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Sample records for apple leafroller bonagota

  1. Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycetes, hypocreales in the control of Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and its compatibility with chemical insecticides

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    FA. Anhalt

    Full Text Available Several insects are harmful to apples grown in Brazil, especially the leafroller Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, usually controlled with chemical insecticides. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of Metarhizium anisopliae strains in the control of the apple leafroller, by assessing their virulence to B. salubricola larvae in bioassays with suspensions of 2 x 10(5 to 2 x 10(9 conidia/mL as well as their relationship with protease expression. The most effective strain underwent a compatibility test with chemical insecticides. The M. anisopliae E6 strain showed a good performance, with up to 88% mortality and a LT50 of 1.66 days. The virulence was positively correlated with a higher enzymatic activity. The E6 strain was compatible with tebufenozide, evidencing its potential to control B. salubricola.

  2. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb?insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food

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    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and n...

  3. Longevity of the Adult Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, and the Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington Apple Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed. PMID:20337564

  4. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb-insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) was used for the residue analysis. The analytical performance of the method was satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties ≤36% (a coverage factor, k = 2, and a confidence level of 95%). The dissipations of insecticides were studied in pseudo-first-order kinetic models (for which the coefficient of determination, R 2 , ranged between 0.9188 and 0.9897). Residues of studied insecticides were below their maximum residue limits of 0.5 mg/kg at an early stage of growth of the fruit. The half-lives of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb were 16-17, 4-6 and 20-24 days, respectively. The initial residue levels declined gradually and reached the level of 0.01 mg/kg in 1 month for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb. To obtain the insecticide residue levels below 0.01 mg/kg, which is the default MRL for food intended for infants and young children, the application of the studied insecticides should be carried out at recommended doses not later then: 1 month before harvest for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb.

  5. Development of 2-phenlethanol and acetic acid lures to monitor Obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under mating disruption

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    Studies were conducted to compare the relative attraction of the benzenoid plant volatiles 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylacetonitrile in combination with acetic acid as lures for male and female adults of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), in apple, Mal...

  6. Current status and perspectives for management of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) in apple orchards in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovaleski, Adalecio; Sugayama, Regina L.; Malavasi, Aldo

    2000-01-01

    Pomiculture is a recent activity in southern Brazil. The first apple orchards were installed in the early 1970s. Recently, the area grown with apples exceeded 30,000 ha, concentrated in the regions of Fraiburgo and Sao Joaquim (state of Santa Catarina) and Vacaria and Bom Jesus (state of Rio Grande do Sul). Part of the 600,000 tons that are harvested every year is exported to the USA and European countries. Some exotic apple pests were unintentionally introduced, like the European red mite (Panonychuls ulmi Koch) and the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck). Furthermore, some native species of insects became important pests, as in the South American apple leafroller (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick) and the South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The South American fruit fly is the best-studied pest of apples in Brazil regarding its biology and ecology. In this paper, we synthesise the information available and discuss the feasibility of adopting new control methods. Most experiments were conducted in Vacaria where A. fraterculus populations reach levels as high as 150 flies/trap day in some years. Sixteen species of Anastrepha occur in the region of Vacaria and only A. fraterculus is considered economically important (Kovaleski et al., submitted). In addition to the typical morphology of A. fraterculus, the morphotype CSS (Selivon et al. 1996) was detected in McPhail traps and infested native fruits. The second most frequent species of Anastrepha is A. dissimilis Stone. It may be responsible for more than 20% of fruit flies in commercial apple orchards in some periods of the year (November-January) but does not attack apples (Kovaleski 1997). Adult population fluctuation has been studied for the last four years using plastic McPhail traps containing grape juice at 25% (v/v) as attractant. It is more efficient than corn protein hydrolysate, vinegar, and sugarcane molasses (Kovaleski et al. 1995) and is widely used by apple growers as the

  7. Survey of conspecific herbivore-induced volatiles from apple as possible attractants for Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, foliage subjected to herbivore feeding. The volatiles released upon herbivore attack could be attractive to adult leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott when combined with acetic acid. First, volatiles relea...

  8. Controle de pragas e doenças, maturação e qualidade de maçãs 'imperial gala' submetidas ao ensacamento Control of insect pests and diseases, maturity and quality of 'imperial gala' apples submitted to bagging

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    Rosângela Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    /09. The apples were bagged after fruit thinning, with bags made of transparent micro-perforated plastic or non-textured fabric. The control treatment consisted of unbagged fruit. At harvest, fruits were assessed for damages caused by fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus, oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, apple leafroller (Bonagota salubricola and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum, incidence of the apple scab (Venturia inaequalis and bitter rot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides diseases, as well as for physico-chemical attributes of maturity and quality, and calcium (Ca content of the fruit. Fruit bagging, regardless of the material used, reduced the damages caused by insect pests, but it did not protect fruit against diseases caused by the evaluated fungus. Fruit bagging did not affect the development of the red color and Ca content of the fruit. In general, the bagging anticipated the fruit maturation process, characterized by the reduction on flesh firmness and skin and pulp texture, and by the increase of the starch-iodine index.

  9. Overwintering hosts for the exotic leafroller parasitoid, Colpoclypeus florus: implications for habitat manipulation to augment biological control of leafrollers in pome fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, R S; Unruh, T R; Brunner, J F

    2010-01-01

    Thirty sites of managed and native habitats were surveyed for leafrollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the apple producing region of central Washington State and northern Oregon from September through November 1997-2000 to discover species that supported overwintering by the parasitoid Colpoclypeus florus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). C. florus, a species introduced from Europe, requires medium to large host larvae late in autumn on which to overwinter, and few leafroller species display this biology. Over the four years, five potential C. florus hosts were collected, including: Ancylis comptana (Froelich), Xenotemna pallorana (Robinson), and Syndemis sp. (Tortricidae), Filatima sp. (Gelechiidae), and Caloptilia burgessiellia (Zeller) (Gracillariidae). Of these, A. comptana, Syndemis sp., and Filatima sp. have been confirmed as overwintering hosts for C. florus. During the four years, the Syndemis sp. was rare and observed at only one location feeding on redosier dogwood, Cornus sericea L. (Cornales: Cornaceae) although, at this location, many of the larvae collected were parasitized by C. florus. Filatima sp. was common in the Yakima valley feeding on balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L. ssp. trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw (Malpighiales: Salicaceae) but was rarely parasitized. A. comptana, however, was collected at many locations in central Washington and was frequently found as an overwintering host for C. florus. A. comptana was found feeding on two Rosaceae: Wood's rose, Rosa woodsii Lindl., and strawberry, Fragaria ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Based on the number of host larvae collected, A. comptana appears to be the primary overwintering host for C. florus in Washington. Introduction of A. comptana populations to near-orchard habitats may facilitate biological control of leafrollers that are orchard pests.

  10. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

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    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  11. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

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    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  12. Controle químico da lagarta-enroladeira (Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick na cultura da macieira

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    BOTTON MARCOS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, é considerada uma das principais pragas da macieira no Brasil. Com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas visando ao controle do inseto, experimentos de laboratório e campo foram conduzidos com clorpirifós-etil (Lorsban 480 CE - 72 g de i.a./100 L, metidatiom (Supracid 400 - 60 g de i.a/100 L, fosmet (Imidan 50 PM - 100 g de i.a./100 L, triclorfom (Dipterex 500 - 150 g de i.a./100 L, tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 21,6 g de i.a./100 L, fenitrotiom (Sumithion 500 CE - 75 g de i.a./100 L e carbaril (Sevin 850 PM - 153 g de i.a./100 L. Todos os inseticidas provocaram 100% de mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas em laboratório, porém, o controle de lagartas de 4º e 5º ínstar, após seu estabelecimento nas plantas de macieira, somente foi satisfatório com clorpirifós-etil, tebufenozide e triclorfom. A pulverização de clorpirifós-etil, após picos de captura dos machos de B. cranaodes com armadilhas de feromônio sexual resultaram em menos de 1% de frutos danificados na colheita em comparação com 4,6% com tebufenozide, e 9,8% na testemunha.

  13. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low

  14. Potato leafroll virus : molecular analysis and genetically engineered resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilk, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was elucidated and its genetic organization deduced (Chapter 2). Six open reading frames (ORFs) were shown to be present on the genome. Both the PLRV coat protein gene and the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase gene were

  15. Effect of pesticides on Colpoclypeus florus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Trichogramma platneri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of leafrollers in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J F; Dunley, J E; Doerr, M D; Beers, E H

    2001-10-01

    Pesticides were evaluated for their effect on two parasitoid species, Colpoclypeus flouts and Trichogramma platneri, that are potential biological control agents of leafrollers in apple orchards. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were highly toxic to both parasitoids in topical applications, but foliar residues of some products were nontoxic after 7 d. At reduced rates, topically applied pyrethroids were low in toxicity to C. florus were highly toxic to T. platneri, and foliar residues were nontoxic after about 7 d. Imidacloprid and abamectin were highly toxic when applied topically to both parasitoids but were not toxic as 1-d-old residues. Insect growth regulators did not cause mortality either as topical applications or residues; however, diflubenzuron caused severe sublethal effects, completely blocking the production of C. florus offspring. Biorational pesticides, such as soap, oil, and B. thuringiensis products, caused no toxicity to C. florus but had a direct impact on T. platneri as topical applications through physical immobilization. The potential to integrate different pesticides with biological control of leafrollers and the need for a step-wise approach to evaluate the impact of pesticides against natural enemies is discussed.

  16. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

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    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  17. Acquisition and transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae : quantitative aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Studying the transmission of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae from infected Physalis floridana plants, revealed that the ability of aphids to transmit the virus differed widely among individuals and strongly depended on the biotype of

  18. Expression of Recombinant Potato leafroll virus Structural and Non-structural Proteins for Antibody Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plchová, Helena; Moravec, Tomáš; Dědič, P.; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2011), s. 130-132 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030; GA MZe QH71123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Potato leafroll virus * recombinant viral antigen * antibody production Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2011

  19. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  20. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

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    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  1. Mating disruption of Spilonota ocellana and other apple orchard tortricids using a multispecies reservoir dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Mario; Sjöberg, Patrick; Swiergiel, Weronika; Dinwiddie, Robert; Rämert, Birgitta; Tasin, Marco

    2015-04-01

    A new mating disruption formulation for population control of a wide range of tortricid pests, including Spilonota ocellana, was tested in Swedish apple orchards during 2012-2013. Owing to the characteristics of the local agricultural landscape, mating disruption was evaluated in isolated orchards rather than through an area-wide approach. Parameters such as trap shutdown, communication disruption in field cages, damage level and dispenser emission were measured as efficacy indicators. The test formulation reduced the catches in monitoring traps for the entire range of the tested species. In field cages, communication between sexes was disrupted for both Adoxophyes orana and Cydia pomonella. The fruit damage caused by leafrollers (including S. ocellana) was reduced by the treatment. The device showed a constant release of all components for the entire flight activity period of these pests. Single-orchard experiments showed a significant effect on field populations of the leafroller species complex. While promising, in light of the variability of the result, field scouting may be required to enable practitioners to estimate the density of the pests and avoid possible unexpected attacks. Additional experiments are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against C. pomonella. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

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    Arthur Agnello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.

  3. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  4. Apple : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab

  5. Replicase mediated resistance against Potato Leafroll Virus in potato Desirée plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE EHRENFELD

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato leafroll virus (PLRV is a major menace for the potato production all over the world. PLRV is transmitted by aphids, and until now, the only strategy available to control this pest has been to use large amounts of insecticides. Transgenic approaches involving the expression of viral replicases are being developed to provide protection for plants against viral diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the protection afforded by the differential expression of PLRV replicase transgene in potato plants cv. Desirée. Plants were genetically modified to express the complete sense PLRV replicase gene. Two constructions were used, one containing the constitutive 35SCaMV promoter and the other the phloem-specific RolA promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Transgenic plants were infected with PLRV in vitro, using infested aphids. In plants in which 35SCaMV controlled the expression of the PLRV replicase gene, signs of infection were initially detected, although most plants later developed a recovery phenotype showing undetectable virus levels 40 days after infection. In turn, those plants with the RolA promoter displayed an initial resistance that was later overcome. Different molecular mechanisms are likely to participate in the response to PLRV infection of these two types of transgenic plants.

  6. Cloning and physical mapping of DNA complementary to potato leafroll virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was aphid-transmitted from potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivar Russett Burbank) to ground cherry (Physalis floridana), where it was maintained by serial aphid transmission. Serological and plant differential tests indicated that the isolate was not contaminated with beet western yellows virus. Purified PLRV RNA was poly(A)-tailed in vitro and used as a template for reverse transcriptase, primed with oligo(dT). Alkaline gel electrophoresis of 32 P-labeled first-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) indicated a major size range of 0.1 to 3.5 kilobases (kb). A small percentage of transcripts corresponded to full length PLRV RNA. Following RNase H and DNA polymerase I-mediated second strand synthesis, double-stranded cDNA was cloned into the Pst I site of the plasmid pUC9 using oligo (dC)-oligo(dG) tailing methodology. Escherichia coli JM109 transformants were screened with first-strand 32 P-cDNA in colony hybridization experiments to confirm that recombinants contained PLRV-specific sequences

  7. Function and diversity of P0 proteins among cotton leafroll dwarf virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascardo, Renan S; Arantes, Ighor L G; Silva, Tatiane F; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Vaslin, Maité F S; Corrêa, Régis L

    2015-08-12

    The RNA silencing pathway is an important anti-viral defense mechanism in plants. As a counter defense, some members of the viral family Luteoviridae are able to evade host immunity by encoding the P0 RNA silencing suppressor protein. Here we explored the functional diversity of P0 proteins among eight cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) isolates, a virus associated with a worldwide cotton disease known as cotton blue disease (CBD). CLRDV-infected cotton plants of different varieties were collected from five growing fields in Brazil and their P0 sequences compared to three previously obtained isolates. P0's silencing suppression activities were scored based on transient expression experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. High sequence diversity was observed among CLRDV P0 proteins, indicating that some isolates found in cotton varieties formerly resistant to CLRDV should be regarded as new genotypes within the species. All tested proteins were able to suppress local and systemic silencing, but with significantly variable degrees. All P0 proteins were able to mediate the decay of ARGONAUTE proteins, a key component of the RNA silencing machinery. The sequence diversity observed in CLRDV P0s is also reflected in their silencing suppression capabilities. However, the strength of local and systemic silencing suppression was not correlated for some proteins.

  8. Controle de tortricídeos em macieira com duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kustaki em Fraiburgo-SC Tortricid moth control in apple with two formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kustaki in Fraiburgo-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapholita molesta e Bonagota cranaodes são duas importantes pragas de pomares de macieira controlada por inseticidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk para o controle desses tortricídeos. Parcelas de macieira 'Fuji' foram pulverizadas com Dipel PM e Dipel SC, nas concentrações de 100 ml por100 L de calda. A eficiência do Btk foi comparada com os inseticidas tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 90 ml por 100 L e clorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 ml por 100 L. Duas vezes por semana, eram avaliadas as capturas de pragas em armadilha do tipo Delta. As avaliações de danos nos frutos foram realizadas antes e na colheita, sendo classificados os frutos em função do agrupamento em cachopa e a sua localização na planta. Os tratamentos com Btk tiveram mais danos do que os químicos. Houve uma tendência de maiores danos na parte interna, próximo ao tronco das macieiras e o agrupamento dos frutos não influenciou na presença de danos. Ambas as formulações de Dipel foram eficientes quando comparados com Mimic e Lorsban.Grapholita molesta and Bonagota cranaodes are two key pests in apple orchards controlled by insecticides. The objective of the present study was to test two formulas of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki to control these tortricid moths. Plot of 'Fuji' apple trees were sprayed with Dipel PM and Dipel SC, at a concentration of 100ml por 100 l liquid. The efficiency of Btk was compared with the insecticides tebuphenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 90 ml por 100 L and chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 ml por 100 L. The capture of pests in a Delta-type trap was assessed twice a week. Fruit damage was evaluated pre- and post- harvest and the fruit were classified by branch-end clustering and location on the plant. The treatments with B. thuringiensis were more damaged than those with chemical treatments. There tended to be more damage in the internal part, close to the apple tree

  9. Visual Detection of Potato leafroll virus by One-step Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of DNA with Hydroxynaphthol Blue Dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.; Almasi, A.M.; Fatehi, F.; Struik, P.C.; Moradi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a novel technique for amplifying DNA under constant temperature, with high specificity, sensitivity, rapidity and efficiency. We applied reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) to visually detect Potato leafroll

  10. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrago Carlos EG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  11. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  12. Developmental, gustatory, and behavioral responses of leafroller larvae, Choristoneura rosaceana, to tannic acid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzuto, M; Mauffette, Y; Alber, P J

    2002-01-01

    Soluble sugars are essential nutrients generally perceived as phagostimulants to most insects studied. However, tannins are known as digestibility reducers, hence deleterious to caterpillar development, and as deterrents as well. Previous work demonstrated that larvae of the polyphagous oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, performed better when reared on a control + 0.5% tannic acid diet than on the standard control diet and that larvae reared on a control + 5% glucose diet had slower development and reduced survival. This study was designed to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological components of the larval responses to tannic acid and glucose. C. rosaceana larvae were reared individually from the first to the sixth instar on one of four different artificial diets: (1) control; (2) control + 5% glucose; (3) control + 0.5% tannic acid; (4) control + 5% glucose + 0.5% tannic acid. After 14 days, larvae reared on the control + 5% glucose diet had not developed past the fourth instar, whereas a considerable proportion of larvae reared on the control + 0.5% tannic acid diet had already attained the pupal stage. Insects reared on the control or the control + 5% glucose + 0.5% tannic acid diet had intermediate development. with most larvae in the fifth instar. In addition, once the mid-sixth instar was reached, the feeding preferences to 25 and 300 mM glucose, 25 mM tannic acid, and 25 mM glucose + 25 mM tannic acid over water were assessed in two-choice tests. Feeding affected preference. Control-reared insects preferred feeding on treatments containing glucose and were not deterred by tannic acid. However, larvae that had been exposed to tannic acid during their development were deterred by tannic acid and their glucose discrimination was impaired. The sensitivity to glucose was also examined from neurophysiological recordings by stimulating the sugar-sensitive cell (cell 1) on the lateral styloconic sensillum of the maxillary galea with

  13. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  14. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  15. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  16. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...

  17. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The aim of present study was to investigate effects of different irrigation intervals and fertilizers on total lipid, fatty acid and sugar accumulation of Braeburn apple cultivar under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Irrigation program was performed for two consecutive years with three different intervals (1,.

  18. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  19. Age-based mating success in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the passage of spermatophores was examined between 1-day-old males mated in no-choice situations with females 0, 2, 4, or 6 days old and the converse for both the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). For C. pomonella, female age had no effect on the passage of spermatophores from males, and only 6-day-old female C. rosaceana had reduced spermatophore number. The ages of moths at the time of mating had a greater effect on males, with C. pomonella males older than 2 days showing significant reductions in the ability to successfully pass a spermatophore to 1-day-old females. For C. rosaceana, 2- and 6-day-old males were significantly less likely to pass a spermatophore, but reduced transfer from 4-day-old males did not reach statistical significance. Wind-tunnel assays were used to evaluate the ability of 1- or 4-day-old males to fly upwind and successfully contact a young calling female. Four-day-old males were more likely to initiate flight upwind, but were less efficient at finding and contacting the females than younger males. This study suggests that evaluation of multiple components of the mating process are required to understand the effect of age at the time of mating on population dynamics of these moths.

  20. Application of the entomogenous fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, for leafroller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) control and its effect on rice phyllosphere microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mingsheng; Peng, Guoxiong; Keyhani, Nemat O; Xia, Yuxian

    2017-09-01

    Microbial pesticides form critical components of integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Little, however, is known regarding the impacts of these organisms on the indigenous microbial community. We show that Metarhizium anisopliae strain CQMa421 was highly effective in controlling the rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee. In addition, M. anisopliae distribution and its effects on phyllosphere microbial diversity after application in field trials were investigated. Phylloplane specific distribution of the fungus was observed over time, with more rapid declines of M. anisopliae CFUs (colony-forming units) seen in the top leaf layer as compared to lower layers. Application of the fungus resulted in transient changes in the endogenous microbial diversity with variations seen in the bacterial observed species and Shannon index. Notable increases in both parameters were seen at 6-day post-application of M. anisopliae, although significant variation within sample replicates for bacteria and fungi were noted. Application of M. anisopliae increased the relative distribution of bacterial species implicated in plant growth promotion and organic pollutant degradation, e.g., Methylobacterium, Sphingobium, and Deinococcus. These data show minimal impact of M. anisopliae on endogenous microbial diversity with transient changes in bacterial abundance/diversity that may result in added benefits to crops.

  1. Apple As A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...

  2. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  3. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey and the objectives of this research were to determine the convenient and reliable method for RNA isolation and also to determine primer pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of ...

  4. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey and the objectives of this research were to determine the convenient and reliable method for RNA isolation and also to determine primer pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-.

  5. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  6. Apple vs. Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, Johannes; Canright, Geoff; Engø-Monsen, Kenth

    It has long been known among marketers that our social network matters when we make purchasing decisions, and that having positive word of mouth about a product can be a key to success; see e.g. [1] for a review of studies on social networks within marketing. Traditionally, data on social network...... can be measured by studying this network. In this paper, we do a comparative study of social spreading effects for two competing types of smartphones - the Apple iPhone, and smartphones based on Google’s Android OS....

  7. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  8. Apple Inc. : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Gonçalo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation presents a valuation of Apple Inc., an American company that sits amongst the largest companies in the world, in market capitalization terms. Although it started as a computer company, back in 1976, nowadays it is best known for its smartphone flagship – the iPhone, introduced in 2007, it revolutionized the entire mobile phone industry. Today, the iPhone represents about 66% of total sales, however there are other products in Apple’s product line that are considered by a lar...

  9. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  10. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    R. D. Chakole; Azhar Ahmed; Manoj S. Charde

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabe...

  12. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  13. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  14. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple

  15. Approaches for development of cisgenic apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.; Soriano, J.M.; Schaart, J.G.; Broggini, G.A.L.; Swankowski, I.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Schouten, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introgression of genetic traits from wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) into commercial apple cultivars is a painstakingly slow process. For e.g. introgression of the Vf gene from Malus floribunda 821 for resistance to apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, took more than 80 years due

  16. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  17. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's an Adam's Apple? Print You're at the high school baseball ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  18. Attitude sensing of APPLE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.; Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Kanakaraju, K.; Kamalakar, J. A.

    1983-11-01

    A variety of attitude sensors have been used in the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite's control system. Sensor tasks encompass satellite attitude determination after separation from launch vehicle, spin axis orientation for apogee boost motor firing and satellite spin-up, satellite despin and sunward pointing on reaching geosynchronous orbit, three-axis stabilization, and yaw axis control during stationkeeping. Attention is given to problems encountered during APPLE deployment, of which the most serious was the failure of one of the solar panels to deploy. Pitch rotation was used to keep earth sensor temperature below operating maximum range.

  19. Antioxidant degradation kinetics in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Bindvi; Sethi, Shruti; Joshi, Alka; Sagar, V R; Sharma, R R

    2018-04-01

    The effect of shelf storage under ambient conditions of cut apple dices on degradation of bioactive compounds such ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity (% DPPH inhibition) and PPO activity were investigated. The results indicated that antioxidant activity declined significantly over 80 min storage of diced apples at ambient temperature. Similar trend was observed for ascorbic acid, total phenols and PPO activity. Ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity degradation followed first-order kinetics where the rate constant (k) was found to be in range for all the thirteen cultivars, though initial ascorbic acid and phenol content varied in different apple cultivars. The reaction rate constant (k) for first order degradation ranged from 1.16 to 1.97, 0.89 to 1.29 and 0.37 to 1.54 for antioxidant activity, total phenols and ascorbic acid, respectively. This explains that antioxidant activity degrades at higher rate than total phenols and ascorbic acid, which also corroborates that antioxidant activity is affected by both total phenols and ascorbic acid content. In general, total antioxidant activity for apple dices kept for 80 min under ambient conditions exhibited lower values as compared to control.

  20. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  1. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  2. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  3. Apple replant problem in Washington state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, N.R.; Covey, R.P. Jr.; Haglund, W.

    1978-01-01

    The growth of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Brokh.) is negatively correlated with soil arsenic and zero growth occurs at about 450 ppm total arsenic. Soil arsenic concentrations less than 150 ppm, which are frequently found in orchard soils, contribute less to the replant problem than biological factors. Growth of apple trees was increased 50% or more by preplant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) in 87.5% of the trials in 17 apple orchard soils tested. Non-specific plant pathogens in orchard soils attack cereals as well as apple seedlings, but apple orchard soils also contain an entity that specifically affects apples. This is probably the same unknown entity that is responsible for specific apple replant disease in Europe, Australia, and elsewhere.

  4. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Apple Juice and Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2001-01-01

    Apple juice and cider experienced rapid market growth in the U.S. during the past few decades, but now a mature market is established. The industry faces economic pressures created by the globalization of the market, and growers and processors across the industry are trying to adapt to new market conditions. The development of effective competitive strategies for this industry requires an understanding of industry trends, market conditions, consumer preferences, and the forces driving competi...

  5. Development and Reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Fed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Vectoring Potato leafroll virus (PLRV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Freire, B C; Carvalho, G A; Oliveira, R L; Medina, P; Budia, F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively.

  6. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  7. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple

  8. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To

  9. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  10. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  11. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  12. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin KADAKAL; Sebahattin NAS

    2000-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in...

  13. AppleScript The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Adam

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript: The Missing Manual is every beginner's guide to learning the Macintosh's ultimate scripting tool: AppleScript. Through dozens of hands-on scripting examples, this comprehensive guide ensures that anyone including novices can learn how to control Mac applications in timesaving and innovative ways. Thanks to AppleScript: The Missing Manual, the path from regular Mac fan to seasoned scripter has never been easier.

  14. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  15. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  16. What would Apple do? how you can learn from Apple and make money

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y

  17. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  18. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  19. Responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 and PEG-induced drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua eCui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3 and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements towards sustainable development of the agriculture.

  20. The Effects of Bean Leafroll Virus on Life History Traits and Host Selection Behavior of Specialized Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum, Hemiptera: Aphididae) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T S; Wu, Y; Eigenbrode, S D

    2017-02-01

    Intraspecific specialization by insect herbivores on different host plant species contributes to the formation of genetically distinct "host races," but the effects of plant virus infection on interactions between specialized herbivores and their host plants have barely been investigated. Using three genetically and phenotypically divergent pea aphid clones (Acyrthosiphon pisum L.) adapted to either pea (Pisum sativum L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we tested how infection of these hosts by an insect-borne phytovirus (Bean leafroll virus; BLRV) affects aphid performance and preference. Four important findings emerged: 1) mean aphid survival rate and intrinsic rate of population growth (Rm) were increased by 15% and 14%, respectively, for aphids feeding on plants infected with BLRV; 2) 34% of variance in survival rate was attributable to clone × host plant interactions; 3) a three-way aphid clone × host plant species × virus treatment significantly affected intrinsic rates of population growth; and 4) each clone exhibited a preference for either pea or alfalfa when choosing between noninfected host plants, but for two of the three clones tested these preferences were modestly reduced when selecting among virus-infected host plants. Our studies show that colonizing BLRV-infected hosts increased A. pisum survival and rates of population growth, confirming that the virus benefits A. pisum. BLRV transmission affected aphid discrimination of host plant species in a genotype-specific fashion, and we detected three unique "virus-association phenotypes," with potential consequences for patterns of host plant use by aphid populations and crop virus epidemiology. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  2. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Apple (Malus domestica) accounts for 50% of the world's deciduous fruit tree production. Apple, commonly known as a temperate crop, has become a gainful cash crop for the people in south-western Uganda. The objective of the study was to determine the various costs involved and how different socio-economic factors.

  4. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  5. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  6. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  7. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  8. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  9. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and oral...

  10. Biomarker Identification in Metabolomics of Dietary Studies on Apple and Apple Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela

    . The rat study was followed up on a randomised, controlled 5x4 weeks human cross-over study, introducing apple products (clear and cloudy juices, and apple pomace) and plasma metabolic profiles were investigated (PAPER II). PLS-DA analysis was employed in a pairwise fashion (control period vs. each...... at once it, and therefore, it allows exploring the effect of food in a more global way compared to traditional techniques. The aim of this PhD project was to uncover the effect of consumption of apple or apple products on biochemical mechanisms and explore health related associations by using an LC...... the metabolic variations related to the consumption of fresh apples, successively PLS-DA to reveal discriminative metabolites in control vs. apple fed rats and finally PLS analysis to investigate possible dose-responses. Findings are related to a decrease in toxic catabolic products produced by protein...

  11. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  12. Structural features of apple pectic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pectic substances from unripe and ripe apples were extracted, purified and fractionated. The sugar composition (including types of glycosidic linkages) and the degree of esterification of the fractions were determined. Degradation with purified pectolytic enzymes and fractionation of the resulting

  13. Kinetics of microwave drying of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of main technological parameters was studied as a result of research of microwave drying of apples and the analysis of kinetic regularity of the process was performed.

  14. Quanto Jobs c'è in Apple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. These, in turn, stem from the striking uniqueness of his creative path and from the severe problems it brought about. To them, he reacted following his own nature, eventually shaping the peculiar personality of Apple. The following paper will try to clarify such notion.

  15. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Alberti; Renato Giovanetti Vieira; Jean Françoise Drilleau; Gilvan Wosiacki; Alessandro Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7); 4.42 x 10(7) and 8.66 x 10(7) cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the ...

  16. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  17. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, ...

  18. A HISTÓRIA DA APPLE COMPUTER

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Franco; Carlos Henrique Cirino Lacerda; Carlos Filipe de Oliveira Pedrosa; Bruno da Silva Chiriu; Antonio Marcos Pereira; Sergio Luiz; Vinícius José Andrade Silveira

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende mostrar os fatos e caminhos seguidos pela empresa de computadores Apple e seus fundadores no decorrer de sua história. Tem também o objetivo de relatar os desfechos e as grandes idéias que fizeram da Apple uma das maiores empresas fabricantes de softwares e computadores pessoais, desde sua criação em 1976.

  19. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  20. The history of Newton's apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  1. Patulin contamination in apple leathers and apple juice in Shahrekord, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variey of mold species. In this study, a total of 70 samples consisting of 35 apple leathers and 35 apple juice samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets of Shahrekord. Using HPLC-DAD technique and in accordance with the Iranian National Standard method, the samples were analyzed for patulin contamination. According to the results, patulin was detected in 14 (40% of apple leather and 7 (20% of the apple juice samples.  Mean values of patulin concentrations in the apple leathert and apple juice samples were estimated as 34.9± 26.3 and 26 ± 19.7 µ/kg, respectively. Although the mean concentration of patulin was lower than the Iranian/European approved limit (50 µg/kg, patulin contamination level was found higher than the maximum approved limit in 5.7% and 2.9% of the the apple leather and apple juices samples, respectively. Therefore, to minimize the contamination of patulin in theses products, the necessary practices should be conducted.

  2. Construction design of apple sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieoczym Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When assessing the quality of fruit and packaging process, fruit-producing farms owners decide to evaluate fruit by people or automated sorting lines. The purchase of an automated sorting line generates high costs for the company, but it brings benefits in the form of increased work efficiency, and the better organization of fruit packaging and storage processes. The use of that machinery and equipment is common in agricultural farms as well as in fruit and vegetable processing companies. Despite the widespread use of various types of fruit sorters, the analysis of the operation of the designed device and the study of its technological parameters is still a current research problem. During operation of the devices for sorting fruit there are many technical problems affecting technological processes and quality of fruits. In order to improve the efficiency of sorting fruit, this process should be quickly and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to present the automated apple sorter line construction design, and software for quality controlling fruits. Selected elements of the sorter structure including endurance calculation using the Finite Element Method (FEM and fruit control system using image analysis were presented.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  4. Apple scab is a challenge to prevent and to predict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    Preventing apple scab infections by strategic irrigation is possible but only at a low level. The strategic irrigation alone does not sufficiently prevent apple scab, but might be a good supplement to fungicide sprays. The apple scab warning programmes might need an adjustment for Danish conditions......, with more focus on the earliest infection periods before flowering. Apple cultivars like ‘Red Aroma’, ‘Alkmene’ and ‘Holsteiner Cox’ are very robust against apple scab, with a maximum of 4% apple scab infection during 4 years of trial in an unsprayed orchard....

  5. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  6. MATURITY AND QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT DURINIG THE HARVEST PERIOD AT APPLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.

  7. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  8. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  9. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  10. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  11. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  12. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  13. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch...... by measurement of specific IgE, HR, and SPT. Golden Delicious apples were used in all experiments. The results of this study showed that it was possible to perform DBPCFC with apple in birch pollen-allergic individuals. The model with freshly squeezed apple juice had a low sensitivity and displayed a high...

  15. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...

  16. MedlinePlus: Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/recipe/bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on ... 4 cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 medium apple, peeled and grated (about 1 cup) (use a ...

  17. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... previously reported. Unique fingerprints were obtained for all accessions except for distinctive subclonal sports and synonym accessions. The cultivar ensemble was shown to hold 22% triploid accessions. We developed a new protocol for genotyping S-RNase alleles in apple and revealed 25 different alleles....... In addition, several of the SNP markers presented can be used directly in selection for specific traits in breeding lines. However, further characterization and evaluation of additional important horticultural traits are still needed for upmost utilization of the apple gene bank collection....

  18. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that gro...

  19. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes.

  20. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol.
    Apple

  1. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  2. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  3. A review of cashew ( Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes. Therefore ...

  4. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... A total of 435 accessions of apple germplasm collected from the Xincheng National Apple Germplasm. Repository and 10 morphological traits of them were used for studying the optimal sampling strategy for primary core collection of apple (Malus domestica Brokh). In order to acquire the appropriate.

  5. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food products: an apple marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, D.E.; Tabor, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques

  6. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 435 accessions of apple germplasm collected from the Xincheng National Apple Germplasm Repository and 10 morphological traits of them were used for studying the optimal sampling strategy for primary core collection of apple (Malus domestica Brokh). In order to acquire the appropriate primary core collection,..

  7. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  8. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  9. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple

  10. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  11. Marketingové strategie firmy APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Preněk, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is a definition of marketing goals and strategies of the Apple company on the basis of the complex positional analysis, whose output is the SWOT analysis. For purpose of using theoretical knowledge in praxis one part is devoted to the marketing instruments, which are used by the analyzed company. This part leads to analysis of the company's marketing mix of one of the product made by Apple. This thesis includes also results of the market research which was focused...

  12. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  13. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir......Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry...

  14. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  15. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments

  16. Computer vision-based apple grading for golden delicious apples based on surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.

  17. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Sigita Boca; Ruta Galoburda; Inta Krasnova; Dalija Seglina; Aivars Aboltins; Imants Skrupskis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added...

  18. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, F.A.; Schaart, J.G.; Burgh, van der A.M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, I.E.M.; Groenwold, R.; Kodde, L.P.; Broggini, G.A.L.; Gessler, C.; Schouten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of

  19. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  20. Scientific Computing and Apple's Intel Transition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Intel's published processor roadmap and how it may affect the future of personal and scientific computing About the speaker: Eric Albert is Senior Software Engineer in Apple's Core Technologies group. During Mac OS X's transition to Intel processors he has worked on almost every part of the operating system, from the OS kernel and compiler tools to appli...

  1. Strategic irrigation against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark there are several organic orchards, that do not spray at all, and they seek non-spraying methods to prevent apple scab. In this pilot trial, irrigation with water at strategic moments was tested to prevent scab-infection. In April-June 2011 in five organic orchards we irrigated...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT DAMAGE TO APPLE FRUITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Abstract. An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits ...

  3. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  4. The development of a cisgenic apple plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-07-20

    Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  6. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  7. Prevention and control of apple scab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, B.; Jong, de P.F.; Köhl, J.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Hockenhull, J.; Bengtsson, M.; Lindhard Pederson, H.; Paaske, K.; Eiben, U.; Tamm, L.; Trapman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Improved prevention and control of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis is aimed at without the use of copper containing products in the Repco-project. Substantial progress is made in selection of potential products against summer epidemics. A patent application is made for E73. New effective

  8. Nonfunctional overreaching and hepatic adaptations of APPL1 and APPL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Morais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS Previously, we verified that overtrained mice upregulated the TRB3 levels, its association with Akt, and the hepatic concentrations of glycogen. It is known that APPL1 can limit the interaction between TRB3 and Akt, playing an important role in the glucose homeostasis. Thus, we verified the effects of three overtraining protocols on the hepatic levels of APPL1 and APPL2. METHODS Rodents were divided into control (CT, overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down, overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR. The hepatic contents of APPL1 and APPl2 were measured by the immunoblotting technique. RESULTS Significant elevation of APPL1 observed in the OTR/down and OTR/up groups, as well as the tendency of increase (p=0.071 observed in the OTR group. CONCLUSION These results indicate that this particular protein is likely to participate in the glucose homeostasis previously observed in response to these OT protocols.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Apple Cider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Havva Budak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet and the main antioxidant suppliers in the human diet. Consumption of foods derived from fruits and vegetables is also essential; fruit juices, ciders, wines, and vinegars also contain significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds. The aim of the study was to determine the effect maceration of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of apple cider. Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Samples were taken from fresh red apple juice, macerated samples and apple cider. Apple cider (maceration was applied (CAM had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC and TEAC levels. Chlorogenic acid was the dominant phenolic substance in apple juice and cider samples and chlorogenic acid was increased with maceration process.

  10. Analyses of expressed sequence tags from apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Richard D; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Allan, Andrew C; Beuning, Lesley L; Bowen, Judith H; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R; Janssen, Bart J; Laing, William A; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S; Snowden, Kimberley C; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Walton, Eric F; Yauk, Yar-Khing

    2006-05-01

    The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5'-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop.

  11. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significa...

  12. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  13. TREE SYMBOLISM IN SLAVIC FOLK CULTURE: APPLE TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Agapkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay focuses on the mythopoetic image of the apple tree and its ritual use in traditional culture and folklore of the Slavic nations. The work employs folklore material alongside ethnographic and linguistic data that accentuates and develops the folklore symbolism of the apple tree. I argue that this image is comprised of a number of relatively autonomous fragments. The apple tree and its apples are a family metaphor of a kind symbolizing a mother and a child. In wedding folklore, the apple tree stands for a bride as the wedding ritual testifies; apple tree branches are widely used in the ritual itself (as a ritual tree or as material used in the making of a wedding banner, wedding wreaths, decorations for a wedding loaf [karavai], etc.. Another manifestation of the apple tree in folklore is the tree of knowledge; it relates the image to a large number of legendary etiological plots such as: Eve’s temptation by the Serpent, fall of Eve and Adam, the origin of Adam’s Apple (adam, prohibition to eat apples before the church holiday of Transfiguration and some others. At the same time, their autonomy regardless, the fragments of the mythopoetic image of the apple tree form part of the solid folklore universe and counteract with each other within this framework.

  14. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  15. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, S.M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  16. Camapple: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of the 'personal' microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilliscopes. Here we describe an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support. (orig.)

  17. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolontaev, V.M.; Kolontaev, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  18. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support

  19. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  20. Improvement of organic apple quality and storability

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in yield and quality by increasing the light distribution and carbohydrate uptake (summer pruning and ground covering), optimizing the physiological state of harvested fruit (cultivar-specific harvesting indices), postharvest fruit protection (treatment with hot water and ethanol, respectively) and optimizing storage conditions (cultivar-specific CA and ULO storage procedures) were investigated in a set of eight organically grown apple cultivars. A combination of summer pruning a...

  1. The Cellular Structure of Selected Apple Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Lapsley, K. G.; Escher, F. E.; Hoehn, E.

    1992-01-01

    Apple cultivars (Sauergrauech, Klarapfel, James Grieve, Granny Smith, Mcintosh, Robinette) which had different textures based on sensory and instrumental analysis (particularly in firmness and mealiness) were examined by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cold-stage SEM (cryoSEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) using various preparative procedures. Advantages, lim itations and artifacts of each technique are discussed. SEM with glutaraldehyde-fixation and critic...

  2. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  3. Arthropod diversity (Arthropoda on abandoned apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, the occurrence of arthropods on apple trees without management was monitored near the village of Velké Bílovice, South Moravia, in two selected localities (an abandoned apple tree orchard and a road apple tree alley. Arthropods in tree tops were killed using deltamehtrin applied with a fogger (Puls Fog. Each collection always contained the material from 5 trees in each site. In 2010, three collections were performed (28/4, 20/5, and 9/7, two in 2011 (11/5 and 23/6. Representatives of eleven orders were captured. Of all the orders trapped, Coleoptera was represented most frequently, the Hymenoptera and Diptera followed. In the alley, individuals of the Coleoptera (34% were caught most frequently, the Hymenoptera (19.6% and Hemiptera (17.4% followed. In the orchard, the Coleoptera (41.4% was represented most frequently, followed by the Hymenoptera (21.9% and Diptera (15%. In both the environments, species with negative economic impact were recorded (e.g. Anthonomus pyri, Tatianaerhynchites aequatus, Cydia pomonella, Rhynchites bacchus. However, a greater number of pest antagonists were also found (Scambus pomorum, Coccinella septempunctata, Episyrphus balteatus, Pentatoma rufipes, Orius spp.. Some species were important in faunistic terms, as some critically endangered species were recorded (e.g. Dipoena erythropus, Cryptocephalus schaefferi, and the Plectochorus iwatensis species was recorded for the first time in the Czech Republic.

  4. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Goncu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.

  5. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  6. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  7. Autumn urea application and cold hardiness of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Meszka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of autumn urea application on cold hardiness of apple trees was investigated at Experimental Orchard in Dąbrowice on four apple cultivars ('Szampioii'. ´Jonagold´, ´Elstar' and 'Spartan´ of different sensitivity to low temperature injuries. During three-years experiment (2000-2002 no changes in frost resistance of apple trees after urea treatment in the end of October (during leaves fall were noted. After the earlier application of urea, at middle of October. significantly more damages of annual shoots of cv. ´Jonagold' occurred only in the season 2001. These damages did not influence later growth of apple trees. Spring observations indicated that for all apple's cultivars setting of buds was better on treated with urea than on untreated ones. Electrolyte leakage determinations confirmed the field results that urea did not cause decrease in low temperature resistance of apple trees.

  8. Biomarker Identification in Metabolomics of Dietary Studies on Apple and Apple Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela

    Nutrients and bioactive components present in fruits and vegetables interact with several metabolic pathways and physiological functions leading to a potential reduce of the risk of diseases. Metabolomics is a methodology that allows the measurements hundreds of compounds in biological samples...... at once it, and therefore, it allows exploring the effect of food in a more global way compared to traditional techniques. The aim of this PhD project was to uncover the effect of consumption of apple or apple products on biochemical mechanisms and explore health related associations by using an LC...... with a diet supplemented with two dosages (5 g/day and 10g/day) of whole fresh apple pieces through 16 weeks (PAPER I). Plasma samples were analysed by LC-MS. Due to the complexity of the design of the study, several chemometric analyses have been employed. Initially, ASCA was applied in order to isolate...

  9. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaljee Jha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  10. Candidate insect vectors of apple proliferation in Northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mi?arro, Marcos; Somoano, Aitor; Moreno, Ar?nzazu; Garc?a, Roc?o Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The apple proliferation (AP) disease is spread mostly by two psyllids. Each species plays a predominant role as AP vector that changes regionally. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the AP vectors in each region where the disease is present. This research aimed at identifying the psyllid community in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain) and studying their possible role in AP transmission. Yellow sticky traps were used to monitor psyllid community in five cider-apple orchards during ...

  11. Diagnosis of directed pollination services in apple orchards in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joatan Machado da Rosa; Cristiano João Arioli; Betina Blochtein; Lenita Agostinetto; Anderson Dionei Grutzmacher; Marcos Botton

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The pollination services performed by Apis mellifera are essential for the high-quality apple production. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the pollination services used in the municipalities of Vacaria-RS e São Joaquim-SC, the main apple-producing regions in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with apple growers and technicians responsible for the orchards during 2013 and 2015. The obtained information was: a) cropping systems; b) use of pollinatio...

  12. Modified atmosphere package for apple ‘Bravo de Esmolfe’

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, A.M.C.N.; Barreiro, M.G.; Morais, A.M.M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Apple Bravo de Esmolfe original from the parish of Esmolfe is cultivated in specific regions of Portugal. This cultivar of medium to low production requires very low temperatures, but it is extremely sensitive to frost. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of modified atmosphere on the quality of apple (cv. Bravo de Esmolfe) during cold storage. Apples packed in modified atmosphere lost less weight, presented better colour, and preserved better firmness than fruits ...

  13. STUDY ON THE MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF APPLE LEAVES IN AN ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARD

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY, Péter T.; HOLB, Imre J.

    2006-01-01

    Macronutrient contents of soil and apple leaves were investigated in an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth in April and October. The macronutrient content of leaves was measured on cvs. Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri Piros, Reka, and Remo at six assessment dates (from April to September). The macronutrient contents of N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg were measured in both soil and leaf samples, then macronutrient ratios were calcu...

  14. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  15. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...

  16. Studies on apple preservation by 60 -gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu

    1992-01-01

    Studies on '60'Co-gamma irradiation of Golden Delicious apple have been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation dosage for stored apple was ranged from 0.3-0.5 k Gy, with this dosage, the contents of vitamin c and titratalbe acidity in these apples had no significant change compared with unirradiated apples. The respiratory rate and the amount of ethylene release were decreased after irradiation. The mortality of the verticillate pathogenic fungi was 97% at the dose of 0.5 k Gy

  17. The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject Abstract The goal of the submitted thesis is the study of the company Apple Inc. in the context of how it is percieved by subjects. After a brief introduction of the company Apple Inc. we will focus on semiotic analysis of the brand Apple, its products and marketing strategies. The object of study will be also a present society, whose distinguishing feature is a consumption, and brand perception of a subject in connection with...

  18. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  19. Apple Trees - A Source of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is a large quantity of leftover (cut-off) branches after the trimming of fruit trees, both during in winter or during the vegetation period. In intensive production, trimming most often occurs as a combined cut, which means it is done both manually and with the help of machines. The leftover mass has to be taken care of in both cases. This paper deals with the apple tree biomass in the last 10 years expressed in tons, covering both the winter and vegetation period, and also about the possibility of using this biomass to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  20. Optimization of cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to optimize cashew apple juice clarification by using cassava and rice starch. Materiel and methods: Effects of dose of cassava and rice starch, incubation time at 30°C on clarity of cashew apple juice were investigated. Parameters such as, tannins, phenols, colour, vitamin C contents of cashew ...

  1. Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine antibacterial potential of cashew apple juice against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion assay was employed to screen the antibacterial efficacy of the condensed cashew apple juice. Clinical isolates of S. aureus were more ...

  2. Extraction and clarification of apple juice with polygalacturonase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pectinase is used commercially in the clarification and extraction of fruit juice from different fruits. Green apples and Red apples obtained from the fruits section of a supermarket, Idiroko road, Ota were surface sterilized and inoculated with Aspergillus niger. The stock culture was subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose agar ...

  3. Modelling of Apple Scab Using Adaptive Network -Based Fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furkan

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... designing the scab models, an early warning system will be designed using electronic embedded systems for apple orchards. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. We thank Isparta Provincial Directorate of Agriculture for experimental dataset. REFERENCES. Berrie AM, Xu XM (2003). Managing apple scab (Venturia ...

  4. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  5. Postharvest Decay of Apples and Pears in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Köhl, J.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest diseases are a major problem in long storage of apples and pears in The Netherlands. Despite intensive preharvest spraying programs significant losses occur (over 60% of fruit losses are recorded). Over 125 heavily affected lots of apples (mainly ‘Elstar’) and pears (mainly ‘Conference’)

  6. Cisgenic Approach for improved disease resistance in apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broggini, G.A.L.; Durel, C.E.; Vergne, E.; Chevreau, E.; Fahrentrapp, J.; Vanblaere, T.; Peil, A.; Flachowsky, H.; Hanke, M.V.; Krens, F.A.; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Swiss and more generally European apple (Malus × domestica) production is hampered by several diseases, the most destructive being fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. On the other hand, there are apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis and powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera leucotricha,

  7. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ...

  8. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  9. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  10. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  11. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  12. Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and Quality Attributes | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effect of the two bioregulators; Accel and Carbaryl, sprayed two weeks before bloom on Apple fruit set, yield and quality and to relate the degree of fruit set reduction to the yield of three Apple cultivars namely, \\'Empire`, \\'Jon-A-Red\\' and `Braeburn\\'.

  13. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  14. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  15. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naamusa

    All the fungal isolates were pathogenic on the star apple fruits with the exception of Trichoderma spp. The African star apple fruits stored for up to 5 days were associated with severe fungal infections and had significantly reduced crude protein, crude fat and moisture content while dry matter, potassium, calcium and sodium ...

  16. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  17. Vakuuttava teknologia älykelloissa:case Apple Watch

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksoviita, J. (Joonas)

    2016-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tämä kandidaatintutkielma perehtyi vakuuttavaan teknologiaan Apple Watch -älykellossa. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä osassa esiteltiin kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta älykellojen taustaa ja tutkittava laite. Sen jälkeen luotiin katsaus vakuuttavan teknologian perusideaan ja esiteltiin Persuasive Systems Design -malli vakuuttavan teknologian sovellusten analysointiin. Toisessa osiossa suoritettiin analyysi Apple Watchin...

  18. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  19. Time series prediction of apple scab using meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new prediction model for the early warning of apple scab is proposed in this study. The method is based on artificial intelligence and time series prediction. The infection period of apple scab was evaluated as the time series prediction model instead of summation of wetness duration. Also, the relations of different ...

  20. Summarizing 60 years of apple breeding effort (Malus domestica Borkh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. М. Седов

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights results of 60 years of apple breeding activity at the All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding of RAAS (former Orel Zonal Fruit-Berry Experimental Station. Major selection effort has been applied to apple breeding for higher contents of ascorbic acid and P-active substances in fruit. A pattern of the inheritance of biologically active substances in apple fruits is shown. First time in Russia a large-scale selection has taken place for the purpose of developing domestic scab immune apple varieties (Vf . 20 scab immune varieties have been created and included into the State Register. First time in Russia and in the world a range of triploid apple varieties have been developed through directed diverse chromosome crossings 2x x 4x and 4x x 2x.

  1. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  2. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  3. [Hyperspectrum based prediction model for nitrogen content of apple flowers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Lei, Tong; Zhan, Bing

    2010-02-01

    The present paper aims to quantitatively retrieve nitrogen content in apple flowers, so as to provide an important basis for apple informationization management. By using ASD FieldSpec 3 field spectrometer, hyperspectral reflectivity of 120 apple flower samples in full-bloom stage was measured and their nitrogen contents were analyzed. Based on the apple flower original spectrum and first derivative spectral characteristics, correlation analysis was carried out between apple flowers original spectrum and first derivative spectrum reflectivity and nitrogen contents, so as to determine the sensitive bands. Based on characteristic spectral parameters, prediction models were built, optimized and tested. The results indicated that the nitrogen content of apple was very significantly negatively correlated with the original spectral reflectance in the 374-696, 1 340-1 890 and 2 052-2 433 nm, while in 736-913 nm they were very significantly positively correlated; the first derivative spectrum in 637-675 nm was very significantly negatively correlated, and in 676-746 nm was very significantly positively correlated. All the six spectral parameters established were significantly correlated with the nitrogen content of apple flowers. Through further comparison and selection, the prediction models built with original spectral reflectance of 640 and 676 nm were determined as the best for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers. The test results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) of the two models were 0.825 8 and 0.893 6, the total root mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.732 and 0.638 6, and the slopes were 0.836 1 and 1.019 2 respectively. Therefore the models produced desired results for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers with average prediction accuracy of 92.9% and 94.0%. This study will provide theoretical basis and technical support for rapid apple flower nitrogen content prediction and nutrition diagnosis.

  4. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  5. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Celina I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: horak@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Di Giorgio, Marina [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  6. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  7. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-07-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  8. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  9. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badra Bouamama-Gzara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3, Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV and Grapevine virus A (GVA, were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. ‘Hencha’ were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987. based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1−1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% ‘Hencha’ somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  10. Elimination ofGrapevine leafroll associated virus-3,Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virusandGrapevine virus Afrom a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama-Gzara, Badra; Selmi, Ilhem; Chebil, Samir; Melki, Imene; Mliki, Ahmed; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Carra, Angela; Carimi, Francesco; Mahfoudhi, Naima

    2017-12-01

    Prospecting of local grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. 'Hencha' were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987). based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1 -1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1 -1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% 'Hencha' somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  11. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama-Gzara, Badra; Selmi, Ilhem; Chebil, Samir; Melki, Imene; Mliki, Ahmed; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Carra, Angela; Carimi, Francesco; Mahfoudhi, Naima

    2017-01-01

    Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. ‘Hencha’ were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987). based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1−1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% ‘Hencha’ somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination. PMID:29238279

  12. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Confusão sexual para o controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em pomares de macieira, em Fraiburgo (SC, Brasil Mating disruption for the control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino B. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi avaliado pela técnica de confusão sexual em macieira no município de Fraiburgo (SC. A formulação do feromônio sintético utilizada foi da marca Quant G.m. (400 mg do acetato de (Z/E - 8 - dodecenila 14% p/v, com 500 difusores por hectare, distribuídos em um pomar de macieira comercial 'Fuji' de 2,52 ha. O tratamento com confusão sexual foi comparado com a testemunha convencional. O monitoramento para moscas-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae; mariposa oriental, Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi realizado para decidir se haveria necessidade de pulverização de inseticidas. Não houve capturas de G. molesta na armadilha do Tipo Delta, instalada no tratamento com confusão sexual até 93 dias após a liberação do feromônio. Nesse período, realizaram-se duas pulverizações para moscas-das-frutas e lagarta-enroladeira no tratamento com confusão sexual e oito pulverizações no tratamento convencional. Os danos causados por G. molesta em ambos os tratamentos não ultrapassaram 0,5%, mesmo com a redução de 77% dos inseticidas no tratamento com confusão sexual. Verifica-se, portanto, que a técnica de confusão sexual é eficiente para o controle de G. molesta.The control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae was assessed by using the mating disruption technique in an apple orchard in Fraiburgo, SC. Quant G.m. synthetic pheromone formulation (400 mg of (Z/E - 8 - dodecenyl acetate 14% p/v was used, with 500 dispensers per hectare, distributed over a 2.52 hectare 'Fuji' commercial orchard. The mating disruption treatment was compared with a chemical control treatment. The action threshold was determined by monitoring fruit flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, G. molesta and leafroller Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. G. molesta was caught in the Delta traps

  14. First report of truncatella angustata causing postharvest rot on ‘topaz’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Boekhoudt, L.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, about 30% of the organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production consists of apple scab resistant cultivars, such as Topaz and Santana. However, organic ‘Topaz’ apples show a high incidence of fungal rot after storage. Hot-water treatment (HWT) of freshly harvested apple

  15. 75 FR 52218 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... their apple production to the public as fresh apples, without undergoing any change in its basic form... Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... Crop Insurance Regulations, Apple Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to...

  16. Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    While most risk assessments contrast a transgenic resistant to its isogenic line, an additional comparison between the transgenic line and a classically bred cultivar with the same resistance gene would be highly desirable. Our approach was to compare headspace volatiles of transgenic scab resistant apple plants with two representative cultivars (the isogenic 'Gala' and the scab resistance gene-containing 'Florina'). As modifications in volatile profiles have been shown to alter plant relationships with non-target insects, we analysed headspace volatiles from apple plants subjected to different infection types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Marked differences were found between healthy and leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) infested genotypes, where emissions between the transgenic scab resistant line and the two cultivars differed quantitatively in four terpenes and an aromatic compound. However, these modified odour emissions were in the range of variability of the emissions recorded for the two standard cultivars that proved to be crucial references.

  17. Genome to Phenome Mapping in Apple Using Historical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Migicovsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple ( X Borkh. is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS. However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficiently large samples. To establish genotype-phenotype relationships and advance MAS in apple, we extracted over 24,000 phenotype scores from the USDA-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database and linked them with over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 689 apple accessions from the USDA apple germplasm collection clonally preserved in Geneva, NY. We find significant genetic differentiation between Old World and New World cultivars and demonstrate that the genetic structure of the domesticated apple also reflects the time required for ripening. A genome-wide association study (GWAS of 36 phenotypes confirms the association between fruit color and the MYB1 locus, and we also report a novel association between the transcription factor, NAC18.1, and harvest date and fruit firmness. We demonstrate that harvest time and fruit size can be predicted with relatively high accuracies ( > 0.46 using genomic prediction. Rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD in apples means millions of SNPs may be required for well-powered GWAS. However, rapid LD decay also promises to enable extremely high resolution mapping of causal variants, which holds great potential for advancing MAS.

  18. Diagnosis of directed pollination services in apple orchards in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joatan Machado da Rosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pollination services performed by Apis mellifera are essential for the high-quality apple production. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the pollination services used in the municipalities of Vacaria-RS e São Joaquim-SC, the main apple-producing regions in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with apple growers and technicians responsible for the orchards during 2013 and 2015. The obtained information was: a cropping systems; b use of pollination services; c number of hives per hectare during flowering; d renting value of hives; e mortality of colonies; f agrochemicals used on flowering; g presence of native bees on flowering. In Vacaria and São Joaquim, respectively, 70% and 68.6% of the apple growers use the integrated apple production as their production model. The directed pollination is used by 100% and 90.0% of respondents respectively, from which, 80% and 47.1% opt for the hive rent. On average, three hives were used per hectare in both regions. The average cost is U$ 17.52 and U$ 17.74 per hive, respectively. During the flowering period, insecticides and fungicides are used by 100% and 97.2% of the apple growers. The highest mean percentage of mortality of colonies during flowering was reported in Vacaria, 11.8%. Native bees are often found in apple flowers. The development of management strategies for the conservation of domestic and wild pollinators is essential.

  19. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  20. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  1. Summarizing 60 years of apple breeding effort (Malus domestica Borkh)

    OpenAIRE

    Є. М. Седов; З. М. Серова

    2013-01-01

    The paper highlights results of 60 years of apple breeding activity at the All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding of RAAS (former Orel Zonal Fruit-Berry Experimental Station). Major selection effort has been applied to apple breeding for higher contents of ascorbic acid and P-active substances in fruit. A pattern of the inheritance of biologically active substances in apple fruits is shown. First time in Russia a large-scale selection has taken place for the purpose of develop...

  2. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  3. Warning: safety risk with some Apple AC Wall Plug Adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN IT department

    2016-01-01

    Dear Mac and iOS Users, Apple has determined that some of its two prong Apple AC wall plug adapters may break and create a risk of electrical shock.   CERN users can now exchange their affected Apple wall plug adapters at the Service Desk. To find out if your adapter is affected and for any further information concerning the procedure to follow to exchange it, please check the following URL: https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal/view-outage.do?n=OTG0028639.

  4. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  5. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  6. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

  7. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    restriction diet during the control period, and in the four other periods it was supplied with four different apple based supplements. Between the diets there was a 2-week wash-out period still on the restriction diet. The four apple based supplements were: 1) whole apples, 2) clear apple juice (pectin...... supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans....

  8. Kinetics of drying and quality of the apple cultivars Granny Smith, Idared and Jonagold

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović Dragana M.; Zlatković Branislav P.; Mirković Dušica D.

    2010-01-01

    Apple is nutritionally valuable and present as fresh fruit in human nutrition throughout the year. Also apple is a raw material in food processing, primarily in the production of juices, nectars, refreshing soft drinks, marmalades, jams, compotes, apple cider vinegar and dried fruits. In the last decade on the world market there is a great interest in dried apple products (commercially called apple chips). During preservation by drying the technological pro...

  9. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  10. Partial Capsid Protein Gene Sequence Analysis of Apple Mosaic Virus Infecting Apple, Plum and Hazelnut in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AKBAŞ, Birol; DEĞİRMENCİ, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Coat protein (CP)sequences of Apple mosaic virus (ApMV)isolates were obtained from apple, plum and hazelnut. These isolates wereinitially tested by DAS-ELISA. Five out of 38 randomly selected apple, hazelnutand plum trees in Isparta, Düzce and Amasya provinces, respectively were ApMV-infectedfor determining similarities or differences among Turkish ApMV isolates. Theisolates were collected in 2008-2010. Amplification of target regions ofselected five isolates was conducted by RT-PCR using coa...

  11. An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC–MS profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...... pomace (22 g/day), or no supplement. Plasma was collected for analysis after an overnight fast and analysed by UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. Discriminative features revealed by Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis showed whole apple and apple pomace having generally a stronger modifying effect of the plasma...

  12. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...

  13. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  14. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  15. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  16. Apple Shape Classification Method Based on Wavelet Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangsheng Gui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape is not only an important indicator for assessing the grade of the apple, but also the important factors for increasing the value of the apple. In order to improve the apple shape classification accuracy rate, an approach for apple shape sorting based on wavelet moments was proposed, the image was first subjected to a normalization process using its regular moments to obtain scale and translation invariance, the rotation invariant wavelet moment features were then extracted from the scale and translation normalized images and the method of cluster analysis was used for finished the shape classification. This method performs better than traditional approaches such as Fourier descriptors and Zernike moments, because of that Wavelet moments can provide time-domain and frequency domain window, which was verified by experiments. The normal fruit shape, mild deformity and severe deformity classification accuracy is 86.21 %, 85.82 %, 90.81 % by our method.

  17. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  18. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    IT/Communications Systems Group

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: * SMB or HTTP for file services * LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  19. Studying apple bruise using a finite element method analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.

    2017-07-01

    Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.

  20. Radiation measurement of apples produced in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei; Yamadera, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The activities of seven kinds of apples produced in Aomori prefecture were measured with a high pure Ge detector set in a 15 cm-thick lead shield. The activities of 40 K were detected in all samples, but an artificial radioactive nuclide was not detected. The slices of an apple were contacted to an imaging plate for 15 days in a 15 cm-thick lead shield and cross sectional activity distributions were measured. By using the distribution map, the activities of skin, flesh and lead portion of an apple 'Ohrin' were calculated to 0.041, 0.032 and 0.046 Bq/g, respectively. This measuring system will be used for the activity estimations of the farm products, specially apples, because of that many atomic institutions are in operation and in the planning stage on Aomori prefecture. (author)

  1. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: SMB or HTTP for file services LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  2. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmiao Yin

    Full Text Available Apple replant disease (ARD is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC. We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  3. EL FUTURO DE APPLE: SWIFT VERSUS OBJECTIVE-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian González García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos meses Apple presentó un nuevo lenguaje de programación para sus plataformas: Swift. Con Swift, Apple pretende atraer a los programadores de los lenguajes de programación basados en la sintaxis de C++ y darles una mayor abstracción, que con Objective-C, para que sea más fácil programar para las plataformas de Apple. Por estas razones, se hace necesario contrastar lo pretendido por Apple y realizar un estudio del lenguaje de programación a fin de contrastar su objetivo. Para ello, se hicieron dos evaluaciones, una cualitativa y otra cuantitativa, con el propósito de verificar en qué medida Swift es un avance respecto a Objective-C.DThe Future of Apple: Swift Versus Objective-CABSTRACTFew months ago, Apple presented a new programming language: Swift. With Swift, Apple pretends to attract the programmers of the programming languages based on C++ syntax and gives them a higher abstraction than with Objective-C for being easier to programme to Apple’s platforms. For these reasons, it is necessary to contrast what is intended by Apple and do a study of the programming language to ascertain their goal. For this purpose, we did two evaluations, firstly a qualitative evaluation and after, a quantitative evaluation to verify in how much Swift is an advance with respect to Objective-C.Keywords: computer languages, computer programming, functional programming, object oriented programming, programming, software.

  4. Apple drought – and resistance (Malus Domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    А. І. Трохимчук; Д. Г. Макарова

    2012-01-01

    Assessment is made for heat-resistance of 10 promising domestic and foreign apple varieties, as well as for their drought- resistance (leaf tissue water content, water holding capacity and turgorescence); also, impact of weather conditions on implementation of its drought and heat resistance by the research subject is determined. The article highlights the best in Ukraine’s Forest-Steppe environment by the above economical and biological properties apple varieties.

  5. Apple drought – and resistance (Malus Domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. І. Трохимчук

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is made for heat-resistance of 10 promising domestic and foreign apple varieties, as well as for their drought- resistance (leaf tissue water content, water holding capacity and turgorescence; also, impact of weather conditions on implementation of its drought and heat resistance by the research subject is determined. The article highlights the best in Ukraine’s Forest-Steppe environment by the above economical and biological properties apple varieties.

  6. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  7. Outsourcing and corporate social responsibility : Apple in China

    OpenAIRE

    Urakami, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronics industry has seen a tremendous industry shift from the developed countries to the emerging regions such as East and South Asia, particularly during the past four decades. And we can now see a huge industrial capability accumulation in Asia. This research note aims at, firstly, describing basic nature and structure of outsourcing business in Asia, and, secondly, we look into Apple Inc.'s supply chain to examine Apple supplier factory operations in Mainland China from, primarily,...

  8. Parameters of apple tree variety resistant to winter unfavorable conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Krasova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled factors of the environment significantly reduce apple yielding power. Tree winter resistance is considered to be one of the basic indexes of adaptation. Certain resistant apple varieties have been revealed. The problem of manifestation of the mechanism of the resistance to winter unfavorable conditions is considered in this paper. A positive tendency has been revealed at the relationship between the contents of saccharose, proline, anthocyans, cyanidines and proteins in one-year ...

  9. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P probiotic strains revealed that surface layer proteins have an important role in patulin removal from apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  11. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  12. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  13. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  14. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics.

  15. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar

    2006-01-01

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  16. STUDY ON THE MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF APPLE LEAVES IN AN ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter NAGY

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrient contents of soil and apple leaves were investigated in an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth in April and October. The macronutrient content of leaves was measured on cvs. Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri Piros, Reka, and Remo at six assessment dates (from April to September. The macronutrient contents of N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg were measured in both soil and leaf samples, then macronutrient ratios were calculated from the obtained results. The results showed that younger leaves contained more N and P than older ones. K and Ca contents of leaves decreased until July, then increased slightly, and decreased again. A continuous decrease of the S content of leaves was observed until August. The Mg content of leaves increased until June, then decreased in July and then increased again. Macronutrient values were dependent on cultivar. Calculated macronutrient ratios showed that the nutrient supply of soil was not optimal in the orchard.

  17. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    allow many apple allergics to eat them without an allergic reaction. We are currently collaborating to develop a hypo-allergenic apple within the European Integrated Research Project, ISAFRUIT (www.isafruit.org). Hypo-allergenic apple plants (Malus x domestica Borkh., 'Elstar') with decreased levels......Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...... silencing were measured repeatedly by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to leaf samples from wild-type 'Elstar', two GM lines showed modest levels of gene silencing (up to 250-fold), whereas the other eight GM lines were significantly silenced (up to 10,000-fold) in Mal d 1 gene expression. These levels...

  18. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  19. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  20. Distribution of the Endophytic Fungi in Apple Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Afandhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi have roles to protect the plant from herbivorous insects and diseases, and to support the absorption process of nutrients needed by plants for photosynthesis. Related to the important role of endophytic fungi, research was aimed to identify fungal endophytes associated with young, mature and old leaves on apple and to evaluate the effect of leaf ages on the abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi. The research was conducted in Biological Control Laboratory, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya from May to September 2016. Apple leaves sampling was done diagonally, and taken from nine apple trees. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, 38 isolates were identified. In the old apple leaves, it obtained 17 isolates that consisted of 5 genera, mature leaves obtained 14 isolates consisted of 6 genera, and young leaves 7 isolates obtained consists of 2 genera. The mature leaves have highest abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi compared to young and old leaves. Endophytic fungi apple leaf dominated by Aspergillus. Mature and young leaves were different from old one based on Bray-Curtis similarity.

  1. Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.

  2. Macronutrient assessment in apple growing region of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddique

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of examining soil and plant macronutrient status (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and their interaction to understand causes of low apple yield. Murree region was studied being major apple cultivated area in Punjab. Surveyed apple orchards were selected from all union councils of Murree. Out of thirteen orchard sites, soils of seven sites have been classified as clay loam, three sandy clay loam, two clayey and one loam. Electrical conductivity varied from 0.12 to 2.00 dS m-1 at surface and 0.12 to 1.60 dS m-1 at subsurface soil. Surface soil pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.4. Orchard soils were low in nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and potassium. Calcium was deficient in all the orchards sites while a general deficiency of magnesium was observed in the area. Apple orchards were deficient in foliage nitrogen, potassium and magnesium but sufficient in phosphorus and calcium contents. Both in soil and foliage, there was a general deficiency of nitrogen, potassium and sulphur. A variable trend of correlation between plant and surface, subsurface N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S was established. Insufficient nutrient status of apple orchards could be the major concern for low yield in the area.

  3. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  4. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  5. Consumer preferences for organically and locally produced apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2014-01-01

    components of questions. Component 1 concerns benefits related to organic products while component 2 relates to positive features of locally produced products. When the components are included in analysis of data from the choice experiment a random parameter error component model suggests that respondents...... who recognize the benefits of organic products have relatively high preferences for both organically and locally produced apples. Respondents who, on the other hand, recognize the benefits of locally produced products have high preferences for domestically and locally produced apples......This study investigates organic consumers’ preferences for local production of apples. The analysis is based on a choice experiment among 637 Danish consumers used in combination with a principal component analysis of a set of opinion questions. The principal component analysis identifies two...

  6. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  7. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Identification of gamma irradiated apples by the half-embryo test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Gabriel C.; Bujan, Alfonso; Leiva, Carlos H.; Yusef, Maria V.

    2003-01-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples (var. Red delicious).The irradiation of apples caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryo. A dose of 100 Gy or more, inhibits the epicotyl development and with 50 Gy dose is possible to observe a great contrast with the non-irradiated apples. If the epicotyl development is less than 4 cm., the apples are identified as irradiated. The assessment can be made after 7 days. (author)

  9. Inhibition of Apple Polyphenol Oxidase Activity by Procyanidins and Polyphenol Oxidation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bourvellec, Carine Le; Jean-Michel Le Quéré; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François; Guyot, Sylvain

    2004-01-01

    The rate of consumption of dissolved oxygen by apple polyphenol oxidase in cider apple juices did not correlate with polyphenol oxidase activity in the fruits and decreased faster than could be explained by the decrease of its polyphenolic substrates. The kinetics parameters of a crude polyphenol oxidase extract, prepared from apple (Braeburn cultivar), were determined using caffeoylquinic acid as a substrate. Three apple procyanidin fractions of n 80, 10.5, and 4 were purifi...

  10. Vegetative Propagation of Five Local Cultivars of Malay Apple (Syzygium malaccense spp.) in Ternate Island

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Ryadin; S.L. Ranamukaarachchi; P. Soni; R. P. Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of cuttings of five cultivars of local malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L.) was studied in Ternate Island, Indonesia. Hardwood cuttings of malay apple were planted in two combinations of media and hormone treatments. During 5 months experiment, can be found that hardwood cutting of malay apple with top soil+ sand and NAA 1000 ppm had the best performance in producing shoots and roots for cuttings of malay apple in a short period. Although, each of these cultivars has diffe...

  11. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  12. Apple peels--a versatile biomass for water purification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-05-22

    The presence of anions such as chromate, arsenate, and arsenite in drinking water is a major health concern in many parts of the world due to their high toxicity. Removal of such anions from water using low cost biomass is an efficient and affordable treatment process. Owing to the easy availability and biodegradability, we chose to use apple peel as a substrate for our investigations. Zirconium cations were immobilized onto the apple peel surface and used for the extraction of anions. Zirconium loaded apple peels were used to extract anions such as phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presence of Zr cations on the apple peel surface was characterized using XPS. The modified adsorbent was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. Zr treated apple peels showed efficient adsorption toward AsO2(-) (15.64 mg/g), AsO4(3-) (15.68 mg/g), Cr2O7(2-) (25.28 mg/g), and PO4(3-) (20.35 mg/g) anions. The adsorption and desorption studies revealed the adsorption mechanism involves electrostatic interactions. Anion removal efficiency was estimated by batch adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetic parameters for all anions at different concentrations were described using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Langumir and Freundlich isotherms were used to validate our adsorption data. Arsenate and chromate anions were strongly adsorbed at the pH range from 2 to 6, while arsenite was extracted efficiently between pH 9 and 10. Overall, the Zr immobilized apple peel is an efficient adsorbent for common anionic pollutants.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of apple seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shou-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Xue, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Fen; Shi, Shu-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Apple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰ salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance. The results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2‰ and 4‰ salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl - and Na + concentrations clearly increased and K + contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K + /Na + ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4‰ salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6‰ salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively. These results suggest that 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.

  14. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  15. Consumer eating quality acceptance of new apple varieties in different European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbo, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Hoeller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    During January and February 2007 a European consumer test of eight new apple varieties and three standard ones was carried out in different European countries. The most common apple varieties were compared to new ones, focusing on consumer acceptance and the potential for increasing apple

  16. Choosing between an apple and a chocolate bar: the impact of health and taste labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Suzanna E; Walker, Alexander D; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple ('healthy & succulent' 65.9% and 'succulent & healthy' 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection ('healthy' 50.5% and 'succulent' 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone.

  17. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

  18. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice... the antidumping duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China would be likely to lead...

  19. Tulemas on Apple'i järjekordne müügihitt / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Suure tõuke Apple'i aktsiahinnale on andnud iPhone'i turuletulek 2007. aasta sügisel, nüüd on müügile tulemas kolmanda põlvkonna mobiiltelefon iPhone. Vt. samas: Apple'i majandusnäitajad; Pürib digikodu valitsejaks. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia hind

  20. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  1. Choosing between an apple and a chocolate bar: the impact of health and taste labels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna E Forwood

    Full Text Available Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439 were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%, the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple ('healthy & succulent' 65.9% and 'succulent & healthy' 62.4%, while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection ('healthy' 50.5% and 'succulent' 52%. The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone.

  2. Apple suutis jälle turgu üllatada / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    iPodi pleierite ja Mac-arvutite kasvav müük aitas Apple'i kasumit aastaga viiekordistada 61 miljonilt 320 miljoni dollarini. Diagramm: Tulemused vedasid Apple'i tõusule. Vt. samas: Eesti investorid mängisid Apple'i tõusu peale

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  4. Instant Apple iBooks how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Chawdhary, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. Written in a step-by-step tutorial style, this book shows you in simple steps how to get the most from your iBooks experience.This book is for literary geeks who want to explore the Apple iBooks universe. From buying books from the Apple iBookstore to organizing books and PDFs, this book goes forward by explaining how to write an interactive book with iBooks Author.

  5. Ocular toxicity by seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Harsha; Kugar, Thungappa; Shivanna, Yathish; Agrawal, Archita; Shetty, Rohit

    2016-08-01

    Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6-12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid.

  6. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  7. Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, P

    1999-01-01

    Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  9. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (papple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (papple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluidized bed material apples at disposal levels: effects on an apple orchard. [Malus domestica Borkh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcak, R.F.

    Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion represents and economical technology for the burning of high S fossil fuel. The combustion residue is a dry, alkaline material resulting from the burning of coal (or other fuel source) and limestone. Although the residue has been assessed as a limestone substitute, the current study examines the potential for disposing of relatively large quantities. Fluidized bed material (FBM) was applied at two rates to the surface area within the rows of an established apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard containing four tree types. The rates were either 9.2 kg/m/sup 2/ (low rate), 36 kg/m/sup 2/ (high rate), or untreated control. The tree types used were Spuree Rome on M9, Redchief Delicious on M9 or M9/MM106, and Sturdeespur Delicious on M9. Cumulative yields (kg/tree) were enhanced on three of four tree types over a period of 6 yr. A 15% reduction in yield was noted for Redchief Delicious on M9/MM106 stocks at the high FBM rate. No nutritional related problems were noted for this or any other of the tree types used. Part of the yield reduction noted was due to fruit size differences and/or differential sensitivity of this interstock/rootstock combination to the altered soil chemical properties. Generally, amended soil pH increased to about 7.0 for either rate, and electrical conductivity increased five fold at the high rate of FBM addition. Agricultural utilization of large volume (up to 112 Mg/ha) of FBM, compared to past research where FBM was used as a lime substitute (2-6 mg/ha), appears to be a feasible alternative. However, rootstock selection for apple may need to consider the resultant changes in soil chemical status from FBM additions.

  11. Old Apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) Varieties with Hypoallergenic Properties: An Integrated Approach for Studying Apple Allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro

    2016-12-07

    Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".

  12. Quantitative detection of four pome fruit viruses in apple trees throughout the year

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie WINKOWSKA; Lenka GRIMOVA; Pavel RYSANEK

    2016-01-01

    A one-step real-time RT-PCR assay (RT-qPCR) with melting curve analysis, using the green fluorescence dye SYBR Green I, was developed to detect and quantify RNA targets from Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in infected apple trees. Single PCR products of 87 bp (ApMV), 70 bp (ASGV), 104 bp (ASPV) and 148 bp (ACLSV) were obtained, and melting curve analyses revealed distinct melting temperatu...

  13. Modelling mite dynamics on apple trees in eastern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, J.M.; Werf, van der W.; Nyrop, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The model described in this paper simulates seasonal dynamics of Panonychus ulmi and the phytoseiid predator Typhlodromus pyri on apple trees in Eastern North America. It was originally developed to understand the effect of weather, predation, cannibalism, alternate food for the predator, and uneven

  14. Cellulase production by Trichoderma sp . on apple pomace under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using apple pomace for cellulase production by Trichoderma sp. under solid state fermentation was evaluated in this study. Our results indicated that initial moisture level of the medium, incubation temperature and inoculum size influenced the cellulase production greatly. The optimum initial moisture level ...

  15. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... grafting methods in greenhouse and orchard. Ömer Faruk Karamürsel1* and .... tunnels in Eğirdir on the field of Orchard Cultivation Research. Institute located in the ...... The values obtained according to scala of clonal apple rootstocks (M9 and MM106) and fruit sampling. Parameter. Whip sapling (%).

  16. The role of Schmidt 'Antonovka' in apple scab resistance breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, V.G.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Peil, A.; Dunemann, F.; Zini, E.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Blazek, J.; Hanke, V.; Forsline, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    'Antonovka' has long been recognised as a major source of scab (Venturia inaequalis) resistance useful for apple breeding worldwide. Both major gene resistances in the form of the Rvi10 and Rvi17 and quantitative resistance, collectively identified as VA, have been identified in different accessions

  17. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.

    This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part…

  18. Responses of Several Apple Cultivare to Chemical Thinning Sprays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatments did not affect (PS 0.05) the number of seeds in the fruit, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit length to diameter .... Table 2. Eiïecl of Accel and Carbaiyi on number of fruit per cross sectional limb area, sugar. CETtet torix) and mean fmit weight of three Apple cultivars grown at the Pontotoc Research and Extension ...

  19. UTILIZATION OF IMPROPER APPLES FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOR BIOETANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Martello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a national preference, a big percentage of apple is discarded daily by many factors, such as rot and some aspects not acceptable for market. As this fruit presents a significant concentration of sugar, it can be utilized in the production of fermented products, like vinegar and especially ethanol. In Brazil, much attention has been given to the production of bioethanol as renewable energy, not only relieving dependence on oil as working to mitigate the effects of global warming, by the way, this project is based on an initial assessment of bioethanol production from improper apples for human consumption that are discarded in the market of Xanxerê – SC. The percentages of bioetanol produced by the apples discarded presented equivalent values to them found inside the literature, between 4.2 and 9.2%. Based on these results, the improper apples for consumption are great raw materials for the production of biofuel – bioethanol, since evaluated his level of rottenness previously on the process.

  20. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... activity was affected by in vivo 50 µl/100 ml concentrations of pure rosemary essential oil (reductions in peroxidase activity by 90%) when the enzyme was obtained from quince. Key words: Peroxidase, essential oil, antioxidant, apple, quince. INTRODUCTION. Enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables ...

  1. AppleWorks for Educators. A Beginner's Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathje, Linda

    This self-paced workbook presents basic information about features of the "AppleWorks" software package, provides practice materials for beginners, discusses features available in an integrated three-application package, and provides guided hands-on activities. The applications include the spreadsheet, the word processor, printer options…

  2. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this study is to measure acceptance of a specific functional food: apple (fruit) leather, based on organoleptic characteristics and to identify consumer types and preferences for natural additives which increase the product's functionality and meet current nutritional needs. a sample of 800 consumers provided an evaluation of apple leather in terms of acceptance (liking). A sensorial panel was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify different acceptance-based consumer types. In addition, a conjoint analysis was carried out to determine preference for different additives. the cluster analysis resulted in four groups with significant differences in the average likings obtained from the sensory panel. Results indicate that the sweetness of the tested apple leather was evaluated best among all groups and, on average, color was rated as the worst attribute. However, overall likings differ significantly between groups. Results from the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer natural additives included in the product which enhance functionality. although there is a "global acceptance" of the product, there are significant differences between groups. The results of the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer the aggregation of natural additives which increase the product's functionality. Apple leather with natural additives, such as anticariogenics and antioxidants, can be considered a functional substitute of unhealthy snacks and/or sweets. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Kei Apple Plant Thorn Synovitis | Nyamohanga | Annals of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can present as a diagnostic difficulty because of its insidious onset after an apparently trivial injury, which may not be reported. Historically, thorn synovitis has been considered aseptic and treated with removal of the intra-articular foreign body and the affected synovial ring. We present a child with Kei apple thorn that had ...

  4. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were found associated with the deteriorating fruits. The fungi are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, A. tamarii, A. flavus, Fusarium spp, Penicilium spp and ...

  5. Simultaneous detection of Apple mosaic virus in cultivated hazelnuts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most economically damaging ilarvirus affecting hazelnut on a worldwide scale is the related apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Attempts were made to isolate the virus RNA from hazelnut tissues using different extraction methods. The most suitable extraction method that could detect the virus occurring naturally in hazelnut by ...

  6. Apple based agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate and compare households' income from apple based agroforestry system and identify factors that influence its adoption by smallholder farmers in Dendi Woreda, Oromia region. Two kebeles' were purposefully selected and from which 250 households were randomly taken, where 33 were ...

  7. Foliar nutrition in apple production | Murtic | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of research papers dealing with the effect of foliar feeding on development parameters in apple trees in an attempt to obtain a more thorough insight into the advantages and disadvantages of this fertilization type and facilitate the potential use of this practice ...

  8. Differential partitioning of triterpenes and triterpene esters in apple peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple peel functions as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, and preserving the integrity and appearance of peel critical for market acceptance. Peel epidermal cells and epicuticular wax are a rich source of secondary metabolites, including triterpenes. Several studies have ou...

  9. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    and pulsed electric field (PEF) juice are compared with their probability of choice for pasteurized juice and freshly produced apple juice, and consumer choices are tried explained by values and consequences generated from a MEC study. The study support, at least partly, that means-end chain structures’ have...

  10. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  11. The potential use of white star apple seeds ( Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two (42) young male and female albino rats (Rattus norwegicus) were used in a preliminary study to assess the potential of non-conventional local materials, white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) 'udara' seeds and physic nut (Jatropha curcas) as feed ingredients for livestock. 'Udara' seed or physic nut meal were ...

  12. Apple and quince peroxidase activity in response to essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic browning arises by peroxidase in fruits. However, essential oils are recognized as natural antioxidant agents. So in this study, the effect of thyme, coriander and rosemary essential oils were evaluated on the reduction of peroxidase activity in apples (Malus domestica Mill. cv Golden delicious), (M. domestica Mill.

  13. Apple Based Agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate and compare households' income from apple based agroforestry system and identify factors that influence its adoption by smallholder farmers in Dendi Woreda, Oromia region. Two kebeles' were purposefully selected and from which 250 households were randomly taken, where. 33 were ...

  14. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  15. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  16. Technical Note: Assessment of Impact Damage to Apple Fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An impact damage assessment of fresh apple fruits was carried out to ascertain the effects of height and surfaces on bruise area and impact energy. Five different impact surfaces namely: Cardboard (E), wood (F), metal (G), plastic (H) and foam (I) were used for the experiment. The weighed fruits were dropped from different ...

  17. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  18. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.

    2005-01-01

    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  19. The occurence of phytoplasmas in apple trees showing branch twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 153, - (2005), s. 384-388 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5051014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : apple trees * pathology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2005

  20. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Conclusion: cassava and rice starch behaviour during cashew apples juice clarification were not similar. Nevertheless, from the results of optimization ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 95:8989 – 9002. ISSN 1997–5902 ..... action of gravity to modify clarity (Benitez & Lozano,. 2007). Clarification of in natura ...

  1. An Apple a Day: Microcomputers in the Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Anne F.; Ransom, Stanley A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a program at the Plattsburgh Public Library in upstate New York designed to bring basic computer literacy to rural children. The program utilizes an Apple II Plus system and focuses on two aspects of computer literacy: software use and programing. (LLS)

  2. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Meulenbroek, Bert J.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Gilissen, Luud J. W. J.; Puehringer, Helene; Laimer, Margit; Martinelli, Alessio; Zaccharini, Marzio; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E. N. Clare; Zuidmeer, Laurian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.

  3. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these

  4. Characterization and degradation of pectin derived from Budimka apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS V. NIKOLIC

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of apple pectin and its oligogalacturonic fractions derived from the autochthones apple variety Budimka, characteristic for central Serbia, is described in this paper. After extraction, the apple pectin was subjected to controlled enzymatic hydrolysis by polygalacturonase (PG and pectin lyase (PL from Aspergillus niger and then fractionated by ion-exchange column chromatography on Dowex 1X-8 (200–400 mesh. Saturated oligogalacturonic acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis with PG, were efficiently separated by elution with a gradient of Na acetate buffer (pH 6.0, while unsaturated oligogalacturonic acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis with PL, were separated on the same resin, using a gradient of Na formate buffer (pH 4.7 as the eluent. The yields of the fractions with the particular degree of polymerization (DP were also determined. The total content of neutral saccharides in the original Budimka apple pectin was detected by HPLC analysis of the 4-nitrobenzoyl derivatives of the sugar, and amounted to 5.31 %. Among the neutral saccharides, contents of galactose, glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and mannose were detected.

  5. A radiation-induced compact type Granny Smith apple mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.; Van Tonder, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    More successful compact mutant clones of Granny Smith apple are being sought, for those that have so far arisen naturally have undesirable tree and fruit charateristics. For this purpose, gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 radiation unit were used to induce mutant types artificially. One compact mutation of Granny Smith was produced via re-irradiation

  6. Contributions of EU-project REPCO to apple scab control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Heijne, B.; Hockenhull, J.; Lindhard Pedersen, H.; Trapman, M.; Eiben, U.; Tamm, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of REPCO is to contribute to the replacement of copper fungicides in organic agriculture by new measures for control of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) in grapevine and scab (Venturia inaequalis) in apple. Both major European organic crops strongly depend on copper fungicides.

  7. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on the radiation preservation of apples and the radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kejian; Lu Dunzhu; Wan Hong; Zhu Zhaonan; Xu Shanmei

    1987-01-01

    The radiation effects on respiration and ethylene production in apple and its radiation preservation were reported in this paper. It shows that, when irradiation was applied immediately after harvest, the respiratory rate and ethylene production increase with the increasing of irradiation dose. When irradiation was applied after 7-10 days of storage, the respiratory rate still rises with the dose, while there is a decrease in ethylene production with the increasing of dose. If the irradiation dose is less than 800 Gy the rise of respiratory rate of irraadiated apple returns to the level of the control within 5 days, but ethylene production of irradiated apple keeps a lower level. According to the above results, dose of 300-500 Gy may be recommended for radiation preseration of apple. Ascorbic acid is unstable and sensitive to radiation. The radiation effects on ascorbic acid in apple is very small because the saccharides and some organic acid in apple, especially malic acid, are able to protect ascorbic acid from radiation damage. From measuring the saccharides and acids in apple, it is obvious that there is no significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated apple. Long-life free radical in apple was not detected after irradiation. The scald of apple is reduced from 60% to less than 15% after cold storage for 8 monthes. The taste results indicated, tasting them without knowing which is irradiated or not, that the irradiated apple is superior to controlled sample

  9. APPLE CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCES ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE POZNAŃ UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present the preferences of apple consumers (students concerned on the functional and sensory apples’ quality features: the apple cultivar and taste, skin colour, fruit size and fruit firmness. The survey data were collected in the years 2009 and 2011 among 265 and 208 students of the Poznan University of Life Sciences. The respondents completed the survey questionnaires in presence of the researcher. The respondents could choose no more than three of the listed apple cultivars. Furthermore the respondents could choose one answer from each list of the preferable apples quality features (taste, skin colour, fruit size and firmness of flesh. The most preferred apple cultivars were: Lobo, Jonagold, Szampion, Golden Delicious and Cortland. The percentage of students whose did not know the name of the apple cultivar they consumed was high and it amounted to 17% in 2009 and 24% in 2011. Students preferred sweet-winy taste of apples, the red colour of fruit skin, with blush, the fruits of medium size and tough. The colour of apple skin was the least important quality feature – it did not matter for more than 1/3 of respondents, mainly males. The differences between males and females students appeared in taste of apple fruits and firmness of flesh. The sour taste of apples was preferred by relatively more males than females and for bigger percentage of males the taste of fruits was not important. More females preferred sweet and very sweet apples and tough.

  10. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cusin

    Full Text Available Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of free acid content in apples using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, M.R.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation of free acid content in apples by near- infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), browning and heat treatment of squeezed apple juice affected to the accuracy but titratable alkali concentration did not. The free acid content in apples after harvest was able to determine using different apples in harvest time for calibration making. The result of MLR, multiple correlation coefficient(R) was 0.77 and standard error of prediction(SEP) was 0.03%. The free acid content in apples during storage was able to determine using calibration equation established with stored apples, R was 0.90 and SEP was ca. 0.04%. The prediction accuracy by NIR was not sufficient for use of quantitative analysis of free acid content in apple, but classification of low and high level in acid content was supposed to be applicable

  12. Physical and sensory properties of ready to eat apple chips produced by osmo-convective drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka

    2014-12-01

    The low cost raw material, apple variety Idared, was turned into value-added product, apple chips. The apple chips were produced in a two-step process consisting of osmotic treatment and conventional drying. Osmotic treatment was carried out in 40 % glucose solution at room temperature, followed by convective drying at 105 °C, till reaching water activity of 0.3. Mechanical properties of the apple chips measured by compression and penetration tests were correlated with the sorption properties. The low browning index, 25.5 and high whitening index, 63.7, proved the good retention of the color of the apple chips. The instrumental characteristics of the apple chips were correlated with the sensory characteristics of the product. The new product was accepted by the 95 % of the panelists. The stored apple chips under modified atmosphere showed no significant changes in the quality parameters over 6 month period.

  13. Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags from Apple1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing

    2006-01-01

    The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485

  14. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina-Dolge Rita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  15. How many bad apples does it take to spoil the whole barrel? Social exclusion and toleration for bad apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, N.L.; Rumble, A.C.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Parks, C.D.; Gallucci, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In social dilemmas, where personal welfare is in conflict with collective welfare, there are inherent incentives to act non-cooperatively. Moreover, there is evidence that the example of a few uncooperative group members ("bad apples") is more influential than the example of comparable numbers of

  16. Would You Like that iPhone Locked or Unlocked?: Reconciling Apple's Anticircumvention Measures with the DMCA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Corbett

    2008-01-01

    When Apple's iPhone first hit the stores it was an epochal media event.2 Apple, long a leader in high-end computers and personal electronics, was poised to make its entry into ahighly-competitive market with a new mobile phone that promised groundbreaking technological capabilities in a sleek, ergonomic package. Apple's CEO, Steve Jobs, extolled the iPhone's virtues to an eager press, and, shortly thereafter, Apple's stock jumped dramatically.3 Apple's loyal devotees lined up in anticipation ...

  17. Transformation of apple (Malus × domestica) using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase as a selectable marker and analysis of the T-DNA integration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P

    2013-05-01

    Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.

  18. Influence of cultivar, storage time, and processing on the phenol content of cloudy apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Piližota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of cultivar and storage time on the total phenol content (TPC of three actual apple cultivars (Topaz, Pinova, Pink Lady and three autochthonous apple cultivars (Ruzmarinka, Ljepocvjetka, Paradija as well to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. Total phenol content has been determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent during cold storage at 1 °C, for 60 days. Changes of apple juice samples phenolics in relation to oxidation time after pressing (0 hours, 2 h and 4 h were examined. A significant variation in content of phenols in apple cultivars under investigation was noted. Paradija, autochthonous apple contained the highest content of phenols (1.003 g GAE/L, while Topaz, actual apple cultivar had the lowest content (0.596 g GAE/L, during the storage time. TPC of apple cultivars stayed at a relatively constant level during the storage, with the exception of Pink Lady and Paradija apples, where TPC changed significantly during cold storage. The level of TPC in cloudy apple juice samples of all apple cultivars decreased during the oxidation time after pressing.

  19. The Effects of Drop Height and Padding Surface on Bruising of Exportable Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ghanbarian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately despite the great ranking of Iran for apple production around the world, the export potential is not suitable. It seems that one of the major causes of poor quality for Iranian apple varieties is bruising damage of this product. Therefore, in this study, some factors affecting the apple bruising were addressed. For this purpose, factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with 72 treatments, including variety factor in three levels (Golden Delicious, Red Delicious and Granny Smith, type of padding surface in four levels (Cardboard on plastic, wood, Rubber on steel and apple and the drop height in six levels (5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 cm with four replications were considered. Moreover, the maximum allowable drop heights of apples along with bruising volume estimation models were studied. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that bruising area and volume were significantly affected by all experimental parameters at the 1% level. The comparison test revealed that Granny Smith has tougher tissues and is less prone to vulnerability. Based on the results of this study, the maximum allowable drop heights for the Red Delicious, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith varieties were found to be 12, 15 and 20 cm, respectively. In addition, the effect of apple variety on the dependent parameters was significant. Based on the findings of this study, the bruising due to the impact of apple and apple was lower for the moving apples compared with the stationary apples.

  20. APPLE-3: improvement of APPLE for neutron and gamma-ray flux, spectrum and reaction rate plotting code, and of its code manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hiromitu; Maki, Koichi; Seki, Yasushi.

    1991-03-01

    A code APPLE was produced in 1976 for calculating and plotting tritium breeding ratio and tritium production rate distributions. That code was improved as 'APPLE-2' in 1982, to calculate and plot not only tritium breeding ratio but also distributions of neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, their spectra, nuclear heating rates and other reaction rates, and dose rate distributions during operation and after shutdown in 1982. The code APPLE-2 can calculate and plot these nuclear properties derived from neutron and gamma-ray fluxes by ANISN (one dimensional transport code), DOT3.5 (two dimensional transport code) and MORSE (three dimensional Monte Carlo code). We revised the code APPLE-2 as 'APPLE-3' by adding many functions to the APPLE-2 code in accordance with users' requirements proposed in recent progress of fusion reaction nuclear design. With minor modification of APPLE-2, a number of inconsistencies have been found between the code manual and the input data in the code. In the present report, the new functions added to APPLE-2 and improved users' manual are explained. (author)

  1. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, G.A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: The expression of the apple scab resistance geneRvi6in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors.All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple

  2. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of Apple scar skin viroid Isolates in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hee Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify genome sequences of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd isolates in Korea, the field survey was performed from ‘Hongro’ apple orchards located in eight sites in South Korea (Bongwha, Cheongsong, Dangjin, Gimchoen, Muju, Mungyeong, Suwon, and Yeongwol. ASSVd was detected by RT-PCR and PCR fragments were cloned into cloning vector. Full-length viral genomes of eight ASSVd isolates were sequenced and compared with 21 isolates reported previously from Korea, India, China, Japan and Greece. Eight isolates in this study showed 92.2-99.7% nucleotide sequence identities with those reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven isolates reported in this study belong to the same group distinct from other groups.

  4. Use of Aspergillus niger for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1983-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste material remaining after apple brandy distillation was investigated. Different cellulolytic fungi were tested for their ability to convert the waste organic substances into microbial biomass. An Aspergillus niger strain was chosen as the most convenient microorganism. By growing this mold on the apple slop the following results were obtained: filtration time was shortened by 30 times, reduction of the chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase in the range of 50-80% depending on the substrate dilution and a dry filter cake enriched with fungal biomass to about 12 g/l containing up to 22% raw proteins and certain amounts of cellulolytic enzymes in the filtrate. The influence of the initial pH, the salt addition and the dilution of the substrate were studied as well. 12 references.

  5. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu; Ma Xiuye; Zhang Shufen; Liu Shucheng

    1993-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author)

  6. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu; Ma Xiuye; Zhang Shufen; Liu Shucheng (Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)

    The effects of [gamma]-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of Golden Delicious apples and on the lethality of pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. Results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apples irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with increased storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, this dose had no effects on the pure chemicals. Studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dose range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiment showed that rotting of fruits decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation. (author).

  7. A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyao, Wang; Mengyue, Jiang; Meixu, Gao; xiuye, Ma; Shufen, Zhang; Shucheng, Liu

    1993-07-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of cold Delicious apples and on the lethality of verticillate pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. The results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apple irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with the increasing of storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, the dosage mentioned above had no effects on the pure chemicals. The studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dosage range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiments showed that the rotting fruits were obviously decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation.

  8. Market Segmentation and Conjoint Analysis for Apple Family Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Al-Refaie; Nour Bata

    2016-01-01

    A distributor of Apple products' experiences numerous difficulties in developing marketing strategies for new and existing mobile product entries that maximize customer satisfaction and the firm's profitability. This research, therefore, integrates market segmentation in platform-based product family design and conjoint analysis to identify iSystem combinations that increase customer satisfaction and business profits. First, the enhanced market segmentation grid is created. Then, the estimate...

  9. Plant-insect interactions between female dogwood borer and apple

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Daniel Lee

    2009-01-01

    A rearing methodology for dogwood borer was developed, using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. These methods enabled the establishment of a laboratory colony and efficient production of synchronized cohorts of each of its lifestages throughout the year for specific experimental needs. The behavioral repertoire shown by mated female dogwood borer in an apple orchard was characterized and quantified and the diel periodicity with which those behaviors occurred was deter...

  10. Volatiles Profile of Red Apple from Marche Region (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fraternale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile composition of different parts (whole fruit, peel and flesh of a rare wild red apple named “Mela Rossa Val Metauro” was established by SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction sampling, followed by GC-MS analysis. The most prominent constituent in all the three parts was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene. The presence of the ester ethyl hexanoate particularly in the flesh (39.8% gives a special exotic flavor to the fruit.

  11. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  12. Sooty blotch of apple: Efficacy of different application strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, U.; Späth, S.

    2008-01-01

    Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Lake Constance organic apple production. In the last five years research has been done at the research station for fruit growing (Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau – Bodensee) on strategies to control Sooty blotch on organic grown pome fruit. Different control strategies with lime sulphur, coconut soap and potassium bicarbonate with different application rates, application times were tested in several trials on the cultivar ‘Topaz’. Over the years the...

  13. APPLE VINEGAR PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION IN PILOT SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna M., Leoncio; Robles, R.; Huamán R., M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar has been elaborated from apple juice by inmersed fermentation at room temperature. The process was developed in two stages, firstly, the alcoholic termentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevísíae yeast, Ellipsoideus variety. Secondly, an acetic fermentation was carried out using acetobacter. The global yield of the process, based on row material usage was around 52%. The product obtained has an acidity of 6,8% in acetic acid and fulfill the market requirements. Se ha ela...

  14. It was easy, when apples and blackberries were only fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in company names are omnipresent. This is not accidental, companies deliberately chose ambiguous brand names, as part of their marketing and branding strategy. This procedure leads to new challenges, when it comes to finding information about the company on the Web. This paper is concerned with the task of classifying Twitter messages, whether they are related to a given company: for example, we classify a set of twitter messages containing a keyword apple, whether a message is re...

  15. Happy Growers! Relationship Quality in the German Organic Apple Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Katrin; Beske, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Relational factors between supply chain actors have been acknowledged to contribute significantly to competitiveness. With the example of the German market for organic apples the suitability of the concept of the Relational View for explaining competitiveness was investigated. Structured interviews were conducted with selected actors of the supply chain. Actors at all levels of the supply chain proved to be highly committed and described their business relations as satisfying and trustful. St...

  16. Specific heat of apple at different moisture contents and temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhailyk, Viacheslav; Lebovka, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses results of experimental investigations of the specific heat, $C$, of apple in a wide interval of moisture contents ($W=0-0.9$) and temperatures ($T = 283-363$ K). The obtained data reveal the important role of the bound water in determination of $C(W,T)$ behaviour. The additive model for description of $C(W)$ dependence in the moisture range of $0.1

  17. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    OpenAIRE

    Fante, Camila Argenta; Boas, Ana Carolina Vilas; Paiva, Vivian Aguiar; Pires, Caroline Roberta Freitas; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of...

  18. Wild Apple Growth and Climate Change in Southeast Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Panyushkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand the potential of a changing climate to influence apple radial growth. Ring-width chronologies spanning 48 to 129 years were developed from 12 plots in the Trans-Ili Alatau and Jungar Alatau ranges of Tian Shan Mountains, southeastern Kazakhstan. Cluster analysis of the plot-level chronologies suggests different temporal patterns of growth variability over the last century in the two mountain ranges studied. Changes in the periodicity of annual ring-width variability occurred ca. 1970 at both mountain ranges, with decadal-scale variability supplanted by quasi-biennial variation. Seascorr correlation analysis of primary and secondary weather variables identified negative growth associations with spring precipitation and positive associations with cooler fall-winter temperatures, but the relative importance of these relationships varied spatially and temporally, with a shift in the relative importance of spring precipitation ca. 1970 at Trans-Ili Alatau. Altered apple tree radial growth patterns correspond to altered climatology in the Lake Balkhash Basin driven by unprecedented intensified Arctic Oscillations after the late 1970s.

  19. Pelleting properties and pellet quality of apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslovarić Marijana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace (AP is the main by-product of apple juice production. It is a residue after pressing of apples for juice extraction. AP is an organic material, with high moisture and sugar content, therefore its direct disposal on landfills or land spreading causes serious environmental pollution. One of the solutions for further exploitation of AP could be its utilization as animal feed. However, fresh AP is quite perishable, and it must be preserved in order to be stored and used over a long period of time. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to transform AP to a stabile form which would be acceptable for feed manufacturers in terms of stability, storage and handling. For this purpose, pelleting process was used and pelleting properties of AP were evaluated. Before pelleting, dried AP was divided into three batches, which were conditioned only by water addition in order to achieve different moisture contents of the material: 10% of moisture for the first batch, 13% for the second batch and 16% for the third batch. According to the obtained values for Pellet Durability Index (PDI and pellet hardness, pellet quality for all examined AP batches was very high. Increased moisture content of AP led to the reduction in energy consumption of the pellet press, thus providing energy saving in the pelleting process. Pelleting process also caused strong increase of AP bulk density which is positive in terms of transportation and storage.

  20. Potency of Mangrove Apple (Sonneratia alba as Mercury Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza Cordova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic provide a negative impact on the surrounding environment. Mangrove species, such as Sonneratia alba would get the impact of anthropogenic activities, to accumulate the pollution of heavy metals. The aim of this study were to evaluate mercury accumulation in Mangrove Apple (S. alba and to analyze mangrove apple potency as mercury bioindicator. Samples were taken in April 2016 at Pari Island, Seribu Islands by purposive sampling. The results showed that the highest concentration of Hg in the Northern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and the lowest was in the fruit. The highest concentration of Hg in the Eastern of Pari Island was found in the leaves and lowest was in the fruit. The concentrations of Hg in the Eastern area higher the Northern area (significantly different. The accumulation of Hg mainly collected on the leaves with TF> 1, but the ability of S. alba trees absorb Hg in the environment showed a small value, namely BCF <1. The ability of S. alba in sediments, contaminated with mercury showed a high value of the leaves in the East Pari Island, but the fruit of S. alba both in the North and East of the Pari Island showed a small value.  Mangrove Apple leaves has a potency as mercury bioindicator organ.

  1. Arthropods on Abandoned Apple Trees: Comparison of Orchard Versus Alley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Psota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of arthropods on abandoned apple trees was studied in 2010 and 2011. The research was carried out in South Moravia (Czech Republic. Two sites were selected within this area – apple trees (Malus domestica in an alley along a road and an abandoned apple orchard. At each location, arthropods were collected from 5 separate trees. Deltamethrin was applied into the treetops using a fogger. The killed arthropods were collected 15 minutes after the application. From among the collected data, 48 families were determined in accordance with a generalized linear model with a logarithmic-link function and Poisson distribution. As a result it was found that 33 families have significantly higher abundance in the abandoned orchard and 9 families in the alley. According to the Shannon-Wiener index, diversity of families was higher in the alley in both years (2010: H’ = 3.016, 2011: H’ = 3.177 compared to the abandoned orchard (2010: H’ = 2.413, 2011: H’ = 3.007.

  2. Development of complete hydrolysis of pectins from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-04-01

    Enzymatically extracted pectins have a more complex structure than those obtained by conventional methods. As a result, they are less susceptible to hydrolysis, which makes the precise determination of their composition difficult. The aim of the study was to develop a method of complete hydrolysis of enzymatically extracted apple pectins. Substrates were pectins isolated from apple pomace by the use of xylanase and multicatalytic preparation Celluclast and apple pomace. Hydrolysis was performed by a chemical method with 2M TFA at 100 °C and 120 °C and a combined acidic/enzymatic method. After hydrolysis, the contents of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars were measured by HPLC. Complete hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid occurred after 2.5h incubation with 2M TFA at 120 °C. The efficient hydrolysis of neutral sugars in pectins was performed with 2M TFA at 100 °C for 2.5h. Monomers most susceptible to concentrated acid were rhamnose, mannose and arabinose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The atractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kudová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of attractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic using the Industry attractiveness evaluation matrix according to the methodology of Higgins and Vincze (1989. It identifies the key criteria for evaluation of attractiveness from five fields: market factors, competition factors, financial and economic factors, technological factors, and socio-political factors. The key criteria are described in detail and evaluated from the viewpoint of a producer operating in the apple production industry. The text comes from the papers from the field of fruit production and apple production published by Kudová (2003, 2004, 2005 and Chládková (2003. Application of these methods on other industries was applied by Žufan et al. (2001 and Tomšík, and Žufan (2004.According to the data of the Division of Perennial Plants of the Central Institutte for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (CISTA, the number of subjects (firms and growers operating intensive orchards reaches 1 238 on the area of 18 998 ha. In 2003 the number of subjects was 1 243 on the area of 19 514 ha. The total sales in fruit production were in decline from 1999 to 2005, and the decline of sales of apples grown in intensive orchards in 2005 was 34% in comparison with 2004. In the foreign trade, there significantly prevail imports above exports, and from 2002 to 2004 the imports of apples grew by 220%. The biggest growth of area of orchards was in 2004 – by 211 ha of mature apple-trees, which amounts only for 2% of the total area. In connection with this growth, there grew also the yield. Diversity of the market is based on varietal structure of apple-trees grown. According to the data of CISTA, the current varietal structure is not suitable and its change is very slow. Most of apples are grown in Central Bohemia, which amounts for 11% of the total area, which is more than 2000 ha. We can conclude, that even though the average market price of

  4. [Application of fingerprint chromatogram in quality assessment of apple cider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangzhen; Song, Jirong; Ren, Yinghui; Ma, Haixia; Huang, Jie; Du, Xiaodan

    2007-01-01

    Fingerprints of 14 apple cider samples from different manufacturers were studied using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector (ECD). The analysis was carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column at 30 degrees C with 2% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution-4% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The electrochemical detector was set at 0.7 V. By calculating the relative retention times of certain peaks with chlorogenic acid as the reference standard, 8 common peaks in the samples were analyzed. Relative retention times for the common peaks of various samples were calculated, and the similarities of all the samples were figured out through each peak area with the vectorial angle cosine method and correlative coefficient method. The results indicated that apple cider products of the same manufacturer have good similarity, with the similarities greater than 92.7%. According to this experiment, effectual microcosmic information for apple cider analysis was gained through HPLC and ECD. Moreover, this test method will help the analysis and the control of product quality, the development of new products and the establishment of trade standard.

  5. Anti-inflammatory procyanidins and triterpenes in 109 apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Walker, Edward G; Rassam, Maysoon; Sullivan, Michael; Evers, Danièle; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2012-10-24

    We evaluated the potential of apple to reduce inflammation. Phenolic compounds and triterpenes were analyzed in 109 apple cultivars. Total phenolics ranged from 29 to 7882 μg g(-1) of fresh weight (FW) in the flesh and from 733 to 4868 μg g(-1) FW in the skin, with flavanols including epicatechin and procyanidins as major components. Ursolic (44.7 to 3522 μg g(-1) FW) and oleanolic (47.2 to 838 μg g(-1) FW) acids dominated the skin triterpene profile. Five chemically contrasting cultivars were fractionated and their immune-modulating activity measured using two cell-based assays targeting key points in the inflammation process. Cultivars exhibiting high contents of procyanidins were the most potent at inhibiting NF-κB while triterpene-rich fractions reduced the promoter activity of the gene of TNFα. This study provides new insights into how apple genetic diversity could be used to alleviate inflammation.

  6. Texture Studies and Compression Behaviour of Apple Flesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryony; Fonseca, Celia

    Compressive behavior of fruit flesh has been studied using mechanical tests and microstructural analysis. Apple flesh from two cultivars (Braeburn and Cox's Orange Pippin) was investigated to represent the extremes in a spectrum of fruit flesh types, hard and juicy (Braeburn) and soft and mealy (Cox's). Force-deformation curves produced during compression of unconstrained discs of apple flesh followed trends predicted from the literature for each of the "juicy" and "mealy" types. The curves display the rupture point and, in some cases, a point of inflection that may be related to the point of incipient juice release. During compression these discs of flesh generally failed along the centre line, perpendicular to the direction of loading, through a barrelling mechanism. Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to examine the behavior of the parenchyma cells during fracture and compression using a purpose designed sample holder and compression tester. Fracture behavior reinforced the difference in mechanical properties between crisp and mealy fruit flesh. During compression testing prior to cryo-SEM imaging the apple flesh was constrained perpendicular to the direction of loading. Microstructural analysis suggests that, in this arrangement, the material fails along a compression front ahead of the compressing plate. Failure progresses by whole lines of parenchyma cells collapsing, or rupturing, with juice filling intercellular spaces, before the compression force is transferred to the next row of cells.

  7. ‘FUJI’ APPLE TREE RESPONSE TO PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILBERTO NAVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of orchard fertilization with increasing rates of phosphorus (P on yield and critical levels of P in the soil and in the leaf of ‘Fuji’ apple trees. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, from 2010 to 2015, in an Inceptisol soil. The three apple orchards were planted in 2004 with the Fuji cultivar grafted on Marubakaido/ M9 rootstock and grown under a high-plant-density system (1984 trees ha-1. Annual fertilizer levels of 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5 (as triple superphosphate were applied to the soil surface, without incorporation, in a randomized block design with five replicates. In the first and last years (2011 and 2015, soil samples were collected from 0-10, 10-20 and 0-20 cm layers and the available P content was analyzed. Annually, whole leaves were collected and analyzed for P content. The number and weight of fruits per tree and hfruit yield were also evaluated. Application of P increased the content of available P in the soil, but this increase was not accompanied by increased leaf P content nor by increased fruit yield. This suggests that, in soils with medium to high content of organic matter and well fertilized with P before planting, there is no response of apple trees for P reapplication in the 10 subsequent years.

  8. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months.

  9. Role of microcrackes of apple surface in exogenous calcium uptake by fruit at harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine of exogenous calcium uptake by 8 cultivars of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.. Fruits at harvest time were dipped in l% CaCl2 solution and stored at 18-20ºC during 14 days. Apples dipped in water served as control. The results showed significant differences between cultivars in apple calcium content. The least fruit calcium content was observed by cv. Jonagold and the highest by cv. Lobo. It was found significant, positive correlation between fruit calcium content and ability of apples to exogenous calcium uptake. The study showed that intensity of apple surface cracking is not a main factor influencing on exogenous calcium uptake. Apple peel surface without the blush was more sensitive to form the microcrackes than surface with the blush.

  10. The study on the infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cinerea developed on the apple but not that grown on the artificial medium (PDA was able to directly penetration uninjured apple skin. It was observed that sometimes rotted spots develo ped arround the lenticels.

  11. APPLE-2: an improved version of APPLE code for plotting neutron and gamma ray spectra and reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hiromitsu; Seki, Yasushi.

    1982-07-01

    A computer code APPLE-2 which plots the spatial distribution of energy spectra of multi-group neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes, and reaction rates has been developed. This code is an improved version of the previously developed APPLE code and has the following features: (1) It plots energy spectra of neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes calculated by ANISN, DOT and MORSE. (2) It calculates and plots the spatial distribution of neutron and gamma ray fluxes and various types of reaction rates such as nuclear heating rates, operational dose rates, displacement damage rates. (3) Input data specification is greatly simplified by the use of standard, response libraries and by close coupling with radiation transport calculation codes. (4) Plotting outputs are given in camera ready form. (author)

  12. Physical and antibacterial properties of edible films formulated with apple skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H

    2011-03-01

    Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.

  13. Control of pre- and postharvest factors to improve apple quality and storability

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    To increase apple production in Sweden and to improve apple quality and competitive edge on the market, solutions to negative problems such as bruising susceptibility, decay and weak storage potential have to be discovered. This thesis investigated problems relating to apple quality and storability, based on the results of field and laboratory experiments conducted in Kivik, Sweden, during a period of 12 years. Four cultivars (Aroma, Ingrid Marie, Cox’s Orange Pippin, and Katja) were predomin...

  14. Determining intensity of affectedness with Apple Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) in the main cultivars of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    , Salihaj M.; , Hasani M.

    2016-01-01

    Apple Powdery Mildew is one of the most frequent diseases caused by pathogen fungi, which mainly attacks the apple culture. Such disease is caused by pathogen Podosphaem leucotricha. Having in mind the economic importance of apples in territory of Kosovo, the goal of this study was to determine sensitivity of various cultivars towards this pathogen under same climatic conditions, to measure reproduction organs of this pathogen and to compare sensitivity of the cultivars in both pesticide trea...

  15. STATUS OF AGENIASPIS FUSCICOLLIS (HYMENOPTERA: ENCRYTIDAE), AN INTRODUCED PARASITOID OF THE APPLE ERMINE MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: YPONOMEUTIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Cossentine, J.E.; Kuhlmann, U.

    2017-01-01

    The apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, is a univoltine pest species that defoliates apple, Malus domestics (Borkh) (Rosaceae), in the temperate region of the Palaearctic. First instars overwinter within a communal hibernaculum beneath the covering of the egg batch (Kock 1998). In spring, larvae emerge to initially mine apple leaves and subsequently feed externally within a communal tent (Menken et al. 1992). During heavy infestations, the communal tents may envelop the entire ap...

  16. Genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster on linkage group 16 in apple

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliarani, Giulia; Paris, Roberta; Iorio, Anna Rosa; Tartarini, Stefano; Del Duca, Stefano; Arens, Paul; Peters, Sander; van de Weg, Eric

    2011-01-01

    European populations exhibit progressive sensitisation to food allergens, and apples are one of the foods for which sensitisation is observed most frequently. Apple cultivars vary greatly in their allergenic characteristics, and a better understanding of the genetic basis of low allergenicity may therefore allow allergic individuals to increase their fruit intake. Mal d 1 is considered to be a major apple allergen, and this protein is encoded by the most complex allergen gene family. Not all ...

  17. Apple miRNAs and tasiRNAs with novel regulatory networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Rui; Zhu, Hong; An, Yong-qiang; Beers, Eric P; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and their regulatory functions have been extensively characterized in model species but whether apple has evolved similar or unique regulatory features remains unknown. Results We performed deep small RNA-seq and identified 23 conserved, 10 less-conserved and 42 apple-specific miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. The identified miRNAs target 118 genes representing a wide range of enzymatic and regulatory activities. Apple also conserves ...

  18. Winter treatments against the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum): products and timing of applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Lardschneider, Ewald; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In organic apple growing the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) is still an unsolved problem. Various approaches to use beneficial insects were not really effective. Only winter treatments with mineral oils showed partial and fluctuating success. In 2006 and 2007 field trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of winter treatments to control woolly apple aphids. The efficacy of several products (different mineral oils, lime sulphur, and lime sulphur + mineral oil) w...

  19. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Vidović Biljana; Marinković Slavica; Marić Ivana; Petanović Radmila

    2014-01-01

    The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European popul...

  20. Climate Change and Apple Farming in Indian Himalayas: A Study of Local Perceptions and Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (...

  1. Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple seeds of seven cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds...

  2. Nondestructive Measurement of Sugar Content in Apples by Millimeter-Wave Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Makoto; Mase, Atsushi; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2012-02-01

    A millimeter-wave reflectometer has been developed for the nondestructive measurement of the sugar content in apples. The intensity of the reflected wave from fruit was confirmed to depend on the sugar content and temperature by performing reflectometry with a vector network analyzer of aqueous sucrose solutions. Moreover, the developed reflectometer was applied to the sugar content measurement of apples. We obtained a strong, almost linear relationship between the intensity of the reflected wave and the sugar content in apples.

  3. Fluid intake and industrial processing in apple juice induced chronic non-specific diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Ghoos, Y F; Hartemink, R; Kneepkens, C M

    1995-01-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to contribute to the occurrence or persistence of chronic non-specific diarrhoea (CNSD). Among these are low dietary fat, high fluid consumption, and the consumption of apple juice. Prompted by the clinical impression that freshly pressed and unprocessed ('cloudy') apple juice was less likely to induce diarrhoea than normal, enzymatically processed ('clear') apple juice, both juices were compared in terms of carbohydrate malabsorption, gastric emptying, and eff...

  4. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  5. Occupational illnesses related to physical strains in apple harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Callea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Special strains are an occupational hazard often due to physical loads and inadequately designed work equipment. objective. The aim of this pilot study was to determine occupational illnesses related to physical strains through an experimental design that assesses the associated working postures and oxygen uptake in apple harvesting.Three methods were applied to define the physical stress provoked by apple farming tasks. material and methods. The experiments considered 5 labourers – 3 women and 2 men. The physical fatigue was assessed through oxygen consumption and heartbeat frequency according to UNI EN ISO 8996 standards. Measurements were conducted using a portable metabolimeter(COSMED. Working postures were determined according to Ovako Working Posture Analysis System(OWAS. An interview was conducted to record the labourers’ subjective estimate of the stress. results. The interview results demonstrated neck and dorsal pains and fatigue causes for each operator. The V̇O[sub]2[/sub] was equal to 82.33±27.40 lO[sub]2[/sub]/h for women and 67.00±27.60 lO[sub]2[/sub]/h for men, meaning that it was tiring for some men but for all women. The heart rates were of 115±6.00bpm for women and 113±5.65bpm for men. The V̇CO[sub]2[/sub] was of 63.81±21.45 lCO[sub]2[/sub]/h for women and 45.10±25.53 lCO[sub]2[/sub]/h for men, while energetic equivalent and body surface area were similar for both genders, about 5.60W×h/l O[sub]2[/sub] and 1,80m [sup]2[/sup] on average. Women’s metabolic rate had a very high value – over 290W×m [sup]-2[/sup] , although for the men it was between 200–260W×m[sup] -2[/sup] . According to OWAS, low apple picking was ranked in class 2, high apple picking in class 1, and apple transportation belonged to class 3. conclusion. Related to VO[sub]2[/sub] and VCO[sub]2[/sub] consumption and the identified negative body postures, it is necessary to improve working conditions.

  6. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  7. Neutron activation analysis for study of distribution patterns of organo-halogen pollutants in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Luo Jialing; Sun Huibin; Chai Zhifang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of organo-halogens in apple and their sources were studied by neutron activation analysis combined with statistical analysis. The results indicated that concentrations of organo-halogens in apple were in the order of organo-chlorine >> organo-bromine > organo-iodine, and concentrations of the organo-chlorine in four parts of apple were in the order of seed >> peel >> endocarp ≥ pulp. Also, the organo-chlorine, -bromine and-iodine in apple were found to have different sources. The latter two were mainly from naturally synthetic products by plant itself, while the former was mainly from anthropogenic pollutants. (authors)

  8. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  9. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Peisley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  10. Apple consumption is related to better sexual quality of life in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Gacci, Mauro; Mattivi, Fulvio; Mondaini, Nicola; Migno, Serena; Boddi, Vieri; Gacci, Paolo; Detti, Beatrice; Gontero, Paolo; Chiodini, Stefano; Mereu, Liliana; Tateo, Saverio; Mazzoli, Sandra; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    Even if some evidence exists of a positive correlation between regular intake of phytoestrogens, polyphenols, antioxidants and women's sexual health, there is not a study addressing the potential correlation between daily apple consumption and women's sexual function. We aim to assess whether there is a tie between daily apple intake and sexual function in a sample of healthy young sexually active Italian women, not complaining of any sexual disorders. Seven hundred and thirty-one women (mean age 31.9, range 18-43) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study (from September 2011 to April 2012). All participants completed anonymously the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and were asked to report on their amount of daily apple consumption and their eating habits. On the basis of apple consumption all women were split into two groups: Group A--regular daily apple consumption, Group B--no regular apple consumption (daily apple intake and were classified in Group A, while 388 were included in Group B. Group A had a significantly higher total (p = 0.001; Cohen's d = 3.39) and lubrication domain (p = 0.001; Cohen's d = 3.02) FSFI scores than participants in Group B. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that daily apple intake must be considered as an independent parameter (p = 0.002) in predicting a better score at questionnaire examination. This study suggests a potential relationship between regular daily apple consumption and better sexuality in our young women population.

  11. Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Hanaan

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d

  12. Physical and sensory properties of ready to eat apple chips produced by osmo-convective drying

    OpenAIRE

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    The low cost raw material, apple variety Idared, was turned into value-added product, apple chips. The apple chips were produced in a two-step process consisting of osmotic treatment and conventional drying. Osmotic treatment was carried out in 40 % glucose solution at room temperature, followed by convective drying at 105 °C, till reaching water activity of 0.3. Mechanical properties of the apple chips measured by compression and penetration tests were correlated with the sorption properties...

  13. Utilization OF Apple Wash Treatments And Ultraviolet Light For The Elimination Of Escherichia coli O157:H7 In Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Three studies regarding Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider were conducted. The objectives were: to evaluate the effectiveness of wash and sanitizers for removing E. coli O157:H7 from apples; to survey cider producer practices; and to determine the efficacy of ultraviolet light for reducing E. coli O157:H7 in cider. Apples with a five-strain acid resistant mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were treated with 200 ppm hypochlorite, a phosphoric acid-based fruit wash, 5% acetic acid, 5% acetic...

  14. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Basannagari

    Full Text Available Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m. At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills, reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  15. Colonic availability of polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid after apple smoothie consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagl, Stephanie; Deusser, Hannah; Soyalan, Buelent; Janzowski, Christine; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Albert, Franz Werner; Rohner, Simone; Richling, Elke

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amounts of polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid reaching the ileostomy bags of probands (and thus the colon in healthy humans) after ingestion of apple smoothie, a beverage containing 60% cloudy apple juice and 40% apple puree. Ten healthy ileostomy subjects each ingested 0.7 L of apple smoothie (a bottle). Their ileostomy bags were collected directly before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after smoothie consumption, and the polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acid contents of the ileostomy fluids were examined using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. The total polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acid content of the apple smoothie was determined to be 1955.6±124.6 mg/0.7 L, which is very high compared to cloudy apple juices. The most abundant substances found in the ileostomy bags were oligomeric procyanidins (705.6±197.9 mg), D-(-)-quinic acid (363.4±235.5 mg) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (76.7±26.8 mg). Overall recovery of ingested polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid in the ileostomy bags was 63.3±16.1%. The amounts of polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acids reaching the ileostomy bags are considerably higher after apple smoothie consumption than after the consumption of cloudy apple juice or cider. These results suggest that the food matrix might affect the colonic availability of polyphenols, and apple smoothies could be more effective in the prevention of chronic colon diseases than both cloudy apple juice and apple cider. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  17. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  18. In-vitro neoformation of woody plants (apple, pear, Weigela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, E.; Dufour, M.; Duron, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Adventitious bud neoformation may induce variability in two ways: somaclonal variation, if the explant has undergone undifferentiated growth (callus); induced mutations, if a physical or chemical mutagen has been applied to the explant prior to the regeneration. Three apple scion cultivars ('Gala', 'Granny Smith', 'Golden Delicious') and four apple rootstock cultivars ('Mark', 'Novole', 'Lancep', 'Cepiland') were grown on basal apple multiplication medium. Leaves, internodes and roots were used for callogenesis and/or regeneration experiments. Scion varieties were more responsive than rootstocks. 1000 'Gala' neoformations will be planted in the field to investigate somaclonal variation. In pear, shoot regeneration was obtained from in-vitro leaves of 3 varieties of Pyrus communis ('Seckel', 'Louise Bonne', 'Comice') and one variety of Pyrus bretschneideri ('Crystal Pear'). It was observed that regeneration is still possible from leaves irradiated with up to 40 Gy of γ rays, or treated with 5mM ENU for one hour. In Weigela, stem segments (0.5 cm) from rooted in vitro plants of 5 cultivars were used in experiments to induce adventitious buds. On the cultivar 'Eva Rathke' the adventitious buds were detected as early as 10 to 15 days after the beginning of the culture. A mutagenic treatment was carried out by immersing explants of 'Bristol Ruby' in a suspension of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Among 400 plants regenerated from treated explants, 5 mutants were detected after 5 years of field observation. Two of them seem to be solid mutants. Apparently in Weigela both homogeneous mutants and chimeras are produced by adventitious regeneration from mutagenised explants. (author)

  19. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Yadavrao Kshirsagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed signs of intestinal obstruction on day one after birth, for which an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Type 3 JIA was found for which resection of atretic segments with jejuno-ascending colon anastomosis was preformed.

  20. An Apple II -based bidimensional pulse height analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Flesher, A.C.; Honeyman, R.N.; Pritchard, T.E.; Price, W.P.R.

    1984-06-01

    The implementation of a pulse height analyser function in an Apple II microcomputer using minimal purpose built hardware is described. Except for a small interface module the system consists of two suites of software, one giving a conventional one dimensional analysis on a span of 1024 channels, and the other a two dimensional analysis on a 128 x 128 image format. Using the recently introduced ACCELERATOR coprocessor card the system performs with a dead time per event of less than 50 μS. Full software facilities are provided for display, storage and processing of the data using standard Applesoft BASIC. (author)

  1. Determinants of Sustainable Relationships in the Albanian Apple Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi Gërdoçi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the behaviour of Albanian apple growers and their relations with buyers based on a structured survey. We develop a model of relational governance that highlights the importance of sustainable (lasting relationships and draws upon different theoretical frameworks such as transaction cost economics and social network theory and focuses on determinants of relational exchange. The findings support the social network argument that the presence of verbal agreements between business partners strongly and positively affects exchange relationships. Asset specificity and competition among buyers also affects such relationships. The results and their implications at the management and policy-making level are discussed in detail

  2. RAČUNALNIŠTVO V OBLAKU PODJETJA APPLE INC. - ICLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Pečenko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    V tem diplomskem seminarju je obravnavana tema računalništvo v oblaku in sicer na primeru storitve iCloud podjetja Apple Inc., ki je namenjena vsem uporabnikom Applovih produktov(računalnikov in mobilnih naprav). V prvem delu smo podrobneje predstavili teorijo računalništva v oblaku, ki predstavlja novo tehnologijo, s katero je uporabnikom (podjetjem in posameznikom) omogočeno shranjevanje podatkov v splet in dostopanje do njih kadarkoli in kjerkoli s katerokoli napravo enostavno s pomo...

  3. Evaluating Digital Forensic Options for the Apple iPad

    OpenAIRE

    Hay , Andrew; Krill , Dennis; Kuhar , Benjamin; Peterson , Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Part 5: ADVANCED FORENSIC TECHNIQUES; International audience; The iPod Touch, iPhone and iPad from Apple are among the most popular mobile computing platforms in use today. These devices are of forensic interest because of their high adoption rate and potential for containing digital evidence. The uniformity in their design and underlying operating system (iOS) also allows forensic tools and methods to be shared across product types. This paper analyzes the tools and methods available for con...

  4. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple o...

  5. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Song, H.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Qu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples. (Author)

  6. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury?symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Franklin T; Zhu, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus ? domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies, such as controlled atmosphere (CA) and 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP). However, CA storage can cause external CO2 injury for some apple cultivars. The molecular changes associated with the development of CO2 inj...

  7. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples.

  8. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Song, H.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Qu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples. (Author)

  9. Effects of Ethephon Application on Color Development of ‘Gala Must’ Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananie PESTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of “Gala Must” apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.

  10. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  11. Morphological and physiological aspects of the early phases of flower bud formation of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, F.A.

    1996-01-01


    For consistent yields in apple fruit production, knowledge of the factors affecting flower bud formation is required. The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the role of endogenous factors in flower bud formation of apple. The effects of temperature, applied gibberellin (GA

  12. Immunoglobulin E-reactive proteins in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2008-07-23

    Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate.

  13. Genomic Selection for Fruit Quality Traits in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Chagné, D.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Volz, R.K.; Whitworth, C.; Carlisle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS). In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV) for choosing next-generation parents

  14. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Esposito, E.; de Mendonca, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    residues is produced, comprised mainly of peels, seeds, and pulp, which are collectively known as 'apple pomace'. This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of apple pomace by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus, either individually or sequentially...

  15. Experimental Study of Light Propagation in Apple Tissues Using a Multispectral Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamine Askoura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at highlighting the role played by the skin in the light propagation through the apple flesh. A multispectral Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR steady-state imaging setup based on the use of four continuous laser sources (633, 763, 784, and 852 nm and a charge–coupled–device (CCD camera was developed to record light diffusion inside apple tissues. Backscattering images and light reflectance profiles were studied to reveal optical features of three whole and half-cut apple varieties with and without skin. The optical absorption and scattering properties (μa, μ’s of intact apples and peeled apples were also retrieved in reflectance mode, using an optimal sensing range of 2.8–10 mm. A relative difference for Δμa ranging from 3.4% to 24.7% was observed for intact apples with respect to peeled apples. Under the same conditions, no significant changes were noted for Δμ’s, which ranged from 0.1% to 1.7%. These findings show that the apple skin cannot be ignored when using Vis-NIR optical imaging as a non-destructive sensing means to reveal major quality attributes of fruits.

  16. Determination of daminozide residues in apples using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, J.H.W.; Dijk, A.G. van; Wagenaar, R.; Quirijns, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of daminozide in apples using gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD). Daminozide is hydrolysed to 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) by alkaline digestion. The UDMH generated is distilled from the apple matrix, derivatized with

  17. Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths (740 nm and 950 nm). I...

  18. Using RNA-Seq data to select refence genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for t...

  19. Apple endophytic microbiota of different rootstock/scion combinations suggests a genotype-specific influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study described the microbiota associated with three apple varieties, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Honey Crisp’, and two rootstocks, M.9, and M.M.111. The objectives were to 1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties, and 2) determine if...

  20. In vivo evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of wolf-apple flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes has increased at alarming rates worldwide, and has become a serious health problem in modern society, highlighting the need for adjuvants to assist in its treatment. The starch from wolf-apple is a product extracted from the pulp of the unripe wolf-apple (Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil), which ...

  1. Additional Indications for the Low Allergenic Properties of the Apple Cultivars Santana and Elise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Skypala, I.; Bures, P.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Zauli, D.; Ricci, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS) to fresh apple may tolerate low allergenic apple cultivars. We aimed to investigate if the low allergenic properties of Elise and Santana, as previously identified in a Dutch population, could be generalised within North West Europe within the birch pollen

  2. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  3. Segmentation of foreground apple targets by fusing visual attention mechanism and growth rules of seed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, W.; Shang, W.; Shao, Y.; Wang, D.; Yu, X.; Song, H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of apple targets is one of the most important problems to be solved in the vision system of apple picking robots. This work aimed to solve the difficulties that background targets often bring to foreground targets segmentation, by fusing the visual attention mechanism and the growth rule of seed points. Background targets could be eliminated by extracting the ROI (region of interest) of apple targets; the ROI was roughly segmented on the HSV color space, and then each of the pixels was used as a seed growing point. The growth rule of the seed points was adopted to obtain the whole area of apple targets from seed growing points. The proposed method was tested with 20 images captured in a natural scene, including 54 foreground apple targets and approximately 84 background apple targets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can remove background targets and focus on foreground targets, while the k-means algorithm and the chromatic aberration algorithm cannot. Additionally, its average segmentation error rate was 13.23%, which is 2.71% higher than that of the k-means algorithm and 2.95% lower than that of the chromatic aberration algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method contributes to the vision system of apple-picking robots to locate foreground apple targets quickly and accurately under a natural scene. (Author)

  4. Additional indications for the low allergenic properties of the apple cultivars santana and elise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Skypala, I.; Bures, P.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Zauli, D.; Ricci, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS) to fresh apple may tolerate low allergenic apple cultivars. We aimed to investigate if the low allergenic properties of Elise and Santana, as previously identified in a Dutch population, could be generalised within North West Europe within the birch pollen

  5. Spatial assessment of soluble solid contents on apple slices using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to map internal soluble solids content (SSC) of apples using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging was developed. The reflectance spectra of sliced apples were extracted from hyperspectral absorbance images obtained in the 400e1000 nm rang...

  6. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow: Philosophy and Structure [and] What's Happening Where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA.

    Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) is a long-term research project sponsored by Apple Computer, Inc., to explore how learning and teaching change when teachers and students have access to interactive computer technologies. ACOT adheres to a philosophy that instruction should be learner controlled; i.e., students take responsibility for their own…

  7. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Fowler; Lynn Garrett; Alison Neeley; Roger Magarey; Dan Borchert; Brian. Spears

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an economic analysis of the light brown apple moth (LBAM), (piphyas postvittana (Walker)), whose presence in California has resulted in a regulatory program. Our objective was to quantitatively characterize the economic costs to apple, grape, orange, and pear crops that would result from LBAM's introduction into the continental...

  8. Using Apple Peel Sections To Study Plant Cells and Water Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius, John E.; Eckart, Christopher P.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests the cells of an apple peel as a plant species that can further enhance the plant cell laboratory. Describes the structure of apple peel cells and the benefits of including them in studies of plant cells. Suggests questions to stimulate further investigations for open-ended laboratories or independent studies. (PVD)

  9. Comparative Analysis and Functional Annotation of a Large Expressed Sequence Tag Collection of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Gasic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 34 apple ( × Borkh. cDNA libraries were constructed from root, leaf, bud, shoot, flower, and fruit tissues, at various developmental stages and/or under biotic or abiotic stress conditions, and of several genotypes. From these libraries, 190,425 clones were partially sequenced from the 5′ end and 42,619 clones were sequenced from the 3′ end, and a total of 182,241 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained. These coalesced into 23,442 tentative contigs and 9843 singletons, for a total of 33,825 apple unigenes. Functional annotation of this unigene set revealed an even distribution of apple sequences among the three main gene ontology categories. Of ∼33,000 apple unigenes, 8437 (25% had no detectable homologs ( >0.1 in the genome. When the entire apple unigene set was compared with the entire citrus [ (L. Osbeck] unigene set and the poplar ( Torr. & Gray predicted proteome, both members of the core eudicot and rosids clade, 13,521 of apple unigenes matched one or more sequences in citrus, while 25,817 had counterparts in the poplar protein database. Apple––citrus–poplar comparisons revealed closer evolutionary relationships between apple and poplar than with the other two species. Genes involved in basic metabolic pathways appear to be largely conserved among apple, citrus, poplar, and .

  10. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Effect of apple pectin on gut microbiota - qPCR in applied microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Poulsen, Morten

    This study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial commu...

  12. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  13. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus (Acari: Anystidae, in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  14. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples and investigate whether these can be used to enhance the efficacy of pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, for monitoring female and male codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the f...

  15. First report of pyrimethanil resistance in Botrytis cinerea from stored apples in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...

  16. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas

  17. Apple mango value chain in northern Ethiopia: case study of Mereb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unlike other products in apple mango producers are not included along the value chain; this is because of its cost to use it for juice. Juice house prefers normal mango to apple mango because of its profitability. From the analysis of costs and margins the value added by farmers, wholesalers and retailers was 1583.65, 330.5 ...

  18. Segmentation of foreground apple targets by fusing visual attention mechanism and growth rules of seed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, W.; Shang, W.; Shao, Y.; Wang, D.; Yu, X.; Song, H.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of apple targets is one of the most important problems to be solved in the vision system of apple picking robots. This work aimed to solve the difficulties that background targets often bring to foreground targets segmentation, by fusing the visual attention mechanism and the growth rule of seed points. Background targets could be eliminated by extracting the ROI (region of interest) of apple targets; the ROI was roughly segmented on the HSV color space, and then each of the pixels was used as a seed growing point. The growth rule of the seed points was adopted to obtain the whole area of apple targets from seed growing points. The proposed method was tested with 20 images captured in a natural scene, including 54 foreground apple targets and approximately 84 background apple targets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can remove background targets and focus on foreground targets, while the k-means algorithm and the chromatic aberration algorithm cannot. Additionally, its average segmentation error rate was 13.23%, which is 2.71% higher than that of the k-means algorithm and 2.95% lower than that of the chromatic aberration algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method contributes to the vision system of apple-picking robots to locate foreground apple targets quickly and accurately under a natural scene. (Author)

  19. Segmentation of foreground apple targets by fusing visual attention mechanism and growth rules of seed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Qu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of apple targets is one of the most important problems to be solved in the vision system of apple picking robots. This work aimed to solve the difficulties that background targets often bring to foreground targets segmentation, by fusing the visual attention mechanism and the growth rule of seed points. Background targets could be eliminated by extracting the ROI (region of interest of apple targets; the ROI was roughly segmented on the HSV color space, and then each of the pixels was used as a seed growing point. The growth rule of the seed points was adopted to obtain the whole area of apple targets from seed growing points. The proposed method was tested with 20 images captured in a natural scene, including 54 foreground apple targets and approximately 84 background apple targets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can remove background targets and focus on foreground targets, while the k-means algorithm and the chromatic aberration algorithm cannot. Additionally, its average segmentation error rate was 13.23%, which is 2.71% higher than that of the k-means algorithm and 2.95% lower than that of the chromatic aberration algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method contributes to the vision system of apple-picking robots to locate foreground apple targets quickly and accurately under a natural scene.

  20. Excellent long-term outcome for survivors of apple peel atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, S; Brevoord, JCD; Goldhoorn, GA; Festen, C; Hazebroek, FWJ; van Heurn, LWE; de Langen, ZJ; van der Zee, DC; Aronson, DC

    Background: Apple peel atresia is the rarest type of small bowel atresia. Because of its rare occurrence and high mortality rate, little is known about the long-term outcome of these children. Methods: The patient charts, operative reports, and office notes of 15 children with apple peel atresia

  1. Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators.

  2. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.

  3. Great Tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, C.M.M.; Visser, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple

  4. Effect of postharvest storage on the expression of the apple allergen Mal d 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; Foxall, Robert; Browne, Tom; dey, Rickmer; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Marzban, Gorji; Waldron, Keith W.; van Ree, Ronald; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Laimer, Margit; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of fresh apples can cause allergy in susceptible individuals. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to determine Mal d 1 levels in apple pulp using a monoclonal antibody (BIP-1). The ELISA was able to rank ten cultivars according to their Mal d 1

  5. 75 FR 76754 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-841 (Second Review)] Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non- frozen apple juice concentrate from China would...

  6. apple mango value chain in northern ethiopia: case study of mereb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. This study, conducted in Mereb-Leke district of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, had as objective to analye the value chain of mango (Mangifera indica) in the area. Though both apple mango and normal mango are produced in the study area the emphasis of this study was on apple mango.

  7. Effects of heat treatment on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingfeng; Tu, Kang; Tu, Sicong; Su, Jing; Zhao, Yan

    2010-04-14

    This study investigated the effects of heat treatment (hot air at 38 degrees C for 4 days) on wound healing in Gala and Red Fuji apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.) and the possible mechanism. Wounded apples were healed at either 20 or 38 degrees C for 4 days. During the treatment, ethylene, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and phenolic and lignin contents were measured. Following the treatment, healed wounds were inoculated with Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum acutatum, and then the decay development was observed. Results revealed that the influence of heating on wound healing in apple fruit was cultivar dependent. Compared with fruits healed at 20 degrees C, heating at 38 degrees C had a pejorative effect on wound healing in Gala apples. However, identical treatment enhanced wound healing in Red Fuji apples. Heating sharply reduced ethylene evolution, PAL and POD activity, and the accumulation of phenolic compounds and lignin around wounds in Gala apples. Alternatively, in Red Fuji apples, treatment at 38 degrees C significantly improved ethylene evolution and peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content at the first two days of treatment. In addition, both PAL and POD activities, and contents of phenolic compounds and lignin around wounds increased. Our findings suggest that this discrepancy in the effect of heat treatment on wound healing is due to different effects on ethylene evolution in cultivars of apple fruit.

  8. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of glucosidases during apple seeds stratification

    OpenAIRE

    A. Podstolski; St. Lewak

    2015-01-01

    The technique of localization of glucosidases on disc electropherograms, based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride by enzymatically liberated sugar is described. The changes in electrophoretic patterns of amygdaline, phloridzin and p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside hydrolysing glucosidases during apple seed stratification were studied. The changes were correlated with earlier described changes in endogenous apple seed amygdaline and phloridzin contents.

  9. Comparison of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of peel and flesh of some apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Seyda; Tütem, Esma; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Apak, Reşat

    2013-03-15

    Apples contain a large concentration of phenolic compounds, dependent on factors such as cultivar, harvest, storage conditions, and processing. This study aims to identify the essential phenolic compounds present in various apple varieties, to measure their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) methods, and to correlate their TAC values with HPLC findings. The order of TAC (mmol Trolox g(-1) fresh weight) of apple peels determined with the CUPRAC method was: Granny Smith > Amasya > Sky Spur > Ervin Spur > King Luscious ≥ Arap Kizi ≥ Lutz Golden. The theoretically calculated TAC values of HPLC-quantified compounds, with the aid of the combined HPLC-CUPRAC method, accounted for 18.4-33.5% of the experimentally observed CUPRAC capacity of peel extracts and 19.5-56.3% of flesh extracts, depending on apple variety. In synthetic samples of apple antioxidants, the CUPRAC-TAC values of constituents, identified and analyzed by HPLC, proved to be additive, enabling measurement of the cooperative action of antioxidants using the proposed methodology. Apple peel showed higher contents of phenolics and therefore higher TAC than apple flesh, confirming the health benefit of the consumption of apples together with peel. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  11. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319.56-22 Section 319.56-22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The...

  13. Discovery of three woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in Australia: the role of antixenosis and antibiosis in apple tree resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Costa, Arnaud; Williams, D. G.; Powell, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 280-287 ISSN 2052-1758 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid * apple * biotype Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aen.12074/pdf

  14. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen...

  15. Chemical characteristics of normal, woolly apple aphid-damaged, and mechanically damaged twigs of six apple cultivars, measured in autumn wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Xu; Wang, Xi-Cun; Yu, Yi; Tan, Xiu-Mei; Cheng, Zai-Quan; Zhang, An-Sheng; Men, Xing-Yuan; Li-Li, Li

    2013-04-01

    Chemical characteristics of normal, woolly apple aphid-damaged, and mechanically damaged twigs of six apple cultivars: Red Fuji, Golden Delicious, Qinguan, Zhaojin 108, Starkrimson, and Red General, were examined in autumn wood to provide abetter understanding of factors related to cultivar resistance to the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Chemical measures examined included soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids, total phenolics, and polyphenol oxidase (that enhances the resistance of plants to insects) and superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase (that degrade waste products in plants). Soluble sugar, protein, and amino acid contents in normal (undamaged) twigs of Red Fuji, aphid-susceptible cultivar, were higher than in mechanically damaged and aphid-damaged twigs. Total phenolic compounds, an important group of defensive compounds against aphids, increased by 30.5 and 6.0% in mechanically damaged twigs of Qinguan and Zhaojin 108, respectively, and decreased by 21.7 and 16.1% in aphid-damaged twigs of Red Fuji and Red General, respectively. Compared with normal twigs, in aphid-damaged twigs, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and polyphenol activity all decreased in Red Fuji. The resistance of some apple cultivars to woolly apple aphid during the growth of autumn shoots was related to several of the physiological indices we monitored. The thin epidermis of callus tissue over healed wounds showed increased susceptibility to the attack by woolly apple aphid. Apple cultivar Qinguan with the highest level of resistance to woolly apple aphid in autumn had increased in amino acid, total phenolic compound levels, and enzyme activity after aphid feeding.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FOOD WASTE: A CASE STUDY APPLE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GHINEA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the environmental impacts (EI of the apple supply chain from the NE region, Romania and to calculate the EI from apple waste landfilling. The evaluation was performed by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. In the first phase the apple supply chain was investigated and the environmental impacts were calculated and interpreted, while in the second phase the evaluation of apple waste landfilling was performed. The results showed that the apple production phase has the highest contribution to all the impact categories studied (acidification potential (AP, eutrophication potential (EP, global warming potential (GWP, human toxicity potential (HTP and photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP etc.. Transportation and storage stages contribute mainly to POCP and GWP, while landfilling contributes especially to AP, GWP and POCP.

  17. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories.

  18. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...... versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples....... None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0...

  19. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: The present project is part of the large ISAFRUIT project, where one of the objectives is to identify effects of apple and apple product on parameters related to gut health. In a previous rat study we observed changes in the intestinal microbiota of rats fed whole apples...... supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans......., pomace or apple pectin ([1], and we were interested in finding out if the same effect can be observed in humans. Method: The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled 5 x 28 days cross-over study with 24 healthy persons of both genders. The persons were following a pectin- and polyphenol free...

  20. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  1. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  2. Role of urea in the reduction of apple primary infections by Venturia inaequalis (Cooke Aderh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Meszka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pre-leaf fall of 5% urea treatment on primary infection of apple by Venturia inaequalis, the cause of scab, was investigated in commercial apple orchards of McIntosh cv. in different regions of Poland, at Miłobądz, Sinołęka and Dąbrowice. Additionally, the development of pseudothecia and maturation of ascospores were evaluated in the spring on apple leaves of two cultivars (McIntosh and Gloster treated with 5% solution of urea. Microscopic observations of leaves showed that urea treatment significantly reduced the number of pseudothecia (by ca. 90% and ascospore production. Low number of ascospores after urea treatment has strongly affected primary infection of apple by the fungus in all tested orchards. Reduction of leaf infection on control trees was usually more than 30%. Also efficacy of chemical control of apple scab was significantly higher on plots treated with urea.

  3. 75 FR 81969 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the Peoples' Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the Peoples' Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping... (``Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the [[Page... an administrative review on the antidumping order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the PRC...

  4. Towards an Integrated Use of Biological Control by Cladosporium cladosporioides H39 in Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis) Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Scheer, C.; Holb, I.J.; Masny, S.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most important disease in apple production, reducing yield and quality of fruit. Control of apple scab in commercial orchards currently depends on multiple applications of fungicides. The potential of the antagonistic isolate Cladosporium

  5. 77 FR 77094 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc... Southern District of New York in United States of America v. Apple, Inc. et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV... the Southern District of New York United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book...

  6. 77 FR 24518 - United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc., HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., Hachette Book Group, Inc... Southern District of New York in United States of America v. Apple, Inc. et al., Civil Action No. 12- CIV... District Court for the Southern District of New York United States of America, Plaintiff, v. Apple, Inc...

  7. 78 FR 22298 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and... (USA), Inc. in United States v. Apple, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV-2826 (DLC), which was filed... http://www.justice.gov/atr/cases/apple/index-1.html , and at the Office of the Clerk of the United...

  8. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple... request for a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on December 15, 2009...

  9. 75 FR 47270 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-570-855) Certain Non-Frozen Apple... certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Notice of...-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China, 65 FR 35606 (June 5, 2000) (``Order...

  10. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple... order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China. See...: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China, 65 FR 35606 (June 5, 2000...

  11. 78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and... Publishers, LLC d/b/a Macmillan in United States v. Apple, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV-2826 (DLC... http://www.justice.gov/atr/cases/apple/index-2.html , and at the Office of the Clerk of the United...

  12. 76 FR 61740 - Geneon Entertainment (USA) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal Santa Monica, CA...-site leased workers from Interplace, Inc., and Apple One, Santa Monica, California. The workers are... from Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal, Santa Monica, California, who became totally or...

  13. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Because the... June 5, 2000, the Department issued an antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice...

  14. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ This... currently due no later than October 28, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the...

  15. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  16. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled

  17. Role of scab-resistant apple varieties in forming assortment of new industrial apple plantings (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Д. Гончарук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identifying new scab-resistant apple varieties with high biological potential by the set of agronomic characters and the ability to realize it effectively in various soil and climatic conditions. Methods. Field, laboratory, comparison, generalization, statistical ones. Results. The author presents the results of study of 17 scab-resistant non-irrigated apple varieties on a semi-dwarf rootstock as to their adaptability to biotic and abio­tic stressors as well as their economic productivity. The studied varieties appeared to be winter-hardy, frost- and heat-resistant, but medium drought-tolerant ones. They are characterized by weak and moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew, high resistance to fruit rot and very low amounts of brown spot, except for Gold Rush variety. Such 10 year old varieties as ‘Edera’, Florina’, ‘Amulet’ and ‘Perlyna Kyieva’ and 8 year old ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Orlovskoie Polesie’ and ‘Topaz’ formed the highest productivity during the years of study. Due to the pollen quality and high interfertility, ‘Revena’ and ‘Gold Rush’ varieties were identified as universal pollinators for winter scab-resistant apple varieties. Conclusions. Such ecologically resistant winter varieties as ‘Topaz’, ‘Freedom’, ‘Edera’ and autumnal ‘Remo’, ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Amulet’ were recognized as promising for new intensive non-irrigated plantations in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. They can be the basis of new gardens occupying 25–30% of the area where ecologically safe fruits for various target purposes will be grown supplying demands of the population and processing industry.

  18. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors......: Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary...

  1. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain. Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit. Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three different farms to ascertain their perspective of the first section of the supply chain. Temperature trials were conducted to analyse the temperature profile of two apple varieties, namely Golden Delicious and Granny Smith on three different farms. These trials were conducted by placing an iButton® device on the inside and outside of an apple to measure the temperature readings every minute for the first 48 hours after picking. Results: The research identified that it is not only at what time the apples are being harvested, but also at what time the apples are placed under cooling conditions to remove the field heat to obtain the recommended temperature profile within 48 hours. In addition, it was determined that effective and efficient picking at the right time (especially between 07:00 and 09:00 and the transportation of the apples directly, or as soon as possible after the apples came out of the orchard to the centralised cold storage facility, are key in ensuring the quality of the fruit and the temperature profile necessary for export. Conclusion: This article identifies the need to improve operational procedures along the cold chain. From this research, it is clear that there are problem areas that affect the temperature profile of apples.

  2. FEATURES OF APPLE POMACE PROCESSING IN THE PRODUCTION OF FEED FOR HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. YEGOROV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the overall situation of horse breeding in Ukraine and dynamics of the problem of reducing herd of horses. Also considered distribution of population of horses on farms of different ownership structure and the production of feed for farm animals, including horses.Have been analyzed apple production in Ukraine, which shows the trend growth. Processing apples is to obtain basic products and obtaining by-products.The possibility of using apple pomace as a component of animal feed. In the laboratory investigation of physical properties, chemical composition and microbiological parameters of fresh apple pomace. Apple pomace rich in nitrogen free extract and essential amino acids, vitamins and mineral elements. Apple pomace is not stable in storage and perishable, so the dynamics of microflora and shelf life of fresh apple pomace.The choice of barley for the production of feed additives. Presented phased scheme of the feed additive by extruding a mixture of crushed barley and crushed apple pomace. Based on experimental studies proved the ratio components extruded feed additive (EFA. To determine the optimum ratio of the components of feed additive the influence of introduction of apple pomace on the efficiency of extrusion on quality and energy-power parameters such as the coefficient of expansion of the extrudate and specific power consumption. The influence of extrusion to change the physical properties EFA. In addition, investigated changing the chemical composition EFA In samples of feed additive was determined degree of swelling that characterizes the efficiency of nutrient absorption animals.Investigated influence of extrusion the change quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora in grain barley and fresh apple pomace feed additive before and after extrusion. Also investigated the dynamics of the microflora EQW within 6 months of storage in uncontrolled conditions.

  3. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain.Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit.Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three different farms to ascertain their perspective of the first section of the supply chain. Temperature trials were conducted to analyse the temperature profile of two apple varieties, namely Golden Delicious and Granny Smith on three different farms. These trials were conducted by placing an iButton® device on the inside and outside of an apple to measure the temperature readings every minute for the first 48 hours after picking.Results: The research identified that it is not only at what time the apples are being harvested, but also at what time the apples are placed under cooling conditions to remove the field heat to obtain the recommended temperature profile within 48 hours. In addition, it was determined that effective and efficient picking at the right time (especially between 07:00 and 09:00 and the transportation of the apples directly, or as soon as possible after the apples came out of the orchard to the centralised cold storage facility, are key in ensuring the quality of the fruit and the temperature profile necessary for export.Conclusion: This article identifies the need to improve operational procedures along the cold chain. From this research, it is clear that there are problem areas that affect the temperature profile of apples

  4. Apple Music. La fin de l’histoire?

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    Stéphane Gasparini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Will streaming have a “feedback effect” on musical creation, comparable to the one enforced by the precedent distribution modes of musical contents? In other words, could it be compared to the one generated by the invention of 45rpm vinyl record (pop-rock music in the sixties or 33rpm LP linked to the “concept albums” from the seventies, or even CD and DVD? I will use the description of “Apple Music”, the new Apple streaming site, to demonstrate that the innovations brought along with this site (such as “connect”, a function that gives an opportunity to link the artists to their public clearly evince that this new mode of distribution has achieved its own end and will exert, if my predictions are true, an important effect on musical creation in the upcoming years. Since those optimistic conclusions far from being shared by all musicians, I will have to discuss their points of view in this article as well.

  5. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

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    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  6. Newton’s apple and other myths about science

    CERN Document Server

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    A falling apple inspired Isaac Newton’s insight into the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But the more intriguing question is why such stories endure as explanations of how science happens. Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of great scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present. Among the myths refuted in this volume is the idea that no science was done in the Dark Ages, that alchemy and astrology were purely superstitious pursuits, that fear of public reaction alone led Darwin to delay publishing his theory of evolution, and that Gregor Mendel was far ahead of his time as a pioneer of genetics. Several twentieth-century myths about particle physics, Einstein’s theory of relativity, and more are discredited here as well. In addition, a number of broad generalizations about science go under the microscope of history: the notion that religion impeded science, that scientists typically a...

  7. Recovery and characterisation of coloured phenolic preparations from apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Matthias; Loos, Helene M; Bayha, Sandra; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether complexly constituted phenolic extracts from apple seeds may be utilised for the recovery of natural coloured antioxidant preparations, which might serve as potential food or cosmetic ingredients. In a first step, the recovery of phenolic compounds was optimised by varying crucial extraction parameters. A single extraction step at 25°C using an acetone-water mixture (60:40, v/v) and a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:8 (w/v) for 1 h was found to be appropriate to achieve both high phenolic yields and antioxidant activities. In a second step, differently produced apple seed extracts and a phloridzin model solution were enzymatically treated by mushroom polyphenol oxidase to investigate the rate of pigment synthesis. Depending on the extraction procedure applied, synthesis rates, pigment yields and colour properties significantly differed. Compared to the phloridzin model solution, extracts recovered from the seeds showed comparable and even better results, thus indicating such preparations to be a promising alternative to synthetic yellow dyes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Lost Apple Plays: Performing Operation Pedro Pan

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    Kimberly del Busto Ramírez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1960 to 1962, more than 14,000 unaccompanied minors took flight from Cuba to the United States, establishing the largest recorded exodus in the Western Hemisphere. The displaced children and the country they left behind are often metaphorized using a popular Latin American nursery rhyme, “The Lost Apple.” Now, more than four decades later, Operation Pedro Pan persists through a revealing body of performance by and about a nation’s exiled children. The Lost Apple Plays investigates how memory, identity formation, nationhood, citizenship, and migration have been dramatized through these performances. Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Nilo Cruz, director/actor/playwright Mario Ernesto Sánchez, singers Willy Chirino and Lissette, performance artist Ana Mendieta, sculptor María Brito, prolific dramatist Eduardo Machado, and new playwright Melinda López compose a Cuba that can be neither lost nor recovered for Pedro Pans, but remains an impenetrable illusion like the restless, liminal condition of lifelong exile.

  9. Apple polysaccharides induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian; Sun, Yang; Yue, Zhenggang; Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Liu, Junajuan; Hekong, Xiang; Jiang, Fengliang; Mi, Man; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing

    2012-07-01

    Certain components of apples have been shown to prevent cancer growth and impede cancer progression. We hypothesized that extracted apple polysaccharides (APs) might, therefore, have anticancer effects, through a mechanism involving the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, partly via the NF-κB pathway. Two human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, HT-29 and SW620, were exposed to different concentrations of APs (0.01, 0.1 or 1 mg/ml). Cell apoptosis was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay by flow cytometry and incorporation of 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into DNA to identify the proliferating cell fraction, using fluorescence microscopy in vitro. The protein levels of NF-κB/p65, I-κBα, pI-κBα, Bax, Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 were evaluated by western blotting. The target sites of APs on CRC cells were assessed by flow cytometry. At concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/ml, APs showed apoptosis-inducing effects, increased expressions of Bax, nuclear p65 and cytoplasmic pI-κBα, and decreased expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and cytoplasmic I-κBα. APs induced apoptosis by slightly activating the NF-κB pathway; the AP target site could be the Toll-like receptor 4 on the cell membrane. These results demonstrate the potential of APs as agents for clinical prevention and treatment of CRC.

  10. Phosphorus fractions in apple orchards in southern Brazil

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    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P applications at dosages higher than the necessary may cause P buildup in the soil labile fractions and, consequently, pollution of water sources. This study aimed to assess accumulation of P fractions as well as the parameters of adsorption isotherms in soil profiles having a history of application of phosphate fertilizers and cultivated with apple trees. Soil samples were collected from an area with no history of cultivation and 2 apple orchards cultivated for 8 (P8 and 18 (P18 years, in the city of Urubici, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Soil samples were air dried, sieved in a 2-mm mesh, and subjected to chemical analyses (P adsorption besides P chemical fractionation. Applications of phosphate fertilizers to the orchards, particularly P18, increased the inorganic and organic concentrations of P in all fractions. The distribution of P in organic and inorganic forms in the planted soils was similar to the distribution observed for the native vegetation soil. The highest inorganic labile P fraction, the lowest maximum P adsorption capacity, and the highest equilibrium concentration values at P18 are indicators of a higher environmental pollution risk of the orchards soils compared to the native soil.

  11. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds for 3D mammalian cell culture.

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    Daniel J Modulevsky

    Full Text Available There are numerous approaches for producing natural and synthetic 3D scaffolds that support the proliferation of mammalian cells. 3D scaffolds better represent the natural cellular microenvironment and have many potential applications in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that 3D cellulose scaffolds produced by decellularizing apple hypanthium tissue can be employed for in vitro 3D culture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, mouse C2C12 muscle myoblasts and human HeLa epithelial cells. We show that these cells can adhere, invade and proliferate in the cellulose scaffolds. In addition, biochemical functionalization or chemical cross-linking can be employed to control the surface biochemistry and/or mechanical properties of the scaffold. The cells retain high viability even after 12 continuous weeks of culture and can achieve cell densities comparable with other natural and synthetic scaffold materials. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds are easily produced, inexpensive and originate from a renewable source. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally derived cellulose scaffolds offer a complementary approach to existing techniques for the in vitro culture of mammalian cells in a 3D environment.

  12. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

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    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  13. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, A.; Hollands, W.; Casgrain, A.; Saha, S.; Teucher, B.; Dainty, J.R.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and

  14. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  15. In vivo antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of fresh and processed cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho; Dantas, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura; Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; e Sousa, João Marcelo de Castro; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; da Silva, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast Brazil. In vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. These juices contain vitamins, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. This in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. The comet, micronucleus, and chromosome aberrations tests were used. Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (5 animals per group) and received the following by gavage, 0.15 mL/10 g body weight: group 1, water; group 2, cashew apple juice; group 3, cajuina juice; group 4, cashew apple juice and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg); group 5, cajuina juice and cyclophosphamide; group 6: cyclophosphamide. Both drinks significantly reduced DNA damage of peripheral blood cells (P<.001), with modulation percentages of 60.82% (cashew apple juice) and 82.19% (cajuina) when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. Cashew apple juice and cajuina modulated cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus frequency, with up to 80.0% inhibition. Cashew apple juice and cajuina decreased the average number of cells with chromosome aberrations in bone marrow of mice by 53% and 65%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the high antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of cashew apple juice and cajuina in vivo, which can be related to the antioxidant compounds found in both drinks.

  16. Analysis Method for Pesticides Residues by GC/MS in Lebanese Apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, F.; Al Iskandarani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The apple's crop can be affected by many pests during the growing season, which requires careful monitoring. Both apple fruit and apple tree need to be treated by pesticides in order to protect them from pests. Such treatment often leads to the accumulation of stable pesticides inside the fruit. The local market provides a large variety of pesticides allowing farmers to use more than one active substance in order to protect their crop, often without proper advice. Monitoring pesticides on apples and other agricultural crops is the best way to protect consumers health from the hazards of pesticides residues. The development of new, rapid and effective method to analyze the multi pesticides residues at trace levels in apple samples is essential. This work describes the extraction procedure and the analytical method developed to detect the pesticide residues using the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach (GC-MS). The developed method was successfully applied to analyze apple samples collected from different Lebanese markets for a one year period in order to monitor the presence of pesticides and their stability in apple fruits during storage. (author)

  17. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Biao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  18. Formulation of a dry green tea-apple product: study on antioxidant and color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia; Corey, Mark; Kerr, William

    2010-03-01

    A dry apple product enriched with green tea (GT) extract was designed as a novel food to deliver relevant amounts of catechins. The target water activity (a(w)) range between 0.11 and 0.32 was chosen for the GT-fortified apple, since it corresponds to low water mobility and, consequently, maximum stability of dehydrated apples. The GT-fortified product and a control dehydrated apple product were stored in air, at 30 degrees C, and evaluated for color, antioxidant contents (monomeric flavan 3-ols, total procyanidins, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and dihydrochalcones), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity. After 1 mo of storage at the lowest a(w) level (0.11), the GT-fortified product retained 80 and 100% of the initial contents of the monomeric flavan 3-ols and total procyanidins, respectively. With increasing a(w) level to 0.32, the stability of antioxidants slowly decreased. The addition of GT to the apple product increased the FRAP value and the DPPH scavenging capacity by 3.6-fold and 4.6-fold respectively, which remained almost unchanged during storage. The GT-fortified product was similar in color to commercially available dehydrated apples. Results highlighted some advantages of using dehydrated apples as a target for green tea fortification, which deserve further trials to investigate potential applications for fortification of other dehydrated fruits.

  19. Assessment of calcium and zinc accumulation in cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liao; Fang, Ting; Ma, Baiquan; Deng, Xianbao; Zhao, Li; Han, Yuepeng

    2017-09-01

    Apple is one of the staple fruits worldwide which are a good source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about genetic variation for mineral nutrition in apple germplasm. In this study, the calcium and zinc contents in mature fruits of 378 apple cultivars and 39 wild relatives were assessed. Mineral concentrations were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Both calcium and zinc accumulation showed great variation among accessions tested. Overall, wild fruits were significantly richer in zinc than cultivated fruits, while the average concentration of calcium was similar between cultivated and wild fruits. The difference in zinc concentration between wild and cultivated fruits may be an indirect result of artificial selection on fruit characteristics during apple domestication. Moreover, calcium concentration in fruit showed a decreasing trend throughout fruit development of apple, while zinc concentration in fruit displayed a complex variation pattern in the late stages of fruit development. The finding of a wild genetic variation for fruit calcium and zinc accumulation in apple germplasm could be helpful for future research on genetic dissection and improvement of calcium and zinc accumulation in apple fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity during the Development of 'Brookfield' and 'Mishima' Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Mayara C; Steffens, Cristiano A; Soethe, Cristina; Moreira, Marcelo A; do Amarante, Cassandro V T

    2017-05-03

    The aim of this study was to characterize the changes in the contents of total (TPC) and individual (IPC) phenolic compounds, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in the peel and pulp, and total anthocyanins (TAN) in the peel during the development of the fruits of 'Brookfield' and 'Mishima' apple trees. 'Brookfield' apples were harvested from the 49th to the 138th days after full bloom (DAFB) and 'Mishima' apples from the 45th to the 172th DAFB. In the pulp, the IPC, TPC, and TAA rapidly reduced at 75 and 79 DAFB for the 'Brookfield' and 'Mishima' apples, respectively, and then remained constant until commercial maturity. In the peel of 'Brookfield' apples there was a reduction in the TPC and TAA at 79 DAFB. The quercetin 3-galactoside, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 contents reduced up to 107 DAFB with a subsequent increase in the values at commercial maturity. In the peel of 'Mishima' apples there was a reduction in the TPC, TAA, epicatechin, and procyanidin B1 and B2 contents at 130 DAFB, with a subsequent increase until commercial maturity. The TAN content in the peel increased during the 2 and 4 weeks prior to commercial maturity for 'Brookfield' and 'Mishima' apples, respectively. In the pulp and peel of both cultivars there was a reduction in the IPC, TPC, and TAA as the development proceeded. On nearing commercial maturity, there was an increase in the contents of quercetin 3-galactoside, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and TAN in the peel for both cultivars.