multiphysics model was applied to study the moisture loss accompanied by large mechanical deformation of apple tissue samples (Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Braeburn’) during dehydration. The model incorporated a water transport model and a nonlinear viscoelastic deformation model and was solved using the finite element method. Satisfactory model performance was indicated, based on a comparison of the total water loss, the transient water distribution profiles and the mechanical deformation...

  17. Effects of acidity of simulated rain on the fruiting of 'Summerred' apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of rain acidity on field-grown Summered apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) under natural conditions were investigated. One group of four trees was exposed to ambient rainfall. Four other groups were covered with rainshields and received water, pH 5.6, 4, and 3, respectively, as simulated rain. Simulated acid rain, particularly at pH 3, adversely affected fruit production in terms of individual fruit weight, fruit set, fruit appearance (necrosis and russetting of the peel) and dry weight. Ambient rain was not found to cause significant reductions in apple weight. Ambient rain was not found to cause significant reductions in apple fruit production in this study

  18. Apple (Malus H domestica Borkh.) responds to a simulated severe drought: genes common and unique to leaves and bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehydration is feature of many abiotic stresses, but is more often an agricultural threat on its own. Plants have evolved numerous mechanisms for coping with dehydration, including morphological, biochemical, and molecular genetic responses. These mechanisms are complex and involve various combina...

  19. Comparison of relative illuminance, relative photosynthetic photon flux and relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation in apple [Malus pumila] tree canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative light intensities in an apple (Malus domestice Borkh.) tree canopy were determined by measuring light quantity: Photometrically (illuminance, lx), radiometrically (radiation, W. m-2), and in quantum terms (photosynthetic photon flux, mumol. m-2. s-1). There was a strong positive correlation between relative illuminance and relative photosynthetic photon flux, measured on an overcast day. Relative photosynthetic photon flux was, however, 6.0 % higher than relative illuminance. A strong correlation was also found between relative illuminance and relative cumulative photosynthetic photon for one day; the latter was higher by 6.7 % on an overcast day and 6.8 % on a clear day. There was a strong positive correlation between the relative cumulative photosynthetic photon and the relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation for one day, while that of relative cumulative photosynthetic photon was 11 % lower than relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation

  20. РОД ЯБЛОНЯ (MALUS MILL.) В КОЛЛЕКЦИИ БОТАНИЧЕСКОГО САДА ПЕТРА ВЕЛИКОГО

    OpenAIRE

    Газиев, Махач; Асадулаев, Заирбек; Абдуллатипов, Рустам

    2015-01-01

    Genus Apples (Malus Mill.) have been known at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences since the end of the XVIII century, the first exotic species was M. pumila Mill. (M. domestica Borkh.). It is here M. floribunda Siebold ex van Houtte, M. sachalinensis (Kom.) Juz. and M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehd. apparently were firstly introduced into general cultivation. The hardiest is M. baccata (L.) Borkh. which is represented here constantly since 18...

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  2. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from rosaceae family by headspace solid‐phase microextraction followed by GC‐qMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S.

    2009-01-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature,extractiontime,sampleamount,dilutionfactor,ionicstrength,anddesorption time...

  3. Genetic characteristics of diversity of apple resistance to apple scab

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorskaitė-Gudžiūnienė, Sidona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research. To identify genes involved in V. inaequalis induced resistance response in Malus sp. and to develop apple hybrids with pyramidic resistance. Specific aims: 1. To characterize the genetic diversity and resistance to apple scab in the collection of apple genetic resources; 2. To develop apple hybrids of pyramidic resistance for apple breeding; 3. To characterize apple nuclear proteome and to perform a comparative genomic analysis of V. inaequalis induced Malus response;...

  4. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications. PMID:24731343

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the synonymous codon usage patterns in apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; SUN Mei-hong; JIANG Ze-sheng; SHU Huai-rui; ZHANG Shi-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica) has been proposed as an important woody plant and the major cultivated fruit trees in temperate regions. Apple whole genome sequencing has been completed, which provided an excelent opportunity for genome-wide analysis of the synonymous codon usage patterns. In this study, a multivariate bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal the characteristics of synonymous codon usage and the main factors affecting codon bias in apple. The neutrality, correspondence, and correlation analyses were performed by CodonW and SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solu-tions) programs, indicating that the apple genome codon usage patterns were affected by mutational pressure and selective constraint. Meanwhile, coding sequence length and the hydrophobicity of proteins could also inlfuence the codon usage patterns. In short, codon usage pattern analysis and determination of optimal codons has laid an important theoretical basis for genetic engineering, gene prediction and molecular evolution studies in apple.

  6. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  7. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of NBS-encoding genes in Malus x domestica and expansion of NBS genes family in Rosaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Arya

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins play an important role in plant defense against pathogen attack. A number of recent studies have been carried out to identify and characterize NBS-LRR gene families in many important plant species. In this study, we identified NBS-LRR gene family comprising of 1015 NBS-LRRs using highly stringent computational methods. These NBS-LRRs were characterized on the basis of conserved protein motifs, gene duplication events, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, equal distribution of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and coiled coil (CC (1 ∶ 1 was detected in apple while the unequal distribution was reported in majority of all other known plant genome studies. Prediction of gene duplication events intriguingly revealed that not only tandem duplication but also segmental duplication may equally be responsible for the expansion of the apple NBS-LRR gene family. Gene expression profiling using expressed sequence tags database of apple and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed the expression of these genes in wide range of tissues and disease conditions, respectively. Taken together, this study will provide a blueprint for future efforts towards improvement of disease resistance in apple.

  8. Role of abscisic acid (aba) in modulating the responses of two apple rootstocks to drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100 mol/L and 50 mol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress. (author)

  9. Progress in mutation breeding of apples (Malus pumilla Mill.) at Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of the techniques used to produce mutants from over 4000 scions of fifteen cultivars of apple is given. Basic work within that programme has given information indicating the best dose for mutant production for the various cultivars (approximately the LD50 for the growth of the MV1). It has been shown that selection for greater damage at the MV1 generation can lead to a higher proportion of mutants in later generations, but also that the more severe mutations are less likely to be of commercial interest. Half of the selected mutants resulting from this programme appear to be fairly stable so far and are performing well in large-scale trials. Mention is made of techniques which resolve the chimeral make-up of the remaining potentially useful mutants. (author)

  10. Study on Characteristics of Calcium Uptake by Young Fruit of Apple (Malus pumila) and Its Regulation by Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Field trial, pot experiment with 45Ca tracer, plant analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of calcium uptake by young fruit of apple and its regulation by IAA, GA and NAA. The results indicated that calcium should be applied directly on the surface of young fruits because calcium applied on leaves could be hardly transfered to fruits. The proper Ca applying period was the first month of young fruits formation, and the proper concentration of CaCl2 applied was 0. 5%. Applying Ca directly on the surface of young fruits could increase the weight and quality of fruits. The process of transfering Ca2+ from fruit surface into pulp tissue could be accelerated by IAA, GA or NAA, which also led to an increment on 2% HOAc extractable Ca. Meanwhile, the Ca existed in the stalk and leaves could be strongly transported into fruits by applying IAA on the fruit surface, resulting in too much accumulation of Ca in fruit and bad quality of fruit, while no such sighs were observed with GA or NAA.

  11. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  12. Advances in Apple Transformation Technology to Confer Resistance to Fungal Diseases in Apple Crops: A Chilean Perspective Avances de la Tecnología de Transformación del Manzano para Conferir Resistencia a Enfermedades Fungosas en su Cultivo: Una Perspectiva Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Polanco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. is one of the most consumed fruit in the world. Genetic transformation is a key process to sustain this demand by permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as the development of new cultivars resistant to pests, diseases, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. This review summarizes the advances of genetic engineering applied to the development of resistant apple cultivars to fungus disease, with particular attention in the generation of apples resistant to Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, the main phytosanitary problem that affects apple crops in Chile.La manzana (Malus domestica Borkh. es una de las frutas más consumidas en el mundo. La transformación genética es un proceso clave para sustentar esta demanda, permitiendo el mejoramiento potencial de los cultivares existentes, así como el desarrollo de nuevas variedades resistentes a plagas, enfermedades y problemas de almacenamiento que se originan en las zonas de producción más importantes. Esta revisión resume los avances de la ingeniería genética aplicada al desarrollo de variedades de manzana resistentes a enfermedades fungosas, con especial atención en la generación de manzanas resistentes a Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, el principal problema fitosanitario que afecta a los cultivos de manzana en Chile.

  13. Irradiation disinfestation of apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) in hypoxic and low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J

    2004-08-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a quarantine pest of apples, Malus domestica Borkhausen, and pears, Pyrus communis L., shipped from much of the United States and Canada. As such, these fruits shipped from infested areas to uninfested areas must undergo a quarantine disinfestation treatment. The objective of this research was to develop irradiation quarantine treatments against apple maggot considering that fruit hosts may be stored under hypoxic or cold conditions when they are irradiated. Hypoxia increased from 30.5 to 35.7 Gy (17%) the estimated dose to achieve 99% prevention of the full pupal stage from irradiated third instars in apples compared with ambient atmospheres. However, 50 Gy completely prevented the full pupa in 22,360 and 15,530 third instars, respectively, irradiated in apples in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. There was no difference in development to the full pupal stage in apple maggot third instars held at 1 or 24 degrees C when irradiated with 20 Gy. Because the maximum dose measured when 50 Gy was sought was 57 Gy, the latter should be the dose recommended for quarantine disinfestation of host fruits of the apple maggot. Apples and pears tolerate much higher doses. PMID:15384333

  14. Architectural development and dry matter production in a multisite trial on single and multiaxis apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) grafted on different rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Lezzer, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    In two Italian sites, multiaxis trees slightly reduced primary axis length and secondary axis length of newly grafted trees, and increased the number of secondary shoots. The total length, node production, and total dry matter gain were proportional to the number of axis. Growth of both primary and secondary shoots, and dry matter accumulation, have been found to be also well related to rootstock vigour. A great variability in axillary shoot production was recorded among different environm...

  15. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  16. Analysis of 'Fuji' apple somatic variants from next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Kim, G H; Kwon, S I; Kim, J H; Kwon, Y S; Choi, C

    2016-01-01

    The domesticated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a major fruit crop of temperate regions of the world. 'Fuji' apple (Ralls Genet x Delicious), a famous apple cultivar in Korea, has been very popular since its promotion in Japan in 1958. 'Fuji' and its bud mutant cultivars possess variable levels of genetic diversity. Nonetheless, the phenotypes of each group, which are classified into the bud mutation groups: early season, fruiting spur, and coloring, are similar. Despite attempts to identify these bud mutation cultivars, molecular markers, which were developed before the emergence of next-generation sequencing technology, have not been able to distinguish each cultivar easily. In this study, we adopted the resequencing technique using the 'Golden Delicious' (Grimes Golden x Unknown) apple genome as a reference. SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and InDels (insertions or deletions) of 'Fuji' apple and its bud mutant cultivar were detected and SNPs and unique InDels distinct to each cultivar were identified. Data from this study may be used to identify bud mutant cultivars of 'Fuji' apples and be useful for further breeding of apples. PMID:27525934

  17. Phenotypic and Molecular Screening of Apple Genotypes to Woolly Apple Aphid Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ABU-ROMMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA is a major pest of apple orchards resulting in significant losses. In the present study, 22 apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars were tested in the filed for their relative resistance/susceptibility to WAA. These apple cultivars were found to respond differentially to WAA infestation. Based on tree infestation rating, cultivars were ranked into 6 relative resistance/susceptibility groups, as follows: immune - ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Delbarestivale’, ‘Golden Smoothie’, ‘Red Miracle’ and ‘Harmony’; resistant - ‘Stark Gold’, ‘Early Gold’ and ‘Argi Gala’; moderately resistant - ‘Evanee’ and ‘Black Stayman’; moderately susceptible - ‘Vista Bella’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Jersey Mac’, ‘Granny Spur Type’ and  ‘Summerred’; susceptible - ‘Jonathan’, ‘Nagava 6’, ‘Florina’, ‘Red Chief’ and ‘Gold Iralis’; highly susceptible - ‘Fuji 6’. Eight molecular markers linked to major WAA resistant genes (Er1, Er2, and Er3 were screened in apple cultivars using PCR. The markers NZms_EB145764, NZms_EB106753 and NZsc_E01 were ubiquitous in all cultivars under study, whereas, NZsn_O05 was absent. The results of other markers revealed distinct patterns of amplification among apple cultivars. No clear correlations can be made between the molecular data (marker presence and absence and the phenotypic results (cultivar ranking. The differences among cultivars regarding WAA infestation can potentially be utilized by apple breeders and commercial growers to achieve effective, environmental-friendly, and low-cost pest control.

  18. Effect of the Cooling System and 1-MCP on the Incidence of Superficial Scald in ‘Granny Smith’ Apples Efecto del Sistema de Enfriamiento y 1-MCP sobre la Incidencia de Escaldado Superficial en Manzanas ‘Granny Smith’

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Moggia; Omar Hernández; Marcia Pereira; Lobos, Gustavo A.; José Antonio Yuri

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effects of two cooling systems and the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFreshTM) on the incidence of superficial scald in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. Granny Smith. Fruit were collected from a commercial orchard (Colbún, Maule Region, Chile) during 2004-2005 season. A completely randomized design was used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, using cooling systems (normal and step-wise cooling) and application of 1-MCP (0 and 625 nL ...

  19. Composition of phenolic acids content in apple (Malus sp pomace / Composição do conteúdo de ácidos fenólicos no bagaço de maçã (Malus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Fett

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed the study of phenolic acids composition in apple pomace of Gala and Fuji cultivars. Phenolic acids were fractionated in phenolic acids, esterified and insoluble and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Sixteen phenolic acids were identified in apple pomace samples. Total phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala and Fuji cultivars were, in dry weight, 93.94 mg/ g and 68.38 mg/g, respectively. Content of free phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala cultivar was 29.11 mg/g and the following acids were identified: salicylic, protocatequinic, quinic, p-coumaric, gallic, propylgallate and synapic. Content of free phenolic acids in apple pomace from Fuji cultivar was 16.03 mg/g and the following acids were identified: salicylic, protocatequinic, gallic, ferulic and sinapic. Salicylic was the predominant free phenolic acids found in both cultivars, consisting of 91.67% and 63.57% of the free phenolic acids in Gala and Fuji cultivars, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (1.147 mg/g was found only in apple pomace from Fuji cultivar. Content of esterified phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala and Fuji cultivars were 53.75 mg/g and 48.29 mg/g, respectively. It was verified that the predominant esterified phenolic acid in pomace from apple Gala is derived from salicylic acid (52.76 mg/g. Acids derived from gallic acid (0.175 mg/g, propylgallate acid (0.198 mg/g, ferulic acid (0.159 mg/g and sinapic acid (0.140 mg/g were also found in Gala cultivar. Regarding to pomace from cultivar Fuji, the main esterified phenolic acid found is also derived from salicylic acid (47.42 mg/g followed by gallic acid (0.270 mg/g, benzoic acid (0.194 mg/g and sinapic acid (0.115 mg/g. Content of insoluble phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala and Fugi cultivars were, in dry weight, 11.08 mg/g and 4.05 mg/g, respectively. Insoluble phenolic acids derived from salicylic acid were found in higher concentrations in apple pomace from

  20. Genomewide identification and expression analysis of the ARF gene family in apple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Cui Luo; Mei-Hong Sun; Rui-Rui Xu; Huai-Rui Shu; Jai-Wei Wang; Shi-Zhong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Auxin response factors (ARF) are transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in plants. Although the genomewide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding ARF genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 31 putative apple ARF genes have been identified and located within the apple genome. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that MdARFs could be divided into three subfamilies (groups I, II and III). The predicted MdARFs were distributed across 15 of 17 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the analysis of exon–intron junctions and of the intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Expression profile analyses of MdARF genes were performed in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit), and all the selected genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues that were tested, which indicated that MdARFs are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes of apple. To our knowledge, this report is the first to provide a genomewide analysis of the apple ARF gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the ARF signal in apple.

  1. Phenolic Profiles and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Apple Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2016-05-01

    Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity. PMID:27002313

  2. A galactomannan-driven enhancement of the in vitro multiplication rate for the Marubakaido apple rootstock (Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh) is not related to the degradation of the exogenous galactomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Netto, Adaucto B; Meneguin, Rhayla G; Biz, Alessandra; Silveira, Joana L M

    2012-01-01

    Agar is a complex mixture of gel-forming polysaccharides. Gelling agents are very often used to provide proper support for plants grown in semisolid culture media. And agar is the most frequently used gelling agent in plant tissue culture media. Galactomannans, another group of gel-forming polysaccharides, consists of a (1 → 4)-linked β-D: -mannopyranosyl backbone partially substituted at O-6 with D: -galactopyranosyl side groups. In this work, we demonstrate that a statistically significant 2.7-fold increase on the multiplication rate (MR) for in vitro-grown Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia) shoots was associated with a 12.5% replacement of agar in the semi-solid culture media for a galactomannan obtained from seeds of Schizolobium paraybae. This increase on MR was due mainly to a 1.9-fold increase in the number of main branches and an 8.6-fold increase in the number of primary lateral branches. Gas liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography analyzes demonstrated that the galactomannan-driven enhancement of the in vitro multiplication rate of the Marubakaido apple rootstock was not related to the galactomannan degradation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful use of partial replacement of high quality agar by a galactomannan from S. paraybae in a micropropagation system for a tree species. PMID:22057908

  3. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it

  4. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line. PMID:25370729

  5. RT-PCR-ELISA for detection of Apple stem grooving virus in apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Vera Lúcia A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to detect Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was developed using primers ASGV4F-ASGV4R targeting the viral replicase gene, followed by a sandwich hybridisation, in microtiter plates, for colorimetric detection of the PCR products. The RT-PCR was performed with the Titan™ RT-PCR system, using AMV and diluted crude extracts of apple (Malus domestica leaf or bark for the first strand synthesis and a mixture of Taq and PWO DNA polymerase for the PCR step. The RT-PCR products is hybridised with both a biotin-labelled capture probe linked to a streptavidin-coated microtiter plate and a digoxigenin (DIG-labelled detection probe. The complex was detected with an anti-DIG conjugate labelled with alkaline phosphatase. When purified ASGV was added to extracts of plant tissue, as little as 400 fg of the virus was detected with this method. The assay with ASGV4F-ASGV4R primers specifically detected the virus in ASGV-infected apple trees from different origins, whereas no signal was observed with amplification products obtained with primers targeting the coat protein region of the ASGV genome or with primers specific for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV. The technique combines the power of PCR to increase the number of copies of the targeted gene, the specificity of DNA hybridization, and the ease of colorimetric detection and sample handling in microplates.

  6. Efeito de substratos porosos no enraizamento in vitro do porta-enxerto de macieira M-9 (Malus pumilla Effect of porous substrates in vitro rooting of M-9 apple rootstock (Malus pumilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luíz Vieira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de substratos no enraizamento in vitro do porta-enxerto de macieira M-9. Foram testados três substratos: ágar, vermiculita (nº 2, granulometria média e cinza vegetal, como suporte físico no enraizamento das miniestacas. Para os tratamento com vermiculita e cinza vegetal, meio nutritivo MS, reduzido à metade da concentração, foi adicionado em frascos de vidro de 250 mL contendo 15 g dos respectivos substratos. Brotações de 2,5 a 3,0 cm de comprimento, com dois pares de folhas, foram transferidas para os frascos, os quais foram mantidos durante 35 dias em sala de crescimento com temperatura de 25 ±1,5ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e intensidade luminosa de 75 µmol.m-2.s-1. As maiores percentagens de enraizamento (88,4 e 87,9% foram observadas nos tratamentos com vermiculita e cinza vegetal, respectivamente. Após a avaliação do enraizamento, as plantas foram transferidas para bandejas de isopor alveoladas com 128 células e mantidas por 40 dias em casa de vegetação. A maior taxa de sobrevivência de plantas aclimatizadas (93,5% foi obtida com as miniestacas produzidas em meio contendo vermiculita.the present work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effect of substrates in the rooting in vitro of the M-9 apple rootstock. Three substrates were tested: ágar, vermiculite (number 2, medium granulometry and vegetal ash as physical support in the rooting of the shoots. For the treatment with vermiculite and vegetal ash, MS medium nutritive, with half of the concentration, was added in glass bottles of 250 mL with 15g of respective substrates. The shoots of 2,5 to 3,0 cm of length and two pair of leaves had been transferred to the bottles. After the inoculation the bottles were kept during 35 days in a growing chamber, at 25 ±1ºC, for a 16 hour photoperiod with light intensity of 75 µmol.m-2.s-1. The higher percentages of rooting (88,4 and 87,9% were

  7. Genome-wide identification and characterization of WRKY transcriptional factor family in apple and analysis of their responses to waterlogging and drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Li, Yuanyuan; Bai, Yang; Li, Mingjun; Cheng, Lailiang

    2016-06-01

    As one of the largest transcriptional factor families in plants, WRKY genes play significant roles in various biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although the WRKY gene family has been characterized in a few plant species, the details remain largely unknown in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). In this study, we identified a total of 127 MdWRKYs from the apple genome, which were divided into four subgroups according to the WRKY domains and zinc finger motif. Most of them were mapped onto the apple's 17 chromosomes and were expressed in more than one tissue, including shoot tips, mature leaves, fruit and apple calli. We then contrasted WRKY expression patterns between calli grown in solid medium (control) and liquid medium (representing waterlogging stress) and found that 34 WRKY genes were differentially expressed between the two growing conditions. Finally, we determined the expression patterns of 10 selected WRKY genes in an apple rootstock, G41, in response to waterlogging and drought stress, which identified candidate genes involved in responses to water stress for functional analysis. Our data provide interesting candidate MdWRKYs for future functional analysis and demonstrate that apple callus is a useful system for characterizing gene expression and function in apple. PMID:26970718

  8. Simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in the leaf and fruit peel of different apple cultivars by the HPLC-RI optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Miuţa; Vlassa, Mihaela; Coman, Virginia; Halmagyi, Adela

    2016-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI), for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in leaf and/or apple peel samples from nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and rootstocks, originating from a germplasm collection, has been developed and validated. Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the method optimization. The Carbosep Coregel 87H3 column was used under the optimum conditions predicted: mobile phase of H2SO4 0.005 mol L(-1) solution, flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) and column temperature of 35°C. The method was validated for linearity (R(2)>0.99), limits of detection (2.67-4.83 μg mL(-1)) and quantification (8.9-16.1 μg mL(-1)), precision (%RSDfruit peel. PMID:26776021

  9. Epitope grafting, re-creating a conformational Bet v 1 antibody epitope on the surface of the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens; Ferreras, Mercedes; Ipsen, Henrik; Würtzen, Peter A; Gajhede, Michael; Larsen, Jørgen N; Lund, Kaare; Spangfort, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Birch-allergic patients often experience oral allergy syndrome upon ingestion of vegetables and fruits, most prominently apple, that is caused by antibody cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies in patients to proteins sharing molecular surface structures with the major birch pollen group 1 allergen...... from Betula verrucosa (Bet v 1). Still, to what extent two molecular surfaces need to be similar for clinically relevant antibody cross-reactivity to occur is unknown. Here, we describe the grafting of a defined conformational antibody epitope from Bet v 1 onto the surface of the homologous apple...... allergen Malus domestica group 1 (Mal d 1). Engineering of the epitope was accomplished by genetic engineering substituting amino acid residues in Mal d 1 differing between Bet v 1 and Mal d 1 within the epitope defined by the mAb BV16. The kinetic parameters characterizing the antibody binding interaction...

  10. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation. PMID:27098519

  11. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF ROMANIAN APPLE CULTIVARS AFTER COLD STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butac Mădălina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Romanian apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars (Rebra, Rustic, Bistriţean, Auriu de Bistriţa, Goldprim, Ciprian, Irisem, Redix have been studied for their post-harvest behavior and consumer acceptance in 2008. The main objectives of this study have been the characterization of some physical-chemical parameters (weight, size, firmness, and total soluble solids that influence fruit quality, before and after cold storage. Apples were submitted to normal air storage during 3 months, at 20C and 80% relative air humidity. Fruit weight varied between 182.5 g (Auriu de Bistriţa cv. and 122 g (Rustic cv.. Maximum diameter has been registered on the Auriu de Bistriţa and Rebra cultivars (85 and 80 mm, respectively, while Rustic fruit were the thinnest (65 mm. The highest level of refractometric index (18.2º Brix has been recorded in Redix fruit, moderate (16.4º Brix in Ciprian fruit and the lowest soluble solids (13.4º Brix has been acquired in apples from Rustic cultivar. Pulp firmness has been higher (5.9 kgf/cm2 in Redix fruit than in all the other cultivars under study. Ciprian cultivar seems to be of the high quality showing an attractive external appearance and promising storage behavior.

  12. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  13. The Relation Between Endogenous Hormones and Late-Germination in Buds of Avrolles Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Dong; WANG Jin-zheng; GUO Jian-min; ZHAI Heng

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide the physiological bases for selecting late-germination cultivars that can avoid late frost damage,the very late-germination variety Avrolles (Malus domestica) was used to study the relation between the dynamic changes and balance of endogenous hormones and germination time.The concentrations of endogenous GA3,ABA,IAA,and ZR were determined in buds of Avrolles and Judeline (Malus domestica) from dormancy releasing to germination by capillary electrophoresis.The dynamic changes of endogenous hormones concentration in buds of Avrolles and Judeline were similar; but the magnitude and time of the change were significantly different between the two varieties,especially for GA3.GA3 concentration increased with dormancy releasing,then decreased,and increased again before germination in the two varieties.GA3 concentration in Avrolles was 1.72 times that in Judeline at the first peak,the gap increased to 2.22 times at germination.ZR concentration exhibited a continuous increase trend,but it decreased sharply before germination.ZR accumulation in Avrolles took 36 days longer than in Judeline,the peak value was 44% higher than in Judeline.Before germination,ZR concentration in Avrolles was 2.12 times that in Judeline.The differences between IAA and ABA concentration were relatively small in the two varieties,while the ratios of GA3/ABA and (GA3 + IAA + ZR)/ABA in Avrolles were 2.08 and 1.58 times those in Judeline,respectively.The germination of apple bud was regulated by the endogenous hormones.For the late-germination apple Avrolles,its germination requires higher concentration of GA3 and ZR,which leads to the high ratios of GA3/ABA and (GA3 + IAA + ZR)/ABA.

  14. Effects of water extracts of apple and pomegranate peel on the quality of orange squash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah-ud Din

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punica granatum (pomegranate and Malus domestica (apple are rich source of bioactive compounds i.e. phenolics components, anthocyanins and tannins that can be potential preservative agents. The aim of the present research plan was to evaluate the quality characteristics of orange squash after addition of aqueous extracts of apple and pomegranate peels. For this purpose aqueous extracts of pomegranate and apple peels were added in orange squash and then the final product was examined for physiochemical and sensory attributes during storage. Results of current study demonstrated that physico-chemical parameters of orange squash significantly changed with the storage period in all the treatments in such a way that total soluble solids (°Brix were gradually decreased but the acidity increased. Sensory examination result of orange squash revealed that color, flavor and taste were decreased with the passage of time in all the treatments but preservative and 100% apple peel extract were upto acceptable level. Whereas 50% preservative and 50% pomegranate extract and 100% pomegranate extract were highly rejected.

  15. Fire blight incidence on Malus sieversii grown in New York and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, has been recognized as the major progenitor of the domestic apple. This investigation summarizes the natural infection by Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) on 2590 M. sieversii seedlings grown as own-rooted trees. At a USDA orchard in Gen...

  16. Apple hypanthium firmness: New insights from comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2012-06-26

    Fruit firmness constitutes an important textural property and is one of the key parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life, which has a major impact on commercialization. In order to decipher the mechanisms related to firmness of apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to compare the total proteome of high and low firmness phenotypes from apple hypanthia of a \\'Golden Delicious\\' × \\'Dietrich\\' population. A total of 36 differentially regulated protein spots were positively identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and then validated against the Malus expressed sequence tags (EST) database. The findings of this study indicated a lower expression of ethylene biosynthesis related proteins in the high firmness phenotype, which could be linked to the slowing down of the ripening and softening processes. The reduced accumulation of proteins involved in ethylene biosynthesis juxtaposed to the upregulation of a transposase and a GTP-binding protein in the high firmness phenotype. The results also showed higher expression of cytoskeleton proteins in the high firmness phenotype compared to the low firmness phenotype, which play a role in maintaining cell structure and possibly fruit integrity. Finally, a number of proteins involved in detoxification and defense were expressed in fruit hypanthium. This proteomic study provides a contribution towards a better understanding of regulatory networks involved in fruit hypanthium firmness and/or softening, which could be instrumental in the development of improved fruit quality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Apple shoot multiplication and plantlets reaction to in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTIUC-KEUL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the expression of several enzymatic systems in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Romus3, Romus4, Colmar, Rebra, Goldrush, Idared plants grown in vitro in comparison with the in vivo donor plants. In vitro culture was established on Murashige and Skoog (1962 basal medium supplemented with Lee and Fossard (1977 (LF vitamins, 2 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine, 0.01 mg l-1 N6-naphtyl-acetic acid, 30 g l-1 dextrose and 7 g l-1 agar. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained for all cultivars on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N6-benzyladenine. Our study shows that in vivo plants have a distinct pattern of izoesterases in comparison with in vitro plantlets. Several izoesterases characteristic for in vitro or in vivo plants were identified. Izoperoxidases are inducible with culture conditions, physiological condition and developmental stage. The pattern of superoxid-dismutases is less variable with the culture conditions which demonstrate that in vitro culture does not occur oxidative stress. According to the pattern of peroxidases, estarases and superoxid-dismutases, there are not significant differences between in vivo and in vitro plants. Valuable apple cultivars could be preserved short or medium term by in vitro culture without genetically changes.

  18. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Xiong, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple), Prunus persica (peach), and Fragaria vesca (strawberry), respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry. PMID:26770968

  19. Lavagem e sanitização em maçã (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivar Royal Gala: avaliação na redução de pesticidas organofosforados
    Washing and sanitizing in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. Royal Gala cultivate: evaluation in reducing organophospho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. ROCHA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lavar e sanitizar produtos hortifrutíferos para impedir doenças transmitidas por agentes biológicos é importante e se faz necessário. Normalmente os estudos avaliam a efi cácia desses processos em relação a destruição dos microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes, enquanto que as respostas sobre a remoção dos resíduos de agrotóxicos não são conclusivos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os métodos de sanitização utilizados rotineiramente em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição para sanitização de frutas e hortaliças com vista à redução de agrotóxico organofosforado Parationa-Metílica, muito utilizado nos tratos culturais de hortifruticolas. Foram contaminadas amostras de maçãs em solução de 5ppm do agrotóxico e posteriormente foram submersas por 15 e 60 minutos nos seguintes veículos sanitizantes: água potável, solução de detergente 10% v/v, solução de bicarbonato de sódio 1% p/v, solução de vinagre 6% v/v, solução de água sanitária 200ppm de cloro ativo. Verifi cou-se após a aplicação dos métodos de sanitização que a solução de vinagre teve o melhor resultado, seguido pelo detergente, água potável, bicarbonato de sódio e água sanitária, os respectivos resultados atingiram 32%, 22%, 16%, 12% e 12,5% de efi ciência. Mesmo tendo ocorrido a redução de resíduos de Parationa-Metílica, não foram sufi cientes para assegurar que o alimento se tornasse isento de resíduos de agrotóxicos ou mesmo permanecesse abaixo da ingestão diária aceitável (IDA, não garantindo, após a aplicação dos métodos de sanitização, a segurança do alimento, no aspecto toxicológico. Estudos que avaliem resíduos de agrotóxicos nos alimentos consumidos “in natura” após aplicação dos métodos de lavagem e sanitização e o consumo per capita desses pela população são necessários, objetivando dados mais precisos sobre o consumo crônico de agrotóxicos através das frutas e hortaliças.

  20. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Guo, Rongrong; Guo, Chunlei; Hou, Hongmin; Wang, Xiping; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu) zipper (bZIP) TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling, and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes). Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in 10 different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones. PMID:27066030

  1. Effects of progressive drought on photosynthesis and partitioning of absorbed light in apple trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ping; BAI Tuan-hui; MA Feng-wang

    2015-01-01

    To understand how drought stress affects CO2 assimilation and energy partitioning in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), we investigated photosynthesis and photo-protective mechanisms when irrigation was withheld from potted Fuji trees. As the drought progressing, soil relative water content (SRWC) decreased from 87 to 24%in 15 d;this combined the decreasing in leaf relative water content (LRWC), net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs). However, the concen-trations of chlorophyl s (Chl) remained unchanged while Pn values were declining. Photochemistry reactions were slightly down-regulated only under severe drought. Rubisco activity was signiifcantly decreased as drought conditions became more severe. The actual efifciency of photosystem II (ΦPSI ) was diminished as drought became more intense. Consequently, xanthophyl-regulated dissipation of thermal energy was greatly enhanced. Simultaneously, the ratio ofΦPSI to the quantum yield of carbon metabolism, which is measured under non-photorespiratory conditions, increased in paral el with drought severity. Our results indicate that, under progressive drought stress, the reduction in photosynthesis in apple leaves can be attributed primarily to stomatal limitations and the inhibited capacity for CO2 ifxation. Xanthophyl cycle-dependent ther-mal dissipation and the Mehler reaction are the most important pathways for dispersing excess energy from apple leaves during periods of drought stress.

  2. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  3. Introduction of apple ANR genes into tobacco inhibits expression of both CHI and DFR genes in flowers, leading to loss of anthocyanin

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yuepeng; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Schuyler S Korban

    2012-01-01

    Three genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), designated MdANR1, MdANR2a, and MdANR2b, have been cloned and characterized. MdANR1 shows 91% identity in coding DNA sequences with MdANR2a and MdANR2b, while MdANR2a and MdANR2b are allelic and share 99% nucleotide sequence identity in the coding region. MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are located on linkage groups 10 and 5, respectively. Expression levels of both MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are generally higher in yel...

  4. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  5. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine: isolated and combined with other growth regulators on quality of ‘Brookfield’ apples after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth regulators are used in the production of apples worldwide, especially to extend the harvest period and maintain postharvest quality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of applying aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in isolation as well as in combination with other growth regulators and postharvest techniques on the harvest quality and storage potential of ‘Brookfield’ apples (Malus domestica, a ‘Gala’ strain. Fruit receiving AVG only had the highest starch content and the highest titratable acidity at harvest. After 8 months of storage, the AVG + 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene and AVG + ABS (ethylene absorption conserved higher flesh firmness than to all the other treatments. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA application induced ACC oxidase enzyme activity at harvest, but not after storage. AVG application, with or without the aid of another technique, did not decrease the red skin color of ‘Brookfield’ apples. Low mealiness and a high healthy fruit percentage was obtained when the fruits were submitted to pre-harvest AVG application combined with NAA, 1-MCP and ABS. Internal carbon dioxide had an inverse correlation with the quantity of healthy fruit and was directly correlated with mealiness.

  6. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.; Gleave, A.P.; Roberts, Thomas Hugh

    2005-01-01

    wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar to...

  7. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. PMID:26385933

  8. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. PMID:27139585

  9. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of ‘Fuji’ apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds. - Highlights: ► We analyzed the volatile organic compounds of electron beam irradiated Fuji apples. ► The major compounds of samples were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol. ► The contents of major flavor compounds of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were similar.

  10. Characterization of an Autophagy-related Gene MdATG8i from apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient deficiencies restrict apple (Malus sp. tree growth and productivity in Northwest China. The process of autophagy, a conserved degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells, has important roles in nutrient-recycling and helps improve plant performance during periods of nutrient-starvation. Little is known about the functioning of autophagy-related genes (ATGs in apple. In this study, one of the ATG8 gene family members MdATG8i was isolated from M. domestica. MdATG8i has conserved putative tubulin binding sites and ATG7 interaction domains. A 1865-bp promoter region cloned from apple genome DNA was predicated to have cis-regulatory elements responsive to light, environmental stresses and hormones. MdATG8i transcriptions were induced in response to leaf senescence, nitrogen depletion, and oxidative stress. At cellular level, MdATG8i protein was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Yeast two-hybrid tests showed that MdATG8i could interact with MdATG7a and MdATG7b. In Arabidopsis, its heterologous expression was associated with enhanced vegetative growth, leaf senescence, and tolerance to nitrogen- and carbon-starvation. MdATG8i-overexpressing ‘Orin’ apple callus lines also displayed improved tolerance to nutrient-limited conditions. Our results demonstrate that MdATG8i protein could function in autophagy in a conserved way, as a positive regulator in the response to nutrient-starvation.

  11. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  12. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  13. Ethylene negatively regulates transcript abundance of ROP-GAP rheostat-encoding genes and affects apoplastic reactive oxygen species homeostasis in epicarps of cold stored apple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermiani, Monica; Zonin, Elisabetta; Nonis, Alberto; Begheldo, Maura; Ceccato, Luca; Vezzaro, Alice; Baldan, Barbara; Trentin, Annarita; Masi, Antonio; Pegoraro, Marco; Fadanelli, Livio; Teale, William; Palme, Klaus; Quintieri, Luigi; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) fruits are stored for long periods of time at low temperatures (1 °C) leading to the occurrence of physiological disorders. 'Superficial scald' of Granny Smith apples, an economically important ethylene-dependent disorder, was used as a model to study relationships among ethylene action, the regulation of the ROP-GAP rheostat, and maintenance of H2O2 homeostasis in fruits during prolonged cold exposure. The ROP-GAP rheostat is a key module for adaptation to low oxygen in Arabidopsis through Respiratory Burst NADPH Oxidase Homologs (RBOH)-mediated and ROP GTPase-dependent regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Here, it was shown that the transcriptional expression of several components of the apple ROP-GAP machinery, including genes encoding RBOHs, ROPs, and their ancillary proteins ROP-GEFs and ROP-GAPs, is coordinately and negatively regulated by ethylene in conjunction with the progressive impairment of apoplastic H2O2 homeostatic levels. RNA sequencing analyses showed that several components of the known ROP- and ROS-associated transcriptional networks are regulated along with the ROP-GAP rheostat in response to ethylene perception. These findings may extend the role of the ROP-GAP rheostat beyond hypoxic responses and suggest that it may be a functional regulatory node involved in the integration of ethylene and ROS signalling pathways in abiotic stress. PMID:26428066

  14. Demanda hídrica e coeficientes de cultura (Kc para macieiras em Vacaria, RS Water requirement and crop coefficients (Kc for apple trees in Vacaria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a demanda hídrica e os coeficientes de cultura (Kc para macieiras cultivadas na região de Vacaria, RS. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação Experimental de Fruticultura Temperada (EEFT da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, localizada em Vacaria, RS, em plantas da cultivar 'Royal Gala' (Malus domestica sobre porta-enxerto M9. Foram determinados os valores do potencial matricial da água no solo, empregando-se tensiômetros de punção. Com base nesses valores, determinou-se a umidade volumétrica e o balanço hídrico mensal. O consumo hídrico da cultura variou entre 0,3mm dia-1 a 4,5mm dia-1, com média de 1,9mm dia-1. O coeficiente da cultura (Kc apresentou tendência quadrática, variando entre 0,19 e 0,88, com média igual a 0,58.The objective of this study was to determine the water requirement and the crop coefficients (Kc values for apple trees cultivated in Vacaria, RS. The study was conducted at the Experimental Station of Temperate Fruits (EEFT of Embrapa Grape and Wine, located in Vacaria, RS, in plants of the cultivar 'Royal Gala' (Malus domestica on the rootstock M9. The soil water matric potential values, that were determined employing tensiometers, were used to obtain the soil moisture and the monthly soil water balance. The water consumption of the culture ranged from 0.3mm day-1 to 4.5mm day-1, with an average of 1.9mm day-1. The crop coefficient (Kc presented a quadratic trend, ranging between 0.19 and 0.88, with mean value of 0.58.

  15. Biphenyl 4-Hydroxylases Involved in Aucuparin Biosynthesis in Rowan and Apple Are Cytochrome P450 736A Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Debabrata; Gaid, Mariam M; Chizzali, Cornelia; Reckwell, Dennis; Kaufholdt, David; Beuerle, Till; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Flachowsky, Henryk; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-06-01

    Upon pathogen attack, fruit trees such as apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins, with aucuparin as a major biphenyl compound. 4-Hydroxylation of the biphenyl scaffold, formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP). The biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4H) coding sequence of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) was isolated and functionally expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). SaB4H was named CYP736A107. No catalytic function of CYP736 was known previously. SaB4H exhibited absolute specificity for 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl. In rowan cell cultures treated with elicitor from the scab fungus, transient increases in the SaB4H, SaBIS, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase transcript levels preceded phytoalexin accumulation. Transient expression of a carboxyl-terminal reporter gene construct directed SaB4H to the endoplasmic reticulum. A construct lacking the amino-terminal leader and transmembrane domain caused cytoplasmic localization. Functional B4H coding sequences were also isolated from two apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars. The MdB4Hs were named CYP736A163. When stems of cv Golden Delicious were infected with the fire blight bacterium, highest MdB4H transcript levels were observed in the transition zone. In a phylogenetic tree, the three B4Hs were closest to coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylases involved in lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a common ancestor. Coniferaldehyde and related compounds were not converted by SaB4H. PMID:25862456

  16. Polyclonal antibodies to the coat protein of Apple stem grooving virus expressed in Escherichia coli: production and use in immunodiagnosis Anticorpos policlonais contra a proteína capsídica de Apple stem grooving virus expressada em Escherichia coli: produção e uso em imunodiagnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Nickel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The coat protein gene of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, sequenced and subcloned in the expression vector pMal-c2. This plasmid was used to transform Escherichia coli BL21c+ competent cells. The ASGV coat protein (cp was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of E. coli maltose binding protein (MBP. Bacterial cells were disrupted by sonication and the ASGVcp/MBP fusion protein was purified by amylose resin affinity chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies from rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave specific reactions to ASGV from infected apple (Malus domestica cv. Fuji Irradiada and Chenopodium quinoa at dilutions of up to 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, respectively, in plate trapped ELISA. The ASGVcp/MBP fusion protein reacted to a commercial antiserum against ASGV in immunoblotting assay. The IgG against ASGVcp/MBP performed favorably in specificity and sensitivity to the virus. This method represents an additional tool for the efficient ASGV-indexing of apple propagative and mother stock materials, and for use in support of biological and molecular techniques.O gene da capa protéica de Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV foi amplificado por RT-PCR, clonado, seqüenciado e subclonado no plasmídeo pMal-c2. A capa protéica de ASGV foi expressa em Escherichia coli como proteína de fusão contendo um fragmento do gene da proteína de ligação a maltose de E. coli (MBP. Células bacterianas foram rompidas por sonicação e a proteína de fusão ASGVcp/MBP foi purificada por cromatografia de afinidade em resina de amilose. Anti-soros policlonais de coelhos imunizados com a proteína de fusão reagiram especificamente com extratos de maçãs (Malus domestica cv. Fuji Irradiada e Chenopodium quinoa infetadas com ASGV em diluições de 1:1000 e 1:2000, respectivamente, em ELISA indireto. A proteína de fusão ASGVcp/MBP reagiu positivamente com anticorpos comerciais produzidos contra ASGV em testes de

  17. Characterization of volatile substances in apples from Rosaceae family by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-qMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Liseth; Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2009-06-01

    The volatile composition of different apple varieties of Malus domestica Borkh. species from different geographic regions at Madeira Islands, namely Ponta do Pargo (PP), Porto Santo (PS), and Santo da Serra (SS) was established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure followed by GC-MS (GC-qMS) analysis. Significant parameters affecting sorption process such as fiber coating, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample amount, dilution factor, ionic strength, and desorption time, were optimized and discussed. The SPME fiber coated with 50/30 microm divinylbenzene/carboxen/PDMS (DVB/CAR/PDMS) afforded highest extraction efficiency of volatile compounds, providing the best sensitivity for the target volatiles, particularly when the samples were extracted at 50 degrees C for 30 min with constant magnetic stirring. A qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis between the investigated apple species has been established. It was possible to identify about 100 of volatile compounds among pulp (46, 45, and 39), peel (64, 60, and 64), and entire fruit (65, 43, and 50) in PP, PS, and SS apples, respectively. Ethyl esters, terpenes, and higher alcohols were found to be the most representative volatiles. Alpha-farnesene, hexan-1-ol and hexyl 2-methylbutyrate were the compounds found in the volatile profile of studied apples with the largest GC area, representing, on average, 24.71, 14.06, and 10.80% of the total volatile fraction from PP, PS, and SS apples. In PP entire apple, the most abundant compounds identified were alpha-farnesene (30.49%), the unknown compound m/z (69, 101, 157) (21.82%) and hexyl acetate (6.57%). Regarding PS entire apple the major compounds were alpha-farnesene (16.87%), estragole (15.43%), hexan-1-ol (10.94), and E-2-hexenal (10.67). Alpha-farnesene (30.3%), hexan-1-ol (18.90%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (4.7%), and pentan-1-ol (4.6%) were also found as SS entire apple volatiles present in a higher relative content. Principal

  18. Gene expression profiles of different breast cancer cells compared with their responsiveness to fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador from oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus), white fir (Abies) and apple tree (Malus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; Patrignani, Andrea; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert; Schlapbach, Ralph; Rist, Lukas; Ramos, Mac H; Viviani, Angelika

    2006-06-01

    Cytotoxicity assays in vitro (MTT test) showed that the different breast cancer cell lines Kpl-1, MCF-7 and Mfm-223 respond differently to the mistletoe (Viscum album L.) preparations Iscador. Quercus (Qu), Abies (A), Malus (M) and Pinus (P). In order to determine the differences in the responsiveness of the cells more exactly, the gene expression profiles were determined by cells, which were treated with Mistletoe extracts, compared with untreated control cells. Such differences can be analysed in more detail by looking at the gene expression using Human Whole Genome microarray chips (41,000 genes). The results of the transcriptome analyses suggested that Iscador preparations influenced the overregulation of genes regarding immune defense, stress response, apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion pathways. Within the Mfm-223-Zellen was the Genexpression in MCF-7 and Kpl-1. The MCF-7 cells were affected on the genes which are involved in cell-cell contacts whereas Kpl-1 responded to the mistletoe extracts by changing the mRNA levels of the immune and stress response pathways. Concerning the effects of the mistletoe extract, we conclude that Iscador Qu and M have a greater influence on the immune defense and stress response genes whereas Iscador A tends to affect the cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton pathways. In summary, cDNA microarray analyses give us information on whether a cancer cell is sensitive to mistletoe extracts in relation to how many genes are significantly overrepresented after mistletoe treatment, and whether a particular mistletoe extract is more effective on a specific cancer cell than the other preparation. PMID:16927530

  19. Determination of fire blight resistance and construction of a molecular genetic map in a bi-parental Malus sieversii population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is believed to be the main progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 [‘Royal Gala’ (RG) X PI631981] is segregating for resistance to b...

  20. Elasticidades de demanda por manzanas chilenas en el mercado de la unión europea: una estimación econométrica Demand elasticities for Chilean apples in the European Union market: an econometric estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Cerda U.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La Unión Europea (UE es uno de los principales mercados para las manzanas (Malus domestica L. chilenas. En este trabajo se planteó un modelo econométrico de demanda por importaciones de manzanas chilenas en la UE. Se usó la técnica de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MCO, utilizando datos anuales del periodo 1984 a 2002, y se estimaron las elasticidades de demanda. Las variables que explicaron el comportamiento de la demanda fueron el producto interno bruto (PIB per cápita de la UE, el precio relativo de las manzanas chilenas con respecto al precio de las manzanas de China, el factor de variación del tipo de cambio promedio ponderado de los países de la UE, y una variable dicótoma de cambio puntual. Se obtuvo un valor de 0,913 para la elasticidad ingreso de la demanda, de -0,368 para la elasticidad precio relativo, y de -0,519 para la elasticidad tipo de cambio. La principal conclusión es que la demanda por importaciones de manzanas chilenas en la UE es poco sensible frente a cambios en el ingreso, precio relativo y tipo de cambio.The European Union (EU is one of the principal markets for Chilean apples (Malus domestica L.. In this study an econometric model of demand for imports of Chilean apples in the EU was examined. The Ordinary Least Squares (MCO technique was used with annual data from 1984 to 2002 to estimate demand elasticities. The variables that explained the demand changes were determined to be per capita income (PIB in the EU, the relative price difference between Chilean and Chinese apples, the weighted average exchange rate variation in the EU, and a dichotomous special change variable. The value found for income elasticity of demand for imports was 0.913, relative price elasticity -0.368, and exchange rate elasticity -0.519. The main conclusion of this research suggests that demand for Chilean apple imports in the EU is inelastic relative to changes in income, relative price and exchange rate.

  1. Assessing the allelotypic effect of two aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase-encoding genes MdACS1 and MdACS3a on fruit ethylene production and softening in Malus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Laura; Zhu, Yuandi; Xu, Kenong

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormone ethylene largely determines apple fruit shelf life and storability. Previous studies demonstrated that MdACS1 and MdACS3a, which encode 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACS), are crucial in apple fruit ethylene production. MdACS1 is well-known to be intimately involved in the climacteric ethylene burst in fruit ripening, while MdACS3a has been regarded a main regulator for ethylene production transition from system 1 (during fruit development) to system 2 (during fruit ripening). However, MdACS3a was also shown to have limited roles in initiating the ripening process lately. To better assess their roles, fruit ethylene production and softening were evaluated at five time points during a 20-day post-harvest period in 97 Malus accessions and in 34 progeny from 2 controlled crosses. Allelotyping was accomplished using an existing marker (ACS1) for MdACS1 and two markers (CAPS866 and CAPS870) developed here to specifically detect the two null alleles (ACS3a-G289V and Mdacs3a) of MdACS3a. In total, 952 Malus accessions were allelotyped with the three markers. The major findings included: The effect of MdACS1 was significant on fruit ethylene production and softening while that of MdACS3a was less detectable; allele MdACS1–2 was significantly associated with low ethylene and slow softening; under the same background of the MdACS1 allelotypes, null allele Mdacs3a (not ACS3a-G289V) could confer a significant delay of ethylene peak; alleles MdACS1–2 and Mdacs3a (excluding ACS3a-G289V) were highly enriched in M. domestica and M. hybrid when compared with those in M. sieversii. These findings are of practical implications in developing apples of low and delayed ethylene profiles by utilizing the beneficial alleles MdACS1-2 and Mdacs3a. PMID:27231553

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopy Structure and Firmness of Papain Treated Apple Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yaguang; Patterson, Max E.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1992-01-01

    'Mcintosh' apple (Malus domesrica Borkh.) slices were treated with papain. Textural changes were recorded with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Structural changes and distribution of microorganisms in apple tissues after treatment were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Apple slices submerg ed in a 1% papain solution were significantly firmer than apple slices submerged in the distilled water control for a 24 hour period (P < 0.05). Three and four days after slicing , a ...

  3. β-amylase in developing apple fruits: activities, amounts and subcellular localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Dapeng; (张大鹏); WANG; Yongzhang(王永章)

    2002-01-01

    Starch degradation in cells is closely associated with cereal seed germination, photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate storage in tuberous roots, and fleshy fruit development. Based on previously reported in vitro assays, β-amylase is considered one of the key enzymes catalyzing starch breakdown, but up to date its role in starch breakdown in living cells remains unclear because the enzyme was shown often extrachloroplastic in living cells. The present experiment showed that β-amylase activity was progressively increasing concomitantly with decreasing starch concentrations during apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) fruit development. The apparent amount of β-amylase assessed by Western blotting also increased during the fruit development, which is consistent with the seasonal changes in the enzyme activity. The subcellular-localization studies via immunogold electron-microscopy technique showed that β-amylase visualized by gold particles was predominantly located in plastids especially at periphery of starch granules, but the gold particles were scarcely found in other subcellular compartments. These data proved for the first time that the enzyme is compartmented in its functional sites in plant living cells. The predominantly plastid-distributed pattern of β-amylase in cells was shown unchanged throughout the fruit development. The density of gold particles (β-amylase) in plastids was increasing during the fruit development, which is consistent with the results of Western blotting. So it is considered that β-amylase is involved in starch hydrolysis in plastids of the fruit cells.

  4. Effects of light intensity on photosynthesis and photoprotective mechanisms in apple under progressive drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ping; BAI Tuan-hui; WANG Xiao-qian; MA Feng-wang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of light intensity on photosynthesis and photoprotective mechanisms under progressive drought were studied on apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) Fuji. The potted trees were exposed to drought stress for 12 days and different light conditions (100, 60 and 25% sunlight). During the progressive drought, the relative water content (RWC) in leaf declined and was faster in full light than in 60 and 25% sunlight. However, the decrease in the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and Rubisco activity were slower under 100% sunlight condition than other light conditions. After the 6 days of drought, the maximum PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), the capacity of electrons move beyond QA- (1-Vj) and electron move from intersystem to PSI acceptor side (1-VI)/(1-VJ) decreased, with greater decline extent in brighter light. While RWCs were 〉75%, the variations in different light intensities of Gs and Rubisco activity at identical RWC, suggested the direct effects of light. While the little difference in the state of photosynthetic electron transport chain among tested light intensities indicates the results of faster water loss rate of light. Our results also demonstrated that the enhancement the de-epoxidations of xanthophyll cycle, activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were directly regulated by light intensity. While the higher photorespiration rate (Pr) under stronger light condition was mainly caused by faster water loss rate of light.

  5. Purification and structural analysis of membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase from Fuji apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hong; Wen, Xin; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2015-09-15

    Membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase (mPPO) in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji) was purified and analyzed with a nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The three-dimensional model and binding site of mPPO to 4-methyl catechol were also studied using molecular docking. mPPO was purified 54.41-fold using temperature-induced phase partitioning technique and ion exchange chromatography. mPPO had a molecular weight of 67.3kDa. Even though a significant level of homology was observed between mPPO and the soluble polyphenol oxidase in the copper binding sequence, there was another region, rich in histidine residues, which differed in 13 amino acids. The three-dimensional structure of mPPO consisted of six α-helices, two short β-strands, and ten random coils. The putative substrate-binding pocket contained six polar or charged amino acids, His191, His221, Trp224, Trp228, Phe227, and Val190. Trp224 and Trp228 formed hydrogen bonds with 4-methyl-catechol. PMID:25863612

  6. An apple plus a nut a day keepS the doctors away: antioxidant capacity OF foods and THEIR health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. PMID:26572874

  7. Characteristics of blooming, floral nectaries and nectar of Malus sargentii Rehd.

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Marta Dmitruk

    2012-01-01

    In the years 2007-2008, the flowering biology of Malus sargentii, an ornamental apple tree native to Japan, was studied in the conditions of Lublin (Poland). The daily rate of flower opening, flowering duration and flower visitation by insects were determined. The amount of nectar produced per flower and sugar content in the nectar were investigated. The size of nectaries and the micromorphology of their surface were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the...

  8. Virulence Characterization of Venturia inaequatis Reference Isolates on the Differential Set of Malus Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Caffier, Valerie; Patocchi, Andrea; Expert, Pascale; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Durel, Charles Eric; Hilber-Bodmer, Maja; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Vincent G M Bus

    2015-01-01

    A set of differential hosts has recently been identified for 17 apple scab resistance genes in an updated system for defining gene-for-gene (GfG) relationships in the Venturia inaequalis-Malus pathosystem. However, a set of reference isolates characterized for their complementary avirulence alleles is not yet available. In this paper, we report on improving the set of differential hosts for h(7) and propose the apple genotype LPG3-29 as carrying the single major resistance gene Rvi7. We chara...

  9. Prolonged Soil Frost Affects Hydraulics and Phenology of Apple Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mittmann, Claudia; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of an adequate water supply in spring is a prerequisite for survival of angiosperm trees in temperate regions. Trees must re-establish access to soil water and recover xylem functionality. We thus hypothesized that prolonged soil frost impairs recovery and affects hydraulics and phenology of Malus domestica var. 'Golden Delicious.' To test this hypothesis, over two consecutive winters the soil around some trees was insulated to prolong soil frosting, From mid-winter to early summer, the level of native embolism, the water and starch contents of wood, bark and buds were quantified at regular intervals and findings correlated with various phenological parameters, xylogenesis and fine root growth. The findings confirm that prolonged soil frost affects tree hydraulics and phenology but the severity of the effect depends on the climatic conditions. In both study years, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) decreased from about 70% at the end of winter to about 10% in May. Thereby, xylem refilling strongly coincided with a decrease of starch in wood and bark. Also treated trees were able to restore their hydraulic system by May but, in the warm spring of 2012, xylem refilling, the increases in water content and starch depolymerization were delayed. In contrast, in the cold spring of 2013 only small differences between control and treated trees were observed. Prolongation of soil frost also led to a delay in phenology, xylogenesis, and fine root growth. We conclude that reduced water uptake from frozen or cold soils impairs refilling and thus negatively impacts tree hydraulics and growth of apple trees in spring. Under unfavorable circumstances, this may cause severe winter damage or even dieback. PMID:27379146

  10. Physiological and proteome analysis suggest critical roles for the photosynthetic system for high water-use efficiency under drought stress in Malus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shasha; Li, Mingjun; Guan, Qingmei; Liu, Fengli; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Lihua; Qin, Yuan; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-07-01

    Water use efficiency is an important indicator for plant adaptation and resistance to drought conditions. We previously found that under moderate drought stress, the water use efficiency of cv. 'Qinguan' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) (tolerant to drought) was enhanced, while that of cv. 'Naganofuji No. 2' was not enhanced. In this research, we also found that instantaneous water-use efficiency of cv. 'Qinguan' was higher than that of cv. 'Naganofuji No. 2', mainly because of its higher net photosynthesis rate. To dissect the potential mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we performed a comparative iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis with leaves of drought-treated cv. 'Qinguan' and 'Naganofuji No. 2'. We identified 4078 proteins, of which 594 were differentially abundant between drought and well-watered leaves. The majority of increased proteins were predicted to be involved in photosynthetic pathway in drought treated cv. 'Qinguan' leaves, indicating that regulation of photosynthesis plays an important role for higher water use efficiency under drought stress. Enzyme activity assays were performed to validate the proteomics data. Our results suggested that the main regulatory mechanisms for high water use efficiency of cv. 'Qinguan' under moderate drought stress included the maintaining of Calvin cycle function by increasing key enzymes, stabilization of photosynthetic electron transfer and keeping reactive oxygen species at normal level by regulation of photosynthetic electron transfer chain, photorespiration and reactive oxygen species scavenging capability, thus prevented photoinhibition, reduced reactive oxygen species production and enhanced net photosynthesis rate. In addition, the response of signal regulatory proteins and abiotic stress-responsive proteins to drought also helped plants to cope with such stress. PMID:26025520

  11. Superação in vitro da dormência de embriões do porta-enxerto de macieira M9 (Malus pumilla Mill. Suppression of in vitro dormancy in embryos of rootstock of apple M9 (Malus pumilla Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A dormência em sementes de macieira é um dos fatores limitantes para o avanço nos programas de melhoramento genético nesta espécie. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou estudar a germinação in vitro de embriões dormentes do porta-enxerto de macieira M9, oriundos da EE São Joaquim da EPAGRI/SC. Os embriões foram excisados de sementes maduras e inoculados em meio basal MS, adicionado de sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (6 g.L-1, água de coco (15%, caseína hidrolisada (CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (0 e 14 µM; AG3 (0 e 1,5 µM, Kin (5 µM, 2-iP (12 µM; BAP (4 µM. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro por 10 dias e transferidas para sala de crescimento sob regime de luz de 16 horas, temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e 40 µmol de radiação luminosa. A maior percentagem de germinação (75% foi obtida em meio MS suplementado com CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e Kin (5 µM. Quando a Kin foi substituída por BAP (4µM, observou-se a formação de calo, sobre o qual se originaram gemas e brotações, cujos valores médios foram de 2,3 brotos por embrião e 12,3 gemas por brotação. Em relação ao comprimento das brotações, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. A maior percentagem de indução de calos ocorreu em meio de cultura suplementado com AIA, Kin e 2-iP. O meio de cultura MS/2 suplementado com CH e água de coco e isento de fitorreguladores, resultou em 25% de germinação. Já, o número de raízes foi maior no meio de cultura MS suplementado com AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e CH. O comprimento médio das raízes (4,0 cm não foi afetado por nenhum tratamento em particular. Desta forma, esta técnica é uma alternativa eficiente ao uso de tratamentos de frio para a superação da dormência.The embryo dormancy in apple is a limiting factor in breeding programs with this species. Thus the present work was carried out in order to study the in vitro germination of M9 apple dormant embryos, originated from the Experimental

  12. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  13. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning. PMID:24094049

  14. THE ROLE OF MINERAL NUTRITION ON YIELDS AND FRUIT QUALITY IN GRAPEVINE, PEAR AND APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fertilization of temperate fruit trees, such as grapevine ( Vitis spp., apple ( Malus domestica, and pear ( Pyrus communis is an important tool to achive maximum yield and fruit quality. Fertilizers are provided when soil fertility does not allow trees to express their genetic potential, and time and rate of application should be scheduled to promote fruit quality. Grapevine berries, must and wine quality are affected principally by N, that regulate the synthesis of some important compounds, such as anthocyanins, which are responsible for coloring of the must and the wine. Fermenation of the must may stop in grapes with low concentration of N because N is requested in high amount by yeasts. An N excess may increase the pulp to peel ratio, diluting the concentration of anthocyanins and promoting the migration of anthocyanins from berries to the growing plant organs; a decrease of grape juice soluble solid concentration is also expected because of an increase in vegetative growth. Potassium is also important for wine quality contributing to adequate berry maturation, concentration of sugars, synthesis of phenols and the regulation of pH and acidity. In apple and pear, Ca and K are important for fruit quality and storage. Potassium is the most important component of fruit, however, any excess should be avoided and an adequate K:Ca balance should be achieved. Adequate concentration of Ca in the fruit prevents pre- and post-harvest fruit disorders and, at the same time, increases tolerance to pathogens. Although N promotes adequate growth soil N availability should be monitored to avoid excessive N uptake that may decrease fruit skin color and storability.

  15. Effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit calcium concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of bagging materials and CaCl2 spray on fruit Ca concentration in fruit-bagged apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). No difference was noted in fruit Ca concentration among bagging materials during the growing season. And also, there was no difference in fruit Ca concentration between bagged and non-bagged fruits. The fruit flesh Ca concentration of bagged fruits was significantly lower than that of non-bagged fruits in the same tree, which 0.5 % CaCl2 was sprayed 5 times in the late growing season. The radioactivity of 45Ca was highest in the sprayed shoot leaves and bark, while only a trace amount was detected in the fruit and shoot proximate to the treated shoot 3 weeks after 3 times application of 45CaCl2 (5 micro Ci/ml). As a result, it is confirmed that the Ca once accumulated in a specific part is hardly retranslocated. Therefore, it is concluded that Ca foliar spray to the fruit-bagged tree has no influence on Ca concentration in the fruit

  16. STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT GROUNDCOVER MATTER ON MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF LEAF IN APPLE ORCHARD IN EAST HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter NAGY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different groundcover materials on soil and plant nutrition. Trees of apple cv. ‘Idared’/MM.106 (Malus domestica Borkh. were planted into lowland chernozem soil in the spring of 1999. Applied treatments can be divided into two groups: different livestock manures and mulches. Soil strips of 150 cm width were covered either with straw, different livestock manure, black plastic foil, pine bark mulch or were without cover i.e. clean cultivation as a check. Leaf and soil samples were collected for chemical analysis. It was found that all groundcover treatments induced an increase in leaf nitrogen, sulphur and calcium. Leaf magnesium was not affected so obviously by different groundcover treatments. Leaf potassium was not affected by applying different livestock manures, except horse manure but lower in mulch treatments compared to the control. Leaf phosphorous was decreased by treatments except using horse manure. Examination of ratios of nutrients showed that there were disharmonies in the available nutrients supply of soil. The best results were obtained by applying horse manure.

  17. Pollen morphology of the genus Malus Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dyakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollen morphology of some species of the genus Malus (Rosaceae was carried out. All investigated species are characterized by tricolpate pollen grains, but differ by their size and coloration.

  18. Post-translational inhibitory regulation of acid invertase induced by fructose and glucose in developing apple fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大鹏; 王永章

    2002-01-01

    Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) is one of the key enzymes involved in the carbohydrate sink-organ development and the sink strength modulation in crops. The experiment conducted with 'Starkrimson' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruit showed that, during the fruit development, the activity of acid invertase gradually declined concomitantly with the progressive accumulation of fructose, glucose and sucrose, while Western blotting assay of acid invertase detected a 30 ku peptide of which the immuno-signal intensity increased during the fruit development. The immuno-localization via immunogold electron microscopy showed that, on the one hand, acid invertase was mainly located on the flesh cell wall with numbers of the immunosignals present in the vacuole at the late stage of fruit development; and on the other hand, the amount of acid invertase increased during fruit development, which was consistent with the results of Western blotting. The in vivo pre-incubation of fruit discs with soluble sugars showed that the activity of extractible acid invertase was inhibited by fructose or glucose, while Western blotting did not detect any changes in apparent quantity of the enzyme nor other peptides than 30 ku one. So it is considered that fructose and glucose induced the post-translational or translocational inhibitory regulation of acid invertase in developing apple fruit. The mechanism of the post-translational inhibition was shown different from both the two previously reported ones that proposed either the inhibition by hexose products in the in vitro chemical reaction equilibrium system or the inhibition by the proteinaceous inhibitors. It was hypothesized that fructose and glucose might induce acid invertase inhibition by modulating the expression of some inhibition-related genes or some structural modification of acid invertase.

  19. Mass-screening of mutants resistant to Alternaria blotch from in vitro-cultured apple shoots irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have established mass screening methods for producing mutants resistant to Alternaria blotch disease in several cultivars of apple (Malus domestica) by irradiation with X-rays. An in vitro assay system using chemically-synthesised AM-toxin I of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler is successful for screening the resistant mutants. The degree of resistance to the disease was assayed by the number of necrotic lesions induced by applying various concentrations of AM-toxin I to leaf disks of the first, third and fifth leaves from the shoot apex of plants. Following the establishment of the optimal screening conditions, we produced several disease-resistant mutants by irradiating in vitro shoots with various doses of X-rays. After resistant mutants were selected by the first and second screening tests with AM-toxin I, they were tested by spraying them with a spore suspension of the pathogen. The resistance to the disease was maintained for five years during field cultivation of the mutants, implying that the resistance was not due to environmental factors but due to genetic fixation. No differences were observed in the number of fruiting trees or colouration of fruits between mutants and the original plants. (author)

  20. Developmentally regulated expression of two MADS-box genes, MdMADS3 and MdMADS4, in the morphogenesis of flower buds and fruits in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, S K; Yu, G H; Nam, J; Jeong, D H; An, G

    2000-03-01

    Two MADS-box genes, MdMADS3 and MdMADS4, were isolated from the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivar Fuji, and their spatial and temporal expression patterns were studied during morphological differentiation of the flower buds and the fruits. Both MdMADS3 and MdMADS4 showed high sequence similarities to FBP2 from petunia, TM5 from tomato, and AGL2, AGL4 from Arabidopsis. Although MdMADS3 was expressed in the inner three whorls of the floral primordium, its expression was hardly detectable in developing fruit. The second gene, MdMADS4, was ubiquitously expressed in the inflorescence meristem, floral meristem, all four floral organs, and fruit. Moreover, MdMADS4 expression was high in the vascular bundles assigned to the floral tube and the carpellary vascular bundles in fruit at early developmental stages. The MdMADS4 transcript also accumulated in embryos of the developing seeds. These results suggest that MdMADS3 and MdMADS4 are involved in different functions, and that MdMADS4 may function in the important events controlling flower and fruit development. PMID:10787044

  1. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  2. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  3. Estudos histológicos preliminares da microenxertia de plantas micropropagadas de macieira Preliminaries histological studies from the micrografting of tissue cultured apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monita Fiori de Abreu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura moderna necessita implantar tecnologias que possibilitem a produção de frutos de alta qualidade, com custos cada vez menores. A micropropagação associada à microenxertia possibilita altas taxas de multiplicação de plantas com alta qualidade fitossanitária, além de possibilitar a realização de estudos sobre compatibilidade de enxertia em diferentes clones. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o processo de soldadura entre genótipos de macieira (Malus domestica. Borkh multiplicadas in vitro após a microenxertia. Esta técnica foi realizada em fenda simples, sob condições assépticas. Os estudos histológicos foram realizados através de cortes longitudinais seriados de segmentos de 8 mm do ponto de enxertia. O processo de soldadura foi caracterizado pelo desenvolvimento de tecido meristemático, originando células parenquimáticas na interface do microenxerto, com a proliferação do tecido cambial da cultivar copa. Isso possibilita a ligação do sistema vascular da copa com o do porta-enxerto, resultando na sobrevivência do microenxerto.The modern fruitculture needs to introduce techniques that allow a less expensive production of high quality fruits. The micropropagation associate to micrografting provides high average of plant multiplication and disease free material. In addition it provides studies of grafting compatibilities. The present work aim to study the process of the micrografting union of tissue cultured apple (Malus domestica. Borkh. The scions were cleft-grafted on the rootstocks, under aseptic conditions. For histological studies specimens were trimmed down to 4mm above and below the graft union (longitudinal cuts. The graft union development resulted in the generation of meristem tissue, originating parenchymatous cells at the graft interface, and a cambial tissue proliferation from the scion. This procedure allows the vascular system connection between the scion and the rootstock

  4. Physiological Balance Between Growth and Cropping of Apple Trees in the Ecological Conditions of Maribor - Yields

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    Stanislav Tojnko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Four apple (Malus domestica Borkh cultivars grafted on M.9 rootstock were grown at high density (´Elstar´ and ´Jonagold´ 2500 trees/ha, ´Idared´ and ´Golden Delicious´ 3000 trees/ha. There were five treatments for each cultivar (fertigation with 45 kg N/ha, 60 kg N/ha, 120 kg N/ha, irrigation without fertilisers, and control - without irrigation and without fertilisers, and two timing variants (treatments during vegetation period from 1 May - 20 June - variant A, and treatments from 1 May to 1 August - variant B. The treatments were imposed beginning in the third year after planting and lasted three years (1993-1995. It was found that the intensity of effects of fertigation upon vegetative growth and cropping of individual cultivars varied. To a certain extent ´Elstar´ and ´Jonagold´responded similarly to treatments. It was proved that most positive effects of fertigation were achieved at the dosage of 45 and 60 N/ha during vegetation period, and at 120 kg/ha in treatments up to the start of flower buds differentiation. Cultivar Idared was not responded to fertigation and irrigation up to June 20, but during the vegetation period the best results were obtained at 45 kg N/ha. The response of ´Golden Delicious´ to fertigation during vegetation was similar as ´Idared´, but most positive effects of fertigation for this cultivar were, similarly as for ´Elstar´ and ´Jonagold´, achieved at 120 kg N/ha when fertigation was applied to June 20. Cultivar Idared showed the best yield performance and the highest yield/ha, whereas ´ Elstar´ gave the most unfavourable results.

  5. Prohexadione-calcium (Apogee) Reduces Both Shoot Growth and the Efficacy of GA4+7 (ProVide) Used to Suppress 'Stayman' Apple Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ‘Stayman Winesap’ apple (Malus xdomestica Borkh.) is a high quality apple with good fresh fruit and processing characteristics. Trees are of moderate to high vigor where it is grown in large numbers in the Mid-Atlantic region. ‘Stayman’, however is prone to skin cracking which in some seasons ...

  6. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit

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    Kristen L Deyman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with ‘Empire’ apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3 oC, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA

  7. Abscisic (ABA)-aldehyde is a precursor to, and 1',4'-trans-ABA-diol a catabolite of, ABA in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous 18O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of [18O]ABA with the label incorporated in the 1'-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of 18O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1'-4'-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from 18O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of 18O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. 18O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of 18O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of 18O from the side chain of [18O]ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde → ABA → ABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to β-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed

  8. Augmentation and Evaluation of a Parasitoid, Encarsia inaron, and a Predator, Clitostethus arcuatus, for Biological Control of the Pomegranate Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pomegranate whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), attacks at least 60 plant species of economic importance including pomegranate (Punica granatum), apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis) and ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A study was conducted to evaluate the b...

  9. Sequence analysis of the capsid protein gene of an isolate of Apple stem grooving virus, and its survey in Southern Brazil Análise da seqüência do gene da proteína capsidial de um isolado de Apple stem grooving virus, e levantamento deste no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSMAR NICKEL

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV is one of the most important viruses infecting fruit trees. This study aimed at the molecular characterization of ASGV infecting apple (Malus domestica plants in Santa Catarina (SC. RNA extracted from plants infected with isolate UV01 was used as a template for RT-PCR using specific primers. An amplified DNA fragment of 755 bp was sequenced. The coat protein gene of ASGV isolate UV01 contains 714 nucleotides, coding for a protein of 237 amino acids with a predicted Mr of approximately 27 kDa. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of the coat protein gene showed identities of 90.9% and 97.9%, respectively, with a Japanese isolate of ASGV. Very high amino acid homologies (98.7% were also found with Citrus tatter leaf capillovirus (CTLV, a very close relative of ASGV. These results indicate low coat protein gene variability among Capillovirus isolates from distinct regions. In a restricted survey, mother stocks in orchards and plants introduced into the country for large scale fruit production were indexed and shown to be infected by ASGV (20%, usually in a complex with other (latent apple viruses (80%.Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV é um dos mais importantes vírus que infetam fruteiras de clima temperado. Este estudo teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular baseada na análise do gene da proteína capsidial do isolado ASGV UV01 encontrado em macieiras (Malus domestica em Santa Catarina (SC. RNA extraído de plantas infetadas foi usado para a amplificação por RT-PCR, empregando-se iniciadores específicos. O fragmento amplificado de 755 bp foi seqüenciado e comparado com outras seqüências. O gene da proteína capsidial do ASGV UV01 possui 714 nucleotídeos, codificando uma proteína com 237 aminoácidos de Mr prevista de 27 kDa. As seqüências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos deduzidos apresentaram, respectivamente, 90,9% e 97,9% de identidade com um isolado japonês de ASGV. Homologias

  10. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  11. Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic architecture of complex traits in apple.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Garrick, D.J.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Whitworth, C.; Chagné, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is important for developing genome-based crop improvement methods. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful technique for mining novel functional variants. Using a family-based design involving 1,200 apple (Malus × d

  12. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas; José Itamar Boneti; Rubens Onofre Nodari; Miguel Pedro Guerra

    2006-01-01

    The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos...

  13. Detecção e epidemiologia da podridão branca da maçã Detection and epidemiology of white rot on apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Valdebenito-Sanhueza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora a 'Podridão branca' causada por Botryosphaeria dothidea seja uma das principais doenças de verão da macieira (Malus domestica, há pouca informação no Brasil sobre o patógeno e a doença. Este trabalho objetivou definir métodos para a produção de inóculo, para avaliação da patogenicidade de B. dothidea em maçãs sem ferimentos e para desinfestação das maçãs visando a detecção de infecções quiescentes. Caracterizou-se, também, o progresso temporal e o padrão espacial de frutos e de árvores doentes em pomar comercial. A produção de inóculo em batata-dextrose-ágar com papel de filtro e a inoculação de maçãs submetidas previamente a dois dias de câmara úmida, com conídios aderidos em papel toalha, foram eficazes na produção de inóculo e o desenvolvimento da doença, respectivamente. O melhor método de detecção de infecção latente foi a desinfestação das maçãs com uma mistura de NaOCl 1,25% de cloro ativo e álcool 9,6º GL por 2 min. A produção de inóculo de B. dothidea nos ramos de poda foi observado em meses diferentes em cada ciclo. No ciclo 1999, verificou-se infecção das maçãs por B. dothidea, mesmo com proteção química do pomar e não houve diferença na incidência entre frutas oriundas de diferentes posições na árvore. A análise do padrão de distribuição da doença mostrou agregação distinta das árvores doentes e agregação baixa, dos frutos sintomáticos em cada macieira.Although white rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea is one of the most important diseases of apple (Malus domestica in Brazil during rainy summer seasons, local information on the disease and pathogen is scarce. The aim of this research was to define methods of inoculating B. dothidea on apple fruits without wounding them, to detect latent infection and to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of the disease in a commercial orchard. The best results of inoculum production were obtained on PDA

  14. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a UV-B photoreceptor gene, MdUVR8 (UV Resistance Locus 8), from apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cheng; Mao, Ke; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-06-01

    UVR8 (UV Resistance Locus 8) is an ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315nm) light receptor that is involved in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development. UV-B irradiation can increase the development of flower and fruit coloration in many fruit trees, such as grape, pear and apple. Previous investigations of the structure and functions of UVR8 in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis. Here, we isolated the UVR8 gene from apple (Malus domestica) and analyzed its function in transgenic Arabidopsis. Genomic and protein sequence analysis showed that MdUVR8 shares high similarity with the AtUVR8 protein from Arabidopsis, including the conserved seven-bladed β-propeller, the C27 region, the 3 "GWRHT" motifs and crucial amino-acid residues (14 Trps, 2 Args). A point mutation prediction and three-dimensional structural analysis of MdUVR8 indicated that it has a similar structure to AtUVR8 and that the crucial residues are also important in MdUVR8. In terms of transcript levels, MdUVR8 expression was up-regulated by UV-B light, which suggests that its expression follows a 24-h circadian rhythm. Using heterologous expression of MdUVR8 in both uvr8-1 mutant and wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, we found that MdUVR8 regulates hypocotyl elongation and gene expression under UV-B light. These data provide functional evidence for a role of MdUVR8 in controlling photomorphogenesis under UV-B light and indicate that the function of UVR8 is conserved between Arabidopsis and apple. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between MdUVR8 and MdCOP1 (constitutive photomorphogenic1) using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a co-immunoprecipitation assay. This interaction provides a direction for investigating the regulatory mechanisms of the UV-B-light pathway in apple. PMID:27095405

  15. Exploring the Potential use of Photo-Selective Nets for Fruit Growth Regulation in Apple Explorando el uso Potencial de Mallas Foto-Selectivas para la Regulación del Crecimiento de Fruto en Manzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Bastías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of shading (i.e. reduction of sunlight availability on fruit growth physiology has been widely studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., but little knowledge exist about fruit growth responses to changes in the light spectrum. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of use of colored nets with differential sunlight transmission in the blue (B, 400-500 nm, red (R, 600-700 nm and far-red (FR, 700-800 nm spectra on apple fruit growth and physiological associated responses. Three year old 'Fuji' apple trees were covered with 40% photo-selective blue and red shade nets, 40% neutral grey shade net, and 20% neutral white net as control. Red and blue net reduced in the same proportion (27% the photosynthetically active radiation with respect to control. However, blue net increased by 30% and reduced by 10% the B:R and R:FR the light relations, respectively. Maximal fruit growth rate under blue and grey nets was 15-20% greater than control. Fruit weight under blue net was 17% greater than control, but no significant differences in fruit weight were found among red net and control. Leaf photosynthesis and total leaf area under blue net were 28% and 30% higher than control, respectively; with ensuing positive effect on tree net C assimilation rate and total dry matter production. Results suggest that shifting the B, R, and FR light composition with photo-selective nets could be a useful tool to manipulate the photosynthetic and morphogenetic process regulating the carbohydrate availability for apple fruit growth.El efecto del sombreado (i.e. reducción de la cantidad de luz solar sobre la fisiología de crecimiento de fruto ha sido ampliamente estudiado en manzano (Malus domestica Borkh., pero existe poco conocimiento sobre respuestas de crecimiento del fruto a cambios en el espectro de la luz. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue estudiar el efecto del uso de mallas de color con transmisión diferencial de la luz en el

  16. Sistem Bonus Malus sebagai Model Rantai Markov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Supandi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem bonus-malus (BMS yang dibangun mempunyai  tujuan untuk membuat premi yang dibayarkan oleh tertanggung sedekat mungkin dengan harapan terjadinya klaim setiap tahunnya. Bila kita ingin meneliti bagaimana efisiensi suatu BMS, kita harus melihat bagaimana premi itu bergantung  pada frekuensi klaim. Efisiensi sistem bonus-malus dicari melalui model Markovnya,  yaitu dengan mencari distribusi stasioner dari rantai markov BMS-nya. Dalam paper ini BMS yang digunakan adalah BMS Brasil dan modifkasinya pada nilai preminya untuk keadaan bawah. Dari modifikasi ini akan dibahas pengaruh perubahan premi terhadap  efisiensi BMS tersebut. Kata kunci : BMS, rantai markov, stationer,  efisiensi

  17. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  18. Enraizamento in vitro de um porta-enxerto de macieira em diversos substratos In vitro rooting of an apple rootstock in several substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Pasqual

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo tradicional para produção de porta-enxertos de macieira é o de mergulhia, que apresenta baixa eficiência. As técnicas de cultura de tecidos têm sido uma alternativa viável, pois permitem aumentar o rendimento no processo de multiplicação, evitam disseminação de doenças e mantém as características da planta mãe. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar um substituto do ágar no meio de cultivo para o enraizamento do porta-enxerto de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. M-7. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x4 com 4 repetições e 4 explantes por parcela. As concentrações dos sais do meio MS utilizadas foram 0%, 50%, 100%, 150% e 200% e os substratos foram ágar (3,0 e 6,0 g L-1, vermiculita e areia, em todas as combinações possíveis. Em todos os tratamentos o meio de cultura MS foi suplementado com 1,0 mg L-1 de IBA. As avaliações foram efetuadas 45 dias após a inoculação através dos seguintes parâmetros: altura de brotos, peso da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. Constatou-se que o melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular é obtido com o uso de ágar 3,0 e 6,0 g L-1, independentemente da concentração de sais. O uso de areia apresenta resultados similares ao ágar quando a concentração de sais é de 100% do meio MS.The traditional process for production of apple rootstocks presents low efficiency. The tissue culture techniques have been a viable alternative, because they allow to increase the multiplication process, they avoid dissemination of diseases and maintains the plant mother's characteristics. The objective of this work is identify a substitute for agar in the growth media for the rooting of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. rootstock, cultivar M-7. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with 4 replications and 4 explants per plot. The salt concentrations of the

  19. Characteristics of blooming, floral nectaries and nectar of Malus sargentii Rehd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2007-2008, the flowering biology of Malus sargentii, an ornamental apple tree native to Japan, was studied in the conditions of Lublin (Poland. The daily rate of flower opening, flowering duration and flower visitation by insects were determined. The amount of nectar produced per flower and sugar content in the nectar were investigated. The size of nectaries and the micromorphology of their surface were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the greatest amount of flowers opened between 11.00 and 13.00. During this time, the largest number of insects was observed in the flowers. Bees (90% were predominant among the insects, with a much smaller number of bumblebees (6% and butterflies (4%. The flower life span was 5 days. Over this period, the flower produced, on the average, 0.71 mg of nectar with an average sugar content of 32%. The nectaries of Malus sargentii are orange-yellow coloured and they represent the hypanthial type. Due to the protrusion of the nectariferous tissue, they are classified as automorphic nectaries. The surface of the epidermal cells of the nectary was distinguished by distinct cuticle folds. A small number of stomata were located only in the basal part of the nectary. At the beginning of flowering, all stomata were closed, but secretion traces were observed near well-developed outer cuticular ledges.

  20. Fosfitos aplicados em pós-colheita reduzem o mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' Postharvest application of phosphites reduces blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O mofo-azul (Penicillium expansum é uma podridão pós-colheita comum em maçãs (Malus domestica. O uso de substâncias menos ofensivas ao ambiente, como o fosfito (ácido fosforoso, é uma das alternativas de controle dessa doença. Visou-se, então, a avaliar neste estudo a eficiência de fosfito-K (40% de P2O5 e 30% de K2O e fosfito-CaB (10,7% de P2O5, 3,89% de Ca e 0,5% de B no controle do mofo-azul em maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala'. Os testes foram delineados em blocos ao acaso com seis repetições de 20 frutos cada. Os frutos foram desinfestados em hipoclorito de Na (1% por três minutos, lavados em água esterilizada, feridos (1mm de diâmetro e de profundidade com agulha em quatro pontos eqüidistantes, imersos nos tratamentos por 15 minutos e armazenados a 15-20ºC. Nas suspensões contaminadas com Penicillium expansum (10² conídios.mL-1, foram adicionadas as seguintes substâncias: benomil (150 mg.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5 a 1,5 mL.L-1 e fosfito-CaB (1,5 a 3,0 mL.L-1. As maçãs 'Fuji' e 'Gala' imersas em água com fosfito-CaB (1,5 mL.L-1, fosfito-K (0,5-1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 foram menos afetadas pelo mofo-azul. A aplicação de fosfito-K (1,5 mL.L-1 ou benomil (150 mg.L-1 nos frutos foi mais eficiente do que os demais tratamentos no controle do mofo-azul.Blue mold (Penicillium expansum is a common postharvest disease of apples (Malus domestica. Applications of less hazardous substances to the environment, such as phosphite (phosphonic acid, is an alternative to the control of blue mold. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of phosphite-K (40% P2O5 and 30% K2O and phosphite-CaB (10.7% P2O5, 3.89% Ca, and 0.5% B for the control of blue mold on 'Fuji' and 'Gala' apples. Tests were designed in randomized blocks with six replications of 20 fruits. Fruits were decontaminated with Na hypochlorite (1% for three minutes, washed with sterilized water, needle wounded (with a diameter and deepness of 1mm in four

  1. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  2. Phenylpropanoid metabolites and expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the shaded peel of apple fruit in response to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2013-08-01

    The shaded peel of 'Fortune' (a red cultivar) and 'Mutsu' (a yellow/green cultivar) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) was exposed to full sun by turning fruit 180° at about one week before harvest to determine the expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in response to sunlight exposure and their relationships with the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolics. For the unturned (control) fruit, the shaded peel had lower expression levels of MdMYB10 (a transcriptional factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis) and seven structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis (MdPAL, MdCHS, MdCHI, MdF3H, MdDFR1, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT), and lower levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than the sun-exposed peel in both cultivars. Exposure of the shaded peel to full sun caused marked up-regulation of the expression of MdMYB10 and all seven structural genes, which peaked between 6 h and 30 h after fruit turning, consequently leading to higher levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and total phenolics than in the shaded peel and even in the sun-exposed peel of control fruit. Interestingly, the levels of flavonols were higher in the shaded peel of turned fruit (the original sun-exposed peel) than in the sun-exposed peel of both control and turned fruit in both cultivars, suggesting that competition for substrates exists in different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results indicate that sunlight exposure stimulates the expression of MdMYB10 and structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis, thereby elevating the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds in both red and yellow/green cultivars. PMID:23727590

  3. 苹果基因序列在砂梨引物开发中的应用%Application of apple gene sequence for pear primer design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施泽彬; 王月志; 戴美松; 张绍铃

    2011-01-01

    Apple vacuolar proton pump Ppase,subunit A of ATPase,auxin receptor gene,ABA receptor gene ,ethylene receptor gene and the genes involved in fruit weight regulation and disease resistance were selected for PCR analysis of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. ) and pear(Pyrus pyrifolia). For each gene,the primers were designed in exon and intron as well as in the regions upstream of start codon and downstream of stop codon, respectively. These primers were used to amplify apple and sand pear genomic DNA. It was found that all the genes have at least one pair of primers amplifying specific bands in pear genome except the disease-resistant gene. Compared to the products amplified at gene's other regions,the PCR products at upstream of start codon showed more polymorphics, and the PCR products at exon and intron region showed higher conservation,among different sand pear genotypes.%选取苹果液泡质子泵焦磷酸水解酶基因、液泡质子泵三磷酸腺苷酶A亚基基因、生长素受体基因、脱落酸受体基因、乙烯受体基因、果重基因、抗病相关基因等共8个基因,根据其基因组序列分别在起始密码子上游区、终止密码子下游区、外显子区和内含子区设计引物,用这些引物同时对苹果和砂梨的基因组DNA进行PCR扩增.结果显示:除了抗病相关基因,其余7个基因均有引物在砂梨基因组DNA中扩增出特异条带.与基因其他区域扩增产物相比,起始密码子上游区扩增产物在不同砂梨材料间多态性较丰富,外显子和内含子区扩增产物在不同砂梨材料间的保守性更高.

  4. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  5. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  6. Knowing Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Shannon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.

  7. Splitting of Malus microcuttings enhances rooting

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio; Puente Cabeza, Javier

    1992-01-01

    [FR] La fente des microboutures de Malus pour l'enracinement in vitro. La capacité d'enracinement in vitro de microboutures du porte-greffe de pommier M9 (Jork 9) a été notablement augmentée en fendant la partie basale (2 mm). Les plantes enracinées ont survécu et se sont développées normalement pendant l'acclimatation. Pour étudier la capacité d'enracinement des différentes parties de la même microbouture, les microboutures ont été fendues sur toute leur longueur en 2 moitiés semblables dont...

  8. Alterações na cutícula de maçãs ‘Fuji’ e ‘Gala’ em função do tratamento térmico e da armazenagem refrigerada = Changes on ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ apple cuticle as a result of heat treatment and cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Raquel Scherrer Montero

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As doenças de pós-colheita são fatores limitantes para estocagem de produtos colhidos. É crescente o interesse por métodos alternativos para o controle de podridão em póscolheita. A termoterapia pré-estocagem parece ser um método promissor podendo ser aliado aoutros métodos alternativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos do tratamento térmico por aspersão e imersão na cutícula de maçãs (Malus domestica Borkh. Fuji e Gala após tratamento e período curto de armazenagem. Foram realizados seis tratamentos, com três repetições de três frutos: testemunha, imersão em água quente a 58ºC-30 s, 1 e 2 min., aspersão em água quente a 58ºC-30 s; imersão em clorofórmio 30 segundos. Foram retiradas amostras para visualização em microscopia eletrônica de varredura na instalação e três semanas de armazenamento a 0ºC. Durante a armazenagem, as rachaduras da cutícula aumentam em largura, sendo esta uma característica importante na pós-colheita, pois estas propiciam maior perda de água e podem tornar-se sítios de penetração de patógenos. O calor derrete os cristaloides de cera da cutícula para formar um padrão de recobrimento mais homogêneo na superfície e a oclusão defraturas, podendo atuar como barreira física para evitar a entrada de patógenos nas maçãs bem como reduzir a perda de massa fresca.Postharvest diseases are limiting factors to the storage of many crops. There is a growing interest in alternative methods to control postharvest diseases. Pre-storage heat treatment seems to be one of the most promising rot control methods, associated with other alternative methods. The objective of this work was to verify the effects of immersion and spraying heat treatment on the cuticle of Fuji and Gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh. right after treatment and a short storage period. This experiment consisted of six treatments, three replications of three fruits each: no treatment; hot water

  9. 丝孢酵母与钙和杀菌剂配合对苹果采后病害的抑制效果%Effects of Trichosporon sp. in Combination with Calcium and Fungicide on Biocontrol of Postharvest Diseases in Apple Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田世平; 范青; 徐勇; 汪沂

    2001-01-01

    The capability of yeast Trichosporon sp., an antagonist isolatedfrom peach fruit, in biological control was evaluated in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) fruits, when inoculated with different concentrations of Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom, as well as in combination with calcium and fungicide. The concentrations of the yeast cells and pathogen spores obviously influenced disease incidence and lesion development in apples. There was a significant negative correlation between concentrations of the yeast cells and infectivity of the pathogens. When the yeast cell suspensions reached the concentration of 108 colony-forming units (CFU) /mL, there was no infection caused by B. cinerea and P. expansum with spore concentrations below 106 spores/mL in apple fruits. The yeast at concentrations of 106-107 CFU/mL in combination with fungicide (iprodione at 50 μL/L) provided control of decay caused by B. cinerea and P. expansum better than separate application. Effect of controlling gray mould and blue mould rots was enhanced when Trichosporon sp., even at low concentration of 105 CFU/mL, was applied in the presence of 1%-2% CaCl2 in an aqueous suspension.%研究一种从桃果实上分离获得的拮抗菌——丝孢酵母(Trichosporon sp.)对苹果(Malus domesticaBorkh.)采后病害的防治效果,包括接种不同浓度的拮抗菌与不同病菌之间的拮抗作用,以及拮抗菌与钙或与杀菌剂配合对苹果灰霉病和青霉病的抑制效果。结果表明,拮抗菌和病菌孢子的浓度都明显地影响其抑菌效果。拮抗菌的使用浓度越大,病菌孢子的接种浓度越低,其抑病效果越好。当丝孢酵母菌的使用浓度达到108 colony-forming units(CFU)/mL时,可完全抑制接种在苹果上的灰霉菌(Botrytis cinerea Pers.)和青霉菌(Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom)(<106 spores/mL)的致病力。用106~107 CFU/mL的丝孢酵母与50μL/L的扑海因配合对苹果采后

  10. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weg Eric

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4 have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica, these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcisPru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica. Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1. Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03 containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02 were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach

  11. Efeito de auxinas sintéticas no enraizamento in vitro da macieira Effects of synthetic auxins on the in vitro rooting of apple tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Quezada Centellas

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Brotações de macieira (Malus domestica, Borkh, cv. Fred Hough, oriundas do processo de multiplicação in vitro, foram inoculadas em meio MS e MS/2, testando-se os reguladores de crescimento: ácido indol-3-acético (AIA; ácido indolbutírico (AIB e ácido naftaleno acético (ANA, nas concentrações de 0, 1, 3 e 5 miM com o objetivo de observar o efeito dessas auxinas sobre o enraizamento da cultivar. Foram acrescentadas aos meios as vitaminas MS mio-inositol (100 mg/L e sacarose (30 g/L em meio de ágar (6 g/L. O pH do meio foi ajustado para 5,8 e a cultura foi incubada a 25 ± 2º C e 16 horas de fotoperíodo a 2.000 lux, permanecendo por 30 dias. Os tratamentos foram repetidos cinco vezes e cada repetição constou de cinco explantes inoculados em frasco de 250 mL contendo 40 mL do meio. O meio MS/2 em todas as concentrações testadas foi melhor que o MS. O ANA e o AIB, ambos na concentração de 3 miM, em meio MS/2, tiveram comportamento semelhante na porcentagem de enraizamento e no número de raízes produzidas; no entanto, o ANA provocou efeitos indesejáveis na qualidade destas, havendo formação de calo na base das brotações e raízes grossas. O AIA obteve melhor resposta nas altas concentrações, mas não foi melhor que o AIB e ANA.Apple shoots (Malus domestica, Borkh, cv. Fred Hough derived from in vitro multiplication process were inoculated in MS and MS/2 basal media added by growth substances indol acetic acid (IAA; indol butiric acid (IBA and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA at 0, 1, 3 and 5 µM. The media also included: MS vitamins, myo-inositol (100.0 mg/L; sucrose (30.0 g/L; agar (6.0 g/L. The pH was adjusted to 5.8 before autoclaving. The treatments were incubated in a growth room at 25±2ºC, 16 hours photoperiod under light intensity of 2,000 lux during 30 days. The treatments were replicated five times. Each replicate was composed by a 250 mL flask containing 40 mL medium with five explants. The medium MS/2 in all the

  12. New Products against Apple Scab and Powdery Mildew Attack in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel MITRE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridizations represent one of the apple breeding methods by which a wide variability can be achieved, useful for creating new cultivars. The study of 2190 interspecific hybrids, obtained from 25 combinations among crab apple species (Malus coronaria, M. floribunda, M. niedzwetzkyana, M. zumi, M. prunifolia and different apple cultivars, points out a large variability of the F1 seedlings for several traits, with significant importance in apple breeding programs. The first year of fructification, as mean per hybrid combination, varied from 6 (M. zumi x ‘Jonathan’ to 9.3 years; the average hybrid’s age for fructification was 7.4 years. The size of fruits among families varied from 1.5 (‘Starkrimson’ x M. prunifolia to 4.0 (‘Reinette Baumann’ x M. zumi, the mean being settled at 2.8 (therefore below mark 3, meaning ‘small fruits’. The lowest infection rate both for apple scab and powdery mildew attack was noticed at hybrids from M. coronaria x ‘Reinette Baumann’. On the whole, the hybrids with genitors of ‘species x cultivars’ type have had an early fruiting and a better resistance to scab and powdery mildew, compared to the ones from ‘cultivars x species’ combinations. The large variability of the studied traits gave the possibility to identify offsprings with desirable characteristics on nine hybrid combinations. Among these, 53 elite plants were selected, with a strength of selection of 2.42%, therefore a relative low value, correlated with the peculiarities of the interspecific population and the selection criteria for dessert apple.

  13. Apple Must

    OpenAIRE

    Ehmsen, Amalie Schultz; Larsen, Mikael; Brandt, Mike; Villadsen, Niels; Vinther, Sine Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This project contains an analysis of Apple’s aesthetics, as presented through advertisement and the general aesthetic expression of their products. Combining Marxist theory of commodity aesthetics with Anthony Giddens’ and Abraham Maslow’s sociological theory, the paper endeavors to present a connection between the valorization of Apple’s products and the needs and wants of the late-modern consumer. To this end, a semiotic analysis of certain Apple commercials, followed by a herme...

  14. 苹果UV-B受体基因UVR8的克隆及生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of UV-B Receptor Gene UV R 8 in Apple (Malus dome s tic a Borhkcv. Fuji)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文展; 张高龙; 樊连梅; 刘更森; 隋秀奇; 原永兵

    2015-01-01

    本研究以‘富士’苹果红色芽变品种‘烟富8’果皮为试验材料,采用RT-PCR方法,克隆获得苹果UV-B受体基因UV R 8的全长序列,命名为MdUV R 8。结果显示,开放阅读框长度为1359 bp,编码452个氨基酸,相对分子质量48.487 kD,等电点(PI)为5.56。蛋白质保守域分析表明,苹果UVR8蛋白包含7个RCC1结构域。蛋白质二级结构预测显示,苹果UVR8蛋白含有10个α-螺旋,16个β折叠,41个β-转角。氨基酸同源性比对分析表明,苹果UVR8与已报道的其他植物的氨基酸序列相似性在69.54%~88.94%之间。核苷酸聚类分析表明,苹果和白梨首先聚为一类,其次是梅。本研究为苹果光受体对光应答的分子机理的进一步研究奠定了基础。%This research used‘Yanfu 8’that was red bud mutation variety from‘Fuji’as the experimental mate-rial, cloned UV-B receptor gene named MdUV R 8 by RT-PCR from fruit peel. The results showed that the full-len-gth of UV R8 gene open reading frame (ORF) was 1 359 bp in size and encoded 452 amino acids residues (Mw=48.487 kD, pI=5.56). Conservative protein domain analysis showed that apple UVR8 protein contains seven RCC1 domain structure, moreover, protein secondary structure prediction revealed that it contains 10 alpha helixes, 16 be-ta folds and 41 beta turns. Amino acids homology comparison analysis indicated that sequence had 69.54%~88.94%similarity with those of other reported plants. Nucleotide cluster analysis showed that UV R8 from Pyrus bretsch-neideri was clustered together with apple's UV R8 firstly, and followed by which from Prunus mume. This research laid a foundation for further research of the molecular mechanism of photoreceptor response to light in apple.

  15. An apple rootstock overexpressing a peach CBF gene alters growth and flowering in the scion but does not impact cold hardiness or dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artlip, Timothy S; Wisniewski, Michael E; Arora, Rajeev; Norelli, John L

    2016-01-01

    The C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factor is involved in responses to low temperature and water deficit in many plant species. Overexpression of CBF genes leads to enhanced freezing tolerance and growth inhibition in many species. The overexpression of a peach CBF (PpCBF1) gene in a transgenic line of own-rooted apple (Malus×domestica) M.26 rootstock (T166) trees was previously reported to have additional effects on the onset of dormancy and time of spring budbreak. In the current study, the commercial apple cultivar ‘Royal Gala’ (RG) was grafted onto either non-transgenic M.26 rootstocks (RG/M.26) or transgenic M.26 (T166) rootstocks (RG/T166) and field grown for 3 years. No PpCBF1 transcript was detected in the phloem or cambium of RG scions grafted on T166 rootstocks indicating that no graft transmission of transgene mRNA had occurred. In contrast to own-rooted T166 trees, no impact of PpCBF1 overexpression in T166 rootstocks was observed on the onset of dormancy, budbreak or non-acclimated leaf-cold hardiness in RG/T166 trees. Growth, however, as measured by stem caliper, current-year shoot extension and overall height, was reduced in RG/T166 trees compared with RG/M.26 trees. Although flowering was evident in both RG/T166 and RG/M.26 trees in the second season, the number of trees in flower, the number of shoots bearing flowers, and the number of flower clusters per shoot was significantly higher in RG/M.26 trees than RG/T166 trees in both the second and third year after planting. Elevated levels of RGL (DELLA) gene expression were observed in RG/T166 trees and T166 trees, which may play a role in the reduced growth observed in these tree types. A model is presented indicating how CBF overexpression in a rootstock might influence juvenility and flower abundance in a grafted scion. PMID:26981253

  16. Gene-for-gene relationship in the host-pathogen system Malus × robusta 5-Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Isabelle; Wöhner, Thomas; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Sundin, George W; Wensing, Annette; Savory, Elizabeth A; Geider, Klaus; Day, Brad; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Peil, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease caused by Erwinia amylovora affecting plants in the family Rosaceae, including apple. Host resistance to fire blight is present mainly in accessions of Malus spp. and is thought to be quantitative in this pathosystem. In this study we analyzed the importance of the E. amylovora effector avrRpt2(EA) , a homolog of Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2, for resistance of Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). The deletion mutant E. amylovora Ea1189ΔavrRpt2(EA) was able to overcome the fire blight resistance of Mr5. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), resulting in an exchange of cysteine to serine in the encoded protein, was detected in avrRpt2(EA) of several Erwinia strains differing in virulence to Mr5. E. amylovora strains encoding serine (S-allele) were able to overcome resistance of Mr5, whereas strains encoding cysteine (C-allele) were not. Allele specificity was also observed in a coexpression assay with Arabidopsis thaliana RIN4 in Nicotiana benthamiana. A homolog of RIN4 has been detected and isolated in Mr5. These results suggest a system similar to the interaction of RPS2 from A. thaliana and AvrRpt2 from P. syringae with RIN4 as guard. Our data are suggestive of a gene-for-gene relationship for the host-pathogen system Mr5 and E. amylovora. PMID:23301854

  17. Proteome Analysis for Defense Response of Apple Leaves Induced by Alternaria Blotch ,Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Zhang; Zhuang Li; Liyi Zhang; Yi Tian; Guodong Kang; Ying Chen; Peihua Cong

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Ma/us domestica) is considered a model fruit plant owing to its world-wide economic importance,and a large number of cultivars dominate world fruit production.To date,the cultivation of apple has been limited by many kinds of fungal diseases,and among the many fungal diseases affecting apple trees,Alternaria blotch,the disease caused by Alternaria alternata apple pathotype,is spreading worldwide and results in severe negative effect on apple production.Currently,management of a fungal disease such as Alternaria blotch mainly through traditional chemical control agents instead of using resistant cultivars.As in apple,the molecular mechanism of disease resistance against A.altemata apple pathotype has not been illustrated clearly,although most of the genes have been identified in apple,little is known about the biological roles for each protein in that plant.Considering that apple Altemaria blotch is the usual diseases influencing apple production,further studies about the interaction mechanism between the pathogen and its host,particularly some host self-defense response mechanisms which closely related to the anti-disease properties of apple should be performed.In this work we aimed to generate fundamental insights into the plant' s defense responses to infection with Altemaria blotch using a proteomics approach,to aid in the development and breeding of high-quality disease-resistant apple varieties.One seedlings which derived from the cross of ‘Huacui’ and ‘Golden Delicious’,with highly resistant,were chosen to be hosts for this study.The sample leaves were inoculated with spore suspension of A.altemata apple pathotype,and the control samples were treated with water instead of inoculums.Following inoculation,the samples were harvested 48 h after inoculation.The whole experiment was repeated three times in order to get a reliable result.The total soluble protein extracts prepared using modified phenol-precipitation procedures.Total protein extracts

  18. Interactive use of disease models using a smartphone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, A.J.; Boshuizen, P.C.; Jong, de P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit tree canker (Neonectria ditissima syn. Nectria galligena Bres.) is an important fungal disease in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Leaf fall is the predominant infection period for this disease. However, in The Netherlands and Belgium, no historical data on leaf fall of apple are available. I

  19. Regional somatic embryogenesis from in vitro apple leaf and artificial seed of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First three open leaves of in vitro apple (Malus domastica Borkh.) shoots were used as explants. Each leaf was divided into three regions (upper, middle and lower) from tip to base and each region was composed of two sub-regions (leaf and right) along the main vain. Every explant was pricked with a dissector at the center of one sub-region before inoculated on MS + BA 1 mg/L + NAA 4 mg/L + 2,4-D 0.5 mg/L medium and incubated in darkness for 7 days, then transferred to MS + BA 1 mg/L medium. 85% of the explants regenerated somatic embryos directly around the prick after 40 days. The embryos were encapsulated in 4% sodium alginate and 2% CaCl2 as artificial seeds, which could germinate and grow into plantlets under aseptic condition

  20. Indicadores de Rentabilidad y Eficiencia Económica de la Producción de Manzanas cv. Gala en la Región del Maule, Chile Profitability and Economic Efficiency Indicators of cv. Gala Apple Production in Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de rentabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de manzanas (Malus domestica L. cv. Gala para una explotación localizada en la zona de Linares (35º51’ lat. Sur, 71º35’ long. Oeste, Región del Maule, Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos de la plantación fueron tomados de los registros históricos de diferentes predios durante las temporadas agrícolas 1994-1995 a 2003-2004. Para la valorización de las inversiones en plantación y los costos de producción se utilizaron los precios de la temporada 2003-2004. A partir del Modelo de Valoración de Activos de Capital (CAPM se calculó el costo promedio ponderado del capital (WACC, el cual fue estimado en 8,71% anual. Los indicadores de rentabilidad calculados fueron el valor actual neto (VAN, tasa interna de retorno (TIR, índice de valor actual neto (IVAN y la razón beneficio-costo (RBC, mientras que los indicadores de eficiencia económica fueron el costo medio total (CMET, margen unitario (MU y la rentabilidad sobre capital (RSC. Como unidad de análisis se consideró una hectárea. Para la situación estándar los resultados obtenidos fueron: $5,41 millones VAN, 12,1% TIR, 0,43 IVAN, y 1,51 RBC. Para la etapa de producción se proyectó un CMET mínimo de $52,3 kg-1, un MU máximo de $91,9 kg-1 y una RSC de hasta 23,6%. La principal conclusión sugiere que, desde el punto de vista económico, el cultivo es rentable para los productores de manzanas cv. Gala.Profitability and economic efficiency indicators of apple (Malus domestica L. cv. Gala production of a farm located in the Linares area (35º51’ S lat, 71º35’ W long, Maule Region, Chile, were estimated. Technical parameters of the orchard were obtained from historical farm records for different premises from the 1994-1995 to 2003-2004 agricultural seasons. For the valuation of the investment in the orchard and production costs, the prices for the 2003-2004 season were

  1. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  2. Effects of pruning length on dynamic changes of endogenous hormones in apple tree%不同短截处理对苹果树体内源激素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙聪伟; 冯建忠; 葛顺峰; 姜远茂

    2013-01-01

    以三年生红富士(Mlaus domestica Borkh.cv.Red Fuji)/SH/八棱海棠(Malus micromalus Makino)为试材,研究不同短截程度对苹果树体内源激素含量变化的影响。结果表明,不同短截处理均降低了植株茎尖、细根内吲哚乙酸(IAA)含量。春梢开始生长期茎尖脱落酸(ABA)含量重短截>中短截>轻短截,分别为224.85、204.95和189.16 ng/g, FW,重短截与对照处理间差异不显著。春梢旺长期和春梢缓长期4个处理茎尖及细根ABA含量呈重短截>中短截>轻短截>对照的趋势。不同处理间植株茎尖、细根中赤霉素( GA)、玉米素核苷( ZR)含量变化不显著。在整个春梢生长期,4个处理下茎尖和细根的( IAA+GA+ZR)/ABA比值随短截程度加重而降低,短截处理降低了茎尖IAA、( IAA+GA+ZR)/ABA,提高了ABA含量,一定程度上削弱了生长势,抑制了新梢生长。%Three-year-old apple trees(Mlaus domestica Borkh.cv.Red Fuji)/SH/Malus micromalus Makino were used to study effects of short-cutting on dynamic changes of endogenous hormones .The results show that the contents of endogenous IAA in shoot tips and fine roots are reduced under the treatments .At the early vigorous growing period of shoots , the contents of ABA in shoot tips are in the following order:heavy short-cutting >middle short-cutting >light short-cutting, which are 224.85, 204.95 and 189.16 ng/g, FW respectively, and the difference of the contents between the heavy short-cutting and the control is not significant .At the vigorous growing period and slow growth period of shoots , the contents of endogenous ABA in shoot tips and fine roots under the short-cutting are significantly higher than those of the control , while the changes of the contents of ZR and GA are not significant.The ratios of(IAA+GA+ZR)/ABA in shoot tips and fine roots are decreased with the increase of pruning length .The contents of IAA and

  3. Influência da época de colheita e do armazenamento em atmosfera controlada na qualidade da maçã 'Braeburn' Influence of harvest maturity and controlled atmosphere conditions on the quality of 'Braeburn' apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da época de colheita e das condições de armazenamento em atmosfera controlada sobre a firmeza da polpa, acidez titulável, ºBrix e, principalmente, sobre a ocorrência de degenerescência da polpa em maçãs (Malus domestica cv. Braeburn. Os tratamentos consistiram na combinação da data de colheita (27/3/1997 e 9/4/1997 com condição de armazenamento (temperatura de 0,5°C com: 1 kPa de O2/4,0 kPa de CO2; 1 kPa de O2/3,0 kPa de CO2; 1 kPa de O2/2,0 kPa de CO2; 21 kPa de O2/0,0 kPa de CO2, e temperatura de -0,5°C com: 1kPa de O2/3,0 kPa de CO2; 1 kPa de O2/2,0 kPa de CO2. Após oito meses de armazenamento, não foi observada suscetibilidade da maçã cv. Braeburn à baixa temperatura de armazenamento (-0,5ºC e os frutos armazenados em ambiente refrigerado apresentaram baixa qualidade para o consumo. As condições de atmosfera controlada de 1 kPa de O2 associadas com 2 e 3 kPa de CO2 e a -0,5ºC apresentaram menor incidência de podridões, rachaduras e degenerescência senescente. Os frutos colhidos tardiamente, em 9/4/1997, apresentaram maior incidência de podridões, polpa farinhenta, degenerescência com cortiça e rachaduras. Nos parâmetros firmeza da polpa, acidez titulável e teor de sólidos solúveis totais não se observaram diferenças entre as condições de atmosfera controlada, após sete dias de exposição à temperatura de 25ºC.This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of harvest maturity and controlled atmosphere on the quality and internal breakdown incidence in apples (Malus domestica cv. Braeburn. The treatments consisted in the combination of harvest maturity (March 27, 1997 and April 9, 1997 with storage conditions (0.5°C with: 1 kPa O2/4 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2/3 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2/2 kPa CO2; 21 kPa O2/0 kPa CO2-cold storage and; -0.5°C with: 1 kPa O2/3 kPa CO2; 1 kPa O2/2 kPa CO2. After eight months of storage, there was no low temperature injury on fruits stored at -0.5ºC, and the

  4. Identification of genetic loci associated with fire blight resistance in Malus through combined use of QTL and association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Awais; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-07-01

    Fire blight, incited by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of Rosaceae, particularly of apples and pears. There are reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying E. amylovora pathogenesis and how the host activates its resistance mechanism. The host's resistance mechanism is quantitatively controlled, although some major genes might also be involved. Thus far, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and differential expression studies have been used to elucidate those genes and/or genomic regions underlying quantitative resistance present in the apple genome. In this study, an effort is undertaken to dissect the genetic basis of fire blight resistance in apple using both QTL and genome-wide association mapping. On the basis of an F1 pedigree of 'Coop 16' × 'Coop 17' and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping population of Malus accessions (species, old and new cultivars and selections), new QTLs and associations have been identified. A total of three QTLs for resistance to fire blight, with above 95% significant logarithm of odds threshold value of 2.5, have been identified on linkage groups (LGs) 02, 06, and 15 of the apple genome with phenotypic variation explained values of 14.7, 20.1 and 17.4, respectively. Although elevated P-values with signals for marker-trait associations are observed for some LGs, these are not found to be significant. However, a total of 34 significant associations, with P-values ≥0.02, have been detected including 8 for lesion length at 7 days following inoculation (PL1), 14 for lesion length at 14 days following inoculation (PL2), and 12 for shoot length. PMID:23627651

  5. What's an Adam's Apple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  6. ASCARIDIA COLUMBAE IN COLUMBIA LIVIA DOMESTICA

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bizhga; E. Sotiri; A. Bocari; D. Kolleshi

    2011-01-01

    Ascaridia columbae is the cause of ascariasis in pigeons. The object of this study carried out in Tirana and Lushnja was the presence of ascariasis, identification and parasite load in pigeons (Columbia livia domestica). 5 dead pigeons were examined, 8 others were sacrificed and fecal samples were examined repeatedly, taken from 2 coops with pigeons, 1 for each area out of a total of 192 poultry. Ascaridia columbae was frequently evidenced in the pigeons of our country. Its prevalence results...

  7. Estudio comparativo entre metodologías para el diseño de Sistemas Bonus-Malus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez del Prado, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar un método para hacer comparaciones entre Sistemas Bonus Malus. Se comparan Sistemas Bonus Malus obtenidos mediante la metodología GPBM, basada en Programación por Metas y Sistemas Bonus Malus obtenidos mediante la metodología clásica, conocida como Escala de Bayes.

  8. Estimate of respiration rate and physicochemical changes of fresh-cut apples stored under different temperatures Estimativa da taxa de respiração e das mudanças físico-químicas de maçãs minimamente processadas e estocadas sob diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fagundes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of storage temperature and passive modified packaging (PMP on the respiration rate and physicochemical properties of fresh-cut Gala apples (Malus domestica B. was investigated. The samples were packed in flexible multilayer bags and stored at 2 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C for eleven days. Respiration rate as a function of CO2 and O2 concentrations was determined using gas chromatography. The inhibition parameters were estimated using a mathematical model based on Michaelis-Menten equation. The following physicochemical properties were evaluated: total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and reducing sugars. At 2 °C, the maximum respiration rate was observed after 150 hours. At 5 °C and 7 °C the maximum respiration rates were observed after 100 and 50 hours of storage, respectively. The inhibition model results obtained showed a clear effect of CO2 on O2 consumption. The soluble solids decreased, although not significantly, during storage at the three temperatures studied. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity decreased during storage and the pH increased. These results indicate that the respiration rate influenced the physicochemical properties.Neste estudo, a influência da temperatura de armazenamento e da embalagem com atmosfera modificada passiva (AMP na taxa respiratória e nas propriedades físico-químicas de maçãs da variedade Gala (Malus domestica, B. minimamente processadas foi investigada. As amostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens flexíveis e armazenados a 2 °C, 5 °C e 7 °C, durante 11 dias. A taxa de respiração foi gerada para diferentes concentrações de O2 e CO2, obtidas por cromatografia gasosa. Os parâmetros de inibição foram estimados por um modelo matemático baseado na equação de Michaelis-Menten. Foram avaliadas as seguintes propriedades físico-químicas: sólidos solúveis totais, pH, acidez titulável e açúcares redutores. A 2 °C, a taxa de respiração máxima foi

  9. Elasticidades de demanda por manzanas chilenas en el mercado de la unión europea: una estimación econométrica Demand elasticities for Chilean apples in the European Union market: an econometric estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Arcadio Cerda U.; Germán Lobos A.; Eduardo Kufferath Y.; Fernando Sánchez H.

    2004-01-01

    La Unión Europea (UE) es uno de los principales mercados para las manzanas (Malus domestica L.) chilenas. En este trabajo se planteó un modelo econométrico de demanda por importaciones de manzanas chilenas en la UE. Se usó la técnica de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MCO), utilizando datos anuales del periodo 1984 a 2002, y se estimaron las elasticidades de demanda. Las variables que explicaron el comportamiento de la demanda fueron el producto interno bruto (PIB) per cápita de la UE, el preci...

  10. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea. PMID:22525238

  11. Rapid Genome Response of Malus to Infection by Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  12. Soil Chemistry Still Affected 23 Years After Large Application of Fluidized Bed Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess the movement of arsenic, aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury and zinc in an old apple (Malus domestica Borkh) orchard that received a one time application of 36 kg/ m2 of fluidized bed combustion material (FBCM) 23 years earlier. S...

  13. Eupalopsellus prasadi Bagheri and Khanjani 2009 (Acari: Prostigmata, Eupalopsellidae), a New record for the Turkish acaro fauna

    OpenAIRE

    KASAP, İsmail; Çobanoğlu, Sultan; PEHLİVAN, SERKAN; KÖK, Şahin

    2013-01-01

    Females of Eupalopsellus prasadi Bagheri and Khanjani 2009, (Acari: Eupalopsellidae) were collected from the colony of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) which are harmful on grown apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)) in Bigalı village at Eceabat, Çanakkale. This is a new record for the Turkish fauna.

  14. What Makes Apple Golden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betsy Morrish

    2008-01-01

    @@ The mass market is supposed to be dead, but you would nover know it from Apple.In Felmuny the iTunes Store became the second-largest music retailer in the U.S., right behind Wal-Mart.The iPod is to music players what Kleenex is to tissue or Xerox is to copiers.Almost everything Apple makes transcends gender, geography, age,and race.An Apple Store is a demographic melting pot, with computer games for kids and a Genius Bar for their parents and so much cool stuff to touch that it's a magnet for teens and twentysomethings.

  15. Genus Malus Mill. in Arboretum collection of Peter the Great Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadiy

    2015-12-01

    Some of the types and forms of species from genus Malus from the collection of the Garden, can be regarded as promising for the needs of green building and modern urbanofloristic. They are also of interest as decorative and suitable for testing as fruit trees, and as a basis for future breeding selection. Many types of freezes earlier species of Malus, in a changing and global warming can be quite promising for breeding now for the conditions of St. Petersburg.

  16. Effects of Antibiotics on In Vitro Leaves Regeneration of Apple%抗生素对苹果离体叶片再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅琴; 程和禾; 李玉生; 陈龙; 赵艳华; 吴永杰

    2012-01-01

    In vitro young leaves of apple varieties Malus Dornestica cv. Changhong and M. Domestica cv. Jishen were selected as the materials and cultured on the base medium of MS + TDZ 1.0 mg/L + NAA 0. 5 mg/L containing different concentrations of kanamycin (Kan, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 rag/L), cefotaxime (Cef, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L) or carbenicillin (Carb, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L) . After dark culture for 14 days, the leaves were cultured under the light, and the effects of different concentrations of Kan, Cef and Carb on the regeneration of in vitro leaves were analyzed 30 days later. The results showed that 600 mg/L Cef and 400 mg/L Carb could inhibit the regeneration of in vitro leaves, and the inhabitation Carb was stronger. Changhong was very sensitive to Kan, the regeneration could be significantly inhibited at a dose of 10 mg/L, and none adventitious bud was obtained at a dose of 20 mg/L. Using the high-frequency regeneration system of apple in vitro Leaves as the gene transformation receptor system, the suitable selection concentration for kanamycin should be 20 mg/L.%以昌红和姬神2个苹果品种无菌苗的离体幼叶为试材,分别接种在附加不同浓度卡那霉素(Kan,0、5、10、15、20、30、40和50mg/L)、头孢霉素(Cef,100、200、400和600mg/L)和羧苄青霉素(Carb,100、200、400和600mg/L)的MS+TDZ1.0mg/L+NAA0.5mg/L培养基上,暗培养14d后转移到光下培养,30d后进行再生指标统计,分析不同浓度Kan、Cef和carb对苹果离体叶片不定芽再生的影响。结果表明:Cef浓度为600mg/L、Carb浓度为400mg/L时完全抑制供试品种叶片的再生,Carb对昌红和姬神离体叶片抑制再生的作用比Cef强烈;昌红苹果对Kan非常敏感,Kan浓度为10mg/L时即能极显著抑制不定芽的再生,浓度为20mg/L时不定芽白化而不能正常生长。以苹果离体叶片的高频再生系统作为基因转化

  17. Apples vs. Brownies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Katrine Lund; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Schmidt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    A standard food setting served daily by caterers at thousands of conference venues, meetings and gatherings is the coffee break buffet featuring some high-energy snack (e.g. brownies) as well as what often seems like an obligatory healthy option (e.g. apples). Knowing how the display of these food......-energy choice (brownies), (b) convenience of consuming the healthy option (apples) and (c) their relative presentation order....

  18. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  19. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  20. A sampling approach for predicting the eating quality of apples using visible–near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Mabel V Martínez; Sharifzadeh, Sara; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai;

    2013-01-01

    training and test sets (‘smooth fractionator’, by date of measurement after harvest and random). Using the ‘smooth fractionator’ sampling method, fewer spectral bands (26) and elastic net resulted in improved performance for SSC models of ‘Aroma’ apples, with a coefficient of variation CVSSC = 13%. The...... with ‘Aroma’. CONCLUSION It was possible to construct local SSC and acidity calibration models for early season apple cultivars with CVs of SSC and acidity around 10%. The overall model performance of these data sets also depend on the proper selection of training and test sets. The ‘smooth...... domestica Borkh.) cvs ‘Aroma’ and ‘Holsteiner Cox’ samples were used to construct spectral models for SSC and acidity. Partial least squares (PLS), ridge regression (RR) and elastic net (EN) models were used to build prediction models. Furthermore, we compared three sub-sample arrangements for forming...

  1. Expression pattern of antibacterial genes in the Musca domestica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; JIN XiaoBao; ZHU JiaYong; ZENG AiHua; CHU FuJiang; YANG XiaoRong; MA Yan

    2009-01-01

    This work studied the transcriptional patterns of three antibacterial genes, attacin, defensin and cecropin, during the development of Musca domestica. Quantitative analysis by real-time PCR was performed on mRNA levels in different development stages and challenged 3rd-instar larva at different time points after challenge of Musca domestica. The results revealed a predominance of the transcripts of all three genes during the 3rd-instar larvae and the adults. In the meanwhile, it revealed the greatest increase in mRNA. The transcript levels increased to 801 times, 1009 times and 2500 times respectively for cecropin, attacin and defensin in 3rd-instar larvae after challenging susceptible bacterium. The results suggested that the transcriptional patterns of Musca domestica antibacterial genes were different during the different growth stages as well as the microbial challenge encountered in 3rd-instar larvae.

  2. Rapid and repeatable shifts in life‐history timing of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) following colonization of novel host plants in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Monte; Hood, Glen R.; Jeffrey L. Feder; Ruedas, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Host shifts of phytophagous insect specialists to novel plants can result in divergent ecological adaptation, generating reproductive isolation and potentially new species. Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies in eastern North America underwent a host shift ~160 ya from native downy hawthorn ( Crataegus mollis) to introduced, domesticated apple ( Malus domestica). Divergent selection on diapause phenology related to the earlier fruiting time of apples versus downy hawthorns resulted in p...

  3. Untersuchungen und Prozessbegleitung zur Praxiseinführung von Heißwassertauchanlagen im ökologischen Kernobstanbau

    OpenAIRE

    Maxin, P.; Klopp, K.; Fieger-Metag, N.

    2005-01-01

    In general, organic grown apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) are not treated with chemical fungicides to prevent storage decay and these fruits may suffer up to 30% decay during storage. Preliminary experiments had shown that hot water dipping of apples may be an alternative. To inhibit Gloeosporium rot (Pezicula alba, P. malicortis) water temperature may be of about 50°C and dipping time from 60 sec up to 180 sec. The present investigation was conducted to test different ranges of temperature...

  4. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  5. About APPLE II Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  6. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  7. AppleScript

    CERN Document Server

    Munro, Mark Conway

    2010-01-01

    Developers will advance their AppleScript skills easily with this guide. Part of the Developer Reference series, this book is packed with professional secrets for designing and building automated solutions with AppleScript, the powerful, system-level scripting language built into every Mac. Programmers will discover new ways to increase their professional efficiency and become more valuable in their jobs. With up to date coverage of Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard and loaded with real-world tips and techniques, this guide includes best practices and conventions along with informative lessons. You'l

  8. Apple TV for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Watch your iTunes downloads on a television screen with help from Apple TV For Dummies. This comprehensive guide offers shopping tips; easy-to-understand installation and setup directions; and advanced material like content creation, troubleshooting, and optimizing network speeds. You get the ""download"" on: Apple TV setup and customizing High-Definition video hardware State-of-the-art audio hardware Connecting both computer and video equipment Using iTunes and the iTunes Store Cataloging your multimedia library Setting u

  9. Prospects of fatty acid profile and bioactive composition from lipid seeds for the discrimination of apple varieties with the application of chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, S.; Sherazzi, S. T. H.; Bhanger, M. I.; Memon, N.; Mahesar, S. A.; Rajput, M. T.

    2012-11-01

    The extracted oils from four apple seed varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Pyrus Malus and Golden Delicious) from Pakistan were investigated for their fatty acid profiles and lipid biactives by GC-MS. The oil contents in the seeds of the apple varieties ranged from 26.8-28.7%. The results revealed that linoleic acid (40.5-49.6%) was the main fatty acid in the Royal Gala, Red Delicious and Pyrus Malus seeds, and oleic acid (38.7-45.5%) was the main fatty acid in the Golden Delicious seeds. Palmitic acid (6.1-7.4%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.1%) were the dominant saturated fatty acids, besides the small amount of palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, linolenic, archidic, eicosanoic, and behenic acids. Sterols, tocopherols, hydrocarbons and some other minor components were also identified from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The variation among the results of both fatty acids and lipid bio actives for the four different varieties was assessed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cluster analyses. The results conclude that both oil fractions could be applied as a useful tool to discriminate among the apple seed varieties. (Author) 42 refs.

  10. ASCARIDIA COLUMBAE IN COLUMBIA LIVIA DOMESTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bizhga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ascaridia columbae is the cause of ascariasis in pigeons. The object of this study carried out in Tirana and Lushnja was the presence of ascariasis, identification and parasite load in pigeons (Columbia livia domestica. 5 dead pigeons were examined, 8 others were sacrificed and fecal samples were examined repeatedly, taken from 2 coops with pigeons, 1 for each area out of a total of 192 poultry. Ascaridia columbae was frequently evidenced in the pigeons of our country. Its prevalence results relatively high and varies from 40-90 % of the pigeons. We think that the cause of high affection of Ascaridia columbae is due to the lack of dehelminth culture and prophylactic precautions in cages. Average parasite load resulted 124 v/g/f with significant variations in the values 60-180 v/g/f. Adult ascariasis was identified based on morphological characteristics and the number of the parasites grown within the intestines of the poultry were defined. The number of the adult parasites that colonize the intestines of the poultry resulted 4-8 parasites on average. But there were also sporadic cases which evidenced up to 24 patent ascribes grown in intestines. In these cases nervous phenomena were evidenced as well as problems of condition, nutrition, mal growth, which might be the cause of a compromising diagnosis with other diseases of the pigeons. The study identified Ascaridia columbae as the cause of ascaridiosis in pigeons and a prevalence and parasite load that makes the application of diagnostic precautions and dehelminth schemes indispensable, whose lack is the cause of such condition.

  11. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  12. Apple Shuns Tracking Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Apple Inc. is advising software de- velopers to stop using a feature in software for its iPhones and iPads .that has been linked to privacyconcerns, a move that would also take away a widely used tool for tracking users and their behavior. Developers who write programs for Apple's lOS operating system have been using a unique.

  13. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  14. Studies on Pharmacognostical features of Curcuma domestica Val.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, R.; Bhattaharya, S.; S Jha; Mazumder, A; Kumari, Jyoti; Jha, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    The microscopic and macroscopic characters of the rhizome of Curcuma domestica Val. were studied. The behavior of the powdered drug in the presence of various chemicals was also studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the various extracts of the rhizome was done in order to ascertain the various chemical constituents present. These studies were carried out to identify this plant for future research work.

  15. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten;

    , flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers...... feeding with apple or apple pectin. This was also reflected in changed gut flora enzymatic activities, whereas caecum short chain fatty acid concentrations were unaffected by feeding with all apple products, except high doses of apple pectins. In the human study the whole apple had the strongest...

  16. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌杰; 陈昆松; FERGUSONIanB

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple celi death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  17. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie(徐昌杰); CHEN Kun-song(陈昆松); FERGUSON Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  18. 苹果果实发育过程中α-淀粉酶的活性、数量变化和亚细胞定位%Activities, Quantitative Changes and Subcellular Localization ofα-Amylase During Development of Apple Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永章; 张大鹏

    2002-01-01

    Starch degradation in cells is closely associated with cereal seed germination, photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate storage in tuberous roots, and fleshy fruit development. Α-Amylase is considered as one of the key enzymes catalyzing starch breakdown, but up to date its role in starch breakdown in living cells remains unclear because the enzyme was often shown extrachloroplastic in living cells. The present experiment showed that α-amylase activity was progressively increasing concomitantly with the decreasing starch concentrations during the development of apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) fruit. The apparent amount of α-amylase assessed by Western blotting also increased during the fruit development, which is consistent with the seasonal changes in the enzyme activity. The enzyme subcellular-localization studies via immunogold electron-microscopy technique showed that α-amylase visualized by gold particles was predominantly located in plastids, but the gold particles were scarcely found in other subcellular compartments. A high density of the enzyme was observed at the periphery of starch granules during the middle and late developmental stages. These data proved that the enzyme is compartmented in its functional sites in the living cells of the fruit. The predominantly plastid-distributed pattern of α-amylase in cells was shown unchanged throughout the fruit development. The density of gold particles (α-amylase) in plastids was increasing during the fruit development, which is consistent with the results of Western blotting. So it is considered that α-amylase is involved in starch hydrolysis in plastids of the fruit cells.%淀粉降解代谢与种子萌发、叶片光合作用、块根贮藏及肉质果实的发育密切相关.α-淀粉酶是催化淀粉水解的重要酶之一,然而由于它在生活细胞中经常定位于叶绿体或质体之外,与淀粉基质在亚细胞水平上相互隔离,所以该酶在植物活体内

  19. The translocation and distribution of foliar-applied boron during blooming period of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spur leaves of 20-year-old apple trees (CV. Starking/Malus prunifolia Borkh) were applied with H310 BO3 solution (10B 250 μg/g) during blooming period. The results showed that the 10B were transported to the other parts after two days, and the bourse shoot got most of B. The content of 10B in labelled leaves decreased with time and 60% of 10B was transported after 12 days, while the content of 10B in the young fruits and the xylem kept increasing, though 10B content was only about 10∼13 percent of the total B. Within 4 days, 10B content was about 30 percent of the total B in the labelled leaves. When the boron was foliar-applied the symptom of B deficiency was alleviated temporarily

  20. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  1. Densidade de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae no controle do ácaro-vermelho da macieira, Fraiburgo-SC Effect of Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae density of on the control of red mite in apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico aplicado de Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae em macieira iniciou em Vacaria (RS, em 1992, com a multiplicação de Neoseiulus californicus em estufas e liberação nas áreas de ocorrência da praga, fazendo com que o equilíbrio entre ambos os ácaros ocorresse semanas após a liberação. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de verificar o efeito da densidade de N. californicus a ser liberada em pomar de macieira, Malus domestica (Borkh. Mansf., para o controle do ácaro-vermelho. Foi selecionado um pomar comercial em Fraiburgo (SC e liberados os fitoseídeos nas densidades de 50.000, 100.000 e 150.000 por ha, originados da criação comercial situada na Renar Maçãs (Fraiburgo. O controle do ácaro foi medido através da injúria, devido à alimentação de P. ulmi, e avaliado por meio de uma escala de sintomas de bronzeamento, e do monitoramento de ovos hibernantes em maio, julho e setembro. O tratamento com 150.000 fitoseídeos reduziu a população de ácaros- vermelhos após 16 dias da liberação, enquanto os demais tratamentos necessitaram de 21 dias. A injúria das folhas foi menor no tratamento com 150.000. Os ovos hibernantes em maio, nas parcelas de 50.000 e 100.000, foram, respectivamente, 75% e 69% maiores do que na parcela com 150.000 fitoseídeos. Concluiu-se que a liberação de 150.000 N. californicus foi mais eficiente no controle de P. ulmi no estágio fenológico reprodutivo da macieira.The applied biological control of Panonychus ulmi in apple orchards in Brazil began in Vacaria (RS, in 1992 by rearing Neoseiulus californicus in greenhouses and releasing them into infested areas. The balance between both mites took place weeks after the release. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of N. californicus density to be released in apple orchards for the control of the red mite. A commercial orchard in Fraiburgo (SC was chosen and populations of 50,000, 100,000 and 150,000 phytoseiidae

  2. Equity Research - Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, João Carlos Portela Marques dos

    2013-01-01

    O presente Trabalho Final de Mestrado tem como objectivo a avaliação da empresa norteamericana Apple Inc. de forma a obter um preço-alvo para as suas acções com referência a 29 de Setembro de 2012, data de fim do ano fiscal da empresa. O processo de avaliação da empresa envolveu, numa primeira fase, uma análise detalhada ao negócio da Apple (e suas perspectivas de crescimento) e ao seu posicionamento estratégico. Em segundo lugar, foram aplicadas técnicas de avaliação de empresas de forma a d...

  3. Apple Image Processing Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  4. Cedar-apple Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark L. Ovrebo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The photograph on the cover illustrates a phenomenon of nature that can be seen in the Oklahoma springtime at about the same time that the redbuds are in flower and the morels are fruiting. The orange-colored masses represent a stage in the life cycle of cedar-apple rust, Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae, and this stage is occurring on the eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana.

  5. Apple iPhone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Apple iPhone千呼万唤始出来。它结合多种功能于一体,具有网络、桌面级的电子邮件、网页浏览及地图搜索等功能。全新的用户界面基于一个大型综合触摸显示屏。

  6. Apple Grading Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    KAVDIR, İsmail

    2003-01-01

    Classification is vital for the evaluation of agricultural produce. However, the high costs, subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency associated with manual sorting have been forcing the post harvest industry to apply automation in sorting operations. Fuzzy logic (FL) was applied as a decision making support to grade apples in this study. Quality features such as the color, size and defects of apples were measured through different equipment. The same set of apples was graded by both a hum...

  7. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  8. Modeling and performance of Bonus-Malus Systems: Stationarity versus age-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren

    In a bonus-malus system in car insurance, the bonus class of a customer is updated from a year to the next as a function of the current class and the number of claims in the year (assumed Poisson). Thus the sequence of classes of a customer in consecutive years forms a Markov chain, and most of the...

  9. Capturing The Diversity Of Wild Malus Orientalis From Georgia, Armenia, Russia And Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds were collected from wild Malus orientalis (Uglitzh) trees during recent plant collecting explorations to Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, and Russia. Disease resistance and genotypic data are available for the 776 M. orientalis seedling trees in the field collection at the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Res...

  10. Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Beernaert, Lies Angèle; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. Immunosup...

  11. Untersuchungen zum Fortpflanzungszyklus von Warzenenten (Cairina moschata forma domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Warzenenten (Cairina moschata forma domestica) gewinnen in der industriellen Geflügelproduktion immer mehr an Bedeutung. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Nutzgeflügelgattungen ist über die Physiologie und über die Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme auf den Fortpflanzungszyklus bei Warzenenten nur wenig bekannt. Ein Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, biostimulatorische Effekte männlicher Artgenossen auf Enten vor Eintritt in die Legeperiode nachzuweisen und eine klinische Untersuchungsmethode zur ...

  12. Effect of the Cooling System and 1-MCP on the Incidence of Superficial Scald in ‘Granny Smith’ Apples Efecto del Sistema de Enfriamiento y 1-MCP sobre la Incidencia de Escaldado Superficial en Manzanas ‘Granny Smith’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Moggia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the effects of two cooling systems and the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, SmartFreshTM on the incidence of superficial scald in apples (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Granny Smith. Fruit were collected from a commercial orchard (Colbún, Maule Region, Chile during 2004-2005 season. A completely randomized design was used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, using cooling systems (normal and step-wise cooling and application of 1-MCP (0 and 625 nL L-1 i.a. as the main factors. Fruit from normal cooling were kept at 0 °C throughout the storage period (180 days. Step-wise cooling consisted of storing the fruit at 10 °C for 10 days; 4 °C for the next 20 days and 0 °C for the remaining 150 days. Every month, maturity indices and the chemicals, global antioxidant content (AO, α-farnesene (AF and conjugated trienes (TC, were measured. Incidence of superficial scald was determined after 180 days of storage, plus 10 days at 20 °C . The application of 1-MCP with both cooling systems was capable of maintaining firmness values around 8,2 kg up to the end of the storage period, as well as decreasing the concentration of AF, TC and AO during storage. Incidence of superficial scald on fruit with 1-MCP was 0%, regardless of the type of cooling. Among treatments without 1-MCP, step-wise-cooling was more effective in preventing superficial scald, resulting in 1.3% incidence compared to 75.6% with the normal cooling system. Nevertheless, from the fourth month onwards firmness was lower than that required for export.Se desarrolló un estudio para determinar el efecto de dos sistemas de enfriamiento y la aplicación de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, SmartFreshTM sobre la incidencia de escaldado superficial en manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Granny Smith, colectadas de un huerto comercial (Colbún, Región del Maule, Chile durante la temporada 2004-2005. El ensayo consistió en un diseño completamente al azar con

  13. transportados por Musca domestica. Lima-Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castillo Elera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el porcentaje de parásitos de importancia en salud pública que son transportados por Musca domestica. Diseño: Estudio transversal, descriptivo no experimental. Lugar: Instituto de Medicina Tropical ¿Daniel A. Carrión¿, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: 1867 ejemplares de Musca domestica. Intervenciones: Técnicas de lavado y machacado de moscas; los sedimentos se analizaron con las coloraciones de Lugol y Kinyoun empleando microscopio óptico. Principales medidas de resultado: Análisis en frecuencias absolutas y relativas de parasitos encontrados en las técnicas de machacado y lavado. Resultados: Se hallaron los siguientes parásitos: Endolimax nana (41.13%, Blastocystis hominis (34.68%, Entamoeba hartmanni (10.86%, Entamoeba coli (4.34%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.34%, Giardia lamblia (2.17% y Toxocara canis (2,17%. Conclusiones: Los parásitos encontrados en Musca domestica del mercado Caquetá fueron los siguientes: Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia lamblia y Toxocara canis, siendo el de mayor frecuencia E. nana en el total de la muestra y a su vez, en el subgrupo de lavado. Se describe el hallazgo de Toxocara canis no reportado en estudios similares.

  14. Hermes transposon distribution and structure in Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramanand A; Cathcart, Laura A; Krafsur, Elliot S; Atkinson, Peter W; O'Brochta, David A

    2009-01-01

    Hermes are hAT transposons from Musca domestica that are very closely related to the hobo transposons from Drosophila melanogaster and are useful as gene vectors in a wide variety of organisms including insects, planaria, and yeast. hobo elements show distinct length variations in a rapidly evolving region of the transposase-coding region as a result of expansions and contractions of a simple repeat sequence encoding 3 amino acids threonine, proline, and glutamic acid (TPE). These variations in length may influence the function of the protein and the movement of hobo transposons in natural populations. Here, we determine the distribution of Hermes in populations of M. domestica as well as whether Hermes transposase has undergone similar sequence expansions and contractions during its evolution in this species. Hermes transposons were found in all M. domestica individuals sampled from 14 populations collected from 4 continents. All individuals with Hermes transposons had evidence for the presence of intact transposase open reading frames, and little sequence variation was observed among Hermes elements. A systematic analysis of the TPE-homologous region of the Hermes transposase-coding region revealed no evidence for length variation. The simple sequence repeat found in hobo elements is a feature of this transposon that evolved since the divergence of hobo and Hermes. PMID:19366812

  15. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  16. The gravity apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  17. Apple vs. Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, Johannes; Canright, Geoff; Engø-Monsen, Kenth;

    have been difficult to collect, but in recent years researchers have gained access to massive social network data from e.g. online instant messaging services [8][5] and phone log data [2][4][3][6][9]. Such data has made it possible to study e.g. social churn [3], service uptake [2] among telecom...... can be measured by studying this network. In this paper, we do a comparative study of social spreading effects for two competing types of smartphones - the Apple iPhone, and smartphones based on Google’s Android OS....

  18. Apple Inc. : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Gonçalo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation presents a valuation of Apple Inc., an American company that sits amongst the largest companies in the world, in market capitalization terms. Although it started as a computer company, back in 1976, nowadays it is best known for its smartphone flagship – the iPhone, introduced in 2007, it revolutionized the entire mobile phone industry. Today, the iPhone represents about 66% of total sales, however there are other products in Apple’s product line that are considered by a lar...

  19. Detecting mutations in the dihydrochalcon 2'- glycosyltransferase and Kunitz protease inhibitor gene amongst a segregating apple population as a SNPS-based genome mapping strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacteria Erwinia amylovora, is a major production constraint for fruit trees of the family Rosaceae such as apples for which resistance to the disease is thought to be polygenic. We have in this study sought to develop a molecular genetic linkage core map; to identify molecular markers linked to the genes involved in fire blight resistance in apples; and to map the genes, dihydrochalcon 2'-glycosyltransferase and Kunitz protease inhibitor, which are thought to be involved in resistance to this disease. A population of 140 individuals being the progeny of the cross between Malus robusta 5 (wild, disease resistant) and Idared (cultivated, susceptible) that segregated for the incidence of disease symptoms were screened using molecular markers and the segregation data used to create male and female linkage coremaps. For the Idared parent, the core-map constructed from the segregation of 130 AFLPs, 60 SSRs and 1 SCAR was made up of 20 linkage groups, spanned 1082 cM and covered 94 % of the genome. The Malus robusta 5 core-map with 19 linkage groups was anchored by 150 AFLPs, 60 SSRs and 1 SCAR, spanned 1033 cM and covered 75 % of the genome. Additionally, we report the localization of a QTL on linkage group 3 of the resistant parent that explained 84.1% of the phenotypic variation. Using the SNP technology we developed, the dihydrochalcon2'-glycosyltransferase and Kunitz protease inhibitor genes implicated in resistance to this disease were mapped to linkage group 11 and linkage group 3 respectively of the Malus robusta 5 core-map. The implications of the results are discussed. (author)

  20. Influência de formas de aplicação de boro na qualidade e no rendimento de maçãs (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aparecida de Sá

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O boro (B é aplicado na maioria dos pomares brasileiros de maçã, porém sem fundamentação experimental regional. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de formas, doses e épocas de aplicação de B no rendimento e na qualidade de maçãs. O experimento foi instalado em São Joaquim-SC, em 2002, com as cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji Suprema conduzidas em áreas diferentes, cujas avaliações foram realizadas nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Os tratamentos consistiram em um fatorial envolvendo doses de B aplicadas ao solo, a cada dois anos, e épocas de pulverização na planta, feitas anualmente. Utilizou-se de delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, cujos tratamentos foram arranjados em parcelas subdividas: na parcela principal, foram alocadas as épocas de aplicação foliar de ácido bórico (sem pulverização, 0,3% pulverizado na fase de botão rosado e 0,6% em pós-colheita e nas subparcelas, as doses de bórax no solo (0; 2,5 e 5,0 kg ha-1 de B. A aplicação de B no solo foi mais eficiente do que a pulverização foliar para aumentar o teor de B na polpa, na folha e no solo; no entanto, não afetou nenhum dos atributos relacionados com a qualidade dos frutos, nas duas cultivares. A pulverização com B diminuiu o teor de amido e a acidez titulável, e não afetou o teor de sólidos solúveis e a firmeza da polpa dos frutos. A pulverização na floração diminuiu a germinação de grãos de pólen na cultivar Imperial Gala e a frutificação efetiva na cultivar Fuji Suprema. O rendimento de frutos não foi afetado pela adição de B, independentemente da época, da forma de aplicação ou dose, nas duas cultivares. Assim, não há necessidade de aplicar B nessas cultivares em pomares cultivados em solos com altos teores de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de incrementar a produção e a qualidade dos frutos.

  1. Eficiencia del Uso de Plaguicidas en Huertos de Manzano [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] en Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rafael Ramírez Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo Cuéllar; Mario René Ávila Marioni; Rafael Ángel Parra Quezada

    2004-01-01

    Durante el período 2001-2002 se monitoreó el uso de plaguicidas (fungicidas, bactericidas, insecticidas y acaricidas), producción de manzana, pérdidas de cosecha ocasionadas por plagas, las principales plagas y el daño causado, temperatura y precipitación pluvial en 13 huertos de manzano tipificados en baja, mediana, y alta tecnificación. La eficiencia del uso de plaguicidas se determinó mediante el registro total de frutos en el árbol después del aclareo, menos los frutos caídos durante el c...

  2. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  3. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  4. Effect of Nitrogen on Apple Fruit Development in Different Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Fu-tian; JIANG Yuan-mao; GU Man-ru; SHU Huai-rui

    2002-01-01

    The experiments including soil application N, thinning and priming leaf treatment, using eight -year-old apple trees (M. domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji/M. hupenensis Rhed) as materials were carried out to study the effect of N on fruit development. The main results were as follows: on heavily thinned trees, SS activity was independent of N and priming leaves treatments. The results show that the carbohydrate restriction of source to sink activity did not exist, and N application did not stimulate fruit growth rates relative to those on nonfertilized trees; however, N fertilization resulted in a longer fruit development period and increased the growth potential of individual fruit by 20.8% (fresh weight) and 14.1% (dry weight) vs. controls; in unthinned trees, SS activity was increased by N fertilization but decreased by priming leaves treatment, so the carbohydrate restriction of source to sink activity existed, N fertilization increased the average single fruit weight both by extending the fruit development period and by increasing fruit growth rate, and the increasing rates were 28.2% (fresh weight) and 19.4 % (dry weight) compared to the unthinned nonfertilized controls. Fruit soluble sugar and pericarp anthocyanin concentration was decreased by N fertilization.

  5. Response of Organic Acids to Zinc Homeostasis in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Toxic Apple Rootstock Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Ai-Hong; HE Chen; WANG Jin-Hua; WANG Yan-An

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of tolerance to zinc (Zn) deficiency and Zn toxicity in the root of apple trees,the apple rootstock Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd seedlings were selected to study the responses of organic acids to Zn homeostasis in roots under low Zn (0 μmol L-1),adequate Zn (as control,4 μmol L-1) and toxic Zn (100 μmol L-1) treatments.The differences of Zn concentrations and accumulations in the roots were highest,compared with those in the stems and leaves,when apple seedlings were subjected to low and toxic Zn treatments for 1 d.The concentrations and accumulations of oxalic and malic acids in the roots in the low and toxic Zn treatments increased by 20% to 60% compared with those of the control treatment.Significantly negative correlations were found between the total Zn concentrations and the concentrations of oxalic and malic acids in the roots under 1 d of low Zn treatment.However,contrary correlations were found for the toxic Zn treatment.Meanwhile,the maximum influx rates of Zn2+ under low and toxic Zn treatments increased by 30% and 20%,respectively,compared with the rate of the control treatment.Both Zn deficiency and Zn toxicity increased the concentrations of organic acids in root after short-time Zn treatment,which could resist Zn stress through balanding Zn homeostasis in M.hupehensis Rehd.

  6. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    R. D. Chakole; Azhar Ahmed; Manoj S. Charde

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabe...

  7. Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Orzua, María C.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Garza, Heliodoro de la; J. A. Teixeira; Aguilar Gonzalez, Cristobal Noé

    2009-01-01

    Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean residues (Phaseolus...

  8. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, S.; Sh Hidayatul; Mustakim Syed Mustaffa; Jeffery, J

    2008-01-01

    Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory.Methods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae.Results: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of a...

  9. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products. PMID:26036589

  10. The APPL "Learning Map"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  11. The Variability of Juvenile Period, Fruits Size and Response to Diseases Attack on F1 Interspecific Apple Hybrids and the Efficiency of Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridizations represent one of the apple breeding methods by which a wide variability can be achieved, useful for creating new cultivars. The study of 2190 interspecific hybrids, obtained from 25 combinations among crab apple species (Malus coronaria, M. floribunda, M. niedzwetzkyana, M. zumi, M. prunifolia and different apple cultivars, points out a large variability of the F1 seedlings for several traits, with significant importance in apple breeding programs. The first year of fructification, as mean per hybrid combination, varied from 6 (M. zumi x ‘Jonathan’ to 9.3 years; the average hybrid’s age for fructification was 7.4 years. The size of fruits among families varied from 1.5 (‘Starkrimson’ x M. prunifolia to 4.0 (‘Reinette Baumann’ x M. zumi, the mean being settled at 2.8 (therefore below mark 3, meaning ‘small fruits’. The lowest infection rate both for apple scab and powdery mildew attack was noticed at hybrids from M. coronaria x ‘Reinette Baumann’. On the whole, the hybrids with genitors of ‘species x cultivars’ type have had an early fruiting and a better resistance to scab and powdery mildew, compared to the ones from ‘cultivars x species’ combinations. The large variability of the studied traits gave the possibility to identify offsprings with desirable characteristics on nine hybrid combinations. Among these, 53 elite plants were selected, with a strength of selection of 2.42%, therefore a relative low value, correlated with the peculiarities of the interspecific population and the selection criteria for dessert apple.

  12. Evaluation of the House Fly Musca domestica as a Mechanical Vector for an Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Fasanella, Antonio; Scasciamacchia, Silvia; Garofolo, Giuliano; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Tarsitano, Elvira; Adone, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass o...

  13. Características de qualidade de cultivares de maçã: avaliação físico-química e sensorial de quinze cultivares Quality profile of 15 apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Wosiacki

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados aspectos de qualidade de interesse industrial de 15 cultivares de maçãs. A análise sensorial das frutas in natura discriminou as amostras de Melrose, Fred Housh, M 51/90 e Malus 71/90 como capazes de promover o processo de compra e de instalação do hábito de consumo. A análise sensorial dos sucos de frutas discrimina apenas a cultivar comercial Belgolden como interessante. Os sucos feitos com as amostras de maçãs apresentaram uma variação de 12 a 16ºBRIX e o valor médio de ácido málico foi de 0,362g/100mL. Os teores de compostos fenólicos apresentaram uma média de 316mg/L e um desvio padrão de 70mg/L (C.V.= 22%. Os indicadores industriais são elevados demais para serem comparados com aqueles necessários, abaixo de 20/25; os valores médios encontrados neste conjunto de maçãs foram de 45 (índice BRIX/acidez e 40,2 (índice ART/acidez. As amostras codificadas foram categorizadas como amargas, com um grupo de doces-amargas (as comerciais Fred Housh, Marquesa, Sansa e Romu, e as experimentais M 51/90 e todas as Malus e outro de ácidas-amargas (as demais cultivares estudadas. As amostras mais interessantes para o processamento industrial de suco clarificado são a Belgolden, as Coop 25 e 26, a Melrose e a Malus 67/90. A Sansa desponta como portadora de maior teor de frutose e potencialmente como matéria-prima para a elaboração de bebidas com apelo funcional.The article shows some figures concerning industrial aplications of samples from apple cultivars. Sensorial evaluation of the apples in natura indicated Melrose, Fred Housh, M 51/90 and Malus 71/90 as able to satisfy the consumer. Sensorial evaluation of the apple juice shows only one interesting variety, Belgolden. The juices showed 12 to 16ºBRX and a mean value of malic acid of 0,362g/100mL. Total phenol compounds showed a mean of 316mg/l (C.V.= 22%. Ratios concerning total sugar or total soluble solids: malic acid were too high as

  14. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fru...

  15. Big Book of Apple Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Bigger in size, longer in length, broader in scope, and even more useful than our original Mac OS X Hacks, the new Big Book of Apple Hacks offers a grab bag of tips, tricks and hacks to get the most out of Mac OS X Leopard, as well as the new line of iPods, iPhone, and Apple TV. With 125 entirely new hacks presented in step-by-step fashion, this practical book is for serious Apple computer and gadget users who really want to take control of these systems. Many of the hacks take you under the hood and show you how to tweak system preferences, alter or add keyboard shortcuts, mount drives and

  16. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV...

  17. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants. PMID:23022736

  18. Indicadores de Rentabilidad y Eficiencia Económica de la Producción de Manzanas cv. Gala en la Región del Maule, Chile Profitability and Economic Efficiency Indicators of cv. Gala Apple Production in Maule Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Lobos A; Tristán Muñoz I

    2005-01-01

    En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de rentabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de manzanas (Malus domestica L.) cv. Gala para una explotación localizada en la zona de Linares (35º51’ lat. Sur, 71º35’ long. Oeste), Región del Maule, Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos de la plantación fueron tomados de los registros históricos de diferentes predios durante las temporadas agrícolas 1994-1995 a 2003-2004. Para la valorización de las inversiones en plantación y...

  19. Fenologia de espécies silvestres de macieira como polinizadora das cultivares gala e fuji Phenology of wild apple species like pollinators of gala and fuji cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Petri

    2008-12-01

    phenological behaviour of thirteen wild apple species in relation to the fowering compared to Gala and Fuji cultivars, during seven years (2001-2007. All species and apple cultivars studied were conduced on M-9 rootstock. The wild apple species showed high variability at flowering and length throughout the years. The major overlap of the flowering period and major regularity throughout the years was obtained between Gala and Fuji cultivars. 'Prof. Spengler', 'Profusion', 'Winter gold' and 'John Downil' are the wild apple species with the greater potential of use like pollinators, which can be used like a pollination suplement of Gala and Fuji cultivars. The species Malus hopa, Malus eleyi and Malus atrosanguinea can be used like second option for pollination of Gala and Fuji cultivars because of the high blossom density.

  20. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Šumić Zdravko M.; Tepić Aleksandra N.; Savatović Slađana M.; Nikolić Milan S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component conten...

  1. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  2. Prediction of water loss and viscoelastic deformation of apple tissue using a multiscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregawi, Wondwosen A.; Abera, Metadel K.; Fanta, Solomon W.; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart

    2014-11-01

    A two-dimensional multiscale water transport and mechanical model was developed to predict the water loss and deformation of apple tissue (Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. ‘Jonagold’) during dehydration. At the macroscopic level, a continuum approach was used to construct a coupled water transport and mechanical model. Water transport in the tissue was simulated using a phenomenological approach using Fick’s second law of diffusion. Mechanical deformation due to shrinkage was based on a structural mechanics model consisting of two parts: Yeoh strain energy functions to account for non-linearity and Maxwell’s rheological model of visco-elasticity. Apparent parameters of the macroscale model were computed from a microscale model. The latter accounted for water exchange between different microscopic structures of the tissue (intercellular space, the cell wall network and cytoplasm) using transport laws with the water potential as the driving force for water exchange between different compartments of tissue. The microscale deformation mechanics were computed using a model where the cells were represented as a closed thin walled structure. The predicted apparent water transport properties of apple cortex tissue from the microscale model showed good agreement with the experimentally measured values. Deviations between calculated and measured mechanical properties of apple tissue were observed at strains larger than 3%, and were attributed to differences in water transport behavior between the experimental compression tests and the simulated dehydration-deformation behavior. Tissue dehydration and deformation in the high relative humidity range ( > 97% RH) could, however, be accurately predicted by the multiscale model. The multiscale model helped to understand the dynamics of the dehydration process and the importance of the different microstructural compartments (intercellular space, cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm) for water transport and mechanical

  3. Methionine metabolism in apple tissue: implications of S-adenosylmethionine as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is the direct precursor of ethylene as previously proposed, it is expected that 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) would be the fragment nucleoside. When [Me-14C] or (35S)methionine was fed to climacteric apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) tissue, radioactive 5-S-methyl-5-thioribose (MTR) was identified as the predominant product and MTA as a minor one. When the conversion of methionine into ethylene was inhibited by L-2-amino-4-(2'-amino-ethoxy)-trans-3-butenoic acid, the conversion of (35S) or (Me-14C)methionine into MTR was similarly inhibited. Furthermore, the formation of MTA and MTR from (35S)methionine was observed only in climacteric tissue which produced ethylene and actively converted methionine to ethylene but not in preclimacteric tissue which did not produce ethylene or convert methionine to ethylene. These observations suggest that the conversion of methionine into MTA and MTR is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and provide indirect evidence that SAM may be an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. When (35S)MTA was fed to climacteric or preclimacteric apple tissue, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into MTR and methionine. However, when (35S)MTR was administered, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into methionine but not MTA. A scheme is presented for the production of ethylene from methionine

  4. Induced mutation in dwarf growth habits of apple trees by gamma rays and its evaluation in practical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of mutation breeding experiments on apple has been made. The dwarf type mutants having dwarfing rootstock effects on top varieties were developed in the gamma field. In this paper, the induction efficiency that the desirable spur type mutants for top, and the effective dwarf type mutants for rootstocks are produced in a gamma field in comparison with acute irradiation, and some evaluation of the induced mutants for practical purposes are described. A large number of the spur type mutants of apple trees having dwarf growth habit and a desirable tree form for high density planting have been induced by chronic or acute irradiation of gamma-ray since 1962. The mutation with dwarf growth habit including spur types was detected in the grafts on the clonal rootstocks of Marubakaido Malus prunifolia. No useful mutation toward the trees with dwarf growth habit and favorable fruit quality was recognized in the mutants derived from acute irradiation. Chronic treatment has been conducted in the uninjurious area in the gamma field on settled trees. High mutability in the dwarf growth of aged resting buds of settled trees was examined by twice-repeated cutting back treatments. In conclusion, for the induction of useful mutants or effective dwarfing mutants as clonal rootstocks, the artificial mutation breeding with gamma-ray should be conducted under chronic conditions and by planned cutting back treatments, in order to avoid various chromosomal aberrations and intrasomatic selection. (Kato, T.)

  5. Resistance management in Vf apple scab resistant organic apple orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Modern Vf scab resistant apple varieties open the way for organic growers to lower fungicide input, higher yields, better skin quality, more biological control for mites and insect pests and better consumer acceptance of their management practices. Manny examples in the past years have shown however that the Vf resis-tance can be easily overcome by local scab populations in north-western Europe. Discussions during the meetings of the IOBC working group Diseases in Orchards in 2000 in Fontevr...

  6. 红肉苹果MpMYBPA1的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of MpMYBPA1 from Malus pumila var.niedzwetzkyana Schneid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕东; 李春霞; 展蔷; 都贝贝; 张计育; 章镇; 渠慎春

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Malus pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana Schneid was employed as the experimental material. The full-length sequence of one MYB transcription factor named MpMYBPAl was cloned by RACE and silico cloning technology from Malus pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana Schneid. Along with the bioinformatics analysis and subcellular localization to the MYB protein, the gene expression research on MpMYBPAl was conducted. The result showed that the full length of this gene from apple was 1 020 bp, which was to code 340 amino acids,and with a highest homology with MYBPA1 from Vitis viniferna. This gene was named MpMYBPAl, which had two MYB HTH DNA-binding domains with 55 amino acids in parathormone-N te. It was proved from the subcellular localization that MpMYBPAl protein was located in nucleus. Through quantitative real-time PCR,the expression of MpMYBPAl was observed in different organs such as root,stem,leaf and peel,with a highest level in peel,which might be influenced by temperature and ABA. After 4 days with 20 ℃ treatment, the expression level rose, however, the increase of the gene expression was not significant with 30 ℃ treatment, which might suggest that low temperature should be positive to the expression of MYBPA1. It could be concluded from the research results that MpMYBPAl might have been involved in the process of coloration for apple.%利用RACE和电子克隆技术相结合的方法从野生红肉苹果(Malus pumila var.niedzwetzkyana Schneid)中克隆了1个MYB类转录因子的全长序列,利用生物信息学方法对其进行分析,同时进行了亚细胞定位分析以及表达特性的研究.结果表明:该基因全长为1 020 bp,编码340个氨基酸;其核苷酸序列与葡萄MYBPA1同源性最高,命名为MpMYBPA1,其N端含2个约有55个氨基酸组成的MYB特征结构域.亚细胞定位分析结果表明MpMYBPA1蛋白定位在细胞核中.荧光定量PCR结果表明:MpMYBPA1基因在根、茎、叶、果皮中均有表

  7. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  8. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  9. Effects of Soil C/N Ratio on Apple Growth and Nitrogen Utilization,Residue and Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunfeng; GE; Yihua; REN; Ling; PENG; Haigang; XU; Mengmeng; JI; Shaochong; WEI; Yuanmao; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Soil C /N ratio is an important influencing factor in soil nitrogen cycling. Two-year old apple trees( Borkh. cv. ‘Fuji’/Malus hupehensis) were used to understand the effect of soil C/N ratio [6. 52( CK),10,15,20,25,30,35 and 40]on apple growth and nitrogen utilization and loss by using15N trace technique. The results showed that,with the increasing of soil C/N ratio,apple shoot length and fresh weight increased at first,and then decreased; the higher apple shoot length and fresh weight appeared in C/N = 15,20 and 25 treatments,and there were no significant differences among these three treatments,but significantly higher than the other treatments. Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference in nitrogen utilization rate between the different treatments,the highest N utilization rate was occurred in soil C/N = 25 treatment which value was 22. 87%,and there was no significant difference between soil C/N = 25 and C/N = 20 treatments,but both the two treatments were significantly higher than the other treatments; Soil C/N = 40 had the lowest N utilization rate which value was 15. 43%,and this value was less than CK( 16. 65%). The proportion of plant absorption nitrogen from fertilizer was much higher when the value of soil C/N ratio in the range of 15- 25,but the percentage of plant absorption nitrogen from soil was much higher when the soil C/N ratio was too low( < 15) or high( < 25). Amount of residual nitrogen in soil increased gradually with the soil C/N ratio increasing,the amount of residual nitrogen in C/N = 40 treatment was 1. 32 times than that in CK. With the increasing of soil C/N ratio,fertilizer nitrogen loss decreased at first,and then increased,fertilizer nitrogen loss was the minimum in C/N = 25 treatments( 49. 87%) and the maximum were occurred in CK( 61. 54%). Therefore,regarding the apple growth and nitrogen balance situation,the value of soil C/N ratio in the range of 15- 25 would be favorable for apple growth and could

  10. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  11. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis po

  12. More on apples and tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the context of different kinds of massive stars (apples and tomatoes) can provide insights on their evolutionary status. Useful constraints on the models can be obtained provided that visual and bolometric magnitudes of the different components are carefully determined. Here, evidence is reviewed that massive stars spend their short lives in tight clusters. Reddening determinations and bolometric corrections for these stars are briefly examined. 15 refs

  13. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin KADAKAL; Nas, Sebahattin

    2000-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in...

  14. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid), ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees (Red Fuji/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46±0.35 nmol g\\+-1FW and 117 nmol l\\+-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment. Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  15. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid) , ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees ( Red Fufi/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46 ± 0.35 nmol g-1 FW and 117 nmol l-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment.Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees ; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  16. Studies on Changes of Phenolics in the Apple Fruit Peel in Response to Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-yan; HUANG Wei-dong; ZHANG Wen-he

    2004-01-01

    Fruits from 9-year-old apple trees (Malus domestic Borkh. cv. Fuji) were wrappedby two-layer bag in middle of June, and bags were removed in middle of September. The bag-removed treatment was performed in following three ways: once-removing all inner and outer bags; twice-removing bag (removing inner bag 3 d after removing outer bag); dipping 5 s in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA)after once-removing all bags. Changes of phenolic compounds in fruit peel in response to light environment were studied before or after removing bag. The results showed that the bagged treatment could significantly decrease the contents of UV (ultraviolet) absorbing compounds,rutin and anthocyanins of the fruit peel, but increased chlorogenic acid level. After removal of bag, the level of SA and quercetin in the fruit peel appeared peak 1 d after bag-removed,except that quercetin was decreased in SA-treated fruits. UVabsorbing compounds, anthocyanins and rutin were kept increasing all along after the removal of bag, except that chlorogenic acid was decreased during being retained inner bag in the treatment of twice removing bag. The positive correlations existed between changes of UV absorbing compounds and changes of anthocyanins or rutin. It was suggested that light played an important role in phenolics metabolism.

  17. Absorption, distribution and utilization of soil-applied 10B in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10B utilization rate was 7.0% and 10B distribution rate in roots, trunks and newly emerged organs of pot cultured apple tree (cv. 'liao fu'/Malus ptunifolia Borkh.) was 24.4%, 46.6% and 29.0%, respectively, in one month after soil-application of 10B during shoot rapid growth period. As the aerial newly emerged organs were concerned, Bdff% in long shoots and its leaves were higher than that in other shoots and leaves, suggesting that long shoots and its leaves had stronger ability of up taking 10B. At beginning of boron application, total boron amount and Bdff% in leaves increased fast, but 10B accumulating speed in shoot, particularly in its cortex, was higher than that in leaves in the later growing season, indicating that distribution center changed with growing period. The reserved boron in root and trunk played a mediative role in boron supply to newly emerged organs, a part of reserved mobile boron could transport to newly emerged organs when roots could not absorb any boron. With soil-applied 10B of 2μg·g-1 in autumn, Bdff% in soil was found less than 5% in the spring of the third year, but Bdff% in newly emerged organs was still 20%∼30%, which suggested that a part of reserved 10B could be reused

  18. Apples in the Alps aid atomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of 2 Apple microcomputers by the radiation protection group working with CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is described. The first Apple is used primarily to process the data from the radiation monitoring system around the ring before the maintenance engineers can commence work on the SPS. The second Apple is being developed to help in the calibration of the ring's 1,100 monitors. (U.K.)

  19. AppleScript The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Adam

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript: The Missing Manual is every beginner's guide to learning the Macintosh's ultimate scripting tool: AppleScript. Through dozens of hands-on scripting examples, this comprehensive guide ensures that anyone including novices can learn how to control Mac applications in timesaving and innovative ways. Thanks to AppleScript: The Missing Manual, the path from regular Mac fan to seasoned scripter has never been easier.

  20. Analýza akcie Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Kereibayev, Alisher

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is dedicated to the analysis of Apple stock title. Analysis of stock title is provided on the basis of methods of fundamental and technical analysis, taking into account sectoral and fundamental analysis. The main objective of this thesis is to derive investment recommendations in relation to the stock Apple title, based on the evaluation of the related fundamental and technical factors on the price of the shares it operates. The hypothesis is the following statement: Apple sh...

  1. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin

  2. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-04-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin.

  3. SELECTION AND CREATION OF APPLE VARIETIES FOR JUICE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    E.N. Sedov; N.S. Levgerova; E.S. Salina; Z.M. SEROVA

    2010-01-01

    The data of many years investigations on selection of apple varieties for juice production are presented. The new varieties, immune to apple scab, deserve the high label. The promising selection of apple for formation of rough gardens was shown

  4. New research to support the Danish organic apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelsen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Experiments with new organic apple varieties, flower patches in the orchard, development of a new gas burner and apple storage conditions are new research initiatives designed to strengthen the production of organic apples.

  5. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  6. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan OZTÜRK; Salih KESKİN; Yildiz, Kenan; Kaya, Özkan; KILIÇ, Kemal; Mutlu UÇAR

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışma, ‘Ak Sakı’ elma çeşidinin (Malus domestica Borkh.) depolama performansı üzerine hasat öncesi dönemde farklı dozlarda uygulanan aminoetoksivinilglisin (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L) ve naftalen asetik asit (NAA, 20 mg/L) uygulamalarının etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla 2012 yılında yürütülmüştür. Bazı meyve kalite parametrelerinde oluşan değişimler, % 90±5 nispi nem ve 2±1 °C depolama koşullarında 45 günlük aralıklar ile izlenmiştir. Depolama süresince en düşük ağırlık kaybı 300 mg/L AVG...

  7. Extended Malus' Law with THz metallic metamaterials for sensitive detection with giant tunable quality factor

    CERN Document Server

    Romain, Xavier; Boyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We study a polarizer-analyzer mounting for the terahertz regime with perfectly conducting metallic polarizers made of a periodic subwavelength pattern. We analytically investigate the influence on the transmission response of the multiple reflections which occur between polarizer and analyzer with a renewed Jones formalism. We demonstrate that this interaction leads to a modified transmission response: the extended Malus' Law. In addition, we show that the transmission response can be controlled by the distance between polarizer and analyzer. For particular set-ups, the mounting exhibits extremely sensitive transmission responses. This interesting feature can be employed for high precision sensing and characterization applications. We specifically propose a general design for measuring electro-optical response of materials in the terahertz domain allowing detection of refractive index variations as small as $10^{-5}$.

  8. What would Apple do? how you can learn from Apple and make money

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y

  9. Effect of apple varieties and irradiation on the quality of explosion puffed apple slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many factors affect the quality of explosion puffed apple slices. Apple varieties of Guoguang, Fuji, Hongxiangjiao and Huangxiangjiao were used as materal, the quality of fresh apple and explosion puffed products were analyzed based on the data of their physical and chemical characteristics and flavor. The results showed that Guoguang apple had the optimal flavor and Huangxiangjiao apple had the optimal product quality. So the Guoguang apple was selected as the material for the following results showed that irradiation could soften apple tissue, improve the pre-drying rate, increase products crispness, and also reduce the products hardness, but the irradiation of 2 and 5 kGy could turn products brown seriously, which reduced the product quality. (authors)

  10. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae Extratos de Melia azedarach L. e sua atividade sobre Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.Os extratos brutos e as frações obtidas das sementes de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae foram testados em Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Os bioensaios mostraram inibição no desenvolvimento pós-embrionário das moscas e um significativo aumento do período larva recém eclodida- adulto. Além disso, o peso pupal foi reduzido e a proporção sexual alterada. Foi observada toxicidade para os ovos das moscas.

  11. Instrumental measurements to investigate apple mealy texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Baerdemaeker

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Four apples varieties (Braebum, Elstar, Jonagold and Teser T219 were tested to study techniques for instrumental measurement of the mealiness of apple fruit. The measurements were done just after cold storage (2°C, 95% relative humidity and repeated one week of storage at 20 °C, 65% relative humidity later. The non-destructive acoustic response technique was used as a measure of fruit firmness. Texture profile analysis (TPA and tensile tests were applied to measure the hardness, cohe-siveness and adhesion of the apple tissue. The juiciness, soluble solids content (SSC, pH value and internal air space (IAS of the apples were determined. The results show that the TPA technique and tensile test may be derived as mechanical ways to measure apple mealiness. Apple fruit internal air space increases and juiciness decreases as the apple becomes mealy, and they may be good indications of mealiness. The mealiness criteria may be different for different varieties of apples.

  12. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  13. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  14. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  15. Larvicidal potential of essential oils against Musca domestica and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati; Dhiman, R C

    2016-06-01

    The larvicidal activity of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogan citratus (lemongrass), Eucalyptus globulus and Citrus sinensis (orange) essential oils and their combinations was evaluated against Musca domestica (housefly) and Anopheles stephensi (mosquitoes) through contact toxicity assay. Among all the tested essential oils/combinations, Me. piperita was found to be the most effective larvicidal agent against Mu. domestica and An. stephensi with LC50 values of 0.66 μl/cm(2) and 44.66 ppm, respectively, after 48 h. The results clearly highlighted that the addition of mentha oil to other oils (1:1 ratio) improved their larvicidal activity. The order of effectiveness of essential oils/combinations indicated that the pattern for An. stephensi follows the trend as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus > mentha + orange > orange and for Mu. domestica as mentha > mentha + lemongrass > lemongrass > mentha + orange > orange > mentha + eucalyptus > eucalyptus. The images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated the toxic effect of Me. piperita as the treated larvae were observed to be dehydrated and deformed. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tested essential oils/combinations against the larval stages of Mu. domestica and An. stephensi and has the potential for development of botanical formulations. PMID:26920567

  16. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory."n"nMethods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae."n"nResults: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05."n"nConclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  17. Biological changes in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera:Muscidae), induced by gamma radiation (60 Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out in the Entomology Section of the Centre of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present research work was to investigate some effects of gamma radiation on the various stages of M. domestica life cycle. (author)

  18. Phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the gut of house flies (Musca domestica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous, synanthropic insects that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for various microorganisms. To fully assess the role of house flies in the epidemiology of human diseases, it is essential to understand the diversity of microbiota harb...

  19. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory.Methods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae.Results: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  20. Selection, resistance risk assessment, and reversion toward susceptibility of pyriproxyfen in Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Sial, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, is an effective larvicide against many pests of veterinary and public health importance. Pyriproxyfen is a biorational insecticide having many environmentally friendly attributes that make it compatible with integrated pest management programs. This experiment was performed for the assessment of resistance evolution and reversion toward susceptibility of Musca domestica to pyriproxyfen. Repeated selection at successive generations resulted in 5.09- and 130-fold increase in lethal concentration 50 (LC50) compared to field and susceptible strain, respectively. A significant decline after 22 generations without selection suggesting resistance to pyriproxyfen was unstable in M. domestica. Realized heritability (h (2)) of resistance to pyriproxyfen was 0.035 in pyriproxyfen-selected strain of M. domestica. The projected rate of resistance development indicated that, if slope = 1.28 and h (2) = 0.035, then 46-21 generations are required for 10-fold increase in LC50 at 50-90 % selection intensity. These findings suggest that a risk for resistance development to pyriproxyfen occurred in M. domestica under continuous selection pressure. Pyriproxyfen susceptibility reversed when its application is ceased for a specified duration. PMID:25363707

  1. Temperature and Population Density Effects on Locomotor Activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T. M.; Faurby, S.; Kjærsgaard, A.;

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomotor...

  2. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner Susan E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1 and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90. In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY

  3. Bonus-Malus System with the Claim Frequency Distribution is Geometric and the Severity Distribution is Truncated Weibull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, D. N.; Purnaba, I. G. P.; Mangku, I. W.

    2016-01-01

    Bonus-Malus system is said to be optimal if it is financially balanced for insurance companies and fair for policyholders. Previous research about Bonus-Malus system concern with the determination of the risk premium which applied to all of the severity that guaranteed by the insurance company. In fact, not all of the severity that proposed by policyholder may be covered by insurance company. When the insurance company sets a maximum bound of the severity incurred, so it is necessary to modify the model of the severity distribution into the severity bound distribution. In this paper, optimal Bonus-Malus system is compound of claim frequency component has geometric distribution and severity component has truncated Weibull distribution is discussed. The number of claims considered to follow a Poisson distribution, and the expected number λ is exponentially distributed, so the number of claims has a geometric distribution. The severity with a given parameter θ is considered to have a truncated exponential distribution is modelled using the Levy distribution, so the severity have a truncated Weibull distribution.

  4. Replanting Affects the Tree Growth and Fruit Quality of Gala Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU En-tai; WANG Gong-shuai; LI Yuan-yuan; SHEN Xiang; CHEN Xue-sen; SONG Fu-hai; WU Shu-jing; CHEN Qiang; MAO Zhi-quan

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) causes the inhibition of root system development, stunts tree growth and so on. To further investigate the effects of ARD on apple fruits, a 25-year-old apple orchard was remediated to establish a replant orchard between November 2008 and March 2009. A rotational cropping orchard was established on an adjacent wheat ifeld. The cultivar and rootstock-scion combination used in the newly established orchards was Royal Gala/M26/Malus hupehensis Rehd. Ripe fruits were collected in mid-August 2011 and mid-August 2012, meanwhile, the following indices were measured:yield per plant;fruit weight;the fruit shape index;the contents of anthocyanin, carotenoid and chlorophyll;the soluble sugar content in the lfesh;titratable acid;the sugar-acid ratio;ifrmness;and aroma components;apple plant ground diameter, plant height increment and the total length of the current-year shoots. The results showed that compared to rotational cropping, continuous cropping yielded statistically signiifcant reductions in fruit weight and yield per plant of 39.8 and 76.5%, respectively. However, there were no changes in the fruit shape index. The anthocyanin and carotenoid contents decreased by 81.7 and 37.7%, respectively, while the chlorophyll content increased by 251.0%. All of these differences in content were statistically signiifcant. The soluble sugar levels and sugar-acid ratio decreased by 25.4 and 60.9%, respectively, but the titratable acid levels and fruit ifrmness increased by 90.9 and 42.8%, respectively. Ten of the most important esters contributing to the apple aroma were analyzed, and the following changes were observed:hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl butyrate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate, amyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 2-methyl-butyl butyrate, hexyl propionate and hexyl hexanoate decreased by 25.5, 78.4, 89.1, 55.5, 79.5, 77.2, 86.8, 69.9, 61.2, and 68.1%, respectively. The contents of three other aroma components, (E)-2-hexenal

  5. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal. PMID:22576856

  6. Utilization of pomace from apple processing industries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini, Rachana; Gupta, D K

    2010-01-01

    In large scale apple juice industry, about 75% of apple is utilized for juice and the remaining 25% is the by-product, apple pomace. In India, total production of apple pomace is about 1 million tons per annum and only approximately 10,000 tons of apple pomace is being utilized. Generally, apple pomace is thrown away, which causes environmental pollution. As the pomace is a part of fruit, it has potential for being converted into edible products. Apple pomace is a rich source of carbohydrate,...

  7. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside the...... high frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and...

  8. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  9. Comparative anatomy of the petioles of different genomic Cydonia × Malus hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Onica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper morphological and anatomical structure of the petioles of 15 different genomic hybrids between quince and apple are compared with other hybrids and the initial forms. Specific and common anatomic peculiarities of the petiole for the studied hybrids in comparison to other hybrids and parental forms are given.

  10. Apple Rootstock New Variety Chistock #1%苹果砧木新品种中砧1号

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振海; 王忆; 张新忠; 许雪峰; 孙扬吾; 沈隽

    2013-01-01

    The iron has a very important role in the growth and development of the plant,iron deficiency causes chlorosis in apple trees.The main producing areas of apple in China just iron deficiency,therefore,filter out iron-efficient resources from rich apple germplasm resources,and breeding new varieties of apple rootstocks through breeding means is fundamental pathway to solve due to iron deficiency affected yield and quality of apple production.Since 1984,the project team screened iron-efficient genotypes from 40 apple stocks and found Malus xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang,grow normally and do not exhibit symptoms of chlorosisin in conditions of very low Fe content,was considered to be an excellent germplasm with tolerance to iron deficiency.Subsequently,open pollinated hybrids groups were established on the basis of M.xiaojinensis Cheng et Jiang seedlings.In 1990,excellent grades was obtained through original selection from natural seedlings.Then after multiple selection and comparison test,bred apple clonal rootstocks Chistock #1.Chistock #1 is a tetraploid in chromosome number (2n =4x =68),with a capacity of apomixis,and setting rate above 85% after emasculation bagged.Then with excellent grafting compatibility,seedling dry good standing and strong solid ground,semi-dwarf,dwarf extent,effects and yield capacity were similar with simi-dwarfing apple rootstock M7.Sweet fruit flavor,palatability,and excellent quality.Resist apple early defoliation disease and branches ring rot,high resistance to apple Chlorotic leaf spot virus(CLSV),Stem pitting virus(SPV) and the Stem groove virus(SGV) and other latent virus.Chistock #1 can effectively prevent etiolation due to iron deficiency as apple rootstock in the lime parent material soil areas.%铁是植物生长的必需微量元素,缺铁导致苹果发生失绿症,生长结果受到影响.我国苹果主产区恰在缺铁区域范围内,因此,从丰富的苹果种质资源中筛选出铁高效型资源,通

  11. Quanto Jobs c'è in Apple?

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Tommasi

    2011-01-01

    ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. T...

  12. Experimental Study on Concentrating Apple Juice by Microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    In order to use microwave in concentrating apple juice and find the law of the relationship between the microwave and the concentrating effect and apply microwave to concentrate the apple juice, studied the apple juice concentrating process by microwave. The results show, microwave can effectively remove the moisture in apple juice and the concentrating quality and concentrating effect would not be affected. The process provides the basis that the microwave is used in apple juice concentrating.

  13. Vield and Quality of New Scab-Resistant Apple Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Ruess, Franz

    2002-01-01

    125 scab-resistant or scab-tolerant apple varieties are currently being tested concerning their suitabiltity lor commerciai apple production at the research-station in Heuchlingen, Southern Germany. Apart Irom the scab-resistant apple varielies .Topaz' and .GoldRush' which are already used lor ecological apple production lurther varieties also seem lo be suitable. The aim 01 Ihe study was lo lind suilable scab-resistanl subslitutes lor not scab-resistanl standard apple-varielies lor ali perio...

  14. RESPONSE OF SEVERAL APPLE VARIETIES TO APPLE SCAB (VENTURIA INAEQUALIS) ATTACK IN CENTRAL TRANSYLVANIA CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    R SESTRAS

    2003-01-01

    Among 75 varieties of apple, verified at the Fruit Research Station in Cluj-Napoca, Central Transylvania, Romania, during seven years (between 1990-1996), 38 registered with certain attack degree with apple scab on leaves and fruits. Susceptible on apple scab – Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. – were the varieties with Japanese origin (i.e. Fuji Aki-fu, Nebuta, Sekai ichi), and in certain years even well known cultivars, as Kaltherer Böhmer, Starkrimson, Red Delicious, Mutzu, Wellspur, Jersey...

  15. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  16. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S S;

    2010-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus that...... infection that was significantly greater than that displayed by newly eclosed adults. Regardless of the MdSGHV isolate tested, all susceptible insects displayed similar degrees of SGH and complete suppression of oogenesis....

  17. Influence of Soil Compaction and Drought on the Growth,Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates in Fugi/M.9EMLA Apple Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yun-cong; John G Streeter; David C Ferree

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown 1-year-old potted M.9EMLA apple trees (Malus pumila Borkh) were subjected to the soil compaction and, after growing under compacted or non-compacted conditions for 6 weeks, were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for an additional six-week period. Soil compaction and drought stress significantly reduced plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area. Although drought significantly inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration, compaction only depressed transpiration. Furthermore, the effects of drought on plant growth, photosynthesis and transpiration were much greater than the effects of compaction. The rate of water loss from compacted plants was lower than the rate from non-compacted controls and this may explain the insignificant impact of compaction on photosynthesis. Sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations increased over time during the drought stress period whereas sucrose concentration declined. In well-watered controls, sucrose concentration was much higher in leaves of compacted plants than in the leaves on non-compacted controls. For most of the sampling dates the leaf sorbitol concentration was lower in leaves on plants growing in compacted soil than in the leaves of those of the non-compacted controls. Although interactions between the effects of compaction and drought were highly significant for plant growth variables during the onset of drought, interactive effects on photosynthesis, transpiration, relative water content and carbohydrate variables were inconsistent. Compaction and drought both have major effects on apple plants and the interactions between these two stresses are complex.

  18. Comparison of Photosynthetic Characteristics of 18 Apple Germplasm Resources%18个苹果种质资源光合特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新娟; 马锋旺; 冯凤娟; 李翠英; 尹蓉

    2011-01-01

    以18个苹果种质资源为试材,嫁接在2 a生平邑甜茶(Malus hupehensis Rehd.)砧木上.在塑料大棚条件下,用LI-6400XT光合仪控制环境条件方法测定净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2摩尔分数(C1)及叶绿素含量,并计算水分利用效率(WUE)及气孔限制值(Ls),用方差分析和相关性分析对苹果种质资源光合特性进行综合评价.结果表明,18个苹果种质资源光合作用各个参数均存在显著差异,Pn与G,和Tr等显著相关,叶片单位鲜质量的叶绿素含量与Pn无显著相关性.18个苹果种质资源光合作用总体能力最高的是卡拉阿尔玛(M.niedzwetzkyana Dieck)、红海棠(M.prunifolia Mill.)和白海棠(M.prunifolia(wild.)Mill.),红沙果(M.pumila Mill.)和夏红肉(M.niedzwetzkyana Dieck.)光合能力较低.%18 apple germplasm resources were grafted on the 2-year-old rootstocks of Malus hupehensis Rehd.. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), a stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured by means of LI-6400XT Portable Photosynthesis System within vinyl tunnel. The chlorophyll contents were analyzed with UNICAMhelios-aultravioletvisible light spectrometer in laboratory. Water use efficiency (WUE) and stomata limitation (Ls)were calculated together with a comprehensive evaluation of photosynthetic characteristics by the analysis of variance and correlation analysis. The results showed that the photosynthesis parameters of 18 apple germplasm resources were obviously different and there was a significant correlation between different Pn and Gs, Tr. The chlorophyll content of unit mass of fresh leaves was not obviously relative to Pn. Among the 18 apple germplasm resources, M. niedzwetzkyana Dieck. , M. prunifolia Mill.and M. prunifolia (Wild.) Mill. had the highest total capacity of photosynthesis, while M. pumila Mill. and M. niedzwetzkyana Dieck. had a relatively low capacity of

  19. Quanto Jobs c'è in Apple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. These, in turn, stem from the striking uniqueness of his creative path and from the severe problems it brought about. To them, he reacted following his own nature, eventually shaping the peculiar personality of Apple. The following paper will try to clarify such notion.

  20. Sedimentation measurements of apple pectins molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is described the sedimentation measurements of a number of apple pectin's molecular weight using only sedimentation diagrams through computer program. This approach has good readability and some advantages over others

  1. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  2. An MYB Transcription Factor from Malus xiaojinensis Has a Potential Role in Iron Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Shen; Xuefeng Xu; Tianzhong Li; Dongmei Cao; Zhenhai Han

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of iron uptake and use is critical for plant survival and growth. We isolated an MYB gene from Malus xiaojinensis named MxMYB1, which is induced under Fe-deficient conditions. Expression of MxMYB1 was upregulated by Fe starvation in the roots but not in leaves, suggesting that MxMYB1 might play a role in iron nutrition in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MxMYB1 exhibited lower iron content as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal (40 Μm) and Fe-deflcient conditions (Fe omitted and Ferrozine 300 Μm). However, the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were not changed in these transgenic plants. Gene chip and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression of two Fe-related genes encoding an iron transporter AtIRT1 and an iron storage protein ferritin AtFER1 might be negatively regulated by MxMYB1 as the expression levels of these genes were lower in MxMYB1 expressing transgenic Arabidopsls plants as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal and Fe-deficient conditions. These results suggest that MxMYB1 may function as a negative regulator of iron uptake and storage In plants.

  3. Method of Constructing Core Collection for Malus sieversii in Xinjiang, China Using Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-yu; CHEN Xue-sen; ZHANG Yan-min; YUAN Zhao-he; LIU Zun-chun; WANG Yan-ling; LIN Qun

    2009-01-01

    The method for constructing core collection of Malus sieversii based on molecular marker data was proposed. According to 128 SSR allele of 109 M. sieversii, an allele preferred sampling strategy was used to construct M. sieversii core collection, using the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group average method) cluster method according to Nei & Li, SM, and Jaccard genetic distances, by stepwise clustering, and compared with the random sampling strategy. The number of lost allele and t-test of Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were used to evaluate the representative core collections. The results showed that compared with the random sampling strategy, allele preferred sampling strategy could construct more representative core collections. SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances had no significant difference for construction of M. sieversii core collection. SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) data and morphological data showed that allele preferred sampling strategy was a good sampling strategy for constructing core collection of M. sieversii. Allele preferred sampling strategy combined with SM, Jaccard, and Nei & Li genetic distances using stepwise clustering was the suitable method for constructing M. sieversii core collection.

  4. Modeling of Geographic Distribution of Malus doumeri%台湾林檎(Malus doumeri(Bois.) Chev.)地理分布模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷宏; 杨俊仙; 郑玉红; 汤庚国

    2012-01-01

    Specimens of Malus doumeri (Bois. ) Chev. from some herbaria, including the herbarium of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (PE) , were re-identified in light of the latest taxonomic outcome of the genus Malus Mill. A total of 243 valuable distribution records were selected and digitized into the geographic coordinate data. Based on these data, the geographical distribution was mapped using DIVA-GIS. This distribution presents a pattern extending mainly from the southwest to southern and east in China, and disconnecting between Chinese Continent and Taiwan Island. It is almost consistent with the distribution of specimen records modeling with current bioclimatic data by BIOCLIM, and some potential distribution areas were found. Nineteen climate variables of the distribution points that fell in the envelope of variables of the Asia climate (spatial resolution 30 arc s) were analyzed by principal component analysis. Precipitation of wettest quarter, annual range of temperature, and precipitation of driest quarter were found to be dominant factors affecting the geographic distribution of M. doumery. Niches of dominant factors were interval only, and other niches overlapped among the varieties. The present and future potential distribution maps were predicted by BIOCLIM with current and future bioclimatic data (spatial resolution 30 arc s). Results showed that the overall distribution profile almost did not change, and it changed only in the scope and size of suitable area for each level within the entire distribution area. Based on the characteristics of ecological requirements and distribution trends of M. doumeri, the original region of M. doumeri is speculated in the borders between Yunnan, Cuangxi, Laos and Vietnam.%依据苹果属最新的系统分类学成果,重新鉴定了中国科学院植物研究所等标本馆的标本,选取了243个有价值的分布记录转换成地理坐标数据,用DIVA-GIS绘制了采集标本的

  5. Determination of daminozide in apples and apple leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Dam, R.C.J. van; Vreeken, R.J.; Steijger, O.M.

    1999-01-01

    A straightforward and efficient method was developed for the determination of intact daminozide in apples and apple leaves. After extraction with methanol and a clean-up step using a graphitized carbon cartridge, the extract was analysed by ion-trap liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC

  6. Constructing and Using an Apple IIe Computer AppleWorks Document Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a step-by-step procedure for setting up a document library of personal word processing, database, and spreadsheet files using the Apple IIe computer and the AppleWorks subprogram database. This library, which can serve both as a running record of files created and as a means for easy retrieval, uses 10 fields or categories…

  7. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  8. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  9. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  10. Field testing of potential new compounds for apple scab control in organic apple production.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Seniorscientist Hanne Lindhard; Paaske, Klaus; Bengtsson, Marianne; Hockenhull, John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Improved prevention and control of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis without the use of copper is the aim of this project. Twenty potential new compounds were tested in a field trial in a single season. One compound was found to reduce apple scab infections significantly. The research continues in 2006 and 2007.

  11. The development of enamel tubules during the formation of enamel in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasagawa, I; Ferguson, M W

    1991-01-01

    In Monodelphis domestica, although both processes from odontoblasts and projections from ameloblasts were found in developing enamel, the majority of the contents of enamel tubules were probably processes that originated from odontoblasts. Processes from odontoblasts penetrating into enamel touched part of the ameloblasts in the stage of enamel formation. No specialised cell junctions were seen at the adherence between the two. There were no enamel tubules in the aprismatic and pseudoprismati...

  12. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Davood Ommi; Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Faham Khamesipour

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica) in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aer...

  13. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larva...

  14. Feeding chickens fly larvae (Musca domestica) protein improves gut health and performances

    OpenAIRE

    Nordentoft, Steen; Engberg, Ricarda M

    2014-01-01

    In a feeding trial 450 layer chickens were fed either of 3 isoenergetic diets supplemented with different fish meal, grounded fly meal (Musca domestica) or fly meal and fresh fly larvae. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of feeding grounded fly larva to layer chickens as an alternative protein source for fish meal in organic poultry. Parameters investigated were weight gain, food consumption, animal behavior and study whether it would have effect on intestinal health.

  15. Genetic characterization of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) in Cerete-Colombia, using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Meléndez G.; Enrique Pardo P; Teodora Cavadia M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The purpose of this study was to characterize a population of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) in Cereté, Córdoba, using 20 microsatellite; calculate heterozygosity per locus and average heterozygosity. Materials and methods. Hair samples were collected from 62 specimens. DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform purification. Information from 20 microsatellites was selected out of those recommended for swine biodiversity studies. PCR products wer...

  16. Purunusides A-C, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory homoisoflavone glucosides from Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Shaheen; Fatima, Itrat; Mahmood, Azhar; Ahmed, Rehana; Malik, Abdul; Talib, Sumaira; Chouhdary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2009-12-01

    Purunusides A-C (1-3), new homoisoflavone glucosides together with the known compounds beta-sitosterol (4) and 6,7-methylenedioxy-8-methoxycoumarin (5) have been isolated from n-butanol and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of Prunus domestica. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectral studies. The compounds 1-3 showed potent inhibitory activity against the enzyme alpha-glucosidase. PMID:20162398

  17. Hemodynamic and Histologic Characterization of a Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) Model of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Abraham; Wiencek, Robert G; Davidson, Stephanie; William N. Evans; Restrepo, Humberto; Sarukhanov, Valeri; Rivera-Begeman, Amanda; Mann, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize an aortopulmonary shunt model of chronic pulmonary hypertension in swine and provide sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and histologic data by using an experimental endoarterial biopsy catheter. Nine Yucatan female microswine (Sus scrofa domestica) underwent surgical anastomosis of the left pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. Sequential hemodynamic, angiographic, and pulmonary vascular samples were obtained. Six pigs (mean weig...

  18. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  19. Hermes, a functional non-Drosophilid insect gene vector from Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brochta, D A; Warren, W D; Saville, K J; Atkinson, P W

    1996-03-01

    Hermes is a short inverted repeat-type transposable element from the house fly, Musca domestica. Using an extra-chromosomal transpositional recombination assay, we show that Hermes elements can accurately transpose in M. domestica embryos. To test the ability of Hermes to function in species distantly related to M. domestica we used a nonautonomous Hermes element containing the Drosophila melanogaster while (w+) gene and created D. melanogaster germline transformants. Transgenic G1 insects were recovered from 34.6% of the fertile G0 adults developing from microinjected w- embryos. This transformation rate is comparable with that observed using P or hobo vectors in D. melanogaster, however, many instances of multiple-element insertions and large clusters were observed. Genetic mapping, Southern blotting, polytene chromosome in situ hybridization and DNA sequence analyses confirmed that Hermes elements were chromosomally integrated in transgenic insects. Our data demonstrate that Hermes elements transpose at high rates in D. melanogaster and may be an effective gene vector and gene-tagging agent in this species and distantly related species of medical and agricultural importance. PMID:8849896

  20. BIOEFFICACY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS AGAINST HOUSEFLY, MUSCA DOMESTICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. CHINTALCHERE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect, associated with vectoring of various etiologicalagents. In order to search for effective control method, bioefficacy of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgarisand Clove leaf (Eugenia coryophyllus was studied against housefly. The LC (50 3.18ug/cm2 value of Clove leaf oilwas found highly effective as compared to LC (50 value 4.39ug/cm2 of Thyme essential oil for inducing mortalityof M. domestica larvae. The adulticidal activity of Thyme essential oil LC (50 32.71 mg/dm3 was toxic than Cloveleaf essential oil [LC (50 53.10 mg/dm3]. In Attractant / repellant Bioassay, Thyme essential oil revealed 90.21%repellency as compared to 80.68 % value of Clove leaf essential oil against adults of House fly. In fumigationbioassay, Thyme showed high Pupicidal activity than Clove leaf oil and in contact toxicity bioassay using topicalapplication both the oils showed 100 % pupicidal mortality. The data reveals that Clove and Thyme essential oilshave excellent potential for controlling M. domestica population as eco-friendly approach in IPM.

  1. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  2. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  3. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  4. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  5. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  6. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  7. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  8. Consumer Preferences: A Guide to Connecticut Apple Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Robert L.; Wadsworth, James J.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research are: (1) to identify the preferences of Connecticut apple consumers regarding product attributes and market characteristics; (2) to assess the impact of Connecticut promotion programs on consumer preference for Connecticut grown apples, and (3) to identify opportunities for more effective marketing of Connecticut grown apples. Information was obtained by interviewing a total of 374 persons purchasing apples at farm stores, pick-your-own orchards, superm...

  9. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food products: an apple marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques

  10. Apple'i kasum purustas ootusi / Virge Lahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahe, Virge

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika arvutitootja Apple'i suur kasum tagas head eeldused tarkvarafirma mobiiltelefoni iPhone'i eduks. Kommenteerib Sander Paas. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia rallis majandustulemuste peale üle 10 protsendi. Tabel: Apple'i kasum segmentide kaupa mln dollarites

  11. The Microwave Concentrator Design and Study on Concentrating Apple Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Geng Yuefeng; Ge Xinfeng

    2014-01-01

    Microwave concentrating device on fresh apple juice is designed in order to increase concentrating fresh apple juice efficiency and microwave concentrating process on fresh apple juice were studied. The designed microwave concentrator contains microwave generator, dehumidification system, electrical cabinet, parabolic waveguide, control system, microwave leakage inhibited mechanism and other components. The concentrating experiment is carried by the designed concentrator, from the setting-to-...

  12. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  13. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices

  14. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gopaljee Jha; Karnika Thakur; Priyanka Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  15. Marketingové strategie firmy APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Preněk, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is a definition of marketing goals and strategies of the Apple company on the basis of the complex positional analysis, whose output is the SWOT analysis. For purpose of using theoretical knowledge in praxis one part is devoted to the marketing instruments, which are used by the analyzed company. This part leads to analysis of the company's marketing mix of one of the product made by Apple. This thesis includes also results of the market research which was focused...

  16. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  17. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported. METHODOLOGY: Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species. CONCLUSIONS: All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes

  18. Gamma irradiation as a commodity treatment against the Queensland fruit fly in fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third instars of the Queensland fruit fly, Batrocera tryoni (Froggatt), were more tolerant to gamma irradiation than other stages that infest fresh fruit from Australia. A dose of 75 Gy prevented the development of adults when the eggs or larvae were irradiated in apples (Malus domestica L.), oranges (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) avocados (Persea americana Mill.), mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cherries (Prunus avium L.). The proventriculus of the treated larvae developed normally, while development of the supraoesophageal ganglion was retarded. All the fruits, with the exception of avocados, tolerated 100 Gy without developing injury symptoms. 54 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  19. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae. PMID:22398438

  20. Fenolinių junginių kiekybinės ir kokybinės sudėties bei antioksidantinio aktyvumo tyrimas obelų (malus domestica l.) Lapuose

    OpenAIRE

    Žvikas, Vaidotas

    2014-01-01

    Fenoliniai junginiai yra vieni iš daugelio obelų lapuose sutinkamų junginių. Dažniausiai sutinkami fenoliniai junginiai yra flavonoidai (floridzinas, epikatechinas, katechinas ir kiti) ir fenolinės rūgštys (kavos rūgštis, chlorogeno rūgštis). Fenoliniai junginiai apsaugoaugalus nuo oksidacinės pažaidos ir kitų nepalankių aplinkos sąlygų. Medicinoje vienas iš svarbiausių flavonoidų pritaikymo būdas, paremtas jų antioksidantiniu poveikiu. Jie vartojami mažinant oksidacinį stresą. Kiti naudingi ...

  1. Validación de un Sistema de Manejo Integrado de Plagas y Enfermedades en Huertos de Manzano [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] en Chihuahua, México

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rafael Ramírez Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo Cuéllar; Mario René Ávila Marioni; Roberto Gutiérrez González

    2004-01-01

    Durante los años 1999 y 2000, se validó en área comercial de tres huertos con los cultivares Golden y Red Delicious el sistema de manejo integrado de plagas (MIP) en manzano, desarrollado por Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP). El método de validación fue la comparación entre el manejo del productor y el manejo de plagas y enfermedades del INIFAP en superficies contiguas de una hectárea dentro de un mismo huerto. Los parámetros evaluados fueron: a...

  2. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  3. Towards sustainable intensiifcation of apple production in China-Yield gaps and nutrient use efifciency in apple farming systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Na; Joost Wolf; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globaly with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China’s apple is signiifcantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple production is based on excessive application of chemical fertilizers and the nutrient use efifciency (especialy nitrogen) is therefore low and the nutrient emissions to the environment are high. Apple production in China is considerably contributes to farmers’ incomes and is important as export product. There is an urgent need to enhance apple productivity and improve nutrient use efifciencies in intensive apple production systems in the country. These can be attained by improved understanding of production potential, yield gaps, nutrient use and best management in apple orchards. To the end, priorities in research on apple production systems and required political support are described which may lead to more sustainable and environmental-friendly intensiifcation of apple production in China.

  4. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet…

  5. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  6. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory records…

  7. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file building…

  8. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of word…

  9. Análise do pólen em dezoito cultivares de macieira Pollen analysis of eighteen apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campo Dall'Orto

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Como subsídio essencial ao projeto de melhoramento genético da macieira (Malus spp. por hibridação e ao conhecimento da polinização natural nas condições do Estado de São Paulo, efetuaram-se estudos sobre a quantidade e a viabilidade do pólen existente em dezoito cultivares de maior interesse no momento. Constatou-se que, entre os cultivares mais utilizados nos cruzamentos, Anna, Brasil, Dulcina, Ein Shemer, Gala, Rainha e Valinhense, juntamente com as novas seleções - IAC 170-1 e IAC 570-38 - foram os que se apresentaram mais ricos de pólen, com número superior a 50.000 grãos por flor. Quanto à viabilidade polínica desse material estudado, a germinação situou-se em níveis bastante satisfatórios - quase sempre maior que 50% - mesmo quando se armazenou o pólen por um período de 70 dias, em ambiente frio (-1ºC em dessecadores.Aiming to find out variations in pollen quantity and viability in eighteen apple cultivars, analysis of "in vitro" germination was performed to contribute - as a parameter for genetic breeding by hybridization and as a pollination basis. The apple cultivars or selections recommended for commercial planting, at the mild climate conditions prevailing in the State of São Paulo, Brasil, and most utilized in crosses, are nowadays the following: Anna, Brasil, Dulcina, Ein Shemer, Gala, Rainha, Valinhense, IAC 170-1 and IAC 570-38. These cultivars presented more than 50 thousand pollen grains per one flower. The germination index observed (also an indicator of pollen viability was higher than 50 percent in great number of materials, indicating that the pollen of the apple plant, well prepared, can be stored in a cold and dry environment (a desiccator at -1ºC during a period of about 70 days.

  10. Biosynthesis of pectinolytic enzymes by Aspergillus on apple pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro; Petreska, Meri; Ziberoski, Jugoslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pulp utilization. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts by submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus. Different concentration on apple pulp and different pH initial on the bases were studied, and all other process parameters were same. Results of different concentration on apple pulp gived maximal endo- PG with 1% apple pulp, during from 96 h, and the growth of the micr...

  11. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  12. Apple and pear rootstock research in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kviklys, Darius

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents ongoing apple and pear rootstock trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Rootstock research projects are established in following directions: rootstock and location interaction (Baltic fruit rootstock studies where Byelorussian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish research institutions are involved); budding high effect on rootstock performance; interstock trials; rootstock effect on fruit quality, ripening time and fruit storage; rootstock and tree trainin...

  13. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, F.A.; Schaart, J.G.; Burgh, van der A.M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, I.E.M.; Groenwold, R.; Kodde, L.P.; Broggini, G.A.L.; Gessler, C.; Schouten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of re

  14. POTENTIAL EXPOSURE OF APPLE THINNERS TO PHOSALONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple thinning results in considerable human contact with foliage, fruit, and limbs. This work often occurs during that portion of the growing season when trees are most frequently being sprayed for insect conrol. Therefore, of all workers exposed to pesticide residues upon reent...

  15. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The FDA has been ... this, the FDA is considering how any possible health risk from these two forms of ... arsenic in fruit juice? The FDA has proposed an “action level” ...

  16. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.; Gilioli, G.; Grégoire, J.-C.; Jeger, M. J.; Karadjova, O. E.; Lövei, G.; Makowski, D.; Manceau, C.; Navajas, M.; Porta Puglia, A.; Rafoss, T.; Rossi, V.; Schans, J.; Schrader, G.; Urek, G.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Vloutoglou, I; Winter, S.; Zlotina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir...

  17. Steven jobs and his apple computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春枝

    2002-01-01

    The designer(设计者)of apple computer,steven jobs,was not quite successful(成功的)in his early years.he was not among the best students at school,and from time to time he got into truble with either his schoolmates or his teachers.but he was full of new ideas,

  18. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  19. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  20. Degradation of apple fruit xyloglucan by endoglucanase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Beldman, G.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A purified, alkali-extractable apple fruit xyloglucan (APfxg) was treated by endoglucanase (endoIV) from Trichoderma viride. The degradation products were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography on BioGel P-2; the pentamer to dodecamer fractions were further fractionated by semi-preparative hi

  1. Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the optical properties of apple tissue, especially bruised tissue, can help us prevent or mitigate bruise occurrence during harvest and postharvest operations, and develop an effective method for detecting bruises during sorting and grading. This research was aimed at determining the o...

  2. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  3. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  4. Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Monika; Bielawska, Aleksandra; Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, Hanna; Priebe, Waldemar; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2014-11-01

    Apples are among the most popular fruits in the world. They are rich in phenolic compounds, pectin, sugar, macro- and microelements. Applying different extraction techniques it is possible to isolate a particular group of compounds or individual chemicals and then test their biological properties. Many reports point to the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and many other beneficial effects of apple components that may have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This paper summarizes and compiles information about apple phenolic compounds, their biological properties with particular emphasis on health-related aspects. The data are reviewed with regard to different apple varieties, part of apple, cultivation model and methods of extraction. PMID:25282014

  5. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J. L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der, D

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple stem pitting, originating from apple, that were back transmitted from N. occidentalis 37B and N. occidentalis subsp. obliqua to apple seedlings are indexed by double budding on apple and pear indi...

  6. Early Postnatal B Cell Ontogeny and Antibody Repertoire Maturation in the Opossum, Monodelphis domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinxin; Sharp, Alana R.; Miller, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Marsupials are a lineage of mammals noted for giving birth to highly altricial young, which complete much of their “fetal” development externally attached to a teat. Postnatal B cell ontogeny and diversity was investigated in a model marsupial species, the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. The results support the initiation of B cell development late in gestation and progressing into the first two weeks of postnatal life. Transcription of CD79a and CD79b was detected in embryo...

  7. Unusual pseudomyiasis with Musca domestica (housefly) larvae in a child with chronic otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar Iqbal; Satish Chandra Sharma; Hiba Sami; Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a disease caused by fly larvae and aural myiasis is a rare clinic condition often occurring in children or mentally retarded people. We report the case of an unusual presentation of a unilateral aural myiasis in a 3-year-old female child patient belonging to a slum with unilateral chronic otitis media caused by Musca domestica (housefly) larvae. Eight larvae were removed from the external auditory canal while five more larvae were located in the middle ear cavity and were removed t...

  8. Insecticidal properties of Heliotropium stenophyllum essential oil on the House fly, Musca domestica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro URZÚA; Brenda MODAK; Rocío SANTANDER; Heit, Cecilia; Echeverría, Javier

    2013-01-01

    La composición del aceite esencial (AE) obtenido por hidrodestilación de hojas secas de Heliotropium stenophyllum (Heliotropiaceae) se analizó mediante cromatografía de gases (CG) y cromatografía de gases/espectrometría de masas (CG/EM). La actividad insecticida del aceite contra la mosca doméstica Musca domestica se evaluó y la dosis necesaria para matar el 50% de las moscas (LC50) en 2 h se determinó a 25 ± 1 ºC. El aceite esencial de Heliotropium stenophyllum mostró potentes propiedades in...

  9. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila

  10. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

  11. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino;

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra-re...

  12. Biological trait analysis and stability of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Iqbal, Naeem; Razaq, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae), are pests of poultry and have the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. To design a strategy for resistance management, life history traits based on laboratory observations were established for lambda-cyhalothrin-resistant, susceptible and reciprocal crosses of M. domestica strains. Bioassay results showed that the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 98.34 compared to its susceptible strain. The lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain had a relative fitness of 0.26 and lower fecundity, hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, and net reproductive rate compared with its susceptible strain. Mean population growth rates, such as intrinsic rate of population increase, and biotic potential were lower for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain compared to its susceptible strain. Resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, indoxacarb, and abamectin was unstable while resistance to bifenthrin and methomyl was stable in the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain of M. domestica. Development of resistance can cost considerable fitness for the lambda-cyhalothrin-selected strain. The present study provided useful information for making potential management strategies to delay resistance development in M. domestica. PMID:26874957

  13. The affect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ingestion on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and lysozyme expression in the common housefly (Musca domestica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common house fly (Musca domestica L.) lives and thrives in one of the most septic niches on Earth, making bacterial exposure imminent. House flies often ingest bacteria and have both physical and chemical defenses utilized to protect themselves from harmful microbes. For example, defense molecul...

  14. Geometric correlation of cultural landscape patterns and Prunus domestica L. species leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the basics for more detailed research on the structures of bionic forms of different plant species and their application in the domain of landscape planning. The aim of this type of research is to expand knowledge of landscape planning with a deeper understanding of different geometric relations present in the existing natural forms. The correlation between structures in nature and structures that are present in contemporary landscape architecture could be established by the congruence with the geometric models from landscape. This paper is focused solely on the geometry of natural forms. The Voronoi diagram was used in order to examine the similarities and to perform a comparative analysis of the Prunus domestica L. leaf geometry and the geometry of cultural landscapes of Central Serbia. The resulting Voronoi diagram shows the similarity based on closed fields, Voronoi cells, which correspond to the nervation of Prunus domestica L. leaf by form. Using the comparative analysis, the geometric interpretation of cultural landscape examples could be linked to the geometric structure of the most frequent fruit tree species.

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  16. Evaluation of cold shock-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the house fly Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mishra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low temperature affects the survival, growth and development of invertebrates, especially insects, based on the severity of cold and the duration of exposure. Although the effects of cold shock or direct chilling were previously analysed in terms of development patterns and defects, morphological changes, cold hardiness, cryopreservation and diapause in insects, very little information is available regarding the effects of cold shock at the chromosomal level. Material and Methods: Late third instar larvae of the house fly Musca domestica were exposed to low temperatures (10, 4, 0 and -5°C for different durations, in order to assess genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the present study. The chromosomal aberration assay and micronucleus test were used as genotoxic end points. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the mitotic index and the extent of tissue damage was observed using the Trypan blue staining method. Results: A significant (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.001 increase in chromosome aberrations and micronucleus frequency was observed in all of the exposed groups compared to the control. The mitotic index showed a dose-dependent increase; however, it was lower in comparison to the control. The developmental patterns in exposed larvae exhibited an increase in larval mortality and a delay in adult emergence. Extensive tissue damage was observed at -5°C by Trypan blue staining. Conclusions: The present work suggests that cold shock induces chromosome aberrations and cytotoxicity and affects the developmental pattern in house fly, M. domestica.

  17. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  18. Genetic characterization of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cerete-Colombia, using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meléndez G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to characterize a population of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cereté, Córdoba, using 20 microsatellite; calculate heterozygosity per locus and average heterozygosity. Materials and methods. Hair samples were collected from 62 specimens. DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform purification. Information from 20 microsatellites was selected out of those recommended for swine biodiversity studies. PCR products were separated by a vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized by staining with silver nitrate. Results. All microsatellites used were polymorphic. Between 3 (SW1067 and 15 (IFNG alleles were detected with an average number of 6.7 and a total de 134 alleles. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.5278 and 0.5479, respectively. PIC values ranged between 0.1999 and 0.8300 for loci SW1067 and SW911, respectively. Conclusions. Levels of observed and expected heterozygosity found in the present study indicate that the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Córdoba Cereté show high degree of genetic variability

  19. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21 (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P21212 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress

  20. Bactericidal activity of Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc) on multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X; Shen, J; Jin, X; Ma, Y; Huang, Y; Mei, H; Chu, F; Zhu, J

    2012-08-01

    The housefly (Musca domestica) larvae have been used clinically to cure osteomyelitis, decubital necrosis, lip boil, ecthyma and malnutritional stagnation ever since the Ming/Qing Dynasty (1368 Anno Domini) till now, in China. In prior research, we have cloned and characterized a new gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin from M. domestica larvae. This peptide was potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of Mdc to be a potential bactericidal agent against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and to elucidate the related antimicrobial mechanisms. Antimicrobial activity assays indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.56 μM. Bactericidal kinetics at MIC showed that Mdc rapid killing of MDR E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently suppressed Mdc antibacterial potency indicates that LPS is the initial binding site of Mdc in E. coli. Propidium iodide-based flow cytometry revealed that Mdc causes E. coli membrane permeabilization. Transmission electron micrographs further indicated that a remarkable damage in the bacteria's outer and inner membrane, even the leakage of cytoplasmic contents induced by Mdc. DNA binding experimental result implies that DNA is one of the possible intracellular targets of Mdc. Of note, Mdc did not show a perceptible cytotoxic effect on human red blood cells. Altogether, these results suggest that Mdc could be an excellent candidate for the development of more efficacious bactericidal agents. PMID:22202966

  1. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby Schal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml-1, composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (~240 kD and apolipophorin II (~85 kD. Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985 that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues.

  2. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  3. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  4. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author)

  5. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  6. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea. PMID:25289003

  7. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  8. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  9. Camapple: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of the 'personal' microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilliscopes. Here we describe an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support. (orig.)

  10. Apple iPhone拆解分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Apple iPhone是一款多功能高端手持设备,同时也具有移动媒体播放器、网络浏览器功能,其3.5英寸多触点触摸屏带16M色彩,160dpi时分辨率为480×320。其无线通信功能包括WiFi(802.11b/g)、EDGE、蓝牙2.0+EDR。该手机还带有2百万像素相机模块、SMS、网络浏览、照片编辑等功能,它采用Apple 0S X版本操作系统。

  11. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  12. Apple and Samsung Mobile Devices Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bureš, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis presents a comparison of mobile devices, Apple and Samsung, in particular the characteristics of the individual companies and the historical development of their mobile devices. It is focused on a comparison of selected mobile devices and finally discusses the major patent wars waged between the two companies. At the same time bachelor's thesis in his research points to the specific preferences of users of mobile devices.

  13. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  14. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  15. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

  16. Experiments of Top Grafting with Hard Branches of Hanfu Apple%“寒富”苹果硬枝高接试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2012-01-01

    以山定子大树为砧木,设嫁接方法、接穗保湿措施、长穗接、多穗接4个处理进行寒富苹果硬枝高接试验。结果表明:劈接、插皮接,接穗涂保湿剂,嫁接成活率高;采用长穗接、多穗接,可早期获得较高单株产量。%Taking Malus baccata as rootstock,four treatments(grafting methods,measure of preserving moisture for scions,longer scions,more scions)were conducted for experiments of top grafting with hard branches of Hanfu apple.Result shows that : higher grafting survival rate can be obtained by using measures of V-shaped grafting,bark grafing,scion coated moisturizing agent;higher yield per plant can be obtained by using measures of longer more scions.

  17. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, Senior Scientist Birka Falk; Thybo, Senior Scientist Anette

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  18. Porovnání platformy Apple a PC

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work, Apple and PC Platform Comporasion is devided into four sections. First part shows evolution of Apple and gives a representation of development following operating systems: Mac OS and Windows. Second part contains definition of the main differences between Mac and PC platforms. Third part tells about comparaison of the most modern operation systems from Apple and Microsoft. In fourth part operation systems will be compared with respect to speed and performance. Comparais...

  19. Industry Analysis: Apple Processors in the Northeastern U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin L.

    2001-01-01

    Apple processors are an important link in the marketing chain from apple growers to consumers, and their perspective is critical in understanding the industry?s situation and projecting the industry?s future. This paper reports the results of a survey of Northeastern U.S. apple processors. The survey was conducted to provide a snapshot of current strategic issues in the industry, to assess the industry?s strengths and weaknesses, to identify opportunities and threats, to forecast future trend...

  20. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang Bin

    2013-01-01

    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...