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Sample records for apple leafroller bonagota

  1. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb?insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food

    OpenAIRE

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and n...

  2. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb-insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) was used for the residue analysis. The analytical performance of the method was satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties ≤36% (a coverage factor, k = 2, and a confidence level of 95%). The dissipations of insecticides were studied in pseudo-first-order kinetic models (for which the coefficient of determination, R 2 , ranged between 0.9188 and 0.9897). Residues of studied insecticides were below their maximum residue limits of 0.5 mg/kg at an early stage of growth of the fruit. The half-lives of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb were 16-17, 4-6 and 20-24 days, respectively. The initial residue levels declined gradually and reached the level of 0.01 mg/kg in 1 month for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb. To obtain the insecticide residue levels below 0.01 mg/kg, which is the default MRL for food intended for infants and young children, the application of the studied insecticides should be carried out at recommended doses not later then: 1 month before harvest for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb.

  3. Eficiência e efeitos subletais de nim sobre Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Efficiency and sublethal effects of neem on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Daniel Bernardi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência e os efeitos subletais de um inseticida à base de nim (10 g.L-1 de azadiractina A sobre a lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota salubricola em laboratório. Nos bioensaios, foi utilizado o produto à base de azadiractina NeemAzal-T/S® nas concentrações de 0,06%; 0,09%; 0,12%; 0,16%; 0,18% e 0,20% do produto comercial (p.c e uma testemunha (água destilada. A dieta artificial foi cortada em cubos e imersa nas caldas das respectivas concentrações do produto, e, em seguida, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas para tubos de vidro, contendo os cubos de dieta tratados. Quando a dieta artificial foi tratada com concentração de 0,20% do produto comercial, houve 100% da mortalidade aos 6 dias após a inoculação. Por outro lado, as concentrações de 0,16 e 0,18% prolongaram a fase larval, reduziram a viabilidade de pupas e afetaram negativamente a fecundidade do inseto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and sublethal effects of neem insecticide (10 g.L-1 of azadirachtin A to the leafroller Bonagota salubricola at laboratory condition. In the bioassays, it was used an azadirachtin based product (NeemAzal-T/S® at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.09%, 0.12%, 0.16%, 0.18% and 0.20% of the commercial product (c.p. and a control (distilled water. The artificial diet was cut in cubes and immersed in the syrups of the respective product concentrations, soon afterwards recently-emerged caterpillars were transferred to glass tubes, containing the diet cubes treated. When the artificial diet was treated with a concentration of 0.20% of the commercial product, the mortality was 100% at the 6th day after inoculation. Additionally, concentrations of 0.16% and 0.18% extended the larval stages, reduced pupae viability and negatively affected the fecundity of the insect.

  4. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleski, Adalecio; Sugayama, Regina L.; Malavasi, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  5. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  6. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    /09. The apples were bagged after fruit thinning, with bags made of transparent micro-perforated plastic or non-textured fabric. The control treatment consisted of unbagged fruit. At harvest, fruits were assessed for damages caused by fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus, oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, apple leafroller (Bonagota salubricola and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidence of the apple scab (Venturia inaequalis and bitter rot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides diseases, as well as for physico-chemical attributes of maturity and quality, and calcium (Ca content of the fruit. Fruit bagging, regardless of the material used, reduced the damages caused by insect pests, but it did not protect fruit against diseases caused by the evaluated fungus. Fruit bagging did not affect the development of the red color and Ca content of the fruit. In general, the bagging anticipated the fruit maturation process, characterized by the reduction on flesh firmness and skin and pulp texture, and by the increase of the starch-iodine index.

  7. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastori, Patrik L.; Monteiro, Lino B.; Botton, Marcos; Pratissoli, Dirceu

    2007-01-01

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  8. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  9. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3

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    Hans J. Maree

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3, the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant-pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management.

  10. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  11. Expression of Recombinant Potato leafroll virus Structural and Non-structural Proteins for Antibody Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plchová, Helena; Moravec, Tomáš; Dědič, P.; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2011), s. 130-132 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MZe QH71123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato leafroll virus * recombinant viral antigen * antibody production Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2011

  12. Short communication: Molecular analysis of Potato leafroll virus isolates from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plchová, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš; Dědič, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2009), s. 153-155 ISSN 0920-8569 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71123; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato leafroll virus * Sequencing * Phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2009

  13. Localization of potato leafroll virus in leaves of secondarily-infected potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Blank, de C.M.; Peters, D.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) antigen was localized by immunogold labelling in semi-thin leaf sections of secondarily-infected potato plants cv. Bintje. Viral antigen was present in all cell types of the phloem tissue. but occurred most abundantly in the companion cells. Detectable amounts of PLRV

  14. Molecular characterization of pea enation mosaic virus and bean leafroll virus from the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapati, B; Druffel, K L; Eigenbrode, S D; Karasev, A; Pappu, H R

    2010-10-01

    The family Luteoviridae consists of eight viruses assigned to three different genera, Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. The complete genomic sequences of pea enation mosaic virus (genus Enamovirus) and bean leafroll virus (genus Luteovirus) from the Pacific Northwest, USA, were determined. Annotation, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis of selected genes together with those of known polero- and enamoviruses were conducted.

  15. Infection of potato plants with potato leafroll virus changes attraction and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Garzo, E.; Verbeek, M.; Vosman, B.; Dicke, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) is a persistently transmitted circulative virus that depends on aphids for spreading. The primary vector of PLRV is the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Solanum tuberosum L. potato cv. Kardal (Solanaceae) has a

  16. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  17. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  18. Knowing Apples

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    Lorraine Shannon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.

  19. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  20. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  1. Controle de tortricídeos em macieira com duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kustaki em Fraiburgo-SC Tortricid moth control in apple with two formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kustaki in Fraiburgo-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapholita molesta e Bonagota cranaodes são duas importantes pragas de pomares de macieira controlada por inseticidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk para o controle desses tortricídeos. Parcelas de macieira 'Fuji' foram pulverizadas com Dipel PM e Dipel SC, nas concentrações de 100 ml por100 L de calda. A eficiência do Btk foi comparada com os inseticidas tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 90 ml por 100 L e clorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 ml por 100 L. Duas vezes por semana, eram avaliadas as capturas de pragas em armadilha do tipo Delta. As avaliações de danos nos frutos foram realizadas antes e na colheita, sendo classificados os frutos em função do agrupamento em cachopa e a sua localização na planta. Os tratamentos com Btk tiveram mais danos do que os químicos. Houve uma tendência de maiores danos na parte interna, próximo ao tronco das macieiras e o agrupamento dos frutos não influenciou na presença de danos. Ambas as formulações de Dipel foram eficientes quando comparados com Mimic e Lorsban.Grapholita molesta and Bonagota cranaodes are two key pests in apple orchards controlled by insecticides. The objective of the present study was to test two formulas of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki to control these tortricid moths. Plot of 'Fuji' apple trees were sprayed with Dipel PM and Dipel SC, at a concentration of 100ml por 100 l liquid. The efficiency of Btk was compared with the insecticides tebuphenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 90 ml por 100 L and chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 ml por 100 L. The capture of pests in a Delta-type trap was assessed twice a week. Fruit damage was evaluated pre- and post- harvest and the fruit were classified by branch-end clustering and location on the plant. The treatments with B. thuringiensis were more damaged than those with chemical treatments. There tended to be more damage in the internal part, close to the apple tree

  2. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

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    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  3. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

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    Arthur Agnello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.

  4. Ecosystem engineers on plants: indirect facilitation of arthropod communities by leaf-rollers at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila; Romero, Gustavo Q

    2013-07-01

    Ecosystem engineering is a process by which organisms change the distribution of resources and create new habitats for other species via non-trophic interactions. Leaf-rolling caterpillars can act as ecosystem engineers because they provide shelter to secondary users. In this study, we report the influence of leaf-rolling caterpillars on speciose tropical arthropod communities along both spatial scales (leaf-level and plant-level effects) and temporal scales (dry and rainy seasons). We predict that rolled leaves can amplify arthropod diversity at both the leaf and plant levels and that this effect is stronger in dry seasons, when arthropods are prone to desiccation. Our results show that the abundance, richness, and biomass of arthropods within several guilds increased up to 22-fold in naturally and artificially created leaf shelters relative to unaltered leaves. These effects were observed at similar magnitudes at both the leaf and plant scales. Variation in the shelter architecture (funnel, cylinders) did not influence arthropod parameters, as diversity, abundance, orbiomass, but rolled leaves had distinct species composition if compared with unaltered leaves. As expected, these arthropod parameters on the plants with rolled leaves were on average approximately twofold higher in the dry season. Empty leaf rolls and whole plants were rapidly recolonized by arthropods over time, implying a fast replacement of individuals; within 15-day intervals the rolls and plants reached a species saturation. This study is the first to examine the extended effects of engineering caterpillars as diversity amplifiers at different temporal and spatial scales. Because shelter-building caterpillars are ubiquitous organisms in tropical and temperate forests, they can be considered key structuring elements for arthropod communities on plants.

  5. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  6. Apple : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab

  7. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  8. Potato leafroll virus structural proteins manipulate overlapping, yet distinct protein interaction networks during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Johnson, Richard; Sweeney, Michelle M; Karasev, Alexander; Gray, Stewart M; MacCoss, Michael J; Cilia, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) produces a readthrough protein (RTP) via translational readthrough of the coat protein amber stop codon. The RTP functions as a structural component of the virion and as a nonincorporated protein in concert with numerous insect and plant proteins to regulate virus movement/transmission and tissue tropism. Affinity purification coupled to quantitative MS was used to generate protein interaction networks for a PLRV mutant that is unable to produce the read through domain (RTD) and compared to the known wild-type PLRV protein interaction network. By quantifying differences in the protein interaction networks, we identified four distinct classes of PLRV-plant interactions: those plant and nonstructural viral proteins interacting with assembled coat protein (category I); plant proteins in complex with both coat protein and RTD (category II); plant proteins in complex with the RTD (category III); and plant proteins that had higher affinity for virions lacking the RTD (category IV). Proteins identified as interacting with the RTD are potential candidates for regulating viral processes that are mediated by the RTP such as phloem retention and systemic movement and can potentially be useful targets for the development of strategies to prevent infection and/or viral transmission of Luteoviridae species that infect important crop species. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Relative Prevalence of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus Species in Wine Grape-Growing Regions of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhineet M Sharma

    Full Text Available Some diseases manifest as one characteristic set of symptoms to the host, but can be caused by multiple pathogens. Control treatments based on plant symptoms can make it difficult to effectively manage such diseases, as the biology of the underlying pathogens can vary. Grapevine leafroll disease affects grapes worldwide, and is associated with several viral species in the family Closteroviridae. Whereas some of the viruses associated with this disease are transmitted by insect vectors, others are only graft-transmissible. In three regions of California, we surveyed vineyards containing diseased vines and screened symptomatic plants for all known viral species associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Relative incidence of each virus species differed among the three regions regions, particularly in relation to species with known vectors compared with those only known to be graft-transmitted. In one region, the pathogen population was dominated by species not known to have an insect vector. In contrast, populations in the other surveyed regions were dominated by virus species that are vector-transmissible. Our survey did not detect viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease at some sites with characteristic disease symptoms. This could be explained either by undescribed genetic diversity among these viruses that prevented detection with available molecular tools at the time the survey was performed, or a misidentification of visual symptoms that may have had other underlying causes. Based on the differences in relative prevalence of each virus species among regions and among vineyards within regions, we expect that region and site-specific management strategies are needed for effective disease control.

  10. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  11. Visual Detection of Potato leafroll virus by One-step Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of DNA with Hydroxynaphthol Blue Dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.; Almasi, A.M.; Fatehi, F.; Struik, P.C.; Moradi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a novel technique for amplifying DNA under constant temperature, with high specificity, sensitivity, rapidity and efficiency. We applied reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to visually detect Potato leafroll

  12. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrago Carlos EG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  13. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiane F; Romanel, Elisson A C; Andrade, Roberto R S; Farinelli, Laurent; Østerås, Magne; Deluen, Cécile; Corrêa, Régis L; Schrago, Carlos E G; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2011-08-24

    In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt) long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  14. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  15. An unusual internal ribosomal entry site of inverted symmetry directs expression of a potato leafroll polerovirus replication-associated protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaag, Hannah Miriam; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Rohde, Wolfgang; Fischer, Rainer; Emans, Neil; Prüfer, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Potato leafroll polerovirus (PLRV) genomic RNA acts as a polycistronic mRNA for the production of proteins P0, P1, and P2 translated from the 5′-proximal half of the genome. Within the P1 coding region we identified a 5-kDa replication-associated protein 1 (Rap1) essential for viral multiplication. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) with unusual structure and location was identified that regulates Rap1 translation. Core structural elements for internal ribosome entry include a conserved AUG codon and a downstream GGAGAGAGAGG motif with inverted symmetry. Reporter gene expression in potato protoplasts confirmed the internal ribosome entry function. Unlike known IRES motifs, the PLRV IRES is located completely within the coding region of Rap1 at the center of the PLRV genome. PMID:12835413

  16. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey ... success of those programs depends on specific and sensitive ..... Applied Biostatistics Inc. Rott ME ...

  17. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  18. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  19. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  20. Developmental, gustatory, and behavioral responses of leafroller larvae, Choristoneura rosaceana, to tannic acid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzuto, M; Mauffette, Y; Alber, P J

    2002-01-01

    Soluble sugars are essential nutrients generally perceived as phagostimulants to most insects studied. However, tannins are known as digestibility reducers, hence deleterious to caterpillar development, and as deterrents as well. Previous work demonstrated that larvae of the polyphagous oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, performed better when reared on a control + 0.5% tannic acid diet than on the standard control diet and that larvae reared on a control + 5% glucose diet had slower development and reduced survival. This study was designed to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological components of the larval responses to tannic acid and glucose. C. rosaceana larvae were reared individually from the first to the sixth instar on one of four different artificial diets: (1) control; (2) control + 5% glucose; (3) control + 0.5% tannic acid; (4) control + 5% glucose + 0.5% tannic acid. After 14 days, larvae reared on the control + 5% glucose diet had not developed past the fourth instar, whereas a considerable proportion of larvae reared on the control + 0.5% tannic acid diet had already attained the pupal stage. Insects reared on the control or the control + 5% glucose + 0.5% tannic acid diet had intermediate development. with most larvae in the fifth instar. In addition, once the mid-sixth instar was reached, the feeding preferences to 25 and 300 mM glucose, 25 mM tannic acid, and 25 mM glucose + 25 mM tannic acid over water were assessed in two-choice tests. Feeding affected preference. Control-reared insects preferred feeding on treatments containing glucose and were not deterred by tannic acid. However, larvae that had been exposed to tannic acid during their development were deterred by tannic acid and their glucose discrimination was impaired. The sensitivity to glucose was also examined from neurophysiological recordings by stimulating the sugar-sensitive cell (cell 1) on the lateral styloconic sensillum of the maxillary galea with

  1. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  2. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  3. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  4. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...

  5. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  6. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  7. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  8. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  9. Apple As A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...

  10. The P0 protein encoded by cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) inhibits local but not systemic RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfosse, Verónica C; Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Casse, María F; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Hopp, H Esteban; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Distéfano, Ana J

    2014-02-13

    Plants employ RNA silencing as a natural defense mechanism against viruses. As a counter-defense, viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins (SSPs) that suppress RNA silencing. Most, but not all, the P0 proteins encoded by poleroviruses have been identified as SSP. In this study, we demonstrated that cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, genus Polerovirus) P0 protein suppressed local silencing that was induced by sense or inverted repeat transgenes in Agrobacterium co-infiltration assay in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. A CLRDV full-length infectious cDNA clone that is able to infect N. benthamiana through Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation also inhibited local silencing in co-infiltration assays, suggesting that the P0 protein exhibits similar RNA silencing suppression activity when expressed from the full-length viral genome. On the other hand, the P0 protein did not efficiently inhibit the spread of systemic silencing signals. Moreover, Northern blotting indicated that the P0 protein inhibits the generation of secondary but not primary small interfering RNAs. The study of CLRDV P0 suppression activity may contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of cotton blue disease by CLRDV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hairy nightshade as a potential Potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) inoculum source in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Alvarez, J M

    2008-09-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, is a solanaceous weed found abundantly in Pacific Northwest potato ecosystems. It serves as a reservoir for one of the important potato viruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus), and its most important vector, the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Laboratory research indicated an increased green peach aphid settling and performance on S. sarrachoides than on potato. It also revealed that green peach aphids transmitted PLRV more efficiently from S. sarrachoides to potato than from potato to potato. To test the efficiency of S. sarrachoides as an inoculum source in the field, a two season (2004 and 2005) trial was conducted at Kimberly, Idaho. Two inoculum sources, PLRV-infected potato and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides, were compared in this trial. Green peach aphid density and temporal and spatial PLRV spread were monitored at weekly intervals. Higher densities of green peach aphids were observed on plots with S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources (PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato) than on plots without S. sarrachoides and inoculum sources. PLRV infection in plots with PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides was similar to or slightly higher than in plots with PLRV-infected potato as an inoculum source. Temporal and spatial PLRV spread was similar in plots with either inoculum source. Thus, S. sarrachoides is as efficient as or a better PLRV inoculum source than potato.

  12. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  13. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  14. The complete genome sequence of a virus associated with cotton blue disease, cotton leafroll dwarf virus, confirms that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Ana J; Bonacic Kresic, Ivan; Hopp, H Esteban

    2010-11-01

    Cotton blue disease is the most important virus disease of cotton in the southern part of America. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of the cotton blue disease-associated virus was determined for the first time. It comprised 5,866 nucleotides, and the deduced genomic organization resembled that of members of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirm that this virus (previous proposed name cotton leafroll dwarf virus) is a member of a new species within the genus Polerovirus.

  15. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  16. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  17. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  18. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  19. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  20. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  1. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  2. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  3. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  4. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  5. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  7. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple

  8. Information Security of Apple Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...

  9. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's an Adam's Apple? Print You're at the high school baseball ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  10. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  11. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of coat protein gene for Turkish ApMV isolates. Apple mosaic virus isolates were collected in 2007 to 2010 and the presence of the pathogen was detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR tests.

  12. Kei Apple Plant Thorn Synovitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We noted 2 visible pieces of broken thorn within the joint space (Figure. 1). The pieces were retrieved and upon examination found to be thorns of Kei apple plant .The child was allowed home on the 3rd post operative day on antibiotics for 6 weeks. He has been reviewed 2 weeks post operatively with better range of motion.

  13. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  14. Apples for Teachers Pay Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Irving, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)

  15. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  16. Real-time RT-PCR high-resolution melting curve analysis and multiplex RT-PCR to detect and differentiate grapevine leafroll-associated associated virus 3 variant groups I, II, III and VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bester Rachelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3 is the main contributing agent of leafroll disease worldwide. Four of the six GLRaV-3 variant groups known have been found in South Africa, but their individual contribution to leafroll disease is unknown. In order to study the pathogenesis of leafroll disease, a sensitive and accurate diagnostic assay is required that can detect different variant groups of GLRaV-3. Methods In this study, a one-step real-time RT-PCR, followed by high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis for the simultaneous detection and identification of GLRaV-3 variants of groups I, II, III and VI, was developed. A melting point confidence interval for each variant group was calculated to include at least 90% of all melting points observed. A multiplex RT-PCR protocol was developed to these four variant groups in order to assess the efficacy of the real-time RT-PCR HRM assay. Results A universal primer set for GLRaV-3 targeting the heat shock protein 70 homologue (Hsp70h gene of GLRaV-3 was designed that is able to detect GLRaV-3 variant groups I, II, III and VI and differentiate between them with high-resolution melting curve analysis. The real-time RT-PCR HRM and the multiplex RT-PCR were optimized using 121 GLRaV-3 positive samples. Due to a considerable variation in melting profile observed within each GLRaV-3 group, a confidence interval of above 90% was calculated for each variant group, based on the range and distribution of melting points. The intervals of groups I and II could not be distinguished and a 95% joint confidence interval was calculated for simultaneous detection of group I and II variants. An additional primer pair targeting GLRaV-3 ORF1a was developed that can be used in a subsequent real-time RT-PCR HRM to differentiate between variants of groups I and II. Additionally, the multiplex RT-PCR successfully validated 94.64% of the infections detected with the real-time RT-PCR HRM

  17. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  18. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To

  19. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple

  20. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  1. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1

  2. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  3. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  4. Analýza akcie Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Kereibayev, Alisher

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is dedicated to the analysis of Apple stock title. Analysis of stock title is provided on the basis of methods of fundamental and technical analysis, taking into account sectoral and fundamental analysis. The main objective of this thesis is to derive investment recommendations in relation to the stock Apple title, based on the evaluation of the related fundamental and technical factors on the price of the shares it operates. The hypothesis is the following statement: Apple sh...

  5. Apples in the Alps aid atomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of 2 Apple microcomputers by the radiation protection group working with CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is described. The first Apple is used primarily to process the data from the radiation monitoring system around the ring before the maintenance engineers can commence work on the SPS. The second Apple is being developed to help in the calibration of the ring's 1,100 monitors. (U.K.)

  6. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  7. Tissue location of resistance in apple to the rosy apple aphid established by electrical penetration graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, E.; Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Chicca, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Pasqualini, E.; Baroni, P.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the constitutive resistance of the apple cultivar Florina, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera Aphididae), was performed for the first time by the electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system, using the susceptible apple

  8. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  9. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... cashew apples, drying kinetics, and product quality were investigated. It was found ..... Cashew apple residues from fruit juice industry as dehydrated fruit ... surface tension of both media (Rocha et al., 2006). Cashew apple ...

  10. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  11. A simple, rapid and inexpensive method for localization of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Potato leafroll virus in plant and insect vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Murad; Brumin, Marina; Popovski, Smadar

    2009-08-01

    A simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the localization of virus transcripts in plant and insect vector tissues is reported here. The method based on fluorescent in situ hybridization using short DNA oligonucleotides complementary to an RNA segment representing a virus transcript in the infected plant or insect vector. The DNA probe harbors a fluorescent molecule at its 5' or 3' ends. The protocol: simple fixation, hybridization, minimal washing and confocal microscopy, provides a highly specific signal. The reliability of the protocol was tested by localizing two phloem-limited plant virus transcripts in infected plants and insect tissues: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Begomovirus: Geminiviridae), exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in a circulative non-propagative manner, and Potato leafroll virus (Polerovirus: Luteoviridae), similarly transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Transcripts for both viruses were localized specifically to the phloem sieve elements of infected plants, while negative controls showed no signal. TYLCV transcripts were also localized to the digestive tract of B. tabaci, confirming TYLCV route of transmission. Compared to previous methods for localizing virus transcripts in plant and insect tissues that include complex steps for in-vitro probe preparation or antibody raising, tissue fixation, block preparation, sectioning and hybridization, the method described below provides very reliable, convincing, background-free results with much less time, effort and cost.

  12. Global alteration of microRNAs and transposon-derived small RNAs in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) during Cotton leafroll dwarf polerovirus (CLRDV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanel, Elisson; Silva, Tatiane F; Corrêa, Régis L; Farinelli, Laurent; Hawkins, Jennifer S; Schrago, Carlos E G; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2012-11-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs ranging from 20- to 40-nucleotides (nts) that are present in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, sRNAs are involved in the regulation of development, the maintenance of genome stability and the antiviral response. Viruses, however, can interfere with and exploit the silencing-based regulatory networks, causing the deregulation of sRNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). To understand the impact of viral infection on the plant sRNA pathway, we deep sequenced the sRNAs in cotton leaves infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), which is a member of the economically important virus family Luteoviridae. A total of 60 putative conserved cotton miRNAs were identified, including 19 new miRNA families that had not been previously described in cotton. Some of these miRNAs were clearly misregulated during viral infection, and their possible role in symptom development and disease progression is discussed. Furthermore, we found that the 24-nt heterochromatin-associated siRNAs were quantitatively and qualitatively altered in the infected plant, leading to the reactivation of at least one cotton transposable element. This is the first study to explore the global alterations of sRNAs in virus-infected cotton plants. Our results indicate that some CLRDV-induced symptoms may be correlated with the deregulation of miRNA and/or epigenetic networks.

  13. What would Apple do? how you can learn from Apple and make money

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y

  14. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  15. Effect of apple varieties and irradiation on the quality of explosion puffed apple slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Jinfeng; Ding Yuanyuan; Wang Pei; Bai Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Many factors affect the quality of explosion puffed apple slices. Apple varieties of Guoguang, Fuji, Hongxiangjiao and Huangxiangjiao were used as materal, the quality of fresh apple and explosion puffed products were analyzed based on the data of their physical and chemical characteristics and flavor. The results showed that Guoguang apple had the optimal flavor and Huangxiangjiao apple had the optimal product quality. So the Guoguang apple was selected as the material for the following results showed that irradiation could soften apple tissue, improve the pre-drying rate, increase products crispness, and also reduce the products hardness, but the irradiation of 2 and 5 kGy could turn products brown seriously, which reduced the product quality. (authors)

  16. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  17. Apple Configurator 2 (version 2.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Lasner-Frater

    2018-01-01

    Apple Configurator 2 (AC2) is a free mass-deployment utility that allows you to update multiple iPads, iPhones, iPod Touch devices, and Apple TVs at the same time, including apps, website links, iBooks, and software updates.

  18. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  19. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 –

  20. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  1. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  2. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  3. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  4. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  5. Generic and sequence-variant specific molecular assays for the detection of the highly variable Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Pearson, Michael N

    2013-04-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is an economically important virus, which is found in all grapevine growing regions worldwide. Its accurate detection in nursery and field samples is of high importance for certification schemes and disease management programmes. To reduce false negatives that can be caused by sequence variability, a new universal primer pair was designed against a divergent sequence data set, targeting the open reading frame 4 (heat shock protein 70 homologue gene), and optimised for conventional one-step RT-PCR and one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assays. In addition, primer pairs for the simultaneous detection of specific GLRaV-3 variants from groups 1, 2, 6 (specifically NZ-1) and the outlier NZ2 variant, and the generic detection of variants from groups 1 to 5 were designed and optimised as a conventional one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay using the plant nad5 gene as an internal control (i.e. one-step hexaplex RT-PCR). Results showed that the generic and variant specific assays detected in vitro RNA transcripts from a range of 1×10(1)-1×10(8) copies of amplicon per μl diluted in healthy total RNA from Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, the assays were employed effectively to screen 157 germplasm and 159 commercial field samples. Thus results demonstrate that the GLRaV-3 generic and variant-specific assays are prospective tools that will be beneficial for certification schemes and disease management programmes, as well as biological and epidemiological studies of the divergent GLRaV-3 populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amino acid sequence motifs essential for P0-mediated suppression of RNA silencing in an isolate of potato leafroll virus from Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Tao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Wu, Zhan-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2014-06-01

    Polerovirus P0 suppressors of host gene silencing contain a consensus F-box-like motif with Leu/Pro (L/P) requirements for suppressor activity. The Inner Mongolian Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) P0 protein (P0(PL-IM)) has an unusual F-box-like motif that contains a Trp/Gly (W/G) sequence and an additional GW/WG-like motif (G139/W140/G141) that is lacking in other P0 proteins. We used Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated RNA silencing assays to establish that P0(PL-IM) has a strong suppressor activity. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the P0(PL-IM) F-box-like motif encompasses amino acids 76-LPRHLHYECLEWGLLCG THP-95, and that the suppressor activity is abolished by L76A, W87A, or G88A substitution. The suppressor activity is also weakened substantially by mutations within the G139/W140/G141 region and is eliminated by a mutation (F220R) in a C-terminal conserved sequence of P0(PL-IM). As has been observed with other P0 proteins, P0(PL-IM) suppression is correlated with reduced accumulation of the host AGO1-silencing complex protein. However, P0(PL-IM) fails to bind SKP1, which functions in a proteasome pathway that may be involved in AGO1 degradation. These results suggest that P0(PL-IM) may suppress RNA silencing by using an alternative pathway to target AGO1 for degradation. Our results help improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in PLRV infection.

  7. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and oral...

  8. SandBlaster: Reversing the Apple Sandbox

    OpenAIRE

    Deaconescu, Răzvan; Deshotels, Luke; Bucicoiu, Mihai; Enck, William; Davi, Lucas; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    In order to limit the damage of malware on Mac OS X and iOS, Apple uses sandboxing, a kernel-level security layer that provides tight constraints for system calls. Particularly used for Apple iOS, sandboxing prevents apps from executing potentially dangerous actions, by defining rules in a sandbox profile. Investigating Apple's built-in sandbox profiles is difficult as they are compiled and stored in binary format. We present SandBlaster, a software bundle that is able to reverse/decompile Ap...

  9. Characterization of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus identified in a crab apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.

  10. Apples: Safe Methods to Store, Preserve, and Enjoy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Linda J; Yada, Sylvia; Mitcham, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Apples are generally abundant and inexpensive, and they add a healthy component to a well-balanced diet. Learn how to get the most out of the apples you buy at market or from a U-Pick farm or grow in your own garden. Contains detailed instructions for freezing, drying and canning, including recipes for Applesauce, Apple Butter, Apple Chutney, and Sweet Apple Relish.

  11. Optimization of medium composition for apple rootstocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Key words: Apple rootstocks, medium composition, multiplication rate, plant growth regulators (PGRs). ... be extrapolated with the same success for another .... Analysis System (SAS) software program (SAS Institute Inc. 1999).

  12. Quanto Jobs c'è in Apple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. These, in turn, stem from the striking uniqueness of his creative path and from the severe problems it brought about. To them, he reacted following his own nature, eventually shaping the peculiar personality of Apple. The following paper will try to clarify such notion.

  13. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  14. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.

  15. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espino-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is a key quality att ribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in Apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  16. Troubleshooting: Dealing with a Misbehaving Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patrick B.; Howell, Richard D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents troubleshooting suggestions specifically intended for the Apple II microcomputer which have been developed from experiences working with children and pre- and inservice teachers. Guidelines for diagnosing problems focus on the mechanical functions of the microcomputer hardware. (MBR)

  17. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  18. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  19. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  20. A HISTÓRIA DA APPLE COMPUTER

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Franco; Carlos Henrique Cirino Lacerda; Carlos Filipe de Oliveira Pedrosa; Bruno da Silva Chiriu; Antonio Marcos Pereira; Sergio Luiz; Vinícius José Andrade Silveira

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende mostrar os fatos e caminhos seguidos pela empresa de computadores Apple e seus fundadores no decorrer de sua história. Tem também o objetivo de relatar os desfechos e as grandes idéias que fizeram da Apple uma das maiores empresas fabricantes de softwares e computadores pessoais, desde sua criação em 1976.

  1. Value innovations in accordance to Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Mertl, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is aimed at comparison of value management way of innovations and innovations according to Apple. At the first part there are analyzed theoretical, methodical and practical aspects of both of ways. Key theme for value innovation is value for customer, which is analyzed from both points of view value management and Apple. Except of product innovations there are mentioned for example marketing innovations or process innovations. In last part of the thesis there are demons...

  2. Improving Postharvest Storage of Apple Cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Etemadi Nasab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.

  3. Construction design of apple sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieoczym Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When assessing the quality of fruit and packaging process, fruit-producing farms owners decide to evaluate fruit by people or automated sorting lines. The purchase of an automated sorting line generates high costs for the company, but it brings benefits in the form of increased work efficiency, and the better organization of fruit packaging and storage processes. The use of that machinery and equipment is common in agricultural farms as well as in fruit and vegetable processing companies. Despite the widespread use of various types of fruit sorters, the analysis of the operation of the designed device and the study of its technological parameters is still a current research problem. During operation of the devices for sorting fruit there are many technical problems affecting technological processes and quality of fruits. In order to improve the efficiency of sorting fruit, this process should be quickly and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to present the automated apple sorter line construction design, and software for quality controlling fruits. Selected elements of the sorter structure including endurance calculation using the Finite Element Method (FEM and fruit control system using image analysis were presented.

  4. Biomarker Identification in Metabolomics of Dietary Studies on Apple and Apple Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela

    at once it, and therefore, it allows exploring the effect of food in a more global way compared to traditional techniques. The aim of this PhD project was to uncover the effect of consumption of apple or apple products on biochemical mechanisms and explore health related associations by using an LC...... with a diet supplemented with two dosages (5 g/day and 10g/day) of whole fresh apple pieces through 16 weeks (PAPER I). Plasma samples were analysed by LC-MS. Due to the complexity of the design of the study, several chemometric analyses have been employed. Initially, ASCA was applied in order to isolate...... the metabolic variations related to the consumption of fresh apples, successively PLS-DA to reveal discriminative metabolites in control vs. apple fed rats and finally PLS analysis to investigate possible dose-responses. Findings are related to a decrease in toxic catabolic products produced by protein...

  5. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  6. Apple scab is a challenge to prevent and to predict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    Preventing apple scab infections by strategic irrigation is possible but only at a low level. The strategic irrigation alone does not sufficiently prevent apple scab, but might be a good supplement to fungicide sprays. The apple scab warning programmes might need an adjustment for Danish conditions......, with more focus on the earliest infection periods before flowering. Apple cultivars like ‘Red Aroma’, ‘Alkmene’ and ‘Holsteiner Cox’ are very robust against apple scab, with a maximum of 4% apple scab infection during 4 years of trial in an unsprayed orchard....

  7. 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs and putative cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals 'unique' features of gene expression strategy in the genus Ampelovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson William O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Closteroviridae comprises genera with monopartite genomes, Closterovirus and Ampelovirus, and with bipartite and tripartite genomes, Crinivirus. By contrast to closteroviruses in the genera Closterovirus and Crinivirus, much less is known about the molecular biology of viruses in the genus Ampelovirus, although they cause serious diseases in agriculturally important perennial crops like grapevines, pineapple, cherries and plums. Results The gene expression and cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3; genus Ampelovirus was examined and compared to that of other members of the family Closteroviridae. Six putative 3'-coterminal subgenomic (sg RNAs were abundantly present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera infected with GLRaV-3. The sgRNAs for coat protein (CP, p21, p20A and p20B were confirmed using gene-specific riboprobes in Northern blot analysis. The 5'-termini of sgRNAs specific to CP, p21, p20A and p20B were mapped in the 18,498 nucleotide (nt virus genome and their leader sequences determined to be 48, 23, 95 and 125 nt, respectively. No conserved motifs were found around the transcription start site or in the leader sequence of these sgRNAs. The predicted secondary structure analysis of sequences around the start site failed to reveal any conserved motifs among the four sgRNAs. The GLRaV-3 isolate from Washington had a 737 nt long 5' nontranslated region (NTR with a tandem repeat of 65 nt sequence and differed in sequence and predicted secondary structure with a South Africa isolate. Comparison of the dissimilar sequences of the 5'NTRs did not reveal any common predicted structures. The 3'NTR was shorter and more conserved. The lack of similarity among the cis-acting elements of the diverse viruses in the family Closteroviridae is another measure of the complexity of their evolution. Conclusions The results indicate that transcription regulation of GLRaV-3 sgRNAs appears to be different

  8. Diagnóstico serológico y molecular del Potato leafroll virus (PLRV en tubérculos-semilla de papa en Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Esteban Mesa Medina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Las virosis son uno de los problemas fitosanitarios más limitantes para la producción de papa, siendo los virus Potato leafroll virus (PLRV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Potato virus S (PVS y Potato ye-llow vein virus (PYVV los que generan mayores pérdidas económicas en la región andina. Gene-ralmente estos virus son transmitidos por insectos hemípteros y por tubérculos-semilla. En esta investigación se evaluó la presencia y distribución del PLRV en tubérculos de Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol-Capiro y S. phureja variedad Criolla-Colombia obtenidos en Antioquia, utilizando pruebas serológicas y moleculares. Mediante DAS-ELISA se evaluaron 128 muestras consisten-tes en tres tipos de tejidos (piel, yemas latentes y brotes, mientras que con RT-PCR en tiempo real (RT-qPCR, se utilizó un subgrupo de 12 muestras de cada variedad. Utilizando DAS-ELISA, el PLRV se encontró en el 3,1% y 10,1% de las muestras de Diacol-Capiro y Criolla-Colombia, respectivamente; siendo evidente una mayor detección del virus en la piel de los tubérculos de ésta última variedad. Las pruebas de RT-qPCR detectaron el PLRV en 83,3% y 91,6% de las 12 muestras de Diacol-Capiro y de Criolla-Colombia, respectivamente; con valores de Ciclo umbral (CT entre 17,72 y 30,59. La naturaleza de los amplicones obtenidos por RT-qPCR fue confirmada por secuenciación como parte de una región codificante de la cápside del PLRV (Identidad=99%-100%. Estos resultados enfatizan en la necesidad de utilizar tubérculo-semilla certificados por su sanidad viral en los cultivos de papa del país y de fortalecer dichos programas a partir del empleo de técnicas de detección altamente sensibles como RT-qPCR.

  9. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  10. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  11. MATURITY AND QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT DURINIG THE HARVEST PERIOD AT APPLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.

  12. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  13. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  14. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  15. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  16. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  18. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  19. Double-blind, placebo controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Vestergaard, H.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...

  20. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  1. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  2. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... the apple juice or powder with other tropical food to increase it vitamins and .... MANAGEMENT AND SPACING ON CASHEW APPLE. QUALITY. The quality ..... of beverages prepared from fruit and vegetable juices. (Gao and ...

  3. Apple based agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In agri-horticulture agroforestry approach apple trees were integrated with vegetables at ... activities incorporating their own farm resources to minimize input costs. ... Keywords: Agri-horticulture system; Apple tree adoption; Household income ...

  4. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  5. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  6. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    "6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  7. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that gro...

  8. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  9. Marketingové strategie firmy APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Preněk, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is a definition of marketing goals and strategies of the Apple company on the basis of the complex positional analysis, whose output is the SWOT analysis. For purpose of using theoretical knowledge in praxis one part is devoted to the marketing instruments, which are used by the analyzed company. This part leads to analysis of the company's marketing mix of one of the product made by Apple. This thesis includes also results of the market research which was focused...

  10. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  11. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The...

  12. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food products: an apple marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, D.E.; Tabor, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques

  13. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  14. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  15. A review of cashew ( Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes. Therefore ...

  16. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol.
    Apple

  17. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  18. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  19. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments

  20. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  1. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  2. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  3. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  4. Control of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Slobodan; Marčić Dejan; Ružičić Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a) predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata), b) predator activity (C. septempunctata) + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S), and c) predator activity (C. septempun...

  5. Computer vision-based apple grading for golden delicious apples based on surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.

  6. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Sigita Boca; Ruta Galoburda; Inta Krasnova; Dalija Seglina; Aivars Aboltins; Imants Skrupskis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added...

  7. Tracking Steps on Apple Watch at Different Walking Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M

    2018-04-09

    QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.

  8. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  9. (PEDOT) composite electrodes for supercapacitor appl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Ponekkara P. O.,. Kochi 682 041, India .... Deposition was carried out at 1·8 V for different dura- tions. .... ions at the graphene sheet edges acting as co-ordination cen- .... Patra S and Munichandraiah N 2007 J. Appl. Polymer. Sci.

  10. Apple iTunes music store

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, R.; Schmucker, M.; Spadoni, F.

    2003-01-01

    This technical report analyses the Apple iTunes Music Store and its success factors. Besides the technical aspects, user and customer aspects as well as content aspects are considered. Furthermore, iTunes Music Store's impact to online music distribution services is analysed and a short outlook to future music online distribution is given.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  12. Scientific Computing and Apple's Intel Transition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Intel's published processor roadmap and how it may affect the future of personal and scientific computing About the speaker: Eric Albert is Senior Software Engineer in Apple's Core Technologies group. During Mac OS X's transition to Intel processors he has worked on almost every part of the operating system, from the OS kernel and compiler tools to appli...

  13. The development of a cisgenic apple plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-07-20

    Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  15. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir...

  16. Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-05-12

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.

  17. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significa...

  18. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  19. DETERMINATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN APPLE FROM THE RESEN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezirka JANKULOSKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the presence of chlorpyrifos in two varieties of apples: Golden Delicious and Idared in two different locations (Evla and Krveni from the Resen region in the country. Chlorpyrifos is organophosphate pesticide (insecticide used to protect apples from insects which can cause significant damage in apple production. The apples are analyzed in four development phases and in each phase the presence of chlorpyrifos is determined. Chlorpiryfos analysis of the apples is performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS followed by an extraction/separation cleansing with acetonitrile and the dispersive SPE - QuEChERS - method. The results are compared with the maximum residue levels (MRL prescribed by the legislation of the Republic of Macedonia. The conclusion is that chlorpyrifos is variously represented in most phases, regardless of the phase and location where the apple is grown. At certain phase the concentration exceedes MRL, however during the harvest, apples are safe to be consumed. Higher presence of chlorpyrifos is found in Idared apples at Kriveni location as compared to Evla. Тhe presence of chlorpyrifos in Golden Delicious is almost equal in both locations. From the statistical analysis of the data it is noticeable that the use of chlorpyrifos does not depend on the (type variety of apple but rather on the location where the apple is grown.

  20. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  1. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  2. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  3. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolontaev, V.M.; Kolontaev, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  4. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  5. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support

  6. Camapple: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of the 'personal' microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilliscopes. Here we describe an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support. (orig.)

  7. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  8. Apple IOS Devices for Network Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Timur; Gingo, Gerard; Stawchansky, Mike; White, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    As tablet devices continue to gain market share at the expense of the traditional PC, they become a more integral part of the corporate landscape. Tablets are no longer being utilized only by sales executives for presentation purposes, or as addition to the traditional laptop. Users are attempting to perform significant amounts of their daily work on tablet devices, some even abandoning the ubiquitous laptop or desktop entirely. Operating exclusively from a tablet device, specifically Apple I...

  9. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  10. Arthropod diversity (Arthropoda on abandoned apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, the occurrence of arthropods on apple trees without management was monitored near the village of Velké Bílovice, South Moravia, in two selected localities (an abandoned apple tree orchard and a road apple tree alley. Arthropods in tree tops were killed using deltamehtrin applied with a fogger (Puls Fog. Each collection always contained the material from 5 trees in each site. In 2010, three collections were performed (28/4, 20/5, and 9/7, two in 2011 (11/5 and 23/6. Representatives of eleven orders were captured. Of all the orders trapped, Coleoptera was represented most frequently, the Hymenoptera and Diptera followed. In the alley, individuals of the Coleoptera (34% were caught most frequently, the Hymenoptera (19.6% and Hemiptera (17.4% followed. In the orchard, the Coleoptera (41.4% was represented most frequently, followed by the Hymenoptera (21.9% and Diptera (15%. In both the environments, species with negative economic impact were recorded (e.g. Anthonomus pyri, Tatianaerhynchites aequatus, Cydia pomonella, Rhynchites bacchus. However, a greater number of pest antagonists were also found (Scambus pomorum, Coccinella septempunctata, Episyrphus balteatus, Pentatoma rufipes, Orius spp.. Some species were important in faunistic terms, as some critically endangered species were recorded (e.g. Dipoena erythropus, Cryptocephalus schaefferi, and the Plectochorus iwatensis species was recorded for the first time in the Czech Republic.

  11. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  12. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Goncu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.

  13. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  14. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...

  15. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaljee Jha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  16. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang Bin

    2013-01-01

    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...

  17. Boron in combination with calcium reduces sunburn in apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Lötze, Elmi; Daiber, Stephan H.; Midgley, Stephanie J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Sunburn damage on apple fruit has been reported widely [1]. Sunburnincidence is expected to increase in future, specifically in the Western Capein South Africa, with very clear climate change predictions [2]. Sunburn thus hassignificant financial implications on profitability for the South Africanexport dominated apple industry, as sunburnt fruit is not accepted in the mainexport markets. In the United Kingdom, no visible sunburn on apples is allowed,whereas only fruit with class 1 sunburn (S...

  18. Classifying apples by the means of fluorescence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Codrea, Marius C.; Nevalainen, Olli S.; Tyystjärvi, Esa; VAN DE VEN, Martin; VALCKE, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Classification of harvested apples when predicting their storage potential is an important task. This paper describes how chlorophyll a fluorescence images taken in blue light through a red filter, can be used to classify apples. In such an image, fluorescence appears as a relatively homogenous area broken by a number of small nonfluorescing spots, corresponding to normal corky tissue patches, lenticells, and to damaged areas that lower the quality of the apple. The damaged regions appear mor...

  19. Extraction of pectin from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helene Canteri-Schemin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As apple-processing units are now in expansion in Brazil, industrial by-products like pomace play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this article was to determine a pratical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from apple pomace and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The highest yields were obtained when [1]apple pomace was dried and ground to obtain an apple flour to be used as raw material, [2] citric or nitric acids were used and [3] when the citric acid concentration was 6.2 g/100 ml and the time of reaction was 153 minutes. The apple variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 68.84 % of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction.No aproveitamento de resíduos das indústrias processadoras de maçã, em expansão no Brasil, a pectina alimentícia surge como importante subproduto. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram os seguintes: extração e caracterização da pectina de bagaço de maçã em bancada, em que as condições para maior rendimento de obtenção em relação ao tipo de ácido, ao tamanho das partículas e à variedade de maçã foram estabelecidas. Objetivou-se também a otimização da produção, levando-se em conta o tempo e a concentração do ácido cítrico. Foram considerados métodos de extração mais eficientes quanto ao rendimento: [1] acidificação com ácido cítrico ou ácido nítrico, [2] cominuição do bagaço, usando a farinha como matéria-prima, com partículas retidas no tamis de 106 µm, [3] concentração de ácido de 6,2 g% e tempo de extração de 153 minutos. A variedade da maçã não interferiu significativamente no rendimento. A alta metoxilação (DE= 68,84% das pectinas produzidas em bancada confirma o grau de maturidade das matérias-primas usadas nos experimentos.

  20. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...

  1. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  2. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus?domestica Borkh.) is one of the world?s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted a...

  3. The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject Abstract The goal of the submitted thesis is the study of the company Apple Inc. in the context of how it is percieved by subjects. After a brief introduction of the company Apple Inc. we will focus on semiotic analysis of the brand Apple, its products and marketing strategies. The object of study will be also a present society, whose distinguishing feature is a consumption, and brand perception of a subject in connection with...

  4. Studies on apple preservation by 60 -gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu

    1992-01-01

    Studies on '60'Co-gamma irradiation of Golden Delicious apple have been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation dosage for stored apple was ranged from 0.3-0.5 k Gy, with this dosage, the contents of vitamin c and titratalbe acidity in these apples had no significant change compared with unirradiated apples. The respiratory rate and the amount of ethylene release were decreased after irradiation. The mortality of the verticillate pathogenic fungi was 97% at the dose of 0.5 k Gy

  5. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  6. Association between apple consumption and physician visits: appealing the conventional wisdom that an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Bynum, Julie P W; Sirovich, Brenda E

    2015-05-01

    Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non-apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. The primary outcome measure was success at "keeping the doctor away," measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)--those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non-apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (Paway: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9% of non-apple eaters (P=.03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.93-1.53; P=.15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at avoiding prescription medications (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.00-1.63). There were no differences seen in overnight hospital stay or

  7. Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Riekstina-Dolge; Zanda Kruma; Daina Karklina; Fredijs Dimins

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titr...

  8. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of polyclonal antisera using recombinant coat proteins of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 and Grapevine virus B Produção de anti-soros policlonais a partir de proteínas capsidiais recombinantes de Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 e Grapevine virus B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Radaelli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to produce and characterize specific antisera against Brazilian isolates of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2 and Grapevine virus B (GVB, developed from expressed coat proteins (CPs in Escherichia coli, and to test their possible use for the detection of these two viruses in diseased grapevines. The coat protein (CP genes were RT-PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced. The CP genes were subsequently subcloned, and the recombinant plasmids were used to transform E. coli cells and express the coat proteins. The recombinant coat proteins were purified, and their identities were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and used for rabbit immunizations. Antisera raised against these proteins were able to recognize the corresponding recombinant proteins in Western blots and to detect GLRaV-2 and GVB in infected grapevine tissues, by indirect ELISA, discriminating healthy and infected grapevines with absorbances (A405 of 0.08/1.15 and 0.12/1.30, respectively. Expressing CP genes can yield high amount of viral protein with high antigenicity, and GLRaV-2 and GVB antisera obtained in this study can allow reliable virus disease diagnosis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e caracterizar anti-soros específicos contra isolados brasileiros do Vírus do enrolamento-da-folha da videira 2 (GLRaV-2 e do Vírus B da videira (GVB, desenvolvidos a partir das proteínas capsidiais expressas em Escherichia coli, e testar seu possível uso para a detecção destes dois vírus em videiras infectadas. Os genes da proteína capsidial (CP foram amplificados via RT-PCR, clonados e seqüenciados. Foram, subseqüentemente, subclonados, e os plasmídeos recombinantes foram empregados na transformação das células de E. coli e na expressão das proteínas capsidiais. As proteínas capsidiais recombinantes foram purificadas, e suas identidades foram confirmadas em SDS-PAGE e "Western blot" e utilizadas para imunizar coelhos. Os anti

  10. Apple Trees - A Source of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is a large quantity of leftover (cut-off) branches after the trimming of fruit trees, both during in winter or during the vegetation period. In intensive production, trimming most often occurs as a combined cut, which means it is done both manually and with the help of machines. The leftover mass has to be taken care of in both cases. This paper deals with the apple tree biomass in the last 10 years expressed in tons, covering both the winter and vegetation period, and also about the possibility of using this biomass to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  11. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  12. Instant Apple Configurator how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. A how-To book with practical recipes accompanied with rich screenshots for easy comprehension.This book follows the Packt How-to approach, offering an informative yet practical guide that is easy to understand. The book takes a meticulous approach to providing quick and simple recipe-based solutions for security and deployment of iOS devices.""Instant Apple iOS Configurator Utility How-to"" book is ideal for anyone with a working knowledge in iO

  13. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naamusa

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern. Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were ... All the fungal isolates were pathogenic on the star apple fruits with the exception of ..... Mineapolis: Burgress Publishing Company, Minneapolis MN 241 p. Booth C (1971). The genus ...

  14. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  15. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  16. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  17. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  18. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  19. Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and Quality Attributes | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effect of the two bioregulators; Accel and Carbaryl, sprayed two weeks before bloom on Apple fruit set, yield and quality and to relate the degree of fruit set reduction to the yield of three Apple cultivars namely, \\'Empire`, \\'Jon-A-Red\\' and `Braeburn\\'.

  20. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  1. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  2. Vakuuttava teknologia älykelloissa:case Apple Watch

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksoviita, J. (Joonas)

    2016-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tämä kandidaatintutkielma perehtyi vakuuttavaan teknologiaan Apple Watch -älykellossa. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä osassa esiteltiin kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta älykellojen taustaa ja tutkittava laite. Sen jälkeen luotiin katsaus vakuuttavan teknologian perusideaan ja esiteltiin Persuasive Systems Design -malli vakuuttavan teknologian sovellusten analysointiin. Toisessa osiossa suoritettiin analyysi Apple Watchin...

  3. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium

  4. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  5. Time series prediction of apple scab using meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new prediction model for the early warning of apple scab is proposed in this study. The method is based on artificial intelligence and time series prediction. The infection period of apple scab was evaluated as the time series prediction model instead of summation of wetness duration. Also, the relations of different ...

  6. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  7. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  8. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  9. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Celina I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: horak@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Di Giorgio, Marina [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  10. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  11. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  12. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood......-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS...

  13. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...

  15. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  16. Control of Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.

  17. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  18. Diagnosis of directed pollination services in apple orchards in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joatan Machado da Rosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pollination services performed by Apis mellifera are essential for the high-quality apple production. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the pollination services used in the municipalities of Vacaria-RS e São Joaquim-SC, the main apple-producing regions in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with apple growers and technicians responsible for the orchards during 2013 and 2015. The obtained information was: a cropping systems; b use of pollination services; c number of hives per hectare during flowering; d renting value of hives; e mortality of colonies; f agrochemicals used on flowering; g presence of native bees on flowering. In Vacaria and São Joaquim, respectively, 70% and 68.6% of the apple growers use the integrated apple production as their production model. The directed pollination is used by 100% and 90.0% of respondents respectively, from which, 80% and 47.1% opt for the hive rent. On average, three hives were used per hectare in both regions. The average cost is U$ 17.52 and U$ 17.74 per hive, respectively. During the flowering period, insecticides and fungicides are used by 100% and 97.2% of the apple growers. The highest mean percentage of mortality of colonies during flowering was reported in Vacaria, 11.8%. Native bees are often found in apple flowers. The development of management strategies for the conservation of domestic and wild pollinators is essential.

  19. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  20. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  1. Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

  2. Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P

    2000-05-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Granny Smith apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatović Slađana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Granny Smith apple pomace was subjected to evaluation as valuable source of antioxidant and anticancer phytochemicals on the basis of its content in phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The total cotent of phenolics, flavonoids and flavan-3-ols in apple pomace determined spectrophotometrically, was 7.02 mg/g, 0.51 mg/g and 8.80 mg/g. Major phenolics (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids and dihydrochalcons in apple pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of apple pomace on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals, was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 9.51 mg/ml and 29.17 mg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative activities of apple pomace on cervix epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa, colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 cell lines were determined according to the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The IC50 HeLa , IC50 HT-29 and IC50 MCF7 values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 26.40 mg/ml, 22.47 mg/ml and 21.26 mg/ml, respectively. The significant correlations between antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities were established (p<0.05.

  4. Genome to Phenome Mapping in Apple Using Historical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Migicovsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple ( X Borkh. is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS. However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficiently large samples. To establish genotype-phenotype relationships and advance MAS in apple, we extracted over 24,000 phenotype scores from the USDA-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database and linked them with over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 689 apple accessions from the USDA apple germplasm collection clonally preserved in Geneva, NY. We find significant genetic differentiation between Old World and New World cultivars and demonstrate that the genetic structure of the domesticated apple also reflects the time required for ripening. A genome-wide association study (GWAS of 36 phenotypes confirms the association between fruit color and the MYB1 locus, and we also report a novel association between the transcription factor, NAC18.1, and harvest date and fruit firmness. We demonstrate that harvest time and fruit size can be predicted with relatively high accuracies ( > 0.46 using genomic prediction. Rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD in apples means millions of SNPs may be required for well-powered GWAS. However, rapid LD decay also promises to enable extremely high resolution mapping of causal variants, which holds great potential for advancing MAS.

  5. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

    2013-09-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos.

  7. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    OpenAIRE

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  8. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  9. Morphological and physiological characteristics of columnar apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Gelvonauskienė, Dalia

    2006-01-01

    There were investigated two columnar apple cultivars ‘Arbat’ and No. 24217 and apple cultivar ‘Aldas’ in an orchard at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars were released at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, ‘Arbat’ – in Russia. Cultivars and selections were budded on rootstocks P 60, M.26 and MM.106. In orchard apple trees were spaced at 1.0 x 3.5 m. Tree height, stem diameter, total length of one-year-old shoot, leaf area on a tree was measured and numbe...

  10. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  11. Warning: safety risk with some Apple AC Wall Plug Adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN IT department

    2016-01-01

    Dear Mac and iOS Users, Apple has determined that some of its two prong Apple AC wall plug adapters may break and create a risk of electrical shock.   CERN users can now exchange their affected Apple wall plug adapters at the Service Desk. To find out if your adapter is affected and for any further information concerning the procedure to follow to exchange it, please check the following URL: https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal/view-outage.do?n=OTG0028639.

  12. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  13. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  14. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

  15. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...

  16. APPLE IS TRYING TO RESOLVE MANY OF THEIR MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    This studymainly focusing on Apple marketing, sailing products and Apples customer’sfeedback. It could be successful in terms of business that innovate from Applecompany to its customers yet the most important assets of the organizationrelationships with the media across all the productions units of apple.However, apple is facing poor human resources and procedures. In this study weare mainly focusing on SWOT analysis which innovates products and diversified portfolioof apple to show the stre...

  17. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama-Gzara, Badra; Selmi, Ilhem; Chebil, Samir; Melki, Imene; Mliki, Ahmed; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Carra, Angela; Carimi, Francesco; Mahfoudhi, Naima

    2017-12-01

    Prospecting of local grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. 'Hencha' were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987). based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1 -1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1 -1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% 'Hencha' somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  18. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badra Bouamama-Gzara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3, Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV and Grapevine virus A (GVA, were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. ‘Hencha’ were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987. based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1−1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% ‘Hencha’ somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  19. Effect of an alternate weed host, hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides, on the biology of the two most important potato leafroll virus (Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) vectors, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Alvarez, Juan M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Novy, Richard G

    2008-04-01

    Hairy nightshade, Solanum sarrachoides (Sendtner), is a ubiquitous weed in potato agro-ecosystems and nonagricultural lands of southeastern Idaho and the Pacific Northwest. This weed increases the complexity of the Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) (Luteoviridae: Polervirus)-potato pathosystem by serving as aphid and virus reservoir. Previous field studies showed higher densities of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the two most important vectors of PLRV, on S. sarrachoides compared with potato plants in the same fields. Some of the S. sarrachoides plants sampled in these surveys tested positive for PLRV. Viral infections can alter the physiology of plant hosts and aphid performance on such plants. To understand better the potential effects of S. sarrachoides on the PLRV-potato-aphid pathosystem, the life histories of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae were compared on virus-free and PLRV-infected S. sarrachoides and potato. Individual nymphs of each aphid species were held in clip cages on plants from each treatment to monitor their development, survival, and reproductive output. Nymphal survival for both aphids across plant species was higher on S. sarrachoides than on potato, and, within plant species, it was higher on PLRV-infected plants than on noninfected plants. With a few exceptions, similar patterns occurred for fecundity, reproductive periods, adult longevity, and intrinsic rate of increase. The enhanced performance of aphids on S. sarrachoides and on PLRV-infected plants could alter the vector population dynamics and thus the PLRV-disease epidemiology in fields infested with this weed.

  20. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p radiation may be an effective method for treating patulin-containing apple cider and juice.

  1. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.

  2. The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle

    2011-01-01

    Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...

  3. An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC–MS profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...... metabolome than the other apple products. We observed an effect on branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids degradation, and a decreased use of lipid fuels indicating an improvement in glucose utilisation. A reduced level of plasma bile acids after apple consumption may indicate less re...

  4. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  5. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... conditions differences were been determinated according to rootstocks ... been grown since pre-historic times in Asia and Europe ... apple growing country after China and the USA. ... He also pointed out that high cost of work.

  6. ENERGY USE IN APPLE PRODUCTION IN THE ESFAHAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Apple production needs to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to employ renewable energy. ... derived from Neyman method (Ozkan et al.,. 2004). .... management might reduce the indirect energy .... Handbook of Energy.

  7. Studying apple bruise using a finite element method analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.

    2017-07-01

    Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.

  8. Radiation measurement of apples produced in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei; Yamadera, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The activities of seven kinds of apples produced in Aomori prefecture were measured with a high pure Ge detector set in a 15 cm-thick lead shield. The activities of 40 K were detected in all samples, but an artificial radioactive nuclide was not detected. The slices of an apple were contacted to an imaging plate for 15 days in a 15 cm-thick lead shield and cross sectional activity distributions were measured. By using the distribution map, the activities of skin, flesh and lead portion of an apple 'Ohrin' were calculated to 0.041, 0.032 and 0.046 Bq/g, respectively. This measuring system will be used for the activity estimations of the farm products, specially apples, because of that many atomic institutions are in operation and in the planning stage on Aomori prefecture. (author)

  9. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  10. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    IT/Communications Systems Group

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: * SMB or HTTP for file services * LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  11. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: SMB or HTTP for file services LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  12. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  13. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  14. Apple Based Agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advised to follow integration of apple fruit trees in their food production ... growing demands of increasing population, to compensate forests in the wake of fast .... Programme for the Sustainable Utilization of Natural Resource for Food Security.

  15. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  16. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  17. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmiao Yin

    Full Text Available Apple replant disease (ARD is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC. We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  18. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  19. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  20. Apple phenolics and their contribution to enzymatic browning reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and C1 were isolated from apple skin. These compounds as well as quercetine and phloretine glycosides isolated from apples were studied individually and as mixtures for their participation in the enzymatic browning reactions. The importance of quercetine glycosides and the synergistic effect of phloridzin and phloretine xyloglucoside with chlorogenic acid and flavans in the browning reaction are reported.

  1. Outsourcing and corporate social responsibility : Apple in China

    OpenAIRE

    Urakami, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronics industry has seen a tremendous industry shift from the developed countries to the emerging regions such as East and South Asia, particularly during the past four decades. And we can now see a huge industrial capability accumulation in Asia. This research note aims at, firstly, describing basic nature and structure of outsourcing business in Asia, and, secondly, we look into Apple Inc.'s supply chain to examine Apple supplier factory operations in Mainland China from, primarily, an...

  2. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, A.; Djumaev, B.B.; Djumaev, N.B.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2008-01-01

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60 d ig C . The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  3. Sustainable apple breedings needs sustainable marketing and management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and rising cost levels for high tech breeding methods entire programmes are nowadays urged to...

  4. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.

    2013-01-01

    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  5. Use of genetic resources and partial resistances for apple breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kellerhals, Markus; Duffy, Brion

    2006-01-01

    Modern apple breeding strategies are mainly considering the most advanced selections and culti-vars as parents. This tends to lead to a narrowed genetic basis. The introgression of traditional va-rieties and accessions of the gene pool is often feared due to undesirable characteristics that might be incorporated. However, there is scope for considering a wider genetic basis in apple breeding to support sustainable fruit production systems. The focus at Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (ACW) is p...

  6. Hydrolysis-extraction of apple proto pectins in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobodzhonova, G.N.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Makhkamov, Kh.K.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a hydrolysis process of apple husks by using dynamics regime of hydrolysis. It's shown that application of dynamics method positively influences on the pectin yields and its main parameters. It was defined that by dynamics regime of hydrolysis-extraction of apple husks it is possible to obtain qualitative products with high yield at a mild ph value of medium of hydrolysing agent.

  7. Cryotherapy by encapsulation-dehydration is effective for in vitro eradication of latent viruses from ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) are several major viral pathogens of apple trees, responsible for substantial damage to the world's apple industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulation-dehydratio...

  8. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  9. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  10. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  11. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  13. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  14. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar

    2006-01-01

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  15. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  16. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Khinchi, M.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  17. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  18. Nitrogen availability in an apple orchard with weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Weed management in apple orchards (Malus domestica can affect the leaching of nitrogen (N in soil. The study aimed to evaluate the potential leaching of N forms in soil of an apple orchard with different weed management treatments. The experiment was conducted in an apple orchard implanted in 2008. In October 2011, 80 plants were selected and the following treatments were implemented: no weed management (NM, desiccation of weeds on the tree row with herbicide use (DR and mechanical mowing of weeds on the tree row (MR. Yield was evaluated in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop seasons. In May 2012 porous cup lysimeters were installed in the NM, DR and MR treatments. In the solution collected at 0.20m, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed sixteen times and mineral N concentration was calculated. The highest concentrations of NO3 --N and mineral N occurred in soil solution with DR, which increases availability of the nutrient to apple trees, but also enhances the potential losses. Weed management and N flow in the solution did not affect apple yield.

  19. Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.

  20. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  1. 75 FR 52218 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    .... Section 1--Definitions Comment: A few commenters stated the definition of ``damaged apple production... Grade, marketing orders, etc.). Response: The definition of ``grade standards'' has language referencing... definition of ``fresh apple production'' stating policyholders must ``follow the recommended cultural...

  2. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF SLOVENIAN APPLE JUICE WITH RESPECT TO ITS GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak Bat, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    Determination of food authenticity is an important issue in quality control and food safety. Recent studies predict a growing demand for natural and more authentic food and beverage products. The quality and authenticity of apple juice is also of a great economic importance since the popularity and demand for apple juice consumption has increased. The growth of the market for organically produced apples and apple juice is due to the increasing demand for healthy food requirements, protection ...

  4. Thinking Afresh About Processing: An Exploration of New Market Opportunities for Apple Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin; Henehan, Brian M.; White, Gerald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report compiles the results of several studies focused on the markets for processed apple products. These studies were conducted as part of a multidisciplinary project examining the processing apple industry in the Northeastern United States. The purpose of the studies was to explore the potential for new products and new marketing strategies that might bring innovation to the apple industry. In the global and highly competitive markets in which apple products fight for shelf space and c...

  5. Comparison of cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in organic and conventional apple cider vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Mori Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2017-01-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  6. Identification of gamma irradiated apples by the half-embryo test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Gabriel C.; Bujan, Alfonso; Leiva, Carlos H.; Yusef, Maria V.

    2003-01-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples (var. Red delicious).The irradiation of apples caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryo. A dose of 100 Gy or more, inhibits the epicotyl development and with 50 Gy dose is possible to observe a great contrast with the non-irradiated apples. If the epicotyl development is less than 4 cm., the apples are identified as irradiated. The assessment can be made after 7 days. (author)

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  8. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of apple seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shou-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Xue, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Fen; Shi, Shu-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Apple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰ salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance. The results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2‰ and 4‰ salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl - and Na + concentrations clearly increased and K + contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K + /Na + ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4‰ salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6‰ salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively. These results suggest that 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.

  11. Regional somatic embryogenesis from in vitro apple leaf and artificial seed of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Kedong; Li Yazhi; Shu Huairui; Wang Bin

    1998-01-01

    First three open leaves of in vitro apple (Malus domastica Borkh.) shoots were used as explants. Each leaf was divided into three regions (upper, middle and lower) from tip to base and each region was composed of two sub-regions (leaf and right) along the main vain. Every explant was pricked with a dissector at the center of one sub-region before inoculated on MS + BA 1 mg/L + NAA 4 mg/L + 2,4-D 0.5 mg/L medium and incubated in darkness for 7 days, then transferred to MS + BA 1 mg/L medium. 85% of the explants regenerated somatic embryos directly around the prick after 40 days. The embryos were encapsulated in 4% sodium alginate and 2% CaCl 2 as artificial seeds, which could germinate and grow into plantlets under aseptic condition

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  13. Phenological models for the beginning of apple blossom in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Frank M.; Bluemel, Klaus; Henniges, Yvonne [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Agricultural Climatology; Blanke, Michael [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Horticultural Science; Weber, Roland W.S. [Fruit Growing Research Institute Jork (Germany); Zoth, Michael [Competence Centre Fruit Growing Bodensee, Ravensburg-Bavendorf (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Five phenological models (M1-M5) were examined with respect to their suitability to calculate the beginning of apple blossom in Germany, the most important fruit crop in Western Europe. Blossoming is the most sensitive period, e.g.to frost, and determines the fruit set of the apple trees. Phenological observations and temperature data from the German Weather Service in the period 1961-2005 were used to fit these five models. For the calculations data from, 5,630 phenological and 523 temperature stations were attributed to a 10 km x 10 km grid using second order universal kriging. Model parameters were optimised on 3,672 grid points for the nationwide approach for Germany and on 148 points for 11 fruit growing regions. Root mean square errors (RMSE) between modelled and observed apple blossom data varied from 4.2 to 5.0 days for the internal and from 4.6 to 5.6 days for the external verification on the basis of phenological records from three fruit growing research centres. The very simple statistical model approach M5 had the advantage of causing the least effort to calculate the bloom date, but it never performed better than any of the best mechanistic models M1-M4. Also, the 'thermal time model' M1 and the sequential model M2 were both easy to handle which makes them a preferable choice for predictions and management decisions in apple orchards. These two models M1 and M2 are also suitable to be implemented in yield models and water budget models in order to replace the use of fixed developmental stages by dynamical calculations. The two combined chilling/forcing models M2 - a sequential model - and M3 - a parallel model - exhibited the lowest average RMSE. Both models (M2 and M3) could preferably be used to project the impact of climate change on the beginning of apple blossom, since these models can compensate a possible lack of chilling by a higher demand for forcing. The present study showed that a) all five models were able to calculate the

  14. Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, P

    1999-01-01

    Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.

  15. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  16. Instant Apple iBooks how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Chawdhary, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. Written in a step-by-step tutorial style, this book shows you in simple steps how to get the most from your iBooks experience.This book is for literary geeks who want to explore the Apple iBooks universe. From buying books from the Apple iBookstore to organizing books and PDFs, this book goes forward by explaining how to write an interactive book with iBooks Author.

  17. Effect of ion implantation on apple wine yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Andong; Chen Hongge; Zhang Shimin; Jia Cuiying

    2004-01-01

    The wild type apple wine yeast Y 02 was treated by ion implantation with the dose of 8 x 10 15 ion/cm 2 . As results, a special mutant strain, ION II -11 dry, was obtained. The morphology characters, partial biochemistry characters, mycelium protein of the mutant strain were distinctively changed compared with original strain Y 02 . After the fermentation test ,the apple wine producing rate of the mutant strain increased 22.4% compared with original strain. These results showed that ion implantation was an effective method for mutagenesis

  18. The position of Apple Incorporated in the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marahimi, Narmin

    2011-01-01

    My Diploma Thesis is aimed to clarify the position of the Apple Incorporated in the world economy, as well as expectations and anticipations for future. I decided to write about Apple not only because it's one of the leading company in the technology Market, but because interest to its production is increasing day by day, making it highly competitive. Coming to the content of my work: It consists of 3 chapters, with several subchapters being included into each chapter. The first chapter is an...

  19. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar Karami; Mehdi Asadi

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms o...

  20. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    OpenAIRE

    Giovambattista Sorrenti; Maurizio Quartieri; Silvia Salvi; Moreno Toselli

    2017-01-01

    Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1), pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1) an...

  1. Ocular toxicity by seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Nagaraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6-12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid.

  2. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  3. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  4. Tulemas on Apple'i järjekordne müügihitt / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Suure tõuke Apple'i aktsiahinnale on andnud iPhone'i turuletulek 2007. aasta sügisel, nüüd on müügile tulemas kolmanda põlvkonna mobiiltelefon iPhone. Vt. samas: Apple'i majandusnäitajad; Pürib digikodu valitsejaks. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia hind

  5. Discovery and molecular characterization of a new luteovirus identified by high-throughput sequencing from apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Rapid Apple Decline’ (RAD) is a newly emerging problem of young, dwarf apple trees in the northeastern USA. The affected trees show trunk necrosis, bark cracking and canker formation before collapsing in the summer. In this study, a new luteovirus and three common viruses were identified from apple...

  6. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same conditions... apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to protect against the...

  7. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 1 Effect of existing production methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that

  8. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high…

  9. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

  10. Performance and long-term stability of the barley hordothionin gene in multiple transgenic apple lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, F.A.; Schaart, J.G.; Groenwold, R.; Walraven, A.E.J.; Hesselink, T.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of sustainable scab resistance in elite apple cultivars is of high importance for apple cultivation when aiming at reducing the use of chemical crop protectants. Genetic modification (GM) allows the rapid introduction of resistance genes directly into high quality apple cultivars.

  11. Apple suutis jälle turgu üllatada / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    iPodi pleierite ja Mac-arvutite kasvav müük aitas Apple'i kasumit aastaga viiekordistada 61 miljonilt 320 miljoni dollarini. Diagramm: Tulemused vedasid Apple'i tõusule. Vt. samas: Eesti investorid mängisid Apple'i tõusu peale

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  13. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  14. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during

  15. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  16. Old Apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) Varieties with Hypoallergenic Properties: An Integrated Approach for Studying Apple Allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro

    2016-12-07

    Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".

  17. Fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of apple seed oil obtained from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram

    2014-03-30

    Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Modelling of Apple Scab Using Adaptive Network -Based Fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furkan

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... A new prediction model for the early warning of apple scab is proposed in this study. The method is .... Instead of all 12-min measurements, the average values of mea- surements in .... ANFC_LH, MLPN, and Bayes for comparison. The Bayes .... Multi metric evaluation of leaf wetness models for large-area.

  19. An Apple for Your IBM PC--The Quadlink Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes nature and installation of the QUADLINK board which allows Apple software to be run on IBM PC microcomputers. Although programs tested ran without problems, users should test their own programs since there are some copy protection schemes that can baffle the board. (JN)

  20. Mathematics Programming on the Apple II and IBM PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Roy E.; Schneider, David I.

    1987-01-01

    Details the features of BASIC used in mathematics programming and provides the information needed to translate between the Apple II and IBM PC computers. Discusses inputing a user-defined function, setting scroll windows, displaying subscripts and exponents, variable names, mathematical characters and special symbols. (TW)

  1. Maintenance of Microcomputers. Manual and Apple II Session, IBM Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Michael A.; And Others

    This guide describes maintenance procedures for IBM and Apple personal computers, provides information on detecting and diagnosing problems, and details diagnostic programs. Included are discussions of printers, terminals, disks, disk drives, keyboards, hardware, and software. The text is supplemented by various diagrams. (EW)

  2. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... TOX 56-81, NERICA 1, IR 841, and Special rice, were tested for cashew apple ..... the phenolic hydroxyl groups of the tannins and the carbonyl groups of the .... charge on the particles has to be neutralised to near zero charge.

  3. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these

  4. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  5. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.

    2005-01-01

    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  6. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER...

  7. Differential partitioning of triterpenes and triterpene esters in apple peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple peel functions as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, and preserving the integrity and appearance of peel critical for market acceptance. Peel epidermal cells and epicuticular wax are a rich source of secondary metabolites, including triterpenes. Several studies have ou...

  8. Cryopreservation of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple (Malus sp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. Over the last three decades, great...

  9. The potential use of white star apple seeds ( Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two (42) young male and female albino rats (Rattus norwegicus) were used in a preliminary study to assess the potential of non-conventional local materials, white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) 'udara' seeds and physic nut (Jatropha curcas) as feed ingredients for livestock. 'Udara' seed or physic nut meal were ...

  10. Responses of Several Apple Cultivare to Chemical Thinning Sprays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatments did not affect (PS 0.05) the number of seeds in the fruit, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit length to diameter .... Table 2. Eiïecl of Accel and Carbaiyi on number of fruit per cross sectional limb area, sugar. CETtet torix) and mean fmit weight of three Apple cultivars grown at the Pontotoc Research and Extension ...

  11. Wild apple growth and climate change in southeast Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina P. Panyushkina; Nurjan S. Mukhamadiev; Ann M. Lynch; Nursagim A. Ashikbaev; Alexis H. Arizpe; Christopher D. O' Connor; Danyar Abjanbaev; Gulnaz Z. Mengdbayeva; Abay O. Sagitov

    2017-01-01

    Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand...

  12. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as natural antioxidant agents. So in this study, the effect of thyme, coriander and rosemary essential oils were evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase activity in apples (Malus domestica Mill. cv Golden delicious), (M. domestica Mill.

  13. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were found associated with the deteriorating fruits. The fungi are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, A. tamarii, A. flavus, Fusarium spp, Penicilium spp and ...

  14. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  15. Technical Note: Assessment of Impact Damage to Apple Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits were dropped from different ...

  16. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  17. Foliar nutrition in apple production | Murtic | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of research papers dealing with the effect of foliar feeding on development parameters in apple trees in an attempt to obtain a more thorough insight into the advantages and disadvantages of this fertilization type and facilitate the potential use of this practice ...

  18. Simultaneous detection of Apple mosaic virus in cultivated hazelnuts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most economically damaging ilarvirus affecting hazelnut on a worldwide scale is the related apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Attempts were made to isolate the virus RNA from hazelnut tissues using different extraction methods. The most suitable extraction method that could detect the virus occurring naturally in hazelnut by ...

  19. Kei Apple Plant Thorn Synovitis | Nyamohanga | Annals of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can present as a diagnostic difficulty because of its insidious onset after an apparently trivial injury, which may not be reported. Historically, thorn synovitis has been considered aseptic and treated with removal of the intra-articular foreign body and the affected synovial ring. We present a child with Kei apple thorn that had ...

  20. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  1. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  2. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this study is to measure acceptance of a specific functional food: apple (fruit) leather, based on organoleptic characteristics and to identify consumer types and preferences for natural additives which increase the product's functionality and meet current nutritional needs. a sample of 800 consumers provided an evaluation of apple leather in terms of acceptance (liking). A sensorial panel was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify different acceptance-based consumer types. In addition, a conjoint analysis was carried out to determine preference for different additives. the cluster analysis resulted in four groups with significant differences in the average likings obtained from the sensory panel. Results indicate that the sweetness of the tested apple leather was evaluated best among all groups and, on average, color was rated as the worst attribute. However, overall likings differ significantly between groups. Results from the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer natural additives included in the product which enhance functionality. although there is a "global acceptance" of the product, there are significant differences between groups. The results of the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer the aggregation of natural additives which increase the product's functionality. Apple leather with natural additives, such as anticariogenics and antioxidants, can be considered a functional substitute of unhealthy snacks and/or sweets. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer preferences for organically and locally produced apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates organic consumers’ preferences for local production of apples. The analysis is based on a choice experiment among 637 Danish consumers used in combination with a principal component analysis of a set of opinion questions. The principal component analysis identifies two...

  4. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  5. An Apple for the Librarian: The OUC Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Stanley; Phillips, Susan

    1986-01-01

    Describes computerization of routine library procedures on Apple microcomputers at a small regional campus of Ohio University. Highlights include use of a database management program--PFS:FILE--for acquisition lists, equipment/supplies inventory, microfilm and periodicals management, and statistical manipulations, and a spreadsheet…

  6. A radiation-induced compact type Granny Smith apple mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.; Van Tonder, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    More successful compact mutant clones of Granny Smith apple are being sought, for those that have so far arisen naturally have undesirable tree and fruit charateristics. For this purpose, gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 radiation unit were used to induce mutant types artificially. One compact mutation of Granny Smith was produced via re-irradiation

  7. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.

    This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part…

  8. APPLE MANGO VALUE CHAIN IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... This study, conducted in Mereb-Leke district of Tigray, Northern ... development agencies, donors and NGOs are ... Apple Mango Value Chain in Northern Ethiopia: Case Study of Mereb-Leke District. 17 ... of the districts in the Tigray Regional State of ... city, Axum and Rama town, respectively and 5 and.

  9. Genetic mapping in a full-sib family of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, C.

    2000-01-01

    Genetic analysis in strictly outcrossing species is far more complicated than in species that can be selfed. When, in addition to that, a species has a long generation cycle, and when progenies from crosses require much space, as is the case for apple trees, then acquiring genetic knowledge

  10. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  11. An Apple a Day: Microcomputers in the Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Anne F.; Ransom, Stanley A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a program at the Plattsburgh Public Library in upstate New York designed to bring basic computer literacy to rural children. The program utilizes an Apple II Plus system and focuses on two aspects of computer literacy: software use and programing. (LLS)

  12. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Meulenbroek, Bert J.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Gilissen, Luud J. W. J.; Puehringer, Helene; Laimer, Margit; Martinelli, Alessio; Zaccharini, Marzio; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E. N. Clare; Zuidmeer, Laurian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.

  13. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... through an on-farm or roadside stand, or a farmer's market, and permitting the general public to enter the... B; or (3) 200 bushels of apples per acre in Area C; and (c) That are grown in an orchard that, if... from the orchard; (3) Insects, but not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest...

  14. 77 FR 77094 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... in higher prices to consumers. As Apple CEO Steve Jobs described his company's strategy for... February 19, 2009, Apple Vice President of Internet Services Eddy Cue explained to Apple CEO Steve Jobs in... pricing. As Mr. Cue reported in an email message to Apple's CEO Steve Jobs, the three publishers with whom...

  15. Study on the radiation preservation of apples and the radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kejian; Lu Dunzhu; Wan Hong; Zhu Zhaonan; Xu Shanmei

    1987-01-01

    The radiation effects on respiration and ethylene production in apple and its radiation preservation were reported in this paper. It shows that, when irradiation was applied immediately after harvest, the respiratory rate and ethylene production increase with the increasing of irradiation dose. When irradiation was applied after 7-10 days of storage, the respiratory rate still rises with the dose, while there is a decrease in ethylene production with the increasing of dose. If the irradiation dose is less than 800 Gy the rise of respiratory rate of irraadiated apple returns to the level of the control within 5 days, but ethylene production of irradiated apple keeps a lower level. According to the above results, dose of 300-500 Gy may be recommended for radiation preseration of apple. Ascorbic acid is unstable and sensitive to radiation. The radiation effects on ascorbic acid in apple is very small because the saccharides and some organic acid in apple, especially malic acid, are able to protect ascorbic acid from radiation damage. From measuring the saccharides and acids in apple, it is obvious that there is no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated apple. Long-life free radical in apple was not detected after irradiation. The scald of apple is reduced from 60% to less than 15% after cold storage for 8 monthes. The taste results indicated, tasting them without knowing which is irradiated or not, that the irradiated apple is superior to controlled sample

  16. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  17. Nondestructive Detection of the Internalquality of Apple Using X-Ray and Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuzeng; Yang, Liangliang; Yang, Qing; Kang, Likui

    The internal quality of apple is impossible to be detected by eyes in the procedure of sorting, which could reduce the apple’s quality reaching market. This paper illustrates an instrument using X-ray and machine vision. The following steps were introduced to process the X-ray image in order to determine the mould core apple. Firstly, lifting wavelet transform was used to get a low frequency image and three high frequency images. Secondly, we enhanced the low frequency image through image’s histogram equalization. Then, the edge of each apple's image was detected using canny operator. Finally, a threshold was set to clarify mould core and normal apple according to the different length of the apple core’s diameter. The experimental results show that this method could on-line detect the mould core apple with less time consuming, less than 0.03 seconds per apple, and the accuracy could reach 92%.

  18. Portable programming on parallel/networked computers using the Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    The Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) is a subroutine-based library of communication primitives that is callable from applications written in FORTRAN or C. APPL provides a consistent programmer interface to a variety of distributed and shared-memory multiprocessor MIMD machines. The objective of APPL is to minimize the effort required to move parallel applications from one machine to another, or to a network of homogeneous machines. APPL encompasses many of the message-passing primitives that are currently available on commercial multiprocessor systems. This paper describes APPL (version 2.3.1) and its usage, reports the status of the APPL project, and indicates possible directions for the future. Several applications using APPL are discussed, as well as performance and overhead results.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of free acid content in apples using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, M.R.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation of free acid content in apples by near- infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), browning and heat treatment of squeezed apple juice affected to the accuracy but titratable alkali concentration did not. The free acid content in apples after harvest was able to determine using different apples in harvest time for calibration making. The result of MLR, multiple correlation coefficient(R) was 0.77 and standard error of prediction(SEP) was 0.03%. The free acid content in apples during storage was able to determine using calibration equation established with stored apples, R was 0.90 and SEP was ca. 0.04%. The prediction accuracy by NIR was not sufficient for use of quantitative analysis of free acid content in apple, but classification of low and high level in acid content was supposed to be applicable

  20. METAMITRON REPLACING CARBARYL IN POST BLOOM THINNING OF APPLE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIZ PETRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carbaryl or the mixture of carbaryl with NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or BA (benzyladenine are the post-bloom chemical thinners most widely used in apple thinning in Brazil. The marketing restriction of carbaryl demands new options of apple post-bloom thinners, requiring the evaluation of others compounds for this purpose. Metamitron is one of the substances that may be used in chemical thinning of apples. Metamitron was evaluated at two concentrations, alone or in mixture with BA, in ‘MaxiGala’, ‘Fuji Suprema’ and ‘Fred Hough’ apple cultivars. Applications of metamitron at 384 mg L-1 and at 768 mg L-1 in a mixture with BA, ranging from 40 mg L-1 to 80 mg L-1, sprayed on fruits with diameter ranging from 5 to 25 mm were compared with the standard treatment and hand thinning. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4-6 repetitions of a single plant. The variables analyzed were: fruit set (%; percentage of floral clusters with 1, 2, 3, 4 or more fruits; fruit yield (kg; average fruit fresh mass (g and percentage of dropped fruit after thinning. Metamitron alone or in combination with BA reduced production per plant and significantly increased the fresh weight of fruits in all cultivars tested. Metamitron at 800 mg L-1 resulted in excessive fruit thinning, especially in ‘MaxiGala’ cultivar. Metamitron or metamitron + BA have potential to compose the program of chemical thinning of apple trees to replace carbaryl.

  1. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  2. Evaluating Children's Learning Disabilities with an Apple II Personal Computer or Tempting Poor Learners with an Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Lee Hansen; And Others

    This paper describes the use of commercially-available software for the Apple Computer to augment diagnostic evaluations of learning disabled children and to enhance "learning to learn" strategies at the application/transfer level of learning. A short rationale discusses levels of evaluation and learning, using a model that synthesizes the ideas…

  3. How many bad apples does it take to spoil the whole barrel? Social exclusion and toleration for bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, N.L.; Rumble, A.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Parks, C.D.; Gallucci, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In social dilemmas, where personal welfare is in conflict with collective welfare, there are inherent incentives to act non-cooperatively. Moreover, there is evidence that the example of a few uncooperative group members ("bad apples") is more influential than the example of comparable numbers of

  4. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina-Dolge Rita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  5. Would You Like that iPhone Locked or Unlocked?: Reconciling Apple's Anticircumvention Measures with the DMCA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Corbett

    2008-01-01

    When Apple's iPhone first hit the stores it was an epochal media event.2 Apple, long a leader in high-end computers and personal electronics, was poised to make its entry into ahighly-competitive market with a new mobile phone that promised groundbreaking technological capabilities in a sleek, ergonomic package. Apple's CEO, Steve Jobs, extolled the iPhone's virtues to an eager press, and, shortly thereafter, Apple's stock jumped dramatically.3 Apple's loyal devotees lined up in anticipation ...

  6. Transformation of apple (Malus × domestica) using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase as a selectable marker and analysis of the T-DNA integration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.

  7. APPLE-3: improvement of APPLE for neutron and gamma-ray flux, spectrum and reaction rate plotting code, and of its code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hiromitu; Maki, Koichi; Seki, Yasushi.

    1991-03-01

    A code APPLE was produced in 1976 for calculating and plotting tritium breeding ratio and tritium production rate distributions. That code was improved as 'APPLE-2' in 1982, to calculate and plot not only tritium breeding ratio but also distributions of neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, their spectra, nuclear heating rates and other reaction rates, and dose rate distributions during operation and after shutdown in 1982. The code APPLE-2 can calculate and plot these nuclear properties derived from neutron and gamma-ray fluxes by ANISN (one dimensional transport code), DOT3.5 (two dimensional transport code) and MORSE (three dimensional Monte Carlo code). We revised the code APPLE-2 as 'APPLE-3' by adding many functions to the APPLE-2 code in accordance with users' requirements proposed in recent progress of fusion reaction nuclear design. With minor modification of APPLE-2, a number of inconsistencies have been found between the code manual and the input data in the code. In the present report, the new functions added to APPLE-2 and improved users' manual are explained. (author)

  8. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, G.A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: The expression of the apple scab resistance geneRvi6in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors.All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple

  9. Use of Aspergillus niger for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1983-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste material remaining after apple brandy distillation was investigated. Different cellulolytic fungi were tested for their ability to convert the waste organic substances into microbial biomass. An Aspergillus niger strain was chosen as the most convenient microorganism. By growing this mold on the apple slop the following results were obtained: filtration time was shortened by 30 times, reduction of the chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase in the range of 50-80% depending on the substrate dilution and a dry filter cake enriched with fungal biomass to about 12 g/l containing up to 22% raw proteins and certain amounts of cellulolytic enzymes in the filtrate. The influence of the initial pH, the salt addition and the dilution of the substrate were studied as well. 12 references.

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of Apple scar skin viroid Isolates in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hee Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify genome sequences of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd isolates in Korea, the field survey was performed from ‘Hongro’ apple orchards located in eight sites in South Korea (Bongwha, Cheongsong, Dangjin, Gimchoen, Muju, Mungyeong, Suwon, and Yeongwol. ASSVd was detected by RT-PCR and PCR fragments were cloned into cloning vector. Full-length viral genomes of eight ASSVd isolates were sequenced and compared with 21 isolates reported previously from Korea, India, China, Japan and Greece. Eight isolates in this study showed 92.2-99.7% nucleotide sequence identities with those reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven isolates reported in this study belong to the same group distinct from other groups.

  11. Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Fuhao; Chang, Rui; Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Mao; Sasaki, Shigemi; Qiao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported

  12. Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fuhao [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, People’s Republic of (China); Chang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201204, People’s Republic of (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Sasaki, Shigemi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Qiao, Shan, E-mail: qiaoshan@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, People’s Republic of (China)

    2015-06-09

    The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported.

  13. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  14. Effect of Superfine Grinding on Physicochemical Properties of Apple Pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, X.; Sun, J.; Ma, H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of superfine grinding on the physicochemical properties of apple pomace was investigated in this study. The optimal ultrafine powder could be obtained under the conditions of motor speed 450 rpm and fan speed 300 rpm, whose particle size, water-solubility index, angle of repose, total phenolic content and total sugar content were 10.23±0.42 micro m, 33.65±0.91 percent, 39.36±1.59 degree, 12.62±0.34 mg GAE/g and 136.14±3.1 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the traditional powder, the significant increase of water-solubility, total phenolic content and total sugar content could be found while the decrease of angle of repose could be observed. It could be concluded that the bioavailability of functional and nutritional ingredients of apple pomace could be significantly improved by superfine grinding. (author)

  15. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  16. Quality of apples following gamma irradiation and cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brij Bhushan; Thomas, P.

    1998-01-01

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic quality changes in apple cvs ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Royal Delicious’, ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Rich-A-Red’ exposed to gamma radiation doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 kGy for quarantine and preservation purposes, were studied up to 6 months of storage at 2–4°C. Among the four cvs, ‘Rich-A-Red’ treated with 0.1 kGy dose showed better retention of sensory attributes and minimal changes in texture, total soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C content during storage. Results indicate that irradiation has commercial potential for apples as an alternative quarantine treatment for export requirements

  17. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  18. APPLE VINEGAR PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION IN PILOT SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna M., Leoncio; Robles, R.; Huamán R., M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar has been elaborated from apple juice by inmersed fermentation at room temperature. The process was developed in two stages, firstly, the alcoholic termentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevísíae yeast, Ellipsoideus variety. Secondly, an acetic fermentation was carried out using acetobacter. The global yield of the process, based on row material usage was around 52%. The product obtained has an acidity of 6,8% in acetic acid and fulfill the market requirements. Se ha ela...

  19. Degradation behaviour of potassium K-phosphite in apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Matteazzi, Aldo; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Although potassium phosphite is not registered for organic fruit production in Europe, it has long been regarded as a potential alternative to sulphur- and copper-containing fungicides. In 2005/2006 a field trial was carried out to verify the presence of residues of phosphoric acid over time in apples after applications of potassium phosphite at different time-points. No residues were present on fruits if treatments were applied before flowering, whereas treatments after flower...

  20. Market Segmentation and Conjoint Analysis for Apple Family Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Al-Refaie; Nour Bata

    2016-01-01

    A distributor of Apple products' experiences numerous difficulties in developing marketing strategies for new and existing mobile product entries that maximize customer satisfaction and the firm's profitability. This research, therefore, integrates market segmentation in platform-based product family design and conjoint analysis to identify iSystem combinations that increase customer satisfaction and business profits. First, the enhanced market segmentation grid is created. Then, the estimate...

  1. Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Pontiskoski; Kazuhiro Asakawa

    2009-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies balanced between internal and external reso...

  2. Automated audiometry using apple iOS-based application technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulad, Allen; Bui, Peggy; Djalilian, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of an Apple iOS-based automated hearing testing application and to compare its accuracy with conventional audiometry. Prospective diagnostic study. Setting Academic medical center. An iOS-based software application was developed to perform automated pure-tone hearing testing on the iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad. To assess for device variations and compatibility, preliminary work was performed to compare the standardized sound output (dB) of various Apple device and headset combinations. Forty-two subjects underwent automated iOS-based hearing testing in a sound booth, automated iOS-based hearing testing in a quiet room, and conventional manual audiometry. The maximum difference in sound intensity between various Apple device and headset combinations was 4 dB. On average, 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91%-100%) of the threshold values obtained using the automated test in a sound booth were within 10 dB of the corresponding threshold values obtained using conventional audiometry. When the automated test was performed in a quiet room, 94% (95% CI, 87%-100%) of the threshold values were within 10 dB of the threshold values obtained using conventional audiometry. Under standardized testing conditions, 90% of the subjects preferred iOS-based audiometry as opposed to conventional audiometry. Apple iOS-based devices provide a platform for automated air conduction audiometry without requiring extra equipment and yield hearing test results that approach those of conventional audiometry.

  3. Volatiles Profile of Red Apple from Marche Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fraternale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of different parts (whole fruit, peel and flesh of a rare wild red apple named “Mela Rossa Val Metauro” was established by SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction sampling, followed by GC-MS analysis. The most prominent constituent in all the three parts was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene. The presence of the ester ethyl hexanoate particularly in the flesh (39.8% gives a special exotic flavor to the fruit.

  4. It was easy, when apples and blackberries were only fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in company names are omnipresent. This is not accidental, companies deliberately chose ambiguous brand names, as part of their marketing and branding strategy. This procedure leads to new challenges, when it comes to finding information about the company on the Web. This paper is concerned with the task of classifying Twitter messages, whether they are related to a given company: for example, we classify a set of twitter messages containing a keyword apple, whether a message is re...

  5. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu; Ma Xiuye; Zhang Shufen; Liu Shucheng

    1993-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author)

  6. Wild Apple Growth and Climate Change in Southeast Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Panyushkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand the potential of a changing climate to influence apple radial growth. Ring-width chronologies spanning 48 to 129 years were developed from 12 plots in the Trans-Ili Alatau and Jungar Alatau ranges of Tian Shan Mountains, southeastern Kazakhstan. Cluster analysis of the plot-level chronologies suggests different temporal patterns of growth variability over the last century in the two mountain ranges studied. Changes in the periodicity of annual ring-width variability occurred ca. 1970 at both mountain ranges, with decadal-scale variability supplanted by quasi-biennial variation. Seascorr correlation analysis of primary and secondary weather variables identified negative growth associations with spring precipitation and positive associations with cooler fall-winter temperatures, but the relative importance of these relationships varied spatially and temporally, with a shift in the relative importance of spring precipitation ca. 1970 at Trans-Ili Alatau. Altered apple tree radial growth patterns correspond to altered climatology in the Lake Balkhash Basin driven by unprecedented intensified Arctic Oscillations after the late 1970s.

  7. Yield efficiency for nine apple cultivars grafted on two rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caetano Fioravanço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Currently, using smaller trees is one of the most important trends in apple cultivation. It is expected that reduced size plants produce lower amount of fruit, but with high yield and yield efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield efficiency (YE of nine apple tree cultivars, grafted on two rootstocks, from the second to the seventh year after planting. The YE indexes oscillated from one to the other year, regardless of rootstock. Correlations between YE and yield per tree and between YE and trunk cross sectional area (TCSA confirmed that efficiency can be increased by the production increment or by the plant's vigor reduction. The usefulness of cumulative YE (ƩYE is highlighted to compare apple tree cultivars after the third year of production. The highest ƩYE indexes were observed for 'Royal Gala' and 'Baigent', on M-9 rootstock, and for 'Gala Real' and 'Maxi-Gala', on Marubakaido/M-9 rootstock.

  8. Polyphenol profiles of French cider apple varieties (Malus domestica sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoner, P; Guyot, S; Marnet, N; Molle, D; Drilleau, J P

    1999-12-01

    The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.

  9. Influence of prefermentary clarification on the composition of apple musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Bertrand; Baron, Alain; Le Quere, Jean-Michel; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2007-06-27

    The polyphenol contents and colors of cider apple juices were compared before (NCM, not clarified must) and after five clarification treatments: enzymatic depectinization by pectinases followed by (i) sedimentation (depectinized and decanted juice), (ii) tangential microfiltration (microfiltered juice) or (iii) fining using gelatin (gelatin-treated juice); (iv) enzymatic gelification of pectin by pectin methylesterase followed by natural keeving by a cider manufacturer (producer keeved juice), or (v) flotation (floated with nitrogen gas juice). The pressing of the apples led to the highly selective extraction of the flavan-3-ols with the lowest molecular weights: In the apples, the number average degree of polymerization of the flavanols was 14.7, and it dropped to 2.2 in the NCM. Keeving had the highest impact on the reduction of both flavanol content and number average degree of polymerization. The flavanol concentrations were decreased in the permeate by fining (30%) much more than by depectinization. The clarification step led to a further decrease of the number average degree of polymerization. Hydroxycinnamic acids were less affected by the extraction process (with extraction yields >50%) and not affected by clarification. The color evolved with all treatments: L*, a*, b*, and chromaticity distance index measures indicated a reduction of orange-yellow saturation except after sedimentation.

  10. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months.

  11. Potency of Mangrove Apple (Sonneratia alba as Mercury Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza Cordova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic provide a negative impact on the surrounding environment. Mangrove species, such as Sonneratia alba would get the impact of anthropogenic activities, to accumulate the pollution of heavy metals. The aim of this study were to evaluate mercury accumulation in Mangrove Apple (S. alba and to analyze mangrove apple potency as mercury bioindicator. Samples were taken in April 2016 at Pari Island, Seribu Islands by purposive sampling. The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg in the Northern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and the lowest was in the fruit. The highest concentration of Hg in the Eastern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and lowest was in the fruit. The concentrations of Hg in the Eastern area higher the Northern area (significantly different. The accumulation of Hg mainly collected on the leaves with TF> 1, but the ability of S. alba trees absorb Hg in the environment showed a small value, namely BCF <1. The ability of S. alba in sediments, contaminated with mercury showed a high value of the leaves in the East Pari Island, but the fruit of S. alba both in the North and East of the Pari Island showed a small value.  Mangrove Apple leaves has a potency as mercury bioindicator organ.

  12. The atractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kudová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of attractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic using the Industry attractiveness evaluation matrix according to the methodology of Higgins and Vincze (1989. It identifies the key criteria for evaluation of attractiveness from five fields: market factors, competition factors, financial and economic factors, technological factors, and socio-political factors. The key criteria are described in detail and evaluated from the viewpoint of a producer operating in the apple production industry. The text comes from the papers from the field of fruit production and apple production published by Kudová (2003, 2004, 2005 and Chládková (2003. Application of these methods on other industries was applied by Žufan et al. (2001 and Tomšík, and Žufan (2004.According to the data of the Division of Perennial Plants of the Central Institutte for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (CISTA, the number of subjects (firms and growers operating intensive orchards reaches 1 238 on the area of 18 998 ha. In 2003 the number of subjects was 1 243 on the area of 19 514 ha. The total sales in fruit production were in decline from 1999 to 2005, and the decline of sales of apples grown in intensive orchards in 2005 was 34% in comparison with 2004. In the foreign trade, there significantly prevail imports above exports, and from 2002 to 2004 the imports of apples grew by 220%. The biggest growth of area of orchards was in 2004 – by 211 ha of mature apple-trees, which amounts only for 2% of the total area. In connection with this growth, there grew also the yield. Diversity of the market is based on varietal structure of apple-trees grown. According to the data of CISTA, the current varietal structure is not suitable and its change is very slow. Most of apples are grown in Central Bohemia, which amounts for 11% of the total area, which is more than 2000 ha. We can conclude, that even though the average market price of

  13. ‘FUJI’ APPLE TREE RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILBERTO NAVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of orchard fertilization with increasing rates of phosphorus (P on yield and critical levels of P in the soil and in the leaf of ‘Fuji’ apple trees. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from 2010 to 2015, in an Inceptisol soil. The three apple orchards were planted in 2004 with the Fuji cultivar grafted on Marubakaido/ M9 rootstock and grown under a high-plant-density system (1984 trees ha-1. Annual fertilizer levels of 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5 (as triple superphosphate were applied to the soil surface, without incorporation, in a randomized block design with five replicates. In the first and last years (2011 and 2015, soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20 and 0-20 cm layers and the available P content was analyzed. Annually, whole leaves were collected and analyzed for P content. The number and weight of fruits per tree and hfruit yield were also evaluated. Application of P increased the content of available P in the soil, but this increase was not accompanied by increased leaf P content nor by increased fruit yield. This suggests that, in soils with medium to high content of organic matter and well fertilized with P before planting, there is no response of apple trees for P reapplication in the 10 subsequent years.

  14. Chemometric classification of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin based on polyphenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Yutang

    2013-07-17

    To characterize and classify apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin on the basis of their polyphenol composition, the polyphenolic profiles of 58 apple juice samples belonging to 5 apple varieties and from 6 regions in Shaanxi province of China were assessed. Fifty-one of the samples were from protected designation of origin (PDO) districts. Polyphenols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and to a Q Exactive quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Chemometric techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on polyphenolic profiles of the samples to develop discrimination models. SLDA achieved satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, providing respectively 98.3 and 91.2% success rate in terms of prediction ability. This result demonstrated that polyphenols could served as characteristic indices to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices.

  15. Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum Metabolites Produced during Wet Apple Core Rot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC...... and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined...... in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5...

  16. The study on the infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cinerea developed on the apple but not that grown on the artificial medium (PDA was able to directly penetration uninjured apple skin. It was observed that sometimes rotted spots develo ped arround the lenticels.

  17. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in apple juices and its resistance to pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains. Studies with immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that Stx2 activity was restored when removed from the apple juice. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no difference (P pasteurize apple juice, but lost all activity when exposed to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The results suggest that pasteurization of apple juice used to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 has no effect on Stx2, and that food-compatible and safe antitoxin compounds can be used to inhibit the biological activity of the Shiga toxin.

  18. APPLE-2: an improved version of APPLE code for plotting neutron and gamma ray spectra and reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hiromitsu; Seki, Yasushi.

    1982-07-01

    A computer code APPLE-2 which plots the spatial distribution of energy spectra of multi-group neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes, and reaction rates has been developed. This code is an improved version of the previously developed APPLE code and has the following features: (1) It plots energy spectra of neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes calculated by ANISN, DOT and MORSE. (2) It calculates and plots the spatial distribution of neutron and gamma ray fluxes and various types of reaction rates such as nuclear heating rates, operational dose rates, displacement damage rates. (3) Input data specification is greatly simplified by the use of standard, response libraries and by close coupling with radiation transport calculation codes. (4) Plotting outputs are given in camera ready form. (author)

  19. Ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Valiuškaitė, Alma; Survilienė, Elena; Lugauskas, Albinas; Levinskaitė, Loreta

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture and Institute of Botany in 2004–2005. Fungi of twenty species belonging to eight genera were isolated from rotten and healthy apple fruits. Penicillium expansum and Penicillium italicum showed a high frequency of occurrence and were isolated from 50% and 17% healthy apples and from 83% and 67% of rotten fruits respectivel...

  20. Chemical pattern of brazilian apples: a chemometric approach based on the Fuji and Gala varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Renato Giovanetti; Prestes,Rosilene Aparecida; Denardi,Frederico; Nogueira,Alessandro; Wosiacki,Gilvan

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of apple juices may be used to discriminate between the varieties for consumption and those for raw material. Fuji and Gala have a chemical pattern that can be used for this classification. Multivariate methods correlate independent continuous chemical descriptors with the categorical apple variety. Three main descriptors of apple juice were selected: malic acid, total reducing sugar and total phenolic compounds. A chemometric approach, employing PCA and SIMCA, was us...

  1. Winter treatments against the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum): products and timing of applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Lardschneider, Ewald; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In organic apple growing the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) is still an unsolved problem. Various approaches to use beneficial insects were not really effective. Only winter treatments with mineral oils showed partial and fluctuating success. In 2006 and 2007 field trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of winter treatments to control woolly apple aphids. The efficacy of several products (different mineral oils, lime sulphur, and lime sulphur + mineral oil) w...

  2. Different Apple Varieties Classification Using kNN and MLP Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sabancı, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three different apple varieties grown in Karaman provinceare classified using kNN and MLP algorithms. 90 apples in total, 30 GoldenDelicious, 30 Granny Smith and 30 Starking Delicious have been used in thestudy. DFK 23U445 USB 3.0 (with Fujinon C Mount Lens) industrial camera hasbeen used to capture apple images. 4 size properties (diameter, area, perimeterand fullness) and 3 color properties (red, green, blue) have been decided usingimage processing techniques through analyzin...

  3. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine; Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain. Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit. Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three diffe...

  4. The Inventory of Phytoseiid Mite on Apple Orchards in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AURELA SUPARAKU; ARIS HUQI; NATASHA HAKA (DURAJ)

    2014-01-01

    A survey to determine the presence and abundance of phytoseiid mite on apple orchards has been conducted in Durres (Shena-Vlash), Albania. Leaf samples were taken from five apple varieties: Pink Lady, Golden, Starking, Fuji, Gala and the phytoseiid were then extracted. As the result of the survey, two species belonging to the Phytoseiidae family were identified: Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten). Amblyseius andersoni was found in all apple varieties analyzed in thi...

  5. Development of a protocol that allows safe consumption of the hypoallergenic apple cultivar Santana

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, van der, M.P.; Schenk, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivar Santana was shown to have a low allergenicity in a previously reported clinical trial. A protocol was developed to validate these results outside a clinical setting and to market the Santana as a hypoallergenic apple for large-scale consumption. This protocol was designed to ensure safe consumption of the Santana by consumers suffering from apple allergy. We tested the protocol in a pilot in 100 supermarket stores and evaluated in an internet-based survey...

  6. Physical and antibacterial properties of edible films formulated with apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H

    2011-03-01

    Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.

  7. Current Situation and Development Opportunities of Apple Production inThe Province Konya

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAMOĞLU, Zeki; ÇELİK, Yusuf; OĞUZ, Cennet

    2009-01-01

    In this study sectoral analysis of apple production activity in Konya was made. Within this scope at first apple production amount in Turkey and in the world and developments in cultivation areas were examined, development opportunities of apple production in the province were discussed. The data about this issue was collected from secondary sources (Food and Agriculture Organization, Turkish Statistical Institute etc.) In line with this data strong, weak sides of this sector, opportunities a...

  8. Prediction of valid acidity in intact apples with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-de; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping

    2005-01-01

    To develop nondestructive acidity prediction for intact Fuji apples, the potential of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) method with fiber optics in interactance mode was investigated. Interactance in the 800 nm to 2619 nm region was measured for intact apples, harvested from early to late maturity stages. Spectral data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques including partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. A total of 120 Fuji appl...

  9. Climate Change and Apple Farming in Indian Himalayas: A Study of Local Perceptions and Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (...

  10. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  11. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  12. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  13. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.

  14. Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Hanaan

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d

  15. Haze in Apple-Based Beverages: Detailed Polyphenol, Polysaccharide, Protein, and Mineral Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Melanie; Poupard, Pascal; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Bauduin, Remi; Guyot, Sylvain

    2017-08-09

    Producers of apple-based beverages are confronted with colloidal instability. Haze is caused by interactions between molecules that lead to the formation of aggregates. Haze composition in three apple-based beverages, namely, French sparkling cider, apple juice, and pommeau, was studied. Phenolic compounds, proteins, polysaccharides, and minerals were analyzed using global and detailed analytical methods. The results explained apple juice hazes, where they were the main constituents (18 and 24%). Polysaccharides accounted for 0-30% of haze. Potassium and calcium were the main minerals.

  16. Neutron activation analysis for study of distribution patterns of organo-halogen pollutants in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Luo Jialing; Sun Huibin; Chai Zhifang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of organo-halogens in apple and their sources were studied by neutron activation analysis combined with statistical analysis. The results indicated that concentrations of organo-halogens in apple were in the order of organo-chlorine >> organo-bromine > organo-iodine, and concentrations of the organo-chlorine in four parts of apple were in the order of seed >> peel >> endocarp ≥ pulp. Also, the organo-chlorine, -bromine and-iodine in apple were found to have different sources. The latter two were mainly from naturally synthetic products by plant itself, while the former was mainly from anthropogenic pollutants. (authors)

  17. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  18. EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO PESTS AND DISEASES OF SOME OLD APPLE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militaru Madalina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Old apple varieties (ˈBotaneˈ, ˈCălugăreştiˈ, ˈDomneştiˈ, ˈCreţesc auriuˈ, ˈGustav durabilˈ, ˈPătulˈ, ˈRoşii de Geoagiuˈ, ˈŞovari, ˈVerzişoareˈ, ˈTare de ghindăˈ, ˈVerzi de Rădăşeniˈ, ˈPoinicˈ were studied in order to assess pests and disease resistance during two growing season. During the experiment, the following disease and pest evaluations were made periodically: apple powdery mildew, apple scab, green apple aphid, apple codling moth, in a plot with low pesticide regime. High scab and powdery mildew resistance was observed at ˈGustav durabilˈ and ˈBotaneˈ cvs. Hight susceptibility for apple codling moth was observed on ˈGustav durabilˈ cv. and for green apple aphid at ˈVerzişoareˈ and ˈTare de ghindăˈ cvs. In conclusion, some old apple cultivars could be a significant source of genes for apple breeding rograms

  19. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  20. Effect of bagging on quality of apples cultivated in Yamaguchi prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    人見, 英里; 長崎, 有希; 赤山, 緩奈

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at inspecting the difference in the quality of apples which have been cultivated employing either bagged or unbagged methods in an apple farm located in Atou, Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The apples subjected were; 1)2015:4 varieties including Houmei, Ryoka-nokisetsu, Akibae, and Hoshi-no-kinka 2)2016:6 varieties including Houmei, Shinano-sweet, Ryoka-no-kisetsu, Yoko, Hoshi-no-kinka, Ourin. The apples from the same respective trees were set either to be bagged or un...

  1. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Peisley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  2. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Basannagari

    Full Text Available Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m. At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills, reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  3. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  4. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  5. In-vitro neoformation of woody plants (apple, pear, Weigela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, E.; Dufour, M.; Duron, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Adventitious bud neoformation may induce variability in two ways: somaclonal variation, if the explant has undergone undifferentiated growth (callus); induced mutations, if a physical or chemical mutagen has been applied to the explant prior to the regeneration. Three apple scion cultivars ('Gala', 'Granny Smith', 'Golden Delicious') and four apple rootstock cultivars ('Mark', 'Novole', 'Lancep', 'Cepiland') were grown on basal apple multiplication medium. Leaves, internodes and roots were used for callogenesis and/or regeneration experiments. Scion varieties were more responsive than rootstocks. 1000 'Gala' neoformations will be planted in the field to investigate somaclonal variation. In pear, shoot regeneration was obtained from in-vitro leaves of 3 varieties of Pyrus communis ('Seckel', 'Louise Bonne', 'Comice') and one variety of Pyrus bretschneideri ('Crystal Pear'). It was observed that regeneration is still possible from leaves irradiated with up to 40 Gy of γ rays, or treated with 5mM ENU for one hour. In Weigela, stem segments (0.5 cm) from rooted in vitro plants of 5 cultivars were used in experiments to induce adventitious buds. On the cultivar 'Eva Rathke' the adventitious buds were detected as early as 10 to 15 days after the beginning of the culture. A mutagenic treatment was carried out by immersing explants of 'Bristol Ruby' in a suspension of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Among 400 plants regenerated from treated explants, 5 mutants were detected after 5 years of field observation. Two of them seem to be solid mutants. Apparently in Weigela both homogeneous mutants and chimeras are produced by adventitious regeneration from mutagenised explants. (author)

  6. An Apple II -based bidimensional pulse height analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Flesher, A.C.; Honeyman, R.N.; Pritchard, T.E.; Price, W.P.R.

    1984-06-01

    The implementation of a pulse height analyser function in an Apple II microcomputer using minimal purpose built hardware is described. Except for a small interface module the system consists of two suites of software, one giving a conventional one dimensional analysis on a span of 1024 channels, and the other a two dimensional analysis on a 128 x 128 image format. Using the recently introduced ACCELERATOR coprocessor card the system performs with a dead time per event of less than 50 μS. Full software facilities are provided for display, storage and processing of the data using standard Applesoft BASIC. (author)

  7. RAČUNALNIŠTVO V OBLAKU PODJETJA APPLE INC. - ICLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Pečenko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    V tem diplomskem seminarju je obravnavana tema računalništvo v oblaku in sicer na primeru storitve iCloud podjetja Apple Inc., ki je namenjena vsem uporabnikom Applovih produktov(računalnikov in mobilnih naprav). V prvem delu smo podrobneje predstavili teorijo računalništva v oblaku, ki predstavlja novo tehnologijo, s katero je uporabnikom (podjetjem in posameznikom) omogočeno shranjevanje podatkov v splet in dostopanje do njih kadarkoli in kjerkoli s katerokoli napravo enostavno s pomo...

  8. Preparing the BESSY APPLE Undulators for Top-Up Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2007-01-01

    BESSY plans to go to topping up operation in the near future. A high injection efficiency is essential to avoid particle losses inside the undulator magnets and to ensure a low radiation background in the beamlines. Dynamic and static multipoles of the insertion devices have to be minimized to accomplish this requirement. APPLE II devices show strong dynamic multipoles in the elliptical and vertical polarization mode. Measurements before and after shimming of these multipoles are presented. The static multipoles of the BESSY UE56-2 which are due to systematic block inhomgeneities have successfully been shimmed recovering the full dynamic aperture.

  9. An actidione resistant Candida tropicalis from custard apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkarayya, H; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1981-01-01

    An actidione resistant yeast, Candida tropicalis, was isolated from fermenting custard apple juice. Though a slight inhibition of growth was observed on the first day with 5000 ppm of actidione, growth was equal to control after one week. Sorbic acid at 500 ppm and above inhibited the growth of this yeast while sodium benzoate and potassium metabisulphite were unable to suppress the growth even at 1000 ppm. Fermentation and assimilation of different carbon sources were delayed in the presence of 1000 ppm of actidione suggesting the disruption of protein synthesis by actidione.

  10. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Yadavrao Kshirsagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed signs of intestinal obstruction on day one after birth, for which an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Type 3 JIA was found for which resection of atretic segments with jejuno-ascending colon anastomosis was preformed.

  11. Detection of Golden apples' climacteric peak by laser biospeckle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Rana; Nader, Christelle Abou; Afif, Charbel; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Brun, Guy; Le Jeune, Bernard; Abboud, Marie

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we report a study in which a laser biospeckle technique is used to detect the climacteric peak indicating the optimal ripeness of fruits. We monitor two batches of harvested Golden apples going through the ripening phase in low- and room-temperature environments, determine speckle parameters, and measure the emitted ethylene concentration using gas chromatography as reference method. Speckle results are then correlated to the emitted ethylene concentration by a principal component analysis. From a practical point of view, this approach allows us to validate biospeckle as a noninvasive and alternative method to respiration rate and ethylene production for climacteric peak detection as a ripening index.

  12. Evaluating Digital Forensic Options for the Apple iPad

    OpenAIRE

    Hay , Andrew; Krill , Dennis; Kuhar , Benjamin; Peterson , Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Part 5: ADVANCED FORENSIC TECHNIQUES; International audience; The iPod Touch, iPhone and iPad from Apple are among the most popular mobile computing platforms in use today. These devices are of forensic interest because of their high adoption rate and potential for containing digital evidence. The uniformity in their design and underlying operating system (iOS) also allows forensic tools and methods to be shared across product types. This paper analyzes the tools and methods available for con...

  13. Determinants of Sustainable Relationships in the Albanian Apple Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi Gërdoçi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the behaviour of Albanian apple growers and their relations with buyers based on a structured survey. We develop a model of relational governance that highlights the importance of sustainable (lasting relationships and draws upon different theoretical frameworks such as transaction cost economics and social network theory and focuses on determinants of relational exchange. The findings support the social network argument that the presence of verbal agreements between business partners strongly and positively affects exchange relationships. Asset specificity and competition among buyers also affects such relationships. The results and their implications at the management and policy-making level are discussed in detail

  14. Determination of daminozide residues in apples using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, J.H.W.; Dijk, A.G. van; Wagenaar, R.; Quirijns, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of daminozide in apples using gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD). Daminozide is hydrolysed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) by alkaline digestion. The UDMH generated is distilled from the apple matrix, derivatized with

  15. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  16. First report of Sphaeropsis rot of apple caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2012, decayed ‘Empire’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were sampled from apples stored in bins for 6 months under controlled atmosphere at a commercial packinghouse in Orleans County in New York State. The fruit were completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown. The incidence o...

  17. Segmentation of foreground apple targets by fusing visual attention mechanism and growth rules of seed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, W.; Shang, W.; Shao, Y.; Wang, D.; Yu, X.; Song, H.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of apple targets is one of the most important problems to be solved in the vision system of apple picking robots. This work aimed to solve the difficulties that background targets often bring to foreground targets segmentation, by fusing the visual attention mechanism and the growth rule of seed points. Background targets could be eliminated by extracting the ROI (region of interest) of apple targets; the ROI was roughly segmented on the HSV color space, and then each of the pixels was used as a seed growing point. The growth rule of the seed points was adopted to obtain the whole area of apple targets from seed growing points. The proposed method was tested with 20 images captured in a natural scene, including 54 foreground apple targets and approximately 84 background apple targets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can remove background targets and focus on foreground targets, while the k-means algorithm and the chromatic aberration algorithm cannot. Additionally, its average segmentation error rate was 13.23%, which is 2.71% higher than that of the k-means algorithm and 2.95% lower than that of the chromatic aberration algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method contributes to the vision system of apple-picking robots to locate foreground apple targets quickly and accurately under a natural scene. (Author)

  18. Effects of Ethephon Application on Color Development of ‘Gala Must’ Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananie PESTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of “Gala Must” apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.

  19. Apple endophytic microbiota of different rootstock/scion combinations suggests a genotype-specific influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study described the microbiota associated with three apple varieties, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Honey Crisp’, and two rootstocks, M.9, and M.M.111. The objectives were to 1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties, and 2) determine if...

  20. Additional indications for the low allergenic properties of the apple cultivars santana and elise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Skypala, I.; Bures, P.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Zauli, D.; Ricci, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS) to fresh apple may tolerate low allergenic apple cultivars. We aimed to investigate if the low allergenic properties of Elise and Santana, as previously identified in a Dutch population, could be generalised within North West Europe within the birch pollen

  1. Using RNA-Seq data to select refence genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for t...

  2. Identification of unknown apple cultivars demonstrates the impact of local breeding program on cultivar diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple trees, either abandoned or cared for, are common on the North American landscape. These trees can live for decades, and therefore represent a record of large- and small-scale agricultural practices through time. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity and identity of 330 unknown apple trees in...

  3. Additional Indications for the Low Allergenic Properties of the Apple Cultivars Santana and Elise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Skypala, I.; Bures, P.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Zauli, D.; Ricci, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS) to fresh apple may tolerate low allergenic apple cultivars. We aimed to investigate if the low allergenic properties of Elise and Santana, as previously identified in a Dutch population, could be generalised within North West Europe within the birch pollen

  4. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  5. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  6. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patter...

  7. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas

  8. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  9. 75 FR 76754 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-841 (Second Review)] Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non- frozen apple juice concentrate from China would...

  10. In vivo evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of wolf-apple flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes has increased at alarming rates worldwide, and has become a serious health problem in modern society, highlighting the need for adjuvants to assist in its treatment. The starch from wolf-apple is a product extracted from the pulp of the unripe wolf-apple (Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil), which ...

  11. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  12. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  13. Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths (740 nm and 950 nm). I...

  14. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  15. Morphological and physiological aspects of the early phases of flower bud formation of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, F.A.

    1996-01-01


    For consistent yields in apple fruit production, knowledge of the factors affecting flower bud formation is required. The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the role of endogenous factors in flower bud formation of apple. The effects of temperature, applied gibberellin (GA

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319.56-22 Section 319.56-22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The...

  17. Effect of postharvest storage on the expression of the apple allergen Mal d 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; Foxall, Robert; Browne, Tom; dey, Rickmer; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Marzban, Gorji; Waldron, Keith W.; van Ree, Ronald; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Laimer, Margit; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of fresh apples can cause allergy in susceptible individuals. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to determine Mal d 1 levels in apple pulp using a monoclonal antibody (BIP-1). The ELISA was able to rank ten cultivars according to their Mal d 1

  18. Great Tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, C.M.M.; Visser, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple

  19. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow: Philosophy and Structure [and] What's Happening Where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA.

    Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) is a long-term research project sponsored by Apple Computer, Inc., to explore how learning and teaching change when teachers and students have access to interactive computer technologies. ACOT adheres to a philosophy that instruction should be learner controlled; i.e., students take responsibility for their own…

  20. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of

  1. Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espley, R.V.; Bovy, A.G.; Bava, C.; Jaeger, S.R.; Tomes, S.; Norling, C.; Crawford, J.; Rowan, D.; McGhie, T.K.; Brendolise, C.; Putterill, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Hellens, R.P.; Allan, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10.

  2. Cloning and functional characterization of the Rvi15 (Vr2) gene for apple scab resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, H.J.; Brinkhuis, J.; Burgh, van der S.; Schaart, J.; Groenwold, R.; Broggini, G.A.L.; Gessler, C.

    2014-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is a serious disease of apple. Previously, the scab resistance Rvi15 (Vr2) from the accession GMAL 2473 was genetically mapped, and three candidate resistance genes were identified. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of these three

  3. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  4. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Song, H.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Qu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples. (Author)

  5. Discovery of three woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in Australia: the role of antixenosis and antibiosis in apple tree resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Costa, Arnaud; Williams, D. G.; Powell, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 280-287 ISSN 2052-1758 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid * apple * biotype Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aen.12074/pdf

  6. Apple pomace improves gut health in Fisher rats independent of seed content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N.; Markowski, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects...... to the fibre and other fruit constituents present in the pomace. Presence of apple seeds seems to impart no toxicity even at 6.5% pomace in the feed and seeds also had no influence on the biological effect of the pomace. In the future, apple pomace could potentially be used as a bioactive and possibly health...

  7. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: The present project is part of the large ISAFRUIT project, where one of the objectives is to identify effects of apple and apple product on parameters related to gut health. In a previous rat study we observed changes in the intestinal microbiota of rats fed whole apples......, pomace or apple pectin ([1], and we were interested in finding out if the same effect can be observed in humans. Method: The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled 5 x 28 days cross-over study with 24 healthy persons of both genders. The persons were following a pectin- and polyphenol free......-free), 3) cloudy juice (apple juice with pulp), and 4) pomace (press cake from the cloudy juice production process). Fecal samples were taken before and after each diet period. After DNA extraction, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with universal primers and specific primers...

  8. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  9. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  10. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, A A; Dekker, M; de Jager, A; Jongen, W M

    2001-08-01

    Consumers' increasing interest in the relationship between diet and health is a sign for food producers to pay more attention to potential health-protecting compounds in new product development and food processing. From a production chain perspective the choice of the raw material that is used is important for the health-protecting potential of the end product. Four apple cultivars (Jonagold, Golden Delicious, Cox's Orange, and Elstar), which can be used as fresh apples or in processed apple products, were compared with regard to flavonol, catechins, phloridzin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations and antioxidant activity. Jonagold apples possessed the highest flavonoid concentration and the highest antioxidant activity. To study seasonal differences, apples from three different harvest years were analyzed, but in three cultivars no effect on flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity was observed. Long-term storage, both at refrigerator temperature and under controlled atmosphere conditions, was found not to influence flavonoid concentration or antioxidant activity.

  11. Role of scab-resistant apple varieties in forming assortment of new industrial apple plantings (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Д. Гончарук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identifying new scab-resistant apple varieties with high biological potential by the set of agronomic characters and the ability to realize it effectively in various soil and climatic conditions. Methods. Field, laboratory, comparison, generalization, statistical ones. Results. The author presents the results of study of 17 scab-resistant non-irrigated apple varieties on a semi-dwarf rootstock as to their adaptability to biotic and abio­tic stressors as well as their economic productivity. The studied varieties appeared to be winter-hardy, frost- and heat-resistant, but medium drought-tolerant ones. They are characterized by weak and moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew, high resistance to fruit rot and very low amounts of brown spot, except for Gold Rush variety. Such 10 year old varieties as ‘Edera’, Florina’, ‘Amulet’ and ‘Perlyna Kyieva’ and 8 year old ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Orlovskoie Polesie’ and ‘Topaz’ formed the highest productivity during the years of study. Due to the pollen quality and high interfertility, ‘Revena’ and ‘Gold Rush’ varieties were identified as universal pollinators for winter scab-resistant apple varieties. Conclusions. Such ecologically resistant winter varieties as ‘Topaz’, ‘Freedom’, ‘Edera’ and autumnal ‘Remo’, ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Amulet’ were recognized as promising for new intensive non-irrigated plantations in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. They can be the basis of new gardens occupying 25–30% of the area where ecologically safe fruits for various target purposes will be grown supplying demands of the population and processing industry.

  12. Towards an Integrated Use of Biological Control by Cladosporium cladosporioides H39 in Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis) Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Scheer, C.; Holb, I.J.; Masny, S.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most important disease in apple production, reducing yield and quality of fruit. Control of apple scab in commercial orchards currently depends on multiple applications of fungicides. The potential of the antagonistic isolate Cladosporium

  13. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ This... currently due no later than October 28, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the...

  14. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple... order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China. See...: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China, 65 FR 35606 (June 5, 2000...

  15. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Because the... June 5, 2000, the Department issued an antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice...

  16. 76 FR 61740 - Geneon Entertainment (USA) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal Santa Monica, CA...-site leased workers from Interplace, Inc., and Apple One, Santa Monica, California. The workers are... from Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal, Santa Monica, California, who became totally or...

  17. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled

  18. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  19. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  20. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.